Environmental issues in india

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Environmental Issue In India:

Environmental Issue In India Prepared By Ikshit Singhal

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION Pollution is any undesirable & toxic change in: Physical, chemical or biological characteristics of Air Water Land The agents that bring about such changes are called pollutants.

Air Pollution:

Air Pollution Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals , particulate matter , or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems. Indoor air pollution and urban air quality are listed as two of the world's worst pollution problems in the 2008 Blacksmith Institute World's Worst Polluted Places report.

Pollutants:

Pollutants An air pollutant is known as a substance in the air that can cause harm to humans and the environment. Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. In addition, they may be natural or man-made.

Effects of Air Pollution:

Effects of Air Pollution Reduced lung functioning Irritation of eyes, nose, mouth and throat Asthma attacks Respiratory symptoms such as coughing and wheezing Increased respiratory disease such as bronchitis Reduced energy levels Headaches and dizziness Disruption of endocrine, reproductive and immune systems Neurobehavioral disorders Cardiovascular problems Cancer &Premature death

Water Pollution:

Water Pollution Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater. Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water; and, in almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities. Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.

Water Pollutions Categories:

Water Pollutions Categories Water pollution — Acid rain ,Eutrophication • Marine pollution • Ocean dumping • Oil spills • Thermal pollution • Urban runoff • Water crisis • Marine debris • Ocean acidification • Ship pollution • Wastewater • Fish kill • Algal bloom • Mercu ry in fish

Pollutants:

Pollutants Coli form bacteria is a commonly used bacterial indicator of water pollution, although not an actual cause of disease. Other microorganisms sometimes found in surface waters which have caused human health problems include: Burkholderia pseudomallei Cryptosporidium parvum Giardia lamblia Salmonella Novo virus and other viruses Parasitic worms (helminthes).

Thermal Pollution:

Thermal Pollution Thermal pollution is the rise or fall in the temperature of a natural body of water caused by human influence. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. Elevated water temperatures decreases oxygen levels (which can kill fish) and affects ecosystem composition, such as invasion by new thermophilic species. Urban runoff may also elevate temperature in surface waters.

Effects of water pollution:

Effects of water pollution Typhoid Amoebiasis Rashes, ear ache, pink eye Respiratory infections Hepatitis, encephalitis, gastroenteritis, vomiting, and stomach aches Liver and kidney damage Damage to the DNA

Land Pollution:

Land Pollution Land pollution is the degradation of Earth's land surfaces often caused by human activities and their misuse of land resources. It occurs when waste is not disposed properly. Health hazard disposal of urban and industrial wastes, exploitation of minerals, and improper use of soil by inadequate agricultural practices are a few factors. Urbanization and industrialization are major causes of land pollution. The Industrial Revolution set a series of events into motion which destroyed natural habitats and polluted the environment, causing diseases in both humans and other species of animals.

Causes of land pollution are :-:

Causes of land pollution are :- Increased Mechanization Pesticides and herbicides Mining Increased waste disposal

Effects of land pollution:

Effects of land pollution exterminates wild life Acid rain kills trees and other plants. Vegetation that provides food and shelter is destroyed. It can seriously disrupt the balance of nature, and, in extreme cases, can cause human fatalities. Pesticides can damage crops; kill vegetation; and poison birds, animals, and fish. Most pesticides kill or damage life forms other than those intended.

Health Effects of Pollution:

Health Effects of Pollution

Measures to Control Pollution:

Measures to Control Pollution Reduce :- Replace Disposables: Wherever possible, replace disposable products with reusable ones (i.e., razor, food storage, batteries, ink cartridges (buy refill ink), coffee filters, furnace or air conditioner filters, etc.). Bulk Purchases: Avoid products that are packaged for single use (i.e., drinks, school lunches, candy, cat and dog food, salad mixings, etc.). Shopping Bags: While shopping, if you only buy a few products skip the shopping bag. For larger purchases, bring your own.

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Reuse :- Rechargeable Batteries: Purchase rechargeable batteries and a battery recharger (some battery rechargers will also recharge regular alkaline batteries). Solar powered battery rechargers are available online. Reusable: Switch from disposable to reusable products: food and beverage containers, cups, plates, writing pens, razors, diapers, towels, shopping bags, etc. Donations : Donate your old household items - clothes, furniture, dishes, books, sports equipment, magazines, appliances, electronics, business attire, wedding attire, etc.

Recycle :-:

Recycle :- Green Paper: In general, try to buy products/containers made from recycled material as often as possible to support the recycled product market. When purchasing paper products (toilet paper, etc,), look for paper that has been recycled using a minimum of 50% post-consumer waste. Also, purchase from companies that do not use chlorine to bleach their paper products (which creates dioxin waste). Natural Fertilizer: Leave grass clippings on the lawn as fertilizer. Composting: Start a compost pile with yard trimmings and food scraps. Pack-it-Out: If you are traveling and no recycle bins are available, pack your recyclables home with you whenever possible.

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