Action Research :Meaning & Proposal writing

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Its is useful for teachers to understand concept of action research and writing a proposal for it.

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Action Research :

Action Research Dr. Suresh G. Isave Associate Professor Tilak College of Education, Pune

What is research ?:

What is research ? Research is a studious inquiry or examination especially investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theory or laws. Merriam- Webster.com (Feb 2015) 2 www.sureshisave.in/

Educational Research:

Educational Research Educational Research is applied science. When the research procedure is adapted to solve the problems in education , to find out facts in education, to answer the questions in education is called educational research. 3 www.sureshisave.in/

Types of Research:

Types of Research www.sureshisave.in/ 4

Action Research :

Action Research The research undertaken to find the solutions of day to day academic issues is called action research. www.sureshisave.in/ 5

Steps of Action Research:

Steps of Action Research www.sureshisave.in/ 6

Research Area in Educational Research:

Research Area in E ducational R esearch Learning difficulties Learning styles Subjects specific skills Achievement Aptitude Interest Opinion Behavioral issues of learners Value/life skills/awareness Use of new methods Application of ICT Program Development Case study Inclusive education Teaching styles Evaluation Administration/ Management Co curricular Activities 7 www.sureshisave.in/

Research Proposal:

Research Proposal A  research proposal  is a concise and coherent summary of your proposed  research . It sets out the central issues or questions that you intend to address. It outlines the general area of study within which your research  falls, referring to the current state of knowledge and any recent debates on the topic . www.birmingham.ac.uk/schools/law/courses/research/research-proposal.aspx 8 www.sureshisave.in/

How to write a research proposal :

How to write a research proposal www.sureshisave.in/ 9

Title Page:

Title Page Title of the research (A proposal submitted to YCMOU for the partial fulfillment of DSM Course) Researcher, Name of student (PR No) Guide, Name of the Guide Centre Tilak College of Education, Pune 2019-20 10 www.sureshisave.in/

Slide11:

Development of a remedial program for under-achiever students of std 7 th in Geography Subject and testing its effectiveness A proposal submitted to Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik for the partial fulfillment of Diploma in School Management Course Researcher, Pradnya Gaikwad (PRN 000 43) Guide, Dr. Suresh Isave Centre Tilak College of Education, Pune 2018-19 11 www.sureshisave.in/

1.Backgroud of the research:

1.Backgroud of the research Explain and prove how the problem exist with various references. Describe the background, theory, facts, reports, news related to the topic/ problem/issue that is selected for the study. Under achiever students : Concept, types, theories, causes etc. Remedial program : nature and effectiveness www.sureshisave.in/ 12

2.Review of related literature:

2.Review of related literature Review of previous researches of DSM, M.Ed., M.Phil. , Ph.D., research articles-papers. Review of books and articles related to the topic. Exact match is not possible, so it should be related with any of the research variables – e.g. Development of a remedial program for under-achiever students of std 7 th in Geography Subject and testing its effectiveness . www.sureshisave.in/ 13

3.Need and Importance of the research:

3.Need and Importance of the research Describe how the study is useful to address the broader issue and how the study will help to find the possible solutions. E.g. the present research will be helpful to provide solutions for better achievement of under achiever students. www.sureshisave.in/ 14

4.Title of the research:

4.Title of the research Nature of the research, Population and Variables should be mentioned in the title. It should be in title form and not statement form, avoid verb in a title. Nature of the research (development), Population (under achiever students of Std 7 th ) and Variables(Achievement and of the remedial program ) www.sureshisave.in/ 15

5.Statement of the Problem:

5.Statement of the Problem Statement is an extended form of the title. e.g.- Development of activity based remedial program for under-achiever students of std 7 th in Geography Subject to improve scores in written exam and testing the effectiveness of the program to improve achievement. www.sureshisave.in/ 16

6.Objectives:

6.Objectives To find out/ determine/assess the status of the problem……. To develop program to improve …………….. To test the effectiveness of the program www.sureshisave.in/ 17

7.Operational Definitions:

7.Operational Definitions Conceptual definitions are taken from books/articles. Operational definitions of the terms, defines the meaning of the terms in reference to the research. e.g.- Geography subject – the subject prescribed in Maharashtra State Board Curriculum as a third language for Marathi medium. Map reading skill – reading of map by considering Key, Scale and direction. Reading skill – loud reading with proper expression, intonation and pronunciation. www.sureshisave.in/ 18

8.Research Question:

8.Research Question Research Questions – Included in qualitative study e.g. Survey Research questions should be form as per objectives of a study. e.g.- objective -To find out the status of the problem achievement of the students in Geography subject R.Q.- What is the status of the problem achievement of the students in Geography subject ? www.sureshisave.in/ 19

9.Research Question:

9.Research Question e.g.- objective -To find out the status of the problem achievement of the students in Geography subject R.Q.- What is the status of the problem achievement of the students in Geography subject ? www.sureshisave.in/ 20

10.Hypothesis:

10.Hypothesis Hypothesis – for quantitative study (Experimental research) An hypothesis is a specific statement of prediction of result of a study. It describes in concrete, rather than theoretical, terms what researcher expects, will be outcome of a study. Hypothesis is wise guess/ tentative answer/expected result of a problem. www.sureshisave.in/ 21

