Operation Management - Chapter 7

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Operations Management Session 7– Managing Quality

Learning Objectives:

Learning Objectives When you complete this chapter you should be able to: Define quality and TQM Describe the ISO international quality standards Explain Six Sigma Explain how benchmarking is used Explain quality robust products and Taguchi concepts Use the seven tools of TQM

Managing Quality Provides a Competitive Advantage:

Managing Quality Provides a Competitive Advantage Arnold Palmer Hospital Deliver over 13,000 babies annually Virtually every type of quality tool is employed Continuous improvement Employee empowerment Benchmarking Just-in-time Quality tools

Quality and Strategy:

Quality and Strategy Managing quality supports differentiation, low cost, and response strategies Quality helps firms increase sales and reduce costs Building a quality organization is a demanding task

Two Ways Quality Improves Profitability:

Two Ways Quality Improves Profitability Improved Quality Increased Profits Increased productivity Lower rework and scrap costs Lower warranty costs Reduced Costs via Improved response Flexible pricing Improved reputation Sales Gains via Figure 6.1

The Flow of Activities:

The Flow of Activities Organizational Practices Leadership, Mission statement, Effective operating procedures, Staff support, Training Yields: What is important and what is to be accomplished Quality Principles Customer focus, Continuous improvement, Benchmarking, Just-in-time, Tools of TQM Yields: How to do what is important and to be accomplished Employee Fulfillment Empowerment, Organizational commitment Yields: Employee attitudes that can accomplish what is important Customer Satisfaction Winning orders, Repeat customers Yields: An effective organization with a competitive advantage Figure 6.2

Defining Quality:

Defining Quality The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs American Society for Quality

Different Views:

Different Views User-based – better performance, more features Manufacturing-based – conformance to standards, making it right the first time Product-based – specific and measurable attributes of the product

Implications of Quality:

Implications of Quality Company reputation Perception of new products Employment practices Supplier relations Product liability Reduce risk Global implications Improved ability to compete

Key Dimensions of Quality:

Key Dimensions of Quality Performance Features Reliability Conformance Durability Serviceability Aesthetics Perceived quality Value

Malcom Baldrige National Quality Award:

Malcom Baldrige National Quality Award Established in 1988 by the U.S. government Designed to promote TQM practices Recent winners Premier Inc., MESA Products, Sunny Fresh Foods, Park Place Lexus, North Mississippi Medical Center, The Bama Companies, Richland College, Texas Nameplate Company, Inc.

Baldrige Criteria:

Baldrige Criteria Applicants are evaluated on: Categories Points Leadership 120 Strategic Planning 85 Customer & Market Focus 85 Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge Management 90 Workforce Focus 85 Process Management 85 Results 450


Takumi A Japanese character that symbolizes a broader dimension than quality, a deeper process than education, and a more perfect method than persistence

Costs of Quality:

Costs of Quality Prevention costs - reducing the potential for defects Appraisal costs - evaluating products, parts, and services Internal failure - producing defective parts or service before delivery External costs - defects discovered after delivery

Costs of Quality:

External Failure Internal Failure Prevention Costs of Quality Appraisal Total Cost Quality Improvement Total Cost

Leaders in Quality:

Leaders in Quality W. Edwards Deming 14 Points for Management Joseph M. Juran Top management commitment, fitness for use Armand Feigenbaum Total Quality Control Philip B. Crosby Quality is Free, zero defects

Ethics and Quality Management:

Ethics and Quality Management Operations managers must deliver healthy, safe, quality products and services Poor quality risks injuries, lawsuits, recalls, and regulation Organizations are judged by how they respond to problems All stakeholders much be considered

International Quality Standards:

International Quality Standards ISO 9000 series (Europe/EC) Common quality standards for products sold in Europe (even if made in U.S.) 2000 update places greater emphasis on leadership and customer satisfaction ISO 14000 series (Europe/EC)

ISO 14000 Environmental Standard:

ISO 14000 Environmental Standard Core Elements: Environmental management Auditing Performance evaluation Labeling Life cycle assessment


TQM Encompasses entire organization, from supplier to customer Stresses a commitment by management to have a continuing, companywide drive toward excellence in all aspects of products and services that are important to the customer

Deming’s Fourteen Points:

Deming’s Fourteen Points Create consistency of purpose Lead to promote change Build quality into the product; stop depending on inspection Build long-term relationships based on performance, not price Continuously improve product, quality, and service Start training Emphasize leadership Table 6.1

Deming’s Fourteen Points:

Deming’s Fourteen Points Drive out fear Break down barriers between departments Stop haranguing workers Support, help, improve Remove barriers to pride in work Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement Put everybody in the company to work on the transformation Table 6.1

Seven Concepts of TQM:

Seven Concepts of TQM Continuous improvement Six Sigma Employee empowerment Benchmarking Just-in-time (JIT) Taguchi concepts Knowledge of TQM tools

Continuous Improvement:

Continuous Improvement Represents continual improvement of all processes Involves all operations and work centers including suppliers and customers People, Equipment, Materials, Procedures

Shewhart’s PDCA Model:

