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Premium member Presentation Transcript NUST Institute of Civil Engineering Architecture and Town Planning : NUST Institute of Civil Engineering Architecture and Town Planning Planning for Transportation PowerPoint Presentation: Group Members Ghazanfar Ali 2009-NUST-BE-CE-30 Aitizaz Arshad 2009-NUST-BE-CE-08 Abdullah Khan 2009-NUST-BE-CE-02 Hafiz M. Irfan iqbal 2009-NUST-BE-CE-33 Zeshan Sikandar 2009-NUST-BE-CE-98 Hamid Ali Khan 2009-NUST-BE-CE-35 Hafiz Kh . M Turab 2008-NUST-BE-CE-49 2 INTRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION The Role of Transport Transportation helps shape an area’s economic health and quality of life. Transportation system provide the mobility of people and goods and also influences patterns of growth and economic activity by providing access to land. Basic Function of Transportation is to link residence with employment and producers of goods with their users. Transportation Engineering : Transportation Engineering is an application of technological and scientific principles to the planning, functional design, operation, and management of facilities for any mode of transportation in order to provide for the safe, rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical, and environmentally compatible movement of people and goods. Transportation system includes: • Flow Entities Car, train, bus, ship, airplane. • Fixed Facilities Roads, seas, footpaths, airports. • Control Components Signals, sign boards, speed cameras. 4 Transportation Engineering Classification of Transportation Engineering : Functional Classification: This scheme of classification of transportation engineering divides this discipline in terms of different functions required of an engineer working in this field. This include traffic engineering, public transportation, transport planning, transport economics . Modal Classification: A mode of transport may be simply defined as a means of transportation. A mode includes walking, automobile, bus, train, ship, aircraft and so on. However all these modes either use roads, rail tracks, waterways or the airways . Hence modal classification is classifying the transportation system define classes as groups of modes which use a particular 'surface' . Elemental Classification : A transportation system classified in terms of basic elements which constitute any mode of transport. This include driver, vehicle, way, control, terminal user . 5 Classification of Transportation Engineering Three Basic Attributes Of Transportation system : • Ubiquity. The directness of routing between access points, and the system's flexibility to handle a variety of traffic conditions • Mobility. Mobility is the quantity of travel that can be handled. The capacity of a system to handle traffic and speed, a rail system could possibly have high speed and high capacity. • Efficiency: This is relationship between the cost of transportation and the productivity of the system. Capital and operating costs, and indirect costs comprise adverse impacts and unquantifiable costs, such as safety. Mobility & Accessibility Mobility refers to the ability to move on a facility between different activity sites Accessibility refers to the number of activity sites connected by the facility Mobility and accessibility are inversely related. 6 Three Basic Attributes Of Transportation system TRANSPORTATION PLANNING : Transportation planning is a cooperative process designed to foster involvement by all users of the system. Transportation planning includes a number of steps: Monitoring existing conditions. Forecasting future population and employment growth. Identifying current and projected future transportation problems. Developing long-range plans and short-range programs. Estimating the impact of recommended future. Developing a financial plan for securing sufficient revenues. 7 TRANSPORTATION PLANNING HISTORICAL CONTEXTS: HUMAN BEINGS ARE KNOWN TO HAVE LAID OUT AND USED CONVENIENT ROUTES AS EARLY AS 30,000 BC THE FIRST WHEELED MILITARY VEHICLES WERE DEVELOPED AROUND 2500 B.C. A SURFACE OF COMPACTED BROKEN STONE MADE AN IDEAL PAVEMENT SURFACE. 8 HISTORICAL CONTEXTS ROADS: GT ROAD BY SHER SHAH SURI IT WAS CONSTRUCTED IN 16TH CENTURY. KNOWN AS GRAND TRUNK ROAD. THE ROAD ORIGINATES FROM KABUL, FINALLY COVERING ITS 2600 KILOMETRES LONG JOURNEY AT KOLKATA. THE ROAD WAS JUST A DIRT TRACK. IT FACILITATED COMMUNICATION, HELPED TRADE. . THE ROAD ALSO HELPED THE SHER SHAH SURI IN INTRODUCING THE FIRST ORGANIZED POSTAL SYSTEM IN THE INDIAN SUB CONTINENT. ROADS ROADS: PAVED OR ASPHALT ROADS Asphalt or concrete replaced granite and cobblestones Today, 96% of all paved roads and streets in the U.S. - almost two million miles - are surfaced with asphalt. . The first road use of asphalt occurred in 1824, when asphalt blocks were placed on the Champs-Élysées in Paris . Now-a-days paved roads are the most extensively used roads all over the world. ROADS HISTORY OF RAILROADS: Railroads were used in military transport in war Germany, France and Russia used it in war USE OF RAILROADS IN USA The first North American "gravity road," as it was called, was made in 1764 for military purposes at the Niagara portage in Lewiston, New York. It served as a vital link for trade, commerce and travel It brought social, economic and political change. USE OF RAILROADS IN CHINA Rail transport is the most commonly used mode of long-distance transportation in China . The first railroad to be built in China was the Woosung Railway in 1876 HISTORY OF RAILROADS WATER TRANSPORT: The transportation carried out through ships is by far the most widely used process in all times . The Ancient Egyptians used ships and barges on the Nile River to travel and to carry cargo from one end of their empire to the other . " Cargo" means the things being carried by the ship. Native Americans used the natural waterways, like rivers, lakes, and oceans, for travel and trade, too. In Venice, boats and ships are used for transportation of people and goods WATER TRANSPORT SHIFTING ATITTUDE : SHIFTING ATITTUDE THE PROGRESS IN TRANSPORTATION STARTED WITH THE BEGINNING OF MANKIND AND IT WILL CONTINUE UNTIL THE END HISTORY AND PROGRESS: 3500 BC FIXED WHEELS ON CARTS ARE INVENTED 3500 BC RIVER BOATS ARE INVENTED - SHIPS 2000 BC HORSES ARE DOMESTICATED AND USED FOR TRANSPORTATION. 770 IRON HORSESHOES IMPROVE TRANSPORTATION BY HORSE 1620 CORNELISDREBBEL INVENTED THE FIRST SUBMARINE - AN HUMAN OARED SUBMERSIBLE 1662 BLAISE PASCAL INVENTS THE FIRST PUBLIC BUS - HORSE-DRAWN, REGULAR ROUTE, SCHEDULE, AND FARE SYSTEM 1740JACQUES DE VAUCANSON DEMONSTRATES HIS CLOCKWORK POWERED CARRIAGE 1783FIRST PRACTICAL STEAMBOAT DEMONSTRATED BY MARQUIS CLAUDE FRANCOIS DE JOUFFROYD'ABBANS - A PADDLE WHEEL STEAMBOAT 14 HISTORY AND PROGRESS PowerPoint Presentation: 1783 The Montgolfier brothers invent the first hot air balloons 1787 Steamboat invented 1769 First self-propelled road vehicle invented 1801 First steam powered locomotive (designed for roads) 1807 First steamboat with regular passenger service 1862 gasoline engine automobile 15 PowerPoint Presentation: 1871 First cable car invented 1885 first practical automobile powered by internal combustion engine 1903 The Wright Brothers invent and fly the first engined airplane 1908 Hydrofoil boats boats that skimmed water 1947 First supersonic jet flight 1964 Bullet train transportation invented 1981 Space shuttle launched 16 PowerPoint Presentation: 17 Challenges in Transportation PowerPoint Presentation: 18 Two other major challenges involves automobile dependency and congestion PowerPoint Presentation: 19 solutions to the challenges You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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