ESE 2020 - General Principles of Design, Drawing and Safety

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Office : Phone : F-126 Lower Basement Katwaria Sarai New Delhi-110016 011-26522064 Mobile : E-mail: Web : 8130909220 9711853908 info. iesmaster.org infoiesmaster.org iesmasterpublications.com iesmaster.org publications ESE-2020 Prelims Paper-I General Principles of Design Drawing Safety

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First Edition : 2016 Second Edition : 2017 Third Edition : 2018 Fourth Edition : 2019 Typeset at : IES Master Publication New Delhi-110016 IES MASTER PUBLICA TION F-126 Lower Basement Katwaria Sarai New Delhi-110016 Phone : 011-26522064 Mobile : 8130909220 9711853908 E-mail : info.publicationsiesmaster.org Web : iesmasterpublications.com All rights reserved. Copyright © 2019 by IES MASTER Publication. No part of this booklet may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means electronic mechanical photocopying recording or otherwise or stored in a database or retrieval system without the prior permission of IES MASTER Publication New Delhi. Violates are liable to be legally prosecuted.

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PREFACE Giving life to an engineer’s dream for the betterment of society involves Design Drawing and Safety. With the increasing complexities of economy as well as the ensuing disruption in IT besides the stringent safety rules this inter-disciplinary subject has become quite challenging to comprehend from exam point of view. Looking at the nature of Engineering Services Examination ESE and the level of questions being asked the conventional approach of preparing through theory and examples is not enough to serve the purpose. The revised and updated edition of General Principles of Design Drawing and Safety attempts to provide logical reasoning through mathematical analysis gives a clear insight into the concepts and paints a complete picture in front of you. In line with this the book has been written in a simple and clear manner. The book is divided into three major parts i Engineering Drawing ii Engineering Design and iii Engineering Safety. The first part discusses the basic principle of drawing associated with drafting of various points object sketches etc. Next an overview of basic principles of design types of design associated governing tools and product development. Finally basic knowledge need for engineering safety is presented. In addition to the above UPSC sample papers and questions asked in ESE 2017-2019 are discussed after the completion of relevant topics. For students to determine their level of preparation self-practice questions have been provided at the end of this book. Students may generally not require any additional study and may be reasonably confident that all the probable questions and topics are covered in this book. In their endeavour to give students the best IES Master has brought about this book in an easy-to-grasp language that gives in a complete clarity of thought. As a result what students get is their collective wisdom that breaks free the constraints of engineering students in appreciating the basics of Design Drawing and Safety. As you flip over the pages of this book you would come across a slew of diagrams flow charts mind maps and tables. This book is a delight for every ESE aspirant as it communicates connects and builds upon the exam preparedness right up to the standards of the UPSC. All care has been taken to make the understanding of this subject more clear and interesting. The credit goes to the entire IES Master team for their continuous support in bringing out this book. All comments and suggestions for further improvement of the book are welcome and will be appreciated. Bipin Thakur IES Master Publication New Delhi

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Section Description Page No. Preface iii Engineering Drawing 01-130 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENGINEERING DRAWING 1 – 9 1.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 1 1.2 Drawing Sheets ........................................................................................................................... 1 1.3 Drawing Board ............................................................................................................................ 2 1.4 Scales ........................................................................................................................................... 3 1.5 Mini Drafter .................................................................................................................................. 3 1.6 T-Square ....................................................................................................................................... 3 1.7 Set Square ................................................................................................................................... 3 1.8 Protractor ..................................................................................................................................... 4 1.9 Compass ...................................................................................................................................... 4 1.10 Dividers ......................................................................................................................................... 5 1.11 Drawing Pencil ............................................................................................................................ 5 1.12 French Curves ............................................................................................................................. 5 1.13 Layout of a Drawing Sheet....................................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2 LINES LETTERING AND DIMENSIONING 10 – 22 2.1 Lines ............................................................................................................................................ 10 2.2 Lettering ..................................................................................................................................... 11 2.3 Dimensioning ............................................................................................................................. 12 2.4 Methods of Dimensioning ....................................................................................................... 13 2.5 Arrangement of Dimensions .................................................................................................. 14 2.6 Dimensioning of Various Objects .......................................................................................... 14 2.7 Symbols and Abbreviations Used in Dimensioning ........................................................... 17 2.8 General Rules of Dimensioning ............................................................................................. 17 Chapter 3 GEOMETRICAL CONSTRUCTIONS 23 – 27 3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 23 3.2 Basic Geometrical Shapes ..................................................................................................... 23 CONTENTS