2. Do Test the plan 3. Check Is the plan working? 4. Act Implement the plan Plan Identify the improvement and make a plan Shewhart’s PDCA Model Figure 6.3

Six Sigma:

Six Sigma Two meanings Statistical definition of a process that is 99.9997% capable, 3.4 defects per million opportunities (DPMO) A program designed to reduce defects, lower costs, and improve customer satisfaction

Six Sigma:

Two meanings Statistical definition of a process that is 99.9997% capable, 3.4 defects per million opportunities (DPMO) A program designed to reduce defects, lower costs, and improve customer satisfaction Six Sigma Mean Lower limits Upper limits 3.4 defects/million ±6  2,700 defects/million ±3  Figure 6.4

Six Sigma Program:

Six Sigma Program Originally developed by Motorola, adopted and enhanced by Honeywell and GE Highly structured approach to process improvement A strategy A discipline - DMAIC 6 

Six Sigma:

Six Sigma Define critical outputs and identify gaps for improvement Measure the work and collect process data Analyze the data Improve the process Control the new process to make sure new performance is maintained DMAIC Approach

Six Sigma Implementation:

Six Sigma Implementation Emphasize defects per million opportunities as a standard metric Provide extensive training Focus on corporate sponsor support (Champions) Create qualified process improvement experts (Black Belts, Green Belts, etc.) Set stretch objectives This cannot be accomplished without a major commitment from top level management

Employee Empowerment:

Employee Empowerment Getting employees involved in product and process improvements 85% of quality problems are due to process and material Techniques Build communication networks that include employees Develop open, supportive supervisors Move responsibility to employees Build a high-morale organization Create formal team structures

Quality Circles:

Quality Circles Group of employees who meet regularly to solve problems Trained in planning, problem solving, and statistical methods Often led by a facilitator Very effective when done properly


Use internal benchmarking if you’re big enough Benchmarking Selecting best practices to use as a standard for performance Determine what to benchmark Form a benchmark team Identify benchmarking partners Collect and analyze benchmarking information Take action to match or exceed the benchmark

Benchmarking Factors for Web Sites:

Benchmarking Factors for Web Sites Use of meta tags Yes: 70% , No: 30% Meaningful homepage title Yes: 97% , No: 3% Unique domain name Yes: 91% , No: 9% Search engine registration Above 96% Average loading speed 28K: 19.31, 56K: 10.88, T1: 2.59 Average number of spelling errors 0.16 Visibility of contact information Yes: 74% , No: 26% Presence of search engine Yes: 59% , No: 41% Translation to multiple languages Yes: 11% , No: 89% Table 6.3

Best Practices for Resolving Customer Complaints:

Best Practices for Resolving Customer Complaints Make it easy for clients to complain Respond quickly to complaints Resolve complaints on first contact Use computers to manage complaints Recruit the best for customer service jobs

Just-in-Time (JIT):

Just-in-Time (JIT) Relationship to quality: JIT cuts the cost of quality JIT improves quality Better quality means less inventory and better, easier-to-employ JIT system

Taguchi Concepts:

Taguchi Concepts Engineering and experimental design methods to improve product and process design Identify key component and process variables affecting product variation Taguchi Concepts Quality robustness Quality loss function Target-oriented quality

Quality Robustness:

Quality Robustness Ability to produce products uniformly in adverse manufacturing and environmental conditions Remove the effects of adverse conditions Small variations in materials and process do not destroy product quality

Quality Loss Function:

Quality Loss Function Shows that costs increase as the product moves away from what the customer wants Costs include customer dissatisfaction, warranty and service, internal scrap and repair, and costs to society Traditional conformance specifications are too simplistic Target-oriented quality

Quality Loss Function:

Unacceptable Poor Good Best Fair Quality Loss Function High loss Loss (to producing organization, customer, and society) Low loss Frequency Lower Target Upper Specification Target-oriented quality yields more product in the “best” category Target-oriented quality brings product toward the target value Conformance-oriented quality keeps products within 3 standard deviations Figure 6.5 L = D 2 C where L = loss to society D = distance from target value C = cost of deviation

Tools of TQM:

Tools of TQM Tools for Generating Ideas Check sheets Scatter diagrams Cause-and-effect diagrams Tools to Organize the Data Pareto charts Flowcharts Tools for Identifying Problems Histogram Statistical process control chart

Seven Tools of TQM:

/ / / / /// / // /// // //// /// // / Hour Defect 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A B C / / // / Seven Tools of TQM (a) Check Sheet: An organized method of recording data Figure 6.6

Seven Tools of TQM:

Seven Tools of TQM (b) Scatter Diagram: A graph of the value of one variable vs. another variable Absenteeism Productivity Figure 6.6

Seven Tools of TQM:

Seven Tools of TQM (c) Cause-and-Effect Diagram: A tool that identifies process elements (causes) that might effect an outcome Figure 6.6 Cause Materials Methods Manpower Machinery Effect

Seven Tools of TQM:

Seven Tools of TQM (d) Pareto Chart: A graph to identify and plot problems or defects in descending order of frequency Figure 6.6 Frequency Percent A B C D E

Seven Tools of TQM:

Seven Tools of TQM (e) Flowchart (Process Diagram): A chart that describes the steps in a process Figure 6.6

Seven Tools of TQM:

Seven Tools of TQM (f) Histogram: A distribution showing the frequency of occurrences of a variable Figure 6.6 Distribution Repair time (minutes) Frequency

Seven Tools of TQM:

Seven Tools of TQM (g) Statistical Process Control Chart: A chart with time on the horizontal axis to plot values of a statistic Figure 6.6 Upper control limit Target value Lower control limit Time

Cause-and-Effect Diagrams:

Cause-and-Effect Diagrams Material (ball) Method (shooting process) Machine (hoop & backboard) Manpower (shooter) Missed free-throws Figure 6.7 Rim alignment Rim size Backboard stability Rim height Follow-through Hand position Aiming point Bend knees Balance Size of ball Lopsidedness Grain/Feel (grip) Air pressure Training Conditioning Motivation Concentration Consistency

Pareto Charts:

Pareto Charts Number of occurrences Room svc Check-in Pool hours Minibar Misc. 72% 16% 5% 4% 3% 12 4 3 2 54 – 100 – 93 – 88 – 72 70 – 60 – 50 – 40 – 30 – 20 – 10 – 0 – Frequency (number) Causes and percent of the total Cumulative percent Data for October

Flow Charts:

Flow Charts MRI Flowchart Physician schedules MRI Patient taken to MRI Patient signs in Patient is prepped Technician carries out MRI Technician inspects film If unsatisfactory, repeat Patient taken back to room MRI read by radiologist MRI report transferred to physician Patient and physician discuss 11 10 20% 9 8 80% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Statistical Process Control (SPC):

Statistical Process Control (SPC) Uses statistics and control charts to tell when to take corrective action Drives process improvement Four key steps Measure the process When a change is indicated, find the assignable cause Eliminate or incorporate the cause Restart the revised process

An SPC Chart:

An SPC Chart Upper control limit Coach’s target value Lower control limit Game number | | | | | | | | | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20% 10% 0% Plots the percent of free throws missed Figure 6.8


Inspection Involves examining items to see if an item is good or defective Detect a defective product Does not correct deficiencies in process or product It is expensive Issues When to inspect Where in process to inspect

When and Where to Inspect:

When and Where to Inspect At the supplier’s plant while the supplier is producing At your facility upon receipt of goods from the supplier Before costly or irreversible processes During the step-by-step production process When production or service is complete Before delivery to your customer At the point of customer contact


Inspection Many problems Worker fatigue Measurement error Process variability Cannot inspect quality into a product Robust design, empowered employees, and sound processes are better solutions

Source Inspection:

Source Inspection Also known as source control The next step in the process is your customer Ensure perfect product to your customer Poka-yoke is the concept of foolproof devices or techniques designed to pass only acceptable product

Service Industry Inspection:

Service Industry Inspection Organization What is Inspected Standard Jones Law Office Receptionist performance Billing Attorney Is phone answered by the second ring Accurate, timely, and correct format Promptness in returning calls Table 6.5

Service Industry Inspection:

Service Industry Inspection Organization What is Inspected Standard Hard Rock Hotel Reception desk Doorman Room Minibar Use customer’s name Greet guest in less than 30 seconds All lights working, spotless bathroom Restocked and charges accurately posted to bill Table 6.5

Service Industry Inspection:

Service Industry Inspection Organization What is Inspected Standard Arnold Palmer Hospital Billing Pharmacy Lab Nurses Admissions Accurate, timely, and correct format Prescription accuracy, inventory accuracy Audit for lab-test accuracy Charts immediately updated Data entered correctly and completely Table 6.5

Service Industry Inspection:

Service Industry Inspection Organization What is Inspected Standard Olive Garden Restaurant Busboy Busboy Waiter Serves water and bread within 1 minute Clears all entrée items and crumbs prior to dessert Knows and suggest specials, desserts Table 6.5

Service Industry Inspection:

Service Industry Inspection Organization What is Inspected Standard Nordstrom Department Store Display areas Stockrooms Salesclerks Attractive, well-organized, stocked, good lighting Rotation of goods, organized, clean Neat, courteous, very knowledgeable Table 6.5

Attributes Versus Variables:

Attributes Versus Variables Attributes Items are either good or bad, acceptable or unacceptable Does not address degree of failure Variables Measures dimensions such as weight, speed, height, or strength Falls within an acceptable range Use different statistical techniques

TQM In Services:

TQM In Services Service quality is more difficult to measure than the quality of goods Service quality perceptions depend on Intangible differences between products Intangible expectations customers have of those products

Service Quality:

Service Quality The Operations Manager must recognize: The tangible component of services is important The service process is important The service is judged against the customer’s expectations Exceptions will occur

Service Specifications at UPS:

Service Specifications at UPS

Determinants of Service Quality:

Determinants of Service Quality Reliability Responsiveness Competence Access Courtesy Communication Credibility Security Understanding/ knowing the customer Tangibles

Service Recovery Strategy:

Service Recovery Strategy Managers should have a plan for when services fail Marriott’s LEARN routine Listen Empathize Apologize React Notify

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