10.Hypothesis:

10.Hypothesis Types of Hypothesis – Research Hypothesis : Its is the expected answer of the intervention. e.g.-a) The achievement of the students in Geography Subject will be increased after implementation of remedial program . b)The errors of the students in drawing diagram will be reduced after a program. www.sureshisave.in/ 22

10.Hypothesis:

10.Hypothesis Types of Hypothesis – Null Hypothesis : Null Hypothesis is made for testing the effectiveness by using statistical tools. e.g. There will be no significant difference between scores of students of Std. 7 th in pre-test and post-test with reference to remedial program. www.sureshisave.in/ 23

11.Assumptions :

11.Assumptions Assumptions are the base of the issue and program. Assumptions may be taken from previous experiences, researchers. These are expectations of a researcher from situation and a target group. e.g.- 1) students of Std 7 th has problems in Geography Subjects.( Morris,2016) 2) Remedial program help to improve learning ( Patil , 2007) www.sureshisave.in/ 24

12.Scope, Delimitations and Limitations:

12.Scope, Delimitations and Limitations Scope – Level and Place Delimitations – Delimitations are determined by a researcher about attributes of population Limitations – Flaws/ lackunas of the research procedures or tools. www.sureshisave.in/ 25

13.Population and Sample:

13.Population and Sample Population – the results applicable to a specific group of common characteristics e.g.- 8 th STD students of Geography medium of state board Sample – small size group form population for actual study e.g.- 8 th STD students of Geography medium of state board from Priydarshani School, Pune (for action research sample is a population itself) www.sureshisave.in/ 26

11.Sampling :

11.Sampling 27 www.sureshisave.in/

12.Research Method:

12.Research Method www.sureshisave.in/ 28

13. Variables:

13. Variables Dependent - A thing that you want to change ( impact/effect/change) Achievement, attitude, learning style, problems Independent – A tool/technique to change dependent variable ( treatment/ intervention/ Program) Remedial program, use of ICT, use of different strategies) www.sureshisave.in/ 29

13.Variables:

13.Variables Extraneous/ confounding variable – age, interest, previous knowledge, socio-economical status of the students. www.sureshisave.in/ 30

14.Research Design:

14.Research Design 1.Single group design i ) pre test-post test design, ii) post test design 2. Two group design i ) Pre test-post test design, ii) post test design www.sureshisave.in/ 31

15.Tools of Data Collection:

Sr. Purpose Data Collection Tools 1 To collect the responses/views on a particular issue Questionnaire 2 To test one’s subject knowledge Achievement Test 3 To interview Interview Schedule 4 To find out the one’s interest Interest inventory 5 To know one’s aptitude Aptitude test 6 To assess skill Rating scale/Rubric 15.Tools of Data Collection 32 www.sureshisave.in/

16.Tools of Data Analysis:

16.Tools of Data Analysis Data presentation – graphs, tables and tables Data Analysis & Interpretation – Percentage , percentile, mean, mode, etc. (Advanced Statistical tools - t-test, F-test etc.) www.sureshisave.in/ 33

17.Research Procedure:

17.Research Procedure 34 www.sureshisave.in/

17.Schedule :

17.Schedule Sr. Task Period 1 Proposal Writing 2 Review of Related Literature 3 Proposal Submission 4 Tool Development 5 Data Collection 6 Data Analysis & Interpretation 7 Report Writing 8 Presentation & Submission of a report 35 www.sureshisave.in/

18.Budget :

18.Budget Sr. No. Head Amount in Rs. 1 Traveling 2 Development of tools 3 Development of program 4 Study material for students 5 Equipment 6 Report typing 7 Miscellaneous Total www.sureshisave.in/ 36

19.Bibliography :

19.Bibliography A  bibliography  is a list of all of the sources you have used in the process of researching your work. APA style is used to write bibliography. In general, a  bibliography should include, the authors' names, year of work, the titles of the works and publisher. www.sureshisave.in/ 37

References & Bibliography :

References & Bibliography References : When a content from sources copied as it is, from original source. Bibliography : When the content is studied to understand, not copied as it is from the original source. www.sureshisave.in/ 38

Books:

Books Bhandarkar ,K.M. (2014). Statistics in education. Neelkamal Publications Pvt. Ltd. Hyhrabad - 500 095. Koul Lokesh . (2011). Methodology of educational research in education. Vikas Publishing House Pvt.Ltd . New Delhi. www.sureshisave.in/ 39

Article :

Article Minila K George .(2013). Development of E learning materials for enhancing process skills in physics and its effectiveness in retention among secondary school students in Kerla Researcher . Retrieved from   http://hdl.handle.net/10603/63780 Appears in Departments: Government Brennen College . www.sureshisave.in/ 40

Reports:

Reports OECD.(2004). New perspective on ICT skills and employment . Organization for Economic – Co operation and Development, Paris, France. Retrieved from www.oecd.org/internet/ieconomy/34769393.pdf www.sureshisave.in/ 41

Thanks !:

Thanks ! www.sureshisave.in/ www.sureshisave.in/ 42

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