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Contents v Chapter 4 SCALES 28 – 33 4.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 28 4.2 Size of Scale ............................................................................................................................. 28 4.3 Representative Fraction R.F. ................................................................................................ 29 4.4 Units of Length and their Conversion .................................................................................. 29 4.5 Types of Scales ........................................................................................................................ 30 Chapter 5 ENGINEERING CURVES 34 – 59 5.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 34 5.2 Conic Sections or Conics ....................................................................................................... 34 5.3 Special Curves .......................................................................................................................... 41 5.4 Plane Curves ............................................................................................................................. 41 5.5 Space Curve .............................................................................................................................. 54 Chapter 6 THEORY OF PROJECTIONS 60 – 75 6.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 60 6.2 Projection Methods .................................................................................................................. 60 Chapter 7 PROJECTIONS OF POINTS 76 – 83 7.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 76 7.2 Locations of a Point ................................................................................................................ 77 7.3 Summary .................................................................................................................................... 81 Chapter 8 PROJECTIONS OF LINES 84– 99 8.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 84 8.2 BIS Conventions for Projection of Lines ............................................................................ 84 8.3 Different Orientation of Lines and their Projections ....................................................... 84 8.4 Traces of a Line ....................................................................................................................... 94 8.5 Auxiliary Plane Projection Method ....................................................................................... 95 Chapter 9 PROJECTION OF PLANES 100 – 106 9.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 100 9.2 Orientation of Planes and their Projections .................................................................... 100 9.3 Suspended Planes ................................................................................................................ 104 Chapter 10 PROJECTIONS OF SOLIDS 107 – 118 10.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 107 10.2 Right Solid ............................................................................................................................... 107 10.3 Frustums and Truncated Solid ............................................................................................ 108 10.4 Orientation of Solid and their Projections ........................................................................ 109

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vi Contents 10.5 Suspended Solids ................................................................................................................... 112 10.6 Section of Solids .................................................................................................................... 113 10.7 Intersection of Surfaces of Solids ...................................................................................... 114 Chapter 11 DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACES 119 – 123 11.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 119 11.2 Methods of Development of Lateral Surfaces ................................................................ 120 Chapter 12 COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN 124 – 130 12.1 Computer Aided Design CAD ............................................................................................ 124 12.2 Basic Elements of a CAD System .................................................................................... 124 12.3 Major Benefits of CAD ......................................................................................................... 124 12.4 Major CAD Software Products ........................................................................................... 125 12.5 AutoCAD .................................................................................................................................. 125 Engineering Design 131-228 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 131 – 137 1.1 Types of Engineering Design ............................................................................................... 131 1.2 Importance of Engineering Design ..................................................................................... 132 1.3 The Design Process ............................................................................................................. 132 Chapter 2 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN 138 – 147 2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 138 2.2 Problem Definition ................................................................................................................. 138 2.3 Gather Information ................................................................................................................. 141 2.4 Concept Generation ............................................................................................................... 141 2.5 Evaluation Method ................................................................................................................. 147 Chapter 3 EMBODIMENT DETAIL DESIGN 148 – 151 3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 148 3.2 Detail Design ........................................................................................................................... 150 3.3 Design Reviews ...................................................................................................................... 151 Chapter 4 SYSTEM ENGINEERING AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT 152 – 162 4.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 152 4.2 Product Development.............................................................................................................. 153 4.3 What is Robust Design .......................................................................................................... 158

