INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING

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Bachelor of science in Information Technology:

Bachelor of science in Information Technology Network Management Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

Introduction To Networks:

Introduction T o Networks Computer networks are everywhere. You find them in large businesses and small ones, schools and charitable institutions, government offices, and high-school students’ bedrooms. In today’s world, it’s important to know what networks are and how they can help you. Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

What is Network/ Networking?:

What is Network/ Networking? A computer network , often simply referred to as a network, is a group of computers and devices interconnected by communications channels that facilitate communications among users and allows users to share resources. It is the linking of two or more computers via network media in order to share resources Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

PowerPoint Presentation:

Node: anything connected to the network, usually a computer, but it could be a printer or a scanner Segment: any portion of a network that is separated by a switch, bridge or a router from another part of a network. Backbone: the main cabling of a network that all of the segment connect to. Usually, the backbone is capable of carrying more information than the Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

There are THREE roles for computers in a local area network::

There are THREE roles for computers in a local area network: Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo Clients, which use but do not provide network resources Peers , which both use and provide network resources Servers , which provide network resources Based on the roles of the computers attached to them, networks are divided into three types : Server-based (also called client-server), containing clients and the servers that support them . Peer (also called-peer-to-peer), which have no servers and use the network to share resources among independent peers . Hybrid network, which is a client-server network that also has peers sharing resources. Most networks are actually hybrid networks.

Server-Based Networks and Domains:

Server-Based Networks and Domains Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo Server-based networks are defined by the presence of servers on a network that provide security and administration of the network. Server-based (or client-server) networks divide processing tasks between clients and servers. Clients (often called the “front end”) request services, such as file storage and printing, and Servers (often called the “back end”) deliver them . Server computers typically are more powerful than client computers, or are optimized to function as servers.

Advantages of Server-Based Networks:

Advantages of Server-Based Networks Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo Strong central security Central file storage, which allows all users to work from the same set of data and provides easy backup of critical data Ability of servers to pool available hardware and software, lowering overall costs Ability to share expensive equipment, such as laser printers Optimized dedicated servers, which are faster than peers at sharing network resources Less intrusive security, since a single password allows access to all shared resources on the network Freeing of users from the task of managing the sharing of resources Easy manageability of a large number of users Central organization, which keeps data from getting lost among computers

Disadvantages of Server-Based Networks:

Disadvantages of Server-Based Networks Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo Expensive dedicated hardware Expensive network operating system software and client licenses A dedicated network administrator (usually required)

Peer Networks:

Peer Networks Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo Peer networks are defined by a lack of central control over the network. There are no servers in peer networks; users simply share disk space and resources, such as printers and faxes, as they see fit. Peer networks are organized into workgroups. Access to individual resources can be controlled if the user who shared the resource requires a password to access it.

Advantages of Peer Networks:

Advantages of Peer Networks Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo No extra investment in server hardware or software is required Easy setup No network administrator required Ability of users to control resources sharing No reliance on other computers for their operation Lower cost for small networks

Disadvantages of Peer Networks:

Disadvantages of Peer Networks Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo Additional load on computers because of resource sharing Inability of peers to handle as many network connections as servers Lack of central organization, which can make data hard to find No central point of storage for file archiving Requirement that users administer their own computers Weak and intrusive security Lack of central management, which makes large peer networks hard to work with

Hybrid Networks:

Hybrid Networks Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo Hybrid networks have all three types of computers operating on them and generally have active domains and workgroups. This means that while most shared resources are located on servers, network users still have access to any resources being shared by peers in your workgroup. It also means network users do not have to log on to the domain controller to access workgroup resources being shared by peers.

Peer Security vs. Server Security:

Peer Security vs. Server Security Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo Peer-to-peer networks : Share-level security Server-based networks: File-level or access permission security.

Selecting the Right Network Type:

Selecting the Right Network Type Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo When deciding which type of network to use, your primary consideration will be whether you can afford a network file server, network operating system software, and the cost of an administrator. If you can, you should consider using a hybrid networking environment to get the advantages of both types of networking. If you cannot, you should use a peer-based network.

