Tools of Data Collection: email@example.com 1 Tools of Data Collection By, S.G.Isave, Assistant Professor, Tilak College of Education, Pune - India Tools : firstname.lastname@example.org 2 Tools Questionnaire Interview schedule observation Interview schedule: email@example.com 3 Interview schedule Meaning of Interview schedule: firstname.lastname@example.org 4 Meaning of Interview schedule One to one direct communication between researcher and subject for collection of data. Series of a questions to be asked in an interview is called interview schedule. Types of Interview schedule: email@example.com 5 Types of Interview schedule Structured (for research) Semi-structured ( flexible but structured) Non-directive ( free talk on issues) Focused ( in depth talk on an issue ) (Media) How to conduct an Interview : firstname.lastname@example.org 6 How to conduct an Interview Interview schedule should as per objectives. Planning of time, duration, place, mode of recording. Follow Formalities. Respect not to answer right of subject. Use of appropriate Language. Positive body language. Directing the interview. Questioning – proper stress and tone, use of sub questions if required. Limitations : email@example.com 7 Limitations Hesitation to express Vague Time restrictions Less time for thinking Subjective Researcher’s influence Consciousness Manipulated/polished/sophisticated/socially accepted responses may be preferred. Questionnaire: firstname.lastname@example.org 8 Questionnaire Meaning : email@example.com 9 Meaning Series of questions in written form. Indirect interview Widely used tool When to use: firstname.lastname@example.org 10 When to use Objective tool Factual data required Large sample Minimum cost & time Crossing Geographical limitations Types : email@example.com 11 Types Open Close Mixed E-mail Web based Live Distance Development of Questionnaire: firstname.lastname@example.org 12 Development of Questionnaire Objectives Content analysis Combination of Types of questions. Sequence of questions. Statistical techniques. Questions- clear, correct, to the point, appropriate nos., Administration of Questionnaire: email@example.com 13 Administration of Questionnaire Appointment Take in to confidence Instructions and expectation Tackling queries Postage Formalities Advantages of Questionnaire: firstname.lastname@example.org 14 Advantages of Questionnaire Objectivity Freedom to think Flexibility of time Free to answer. Limitations of Questionnaire: email@example.com 15 Limitations of Questionnaire Difficult to analyze. Environmental effects. Collection is a challenge Ambiguous Qualities of Good Questionnaire: firstname.lastname@example.org 16 Qualities of Good Questionnaire EXTERNAL - Instructions Primary Information Font style and Type Grammar Quality, colour and size of Paper. Proper space for response. Postage INTERNAL - Clarity and simplicity of questions Validity and reliability As per age of subjects. Divisions as per Objectives. Pilot study Interview schedule vs questionnaire: email@example.com 17 Interview schedule vs questionnaire Live / Real time Direct questionnaire More subjective. Useful for experts, Illiterate people, parents etc. To know views. More time per subject. Variety of data from a person. Informal way. Not easy to analyze Flexible One to one interaction Researcher note responses. Own time of subject. Indirect interview. More objectives. Useful for subjects, teacher, students etc. To collect factual data Min time more info. Specific data from more subjects. Formal way. Comparatively easier to analyze. Rigid One to many reaction. Subject notes responses. Observation: firstname.lastname@example.org 18 Observation Types of Observation: email@example.com 19 Types of Observation Overt – subject are aware Covert - unaware Participant Non-participant Precautions in Observation: firstname.lastname@example.org 20 Precautions in Observation Appropriate tools Field notes Informal approach Building rapport What to observe Use of audio visual devices Advantages : email@example.com 21 Advantages Natural response Real collection of a data All round data Self experience Understanding the subject. Useful for sociological research. Useful for linear research. Limitations : firstname.lastname@example.org 22 Limitations Subjectivity Temporary form of data is acquired. Difficult to analyze the data. Time consumable. Practical difficulties. Lets go beyond content…: email@example.com 23 Lets go beyond content… Ask yourself …. : firstname.lastname@example.org 24 Ask yourself …. Can I qualify in first attempt?: email@example.com 25 Can I qualify in first attempt? ……..Yes, Why not ! If I do this: firstname.lastname@example.org 26 If I do this Believe yourself. Understand the nature of the exam. Collect all the units of syllabus. Don’t be scared of passing percentage of the exam. If I do this..: email@example.com 27 If I do this.. Prepare seriously. Don’t just try for experience. Prepare your own notes. Practice to write answers. Avoid Grammatical mistakes. If I do this: firstname.lastname@example.org 28 If I do this Solve old question paper with time management and get it checked from an expert. Construct diagrams. Update your knowledge with books, periodicals, internet etc. Discuss with peer, teachers, successful candidates. Slide 29: email@example.com 29 Be confident. Be healthy, because learning is also physical activity. Be careful about filling application form, attaching documents, admit cart, All the Best: firstname.lastname@example.org 30 All the Best If you try hard in proper direction, “You all will qualify in coming SET exam. in first attempt.” THANK YOU !: email@example.com 31 THANK YOU !