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Contents vii Chapter 5 PROBLEM-SOLVING TOOLS 163 – 171 5.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 163 5.2 Problem Definition .................................................................................................................. 163 5.3 Cause Finding .......................................................................................................................... 164 5.4 Solution Planning and Implementation ............................................................................... 166 Chapter 6 MISCELLANEOUS 172 – 228 6.1 Stresses and Strains ............................................................................................................. 172 6.2 Shearing Stress ...................................................................................................................... 173 6.3 Normal Strain .......................................................................................................................... 173 6.4 Stress and Strain in Simple Bar ......................................................................................... 173 6.5 Deformation  of Member Under Axial Load ................................................................ 174 6.6 Composite Bars ...................................................................................................................... 175 6.7 Problem Involving Temperature Change ............................................................................ 176 6.8 Poisson’s Ratio ....................................................................................................................... 177 6.9 Some Standard Results of Slopes  and Deflections  ....................................... 177 6.10 Maximum Bending Stress at a Section ............................................................................. 180 6.11 Spring ........................................................................................................................................ 181 6.12 Thick Shell and Thin Shell .................................................................................................... 184 6.13 Foundation ................................................................................................................................ 186 6.14 The Retaining Structure ........................................................................................................ 191 6.15 Coffer Dam ............................................................................................................................... 192 6.16 Trusses ..................................................................................................................................... 193 6.17 Arches ...................................................................................................................................... 194 6.18 Cables ....................................................................................................................................... 194 6.19 Beam ......................................................................................................................................... 195 6.20 Slab ........................................................................................................................................... 195 6.21 Column ...................................................................................................................................... 195 6.22 Plate Girders ............................................................................................................................ 195 6.23 Gantry Girders ......................................................................................................................... 196 6.24 Coulomb’s Law of Electrostatics ........................................................................................ 196 6.25 Electric Intensity E ............................................................................................................... 197

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viii Contents 6.26 Electric Dipole ......................................................................................................................... 197 6.27 Electric Dipole Moment P ................................................................................................... 197 6.28 Electric Flux ............................................................................................................................. 197 6.29 Electric Potential ..................................................................................................................... 197 6.30 Electrical Potential Energy .................................................................................................... 197 6.31 Reactance X .......................................................................................................................... 197 6.32 Circuit Elements ...................................................................................................................... 198 6.33 Transformers ........................................................................................................................... 199 6.34 Transformer Losses .............................................................................................................. 199 6.35 Synchronous Motors .............................................................................................................. 200 6.36 Induction Motors ..................................................................................................................... 200 6.37 Shaft .......................................................................................................................................... 200 6.38 Keys ........................................................................................................................................... 203 6.39 Splines ...................................................................................................................................... 203 6.40 Types of Welded Joints ........................................................................................................ 204 6.41 Friction Clutches ..................................................................................................................... 204 6.42 Belt Drives ................................................................................................................................ 206 6.43 Bearing ...................................................................................................................................... 208 6.44 Governor .................................................................................................................................... 211 6.45 Gear ........................................................................................................................................... 212 6.46 Gyroscope ................................................................................................................................ 214 6.47 Design for X DFX.................................................................................................................. 214 Engineering Safety 229-324 Chapter 1 ACCIDENT HAZARD AND HAZARD ANALYSIS 229 – 236 1.1 Safety ........................................................................................................................................ 229 1.2 What is an Accidents ............................................................................................................ 230 1.3 Hazard ....................................................................................................................................... 230 Chapter 2 RISK ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT 237 – 241 2.1 Risk Management ................................................................................................................... 237 2.2 Risk Analysis Process and Methods ................................................................................. 239 2.3 Role of ‘IT’ in Health and Safety Management ................................................................. 239