Server Types:

Server Types Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo File Servers: File servers offer services that allow network users to share files Ex. Windows NT, NetWare, AppleShare, and Banyan Vines. Print Servers: Allow users to share printers. Print services manage and control printing on a network, allowing multiple and simultaneous access to printing facilities. Application Servers: Application services allow client PCs to access and use extra computing power and expensive software applications that reside on a shared computer. Message Servers: Message servers provide message services in a wide variety of communication methods that go far beyond simple file services. With file services, data can pass between users only in file form. With message services, data can take the form of graphics, digitized video, or audio, as well as text and binary data.

Network Topology:

Network Topology Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo The way in which the connections are made is called the topology of the network. Network topology specifically refers to the physical layout of the network, especially the locations of the computers and how the cable is run between them.

Bus Topology:

Bus Topology Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo Bus Topology: The bus topology is often used when a network installation is small, simple, or temporary. Note: In a bus topology the computers are connected in a line.

Bus Topology:

Bus Topology Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo Advantages of the Bus: The bus is simple, reliable in very small networks, easy to use, and easy to understand. The bus requires the least amount of cable to connect the computers together and is therefore less expensive than other cabling arrangements. It is easy to extend a bus. Two cables can be joined into one longer cable with a BNC barrel connector, making a longer cable and allowing more computers to join the network. A repeater can also be used to extend a bus; a repeater boosts the signal and allows it to travel a longer distance.

Bus Topology:

Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo Bus Topology Disadvantages of the Bus: Heavy network traffic can slow a bus considerably. Each barrel connector weakens the electrical signal, and too many may prevent the signal from being correctly received all along the bus. It is difficult to troubleshoot a bus. A cable break or malfunctioning computer anywhere between two computers can cause them not to be able to communicate with each other. A cable break or loose connector will also cause reflections and bring down the whole network, causing all network activity to stop.

Star Topology:

Star Topology Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo Stars are used in concentrated networks, where the endpoints are directly reachable from a central location; when network expansion is expected; and when the greater reliability of a star topology is needed. Note: In a star topology, the computers are all connected by cables to a central point/hub.

Star Topology:

Star Topology Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo Advantages of the Star: It is easy to modify and add new computers to a star network without disturbing the rest of the network. The center of a star network is a good place to diagnose network faults. Single computer failures do not necessarily bring down the whole star network. You can use several cable types in the same network with a hub that can accommodate multiple cable types.

Star Topology:

Star Topology Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo Disadvantages of the Star: If the central hub fails, the whole network fails to operate. Many star networks require a device at the central point to rebroadcast or switch network traffic. It costs more to cable a star network because all network cables must be pulled to one central point, requiring more cable than other networking topologies.

Ring Networks:

Ring Networks Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo Rings are used in high-performance networks, networks requiring that bandwidth be reserved for time-sensitive features such as video and audio, or when even performance is needed when a large number of clients access the network. Note: In a ring topology computers are connected in a circle. token passing. A short message called a token is passed around the ring until a computer wishes to send information to another computer.

Ring Networks:

Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo Ring Networks Advantages of the Ring: Because every computer is given equal access to the token, no one computer can monopolize the network. The fair sharing of the network allows the network to degrade gracefully (continue to function in a useful, if slower, manner rather than fail once capacity is exceeded) as more users are added. Disadvantages of the Ring: Failure of one computer on the ring can affect the whole network. It is difficult to troubleshoot a ring network. Adding or removing computers disrupts the network.

Star Bus and Star Ring:

Star Bus and Star Ring Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo The star bus topology combines the bus and the star, linking several star hubs together with bus trunks. If one computer fails, the hub can detect the fault and isolate the computer. If a hub fails, computers connected to it will not be able to communicate, and the bus network will be broken into two segments that cannot reach each other.

