Agronomic Principles seed tech

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Seed technology lecture II:

Seed technology lecture II

Agronomic Principles:

Agronomic Principles Selection of suitable agronomic region. Crop variety should be adapted to temperature and photo period conditions of that area. Selection of seed plot whose soil texture and fertility should be optimum for the crop concerned and soil should be free from pathogens and weeds. Isolation of seed crops. Preparation of land. Selection of variety Adapted High yielding Possess maximum desirable attributes

Slide 3:

6. Seed must be obtained from a authorised official agency with known purity class. While buying the seeds following factors should be carefully examined a. Seed of appropriate class. b. Tags and seals of seed bags are intact. c. Validity period has not expired 7. Seed treatment - given before sowing - it is of three types a. Chemical treatments b. Bacterial inoculation of legumes c. Seed treatments for breaking dormancy due to hard seed

Slide 4:

8. Time of planting, seed rate, methods of sowing depth of sowing etc. should be optimum. 9. Roguing / weed control should be timely and adequate 10. Provision for supplementary pollination should be there. 11. Disease and insect control - to avoid like systemic diseases - diseases left their spores on seed coat 12. Nutrition and irrigation in optimum amount. 13. Harvesting. Both time of harvesting and method of harvesting may affect the seed quality so should be appropriate. 14. Drying and storage of seed should be in the prescribed manner.

Classes of Quality Seed:

Classes of Quality Seed The classes of seeds were clearly defined by the international crop improvement association in 1946 in relation to fodder and forage crops; in 1968 it recommended the adoption of the same system in case of grain crops as well. That is Nucleus Breeder Foundation Registered Certified

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Therefore seeds of improved varieties are produced in several stages, each stage generating a particular class of seed. The various class of seed are recognized in order to Facilitate seed production while maintaining physical and genetic purity. To ensure the continuous supply of quality seed at a reasonable price.

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The improved seed till some year ago had the following 5 classes Nucleus/ basic seed Breeder seed Foundation seed Registered seed Certified seed

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But at present registered seed is not produced in India and the foundation seed is also certified by a recognized seed certification agency. Therefore modern seed classification has a 3 broad classes 1. Basic/Nucleus seed 2. Breeder seed 3. Certified seed a. Certified foundation seed/ Foundation seed b. Certified seed

Slide 9:

Stage I Stage II Nucleus Seed Breeder Seed Foundation Seed Certified Seed Nucleus Seed Breeder Seed Foundation Seed Certified Seed FARMERS FIELD Fig. Seed Classes

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Stage II is allowed only when a class of seed is in short supply Basic/ Nucleus Seed: It is the original or first seed variety available with producing breeder or any other recognized breeder of the crop. The seed has 100% physical and genetic purity along with high standards of other quality parameters Nucleus seed is multiplied and maintained by selecting individual pods/spikes/plants and growing individual pod/spike/plant progenies. The process is repeated continuously. That’s why nucleus seed is available in only small quantity.

Breeder seed:

Breeder seed Breeder seed is the progeny of nucleus seed and is the source for initial and recurring increase of foundation seed. Breeder seed production is directly controlled by the originating plant breeder who developed the variety or any other recognized breeder. Tag color is golden brown

Foundation seed:

Foundation seed Progeny of breeder seed Foundation seed stage II is only produced when breeder seed is in short supply Bags of foundation seed carry white color tag which contain information about seed quality

Certified seed:

Certified seed It is the progeny of foundation seed and its production is so handled as to maintain specified genetic identity and purity standards as prescribed for the crop being certified. Certified seed can also be the progeny of certified seed provided its reproduction does not exceed 3 generation beyond foundation seed stage I.

The indian seed Act 1966:

The indian seed Act 1966 The Indian seed act was enacted in 1966, and has been in force since oct. 2, 1969 in all over India The seed Act was amended on sept. 9, 1972 (the seed Amendment Act, 1972). This act aims at regulating the quality of seed sold for agricultural purposes through compulsory labeling and voluntary certification. Under compulsory labeling, anyone selling the seed of a notified kind or variety, in the region for which it has been notified, must ensure that 1. seed conform to the prescribed limits of the germination and purity, 2. the seed container is labelled in the prescribed manner and , 3. the label truly represents quality of the seed in the container. Under voluntary certification, anyone interested in producing the certified seed may do so by applying to seed certification agency for the grant of a certificate.

Main feature of Seed Act:

Main feature of Seed Act Constitution of central seed committee Establishment of a central seed lab Establishment of a state seed lab

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