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Contents ix 2.4 Social Dimension of Risk-Contemporary Thinking ........................................................... 240 2.5 Evaluating Risk in Design ..................................................................................................... 240 2.6 Risk Control Measures .......................................................................................................... 240 Chapter 3 HUMAN FACTORS IN SAFETY 241 – 244 3.1 Job Stress ............................................................................................................................... 241 3.2 Occupational Stressors and Workplace Stress Effects ................................................ 241 3.3 Physical Stress Influencing Factors ................................................................................... 242 3.4 Human Operator’s Stress Characteristics ........................................................................ 242 3.5 Worksite Analysis Program for Human Factors .............................................................. 242 Chapter 4 SAFETY MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES 244 – 251 4.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 244 4.2 Safety Management Principles ............................................................................................ 244 4.3 Responsibilities Non-Safety Managers ............................................................................... 246 4.4 Safety Committees ................................................................................................................. 246 4.5 Improving the Workplace Ergonomics ............................................................................... 247 4.6 Safety Audit ............................................................................................................................. 248 4.7 Safety Survey .......................................................................................................................... 250 4.8 Emergency Preparedness and Response Planning EPRP in Major Accident Hazard Factories ................................................................................................... 250 Chapter 5 INITIATIVES TOWARDS SAFETY – GOI 252 – 255 5.1 Existing Set-up of Occupational Safety and Health in the Workplace in India ..................................................................................................... 252 5.2 Government Bodies Dealing with OSH Regulations ........................................................ 252 5.3 National Level Autonomous Bodies/Organizations Connected with Occupational Safety Health ................................................................ 254 5.4 12 th Five Year Plan Schemes in Respect to Safety ........................................................ 255 Chapter 6 SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION 256 – 298 6.1 Safety Practices at Work Places ....................................................................................... 256 6.2 Indian Regulations .................................................................................................................. 257 6.3 Excavation Work ..................................................................................................................... 257 6.4 Scaffolds and Ladders .......................................................................................................... 262 6.5 Structural Work Laying of Reinforcement Concreting .............................................. 268 6.6 Road Work ............................................................................................................................... 271

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6.7 Cutting and Welding ............................................................................................................... 272 6.8 Working in Confined Space .................................................................................................. 277 6.9 Working at Heights ................................................................................................................ 278 6.10 Handling and Lifting Equipment ........................................................................................... 279 6.11 Vehicle Movement in Construction Work .......................................................................... 282 6.12 Demolition ................................................................................................................................. 283 6.13 Radiography ............................................................................................................................. 286 6.14 Grit Shot/Slag Blasting/Spray Painting ............................................................................... 287 6.15 Tunneling .................................................................................................................................. 287 6.16 Safety Practices Adopted for Working with Construction Machinery ........................ 289 Chapter 7 MISCELLANEOUS 299 – 324 7.1 Occupational Health Problem .............................................................................................. 299 7.2 International Labour Organization ILO ............................................................................. 300 7.3 OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration ................................................ 300 7.4 Work on Tall Chimneys ......................................................................................................... 300 7.5 Boiler Safety ............................................................................................................................ 301 7.6 Nuclear Safety ......................................................................................................................... 303 7.7 Fire Safety ................................................................................................................................ 303 7.8 Dam Safety .............................................................................................................................. 304 7.9 Guidelines on Safety in Road Construction Zones .......................................................... 306 7.10 Safety in Building ..................................................................................................................... 311

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1.1 INTRODUCTION 1 Engineering drawing is a technique of creating graphical representation that contains all necessary information such as dimensions specifications and notes using which an abstract concept can be transformed into real world object. To realize such concept basic tools of construction of drawing has to be clearly understood as to what standard has to be followed. There is an international standard on code of practice for drawing which is followed and adopted by Bureau of Indian Standard BIS. In this chapter we shall be dealing with drawing instruments and accessories i.e. drafting tools which is necessary for engineering drawing. 1.2 DRAWING SHEETS : IS 10711 : 2001 Consider an isosceles triangle ABC of unit length as shown below. 1 unit B A 1 unit C 2 unit 45° Now rotate BC anticlockwise so that BC becomes perpendicular to AB as shown below. 2 unit  1 unit B A 1 unit C 2 unit 45° B A C 1 unit 45° Now taking AB as one side and BC as another side complete a rectangle ABCD as shown below. INSIDE 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Drawing Sheets 1.3 Drawing Board 1.4 Scales 1.5 Mini Drafter 1.6 T-Square 1.7 Set Square 1.8 Protractor 1.9 Compass 1.10 Dividers 1.11 Drawing Pencil 1.12 French Curves 1.13 Layout of a Drawing Sheet