Star Bus and Star Ring:

Star Bus and Star Ring Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo In the star ring, also called the star wired ring , the network cables are laid out much like a star network, but a ring is implemented in the central hub. Outlying hubs can be connected to the inner hub, effectively extending a loop of the inner ring. Note: Token Ring is considered a star ring. Although its topology is physically a star, it functions logically in a ring

Physical Mesh Topology:

Physical Mesh Topology Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo The mesh topology is distinguished by having redundant links between devices. A true mesh configuration has a link between each device in the network. Most mesh topology networks are not true mesh networks. Rather, they are hybrid mesh networks, which contain some redundant links, but not all. Mesh Installation Mesh topology networks become more difficult to install as the number of devices increases because of the sheer quantity of connections that must be made. A true mesh of only six devices would require 15 connections (5+4+3+2+1). A true mesh topology of seven devices would require 21 connections (6+5+4+3+2+1), and so on.

Physical Mesh Topology:

Physical Mesh Topology Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo Mesh Troubleshooting and Reconfiguration: Mesh networks are easy to troubleshoot and are very fault tolerant. Media failure has less impact on a mesh topology than on any other topology. The redundant links enable data to be sent over several different paths. Reconfiguration, like installation, gets progressively more difficult as the number of devices increases. Mesh Advantages and Disadvantages: The major advantage of the mesh topology is fault tolerance. Other advantages include guaranteed communication channel capacity and the fact that mesh networks are relatively easy to troubleshoot. Disadvantages include the difficulty of installation and reconfiguration, as well as the cost of maintaining redundant links.

Network Media:

Network Media Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo What Are Media? Media are what the message is transmitted over. Different media have different properties and are most effectively used in different environments for different purposes. Media can be anything that carries a message.

Network Media:

Network Media Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo Copper: The most common network medium is copper. Glass: Fiber-optics is a networking technology developed to exploit the communications medium of light in long strands of glass. Air: Infrared technology can send the data right through the air—no cabling required! Infrared provides an effective solution for temporary or hard-to-cable environments, or where computers (such as laptops) are moved around a lot. Radio: Radio waves will go through walls. Radio waves will also reach places it is difficult to get a network cable to. There is a very dynamic industry providing radio links to connect networks together.

Network Protocols:

STOP Network Protocols Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo What Are Protocols? Protocols are the agreed-upon ways that computers exchange information. Networks are full of protocols. A computer needs to know exactly how messages will arrive from the network so it can make sure the message gets to the right place. Example. A car stops when it’s still red and proceeds when the light turns green

DATA TRANSMISSION:

DATA TRANSMISSION Simplex: information flows in only one direction Half-duplex: information flows in two directions, but only in one direction at a time. Full-duplex: information flows in two directions at the same time Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

DATA TRANSMISSION:

DATA TRANSMISSION Data rate – bits per second in data communications Bandwidth – bandwidth or signal is constrained by the transmitter and the nature of the transmission in cycles per second or hertz Noise – Average level of noise over the communication path. Error rate – rate at which errors occur where error in 1 or 0 bit occurs Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

CHAPTER 2:

CHAPTER 2 Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo NETWORK COMPONENTS

Signal Transmission:

Signal Transmission Signaling is the way data is transmitted across medium. It uses electrical energy to communicate. This is done by means of encoding (modulation). The original signal is altered in a certain way to allow it to represent data. Forms of Signal: Analog signal: data changes continuously. Digital signal: consists of discrete states: On or Off, 1 or 0 Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

Categories of digital signal:

Categories of digital signal Current-State encoding The data is encoded by the presence or absence of a signal characteristics or state. State-Transition encoding State-transition encoding methods differ from current-state in that they use transmission in the signal to represent data, as opposed to encoding data by means of a particular voltage level or state. Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

Comparing signaling methods:

Comparing signaling methods In general, digital signaling provides the following advantages over analog signaling: Fewer errors from noise and interference Uses less expensive equipment Suffer from greater attenuation In general the analog signal provides the following advantages over digital : Less attenuation Can be multiplexed to increase bandwidth More prone to errors from noise and interference Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

Network Media Types:

Network Media Types Transmission media: the physical path through which computers send and receive signal. Categories of transmission media Cable Media Wireless Media Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

Characteristics of cable media:

Characteristics of cable media Factor UTP STP COAXIAL FIBER OPTIC COST Lowest Moderate Moderate Highest Installation Easy Fairly easy Fairly easy Difficult Bandwidth capacity 1 to 155Mbps (typically 10Mbps) 1 to 155Mbps (typically 16Mbps) Typically 10 Mbps 2Gbps (typically 100Mbps) Node capacity Per segment 2 2 30 2 Attenuation High(range of hundreds of meters) High(range of hundreds of meters) Lower(range of few kilo meters) Lowest(range of tens of kilometers ) EMI Most vulnerable to EMI and eavesdropping Less vulnerable than UTP but still vulnerable to EMI and eavesdropping Less vulnerable than UTP but still vulnerable to EMI and eavesdropping Not Affected by EMI or eavesdropping Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

Twisted Pair Cable:

Twisted Pair Cable Twisted pair cable uses one or more pairs of two twisted wires to transmit signals. Twisted pairs are two color-coded, insulated wires that are twisted around each other. A twisted pair consists of one or more twisted pair in common jacket. Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo To reduce the amount of crosstalk and interference, wires are twisted in a helical form Crosstalk: is the interference produced by wires in the presence of electrical signal

Unshielded twisted Pair (UTP):

Unshielded twisted Pair (UTP) Consists of a number of twisted pairs with single plastic casing. They are commonly used in telephone systems. Categories of UTP: Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

Unshielded twisted Pair (UTP):

Unshielded twisted Pair (UTP) UTP installations are often similar to telephone installations. For four-pair cable you will need a modular RJ-45 telephone connector. For two pair cable, you will need modular jack RJ11 Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo RJ45 RJ11

Shielded Twisted Pair STP:

Shielded Twisted Pair STP The only difference between UTP and STP is that STP cable has a shield. Usually aluminum/polyester between the outer jacket or casing and the wires. The shield makes the STP less vulnerable to EMI because the shield is electrically grounded. Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo STP is the first cable used in LANs. Although many LANs now use UTP STP is still used.

Coaxial Cable:

Coaxial Cable Coaxial Cable is commonly called coax , has two conductors that share the same axis, a solid copper wore runs down the center of the cable and this wire is surrounded by plastic foam insulation. The foam is surrounded by a second conductor, a wire mesh tube, metallic foils or both. Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo Coaxial cable comes in different sizes. It is classified by size(RG) and by cable’s resistance to direct or alternating electric currents(measured in Ohms also called impedance)

Coaxial Cable:

Coaxial Cable The following are some coaxial cables commonly used in networking 50-ohm, RG-8 and 75-ohm, RG11, used for thick Ethernet ( ThickNet ) 50-ohm,RG58,used for thin Ethernet ( ThinNet ) 75-ohm,RG-59 used fot cable TV 93-ohm, RG-62 used for ARCnet Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

FIBER OPTIC CABLE:

Fiber optic cable transmits light signal rather than electrical signal. It is enormously more efficient than the other network transmission media. Types of fiber optic sheath Tight loose FIBER OPTIC CABLE Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

PowerPoint Presentation:

Single Mode fiber optic – allows a single light path and are typically used in laser signaling. Single mode can allow greater bandwidth and cable runs than multi-mode Multi-Mode fiber optic – Use multiple light paths. Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo CLICK TO VIEW FIBER OPTICS

Wireless Media:

Wireless Media Radio waves – radio can be omnidirectionally or directionally Short waves Very high frequency Ultra high frequency Typical antennas for radio waves Omni-directional Half-wave dipole Random-length wire Beam (such as Yagi ) Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

Wireless Media:

Wireless Media Microwave – makes use of the lower gigahertz frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum. These frequencies , which are higher than the radio frequencies, produce better throughput performance. Types of microwave media Terrestrial – use directional parabolic antennas to send and receive signals in the , lower gigahertz. The signala are highly focused, and the physical path must be line of sight. Satellite - they are also directional like terrestrial but the difference is one antenna is on a satellite in geosynchronous orbit about 50,000 km above earth. Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

Wireless Media:

Wireless Media Infrared – use infrared light to transmit signals. LEDs ILDs transmit the signal, and photodiodes receive the signals. Infrared media use the terahertz range of electromagnetic spectrum. Infrared use pure light, normally containing only electromagnetic waves or photons from a small range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

NETWORK ADAPTERS:

NETWORK ADAPTERS Network adapters sometimes callec Network Interface cards (NICs) are peripheral cards that plug into the motherboard of your computer into the network cable. It it through the NIC that you computer communicates on to the network. Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

HOW NETWORK ADAPTER WORKS:

HOW NETWORK ADAPTER WORKS Network adapters receive the data to be transmitted from the motherboard into a small RAM called buffer. The data in the buffer is moved into a chip that calculates a checksum value for the chunk and adds address information, which includes the address of the destination card adds its own address, which indicates where the data is from. Ethernet adapter addresses are permanently assigned when the adapter is made at the factory. This chunk is referred to as a frame. Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

CHAPTER 3: OSI MODEL:

Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo CHAPTER 3: OSI MODEL Open systems Interconnect(OSI) - Is a conceptual framework you can use to better understand the complex interactions that are taking place among various devices on the network. The OSI divides communications tasks into smaller pieces called sub tasks. Protocol implementation are computer processes that relate to these sub tasks.

Protocol Stacks:

Protocol Stacks A protocol stack is a group of protocols arrange on top of each other as part of a communication process. Each layer of the OSI model has different protocols associated with it. Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

PowerPoint Presentation:

Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

PowerPoint Presentation:

Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

Physical Layer:

Physical Layer The physical layer is simply responsible for sending bits from one computer to another. This level defines electrical details, such as what will represent a 1 or 0, how many pins a network connector will have, how data will be synchronized and when network adapter may or may not transmit the data. Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo Note: passive hubs, simple active hubs terminators cabling, connectors repeaters are devices associated with this layer

Data link layer:

Data link layer The data link layer provides for the flow of data over a single link from one device to another. Data link layer adds control information, such as frame type, routing and segmentation information, to the data being sent to another. Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

Network Layer:

Network Layer The network layer makes the routing decisions and forwards packets for devices that are farther away than a single link. The network layer translates logical network address into physical machine addresses. Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

Transport Layer:

Transport Layer This layer ensures that packets are delivered error free, in sequence and with no losses or duplications. Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo Note: It breaks large messages from the session layer into packets to be to the destination computer and reassembles packets into messages to be presented to the session layer

Session Layer:

Session Layer Session layer allows application on separate computers to share a connection called session. Session layer also provides for data synchronization and check pointing so that in the event of a network failure, only the data sent after the point of failure need to be re-sent. Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo note: session layer provides for dialogue between application programs

Presentation Layer:

Presentation Layer Presentation layer translates data between the formats the network requires and the format the computer expects. the presentation layer does protocol conversion, data translation, compression and encryption, character set conversion and the interpretation of graphics commands. The network redirector operates at this level. Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

Application layer:

Application layer Application layer is the topmost layer of the OSI and it provides services that directly support user application, such as database access, e-mail and file transfers. It also allows application to communicate with application on other computers as though they were on the same computer. Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

The IEEE 802 categories:

The IEEE 802 categories IEEE 802 refers to a family of IEEE standards dealing with local area networks and metropolitan area networks. Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo name description note IEEE 802.1 Bridging (networking) and Network Management IEEE 802.2 Logical link control inactive IEEE 802.3 Ethernet IEEE 802.4 Token bus disbanded IEEE 802.5 IEEE 802.6 IEEE 802.7 Defines the MAC layer for a Token Ring inactive Metropolitan Area Networks disbanded Broadband LAN using Coaxial Cable disbanded IEEE 802.8 Fiber Optic TAG disbanded IEEE 802.9 Integrated Services LAN disbanded IEEE 802.10 Interoperable LAN Security disbanded IEEE 802.11 a/b/g/n Wireless LAN (WLAN) & Mesh (Wi-Fi certification) IEEE 802.12 demand priority disbanded