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2 | ENGINEERING DRAWING GS AND ENGINEERING APTITUDE IES MASTER Publication C D B A 1 unit 45° 2 unit  C D B A 1 unit A 0 A 0 D C A B x y 2 unit There are two basic principles involved in arriving at the sizes of A 0 sheet i x : y 1: 2 where x y  side ii Surface area xy of A 0 sheet is unity i.e. xy 1  x:y 1 2  x y 1 2  y x 2 ... i Also xy 1   x·x 2 1 from i  x 2 1 2  x  1 1 1.189 2  x 0.841 m  y 0.841 2 1.189 m Hence value of x and y is given as x 0.841 m or 841 mm y 1.189 m or 1189 mm Successive smaller sizes are obtained by halving previous size sheets with the above constant width to length ratio i.e. x : y 1: 2 Example : A 1 A 6 A 0 A 5 A 3 A 4 A 2 2-D view A0 1189×841 841 1189 A1 841×594 A2 594×420 A3 420×297 A4 297×210 3-D view 841 1189 A0 841 mm × 1189 mm 594 A1 594 mm × 841 mm A2 420 mm × 594 mm A3 297 mm × 420 mm A4 210 mm × 297 mm A5 148 mm × 210 mm Note: The ISO ‘A’ series of sheet is based on a constant width to length ratio of 1 : 2 . Application The relationship of 1: 2 is particularly important for reduction onto microfilm or reduction and enlargement on photocopiers. All metric equipment including microfilm cameras microfilm printers photocopiers and even drawing pen sizes are designed around this ratio. Note: 1 A2 size drawing sheet is preferred for class use. 2 Recommended size and its designation of ISO ‘A’ series of sheet is given below. Table 1.1: Recommended size of drawing sheets Drawing Sheet IS 10711 : 2001 Size mm Length × Width Designation A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 1189 × 841 841 × 594 594 × 420 420 × 297 297 × 210 1.3 DRAWING BOARD : IS 1444 : 1989 It is generally made from soft wood such as white pine fir oak red cedar etc.  To prevent warping the board should be made of narrow strips of wood joined together accurately.

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8 | ENGINEERING DRAWING GS AND ENGINEERING APTITUDE IES MASTER Publication Choose the most appropriate answer out of the given alternatives : 1. A drafter helps in drawing a parallel and perpendicular lines b concentric circles c smooth curves d all the above 2. In the engineering system of paper sizes which of the following is “A2” size a 841 mm × 1189 mm b 594 mm × 841 mm c 420 mm × 594 mm d 210 mm x 297 mm 3. Which of the following pencil leads is hardest a HB b H c B d F 4. Which of the following purposes is not served by dividers a Divide lines or curves into a number of equal parts b Transfer measurement from one part of the drawing to another part c Make full size reduced size or enlarged size drawing d Step-off a series of equal distances on the drawing 5. To draw smooth curves of any nature the draughting instrument used is a mini-drafter b French curve c templates d eraser shield 6. Parallel lines can be drawn with the help of a mini-drafter b T-square c pair of set squares d all of these Questions 7. A typical layout of a drawing sheet does not contain a centering mark b orientation mark c trimming marks d identification mark 8. Grid references on a drawing sheet provide the following information: a Location of details additions modifications revisions etc. of drawing b To facilitate the positioning of the drawing when reproduced c To facilitate brief record and initials of the person responsible d To facilitate trimming 9. “A” series of paper has length-to-width ratio of approximately a 3:2 b 3 :1 c 2 :1 d 5:3 10. The number of orientation marks generally contained by a drawing sheet is a one b two c three d four 11. Extension arms are used with engineering compasses to a draw circles of larger diameter b increase the gripping arm c adjust distance between the legs d increase accuracy 12. Which of the following statements are correct I. The length of A2 size drawing sheet is equal to the width of A1 size drawing sheet. II. For technical drawing harder grades of pencils are preferred. a only I b Only II c Both d None

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