How Protocols Work:

How Protocols Work A protocol is a set of basic steps that both parties must perform in the right order. For instance, for one computer to send a message to another computer, the first computer must perform the following steps. Break the data into small sections called packets Add addressing information to the packets identifying the destination computer Deliver data to the network card for transmission over the network. Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

How Protocols Work:

How Protocols Work The receiving computer must perform the same steps but in reverse order; Accept data from the network adapter card Remove the transmitting information that was added by the transmitting computer Reassemble the packets of data into the original message. Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

Network Packets:

Network Packets Networks primarily send and receive the small chunks of data called packets Packets have the following components. A source address A destination address Instruction that tell the computer to pass the data along Reassembly information for when packet is part of a longer message The data to be transmitted to the remote computer Error-checking information tp ensure the data arrives intact Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

Network Packets:

Network Packets The components are combined into 3 sections Header Includes an alert to indicates that the data is being transmitted, source and destination add. And clock information to synchronize the transmission. Data The actual data being sent Trailer Typically includes Cyclic Redundancy Check. Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

Standard Protocol Stacks:

Standard Protocol Stacks The ISO/OSI protocol suite IBM Systems Network Architecture Digital DECnet Novell Netware Apple talk The internet protocol suite, TCP/IP Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

Layers of the OSI stack:

Layers of the OSI stack Layer Description Application Provides services that directly support user application Presentation Translates data format and adds encryption Session Sets up and tears down connections or sessions. Administers session Transport Adds identifiers to processes and deals with error-handling information Network Handles internetwork sequencing, addressing and routing Data link Adds error-checking information and organizes bits into frames Physical Transmits and receives bits over the physical media Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

How Ethernet Works:

How Ethernet Works Ethernet arbitrates access to the network with the carrier sense multiple access with collision detection(CSMA/CD) media access method. This means that only one workstation can use the network at a time. Ethernet is available for many types of cable. The different types of Ethernet use different signaling, but they share the Ethernet framing specification, the 10Mbps speed, and the use of CSMA/CD to arbitrate access Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo In the case of Ethernet, workstations send signals across the network. When collision takes place, the workstations that’s transmitting stop sending and wait a random period of time before re-transmitting.

4 commonly used 10 mbps Ethernet cabling systems are::

4 commonly used 10 mbps Ethernet cabling systems are: 10Base5, or thicknet – uses thick coaxial cable 10Base2 or thinnet – uses thin coaxial cable 10BaseT, which uses UTP 10baseFL, which uses single or multimode optical fiber Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

SPECIFICATIONS:

SPECIFICATIONS Maximum segment length – 500 meters (1650 ft) Maximum taps – 100 (taps are also called transceiver) Maximum segments – 5 Maximum Segments with nodes – 3 Maximum Distance Bet. Taps – 2.5 (8.2ft) Maximum Repeaters – 4 Maximum overall length w/ repeaters – 2.5 kilometers Maximum AUI drop cable length – 50 meters (165ft) Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo Maximum segment length – 185 meters (610.5 ft) Maximum segments – 5 Maximum Segments with nodes – 3 Maximum Repeaters – 4 Maximum overall length w/ repeaters – 2.5 kilometers Maximum AUI drop cable length – 50 meters (165ft) 10Base5 10Base2

10BaseT (twisted pair) Ethernet:

10BaseT (twisted pair) Ethernet Maximum segments – 1024 Maximum Segments with nodes – 1024 Maximum segment length – 100 meters( 330ft) Maximum nodes per segment – 2 Maximum nodes per network – 1024 Maximum hubs in chain – 4 Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

10BaseT (twisted pair) Ethernet:

10BaseT (twisted pair) Ethernet Prepared by: Randall G. Castillo

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