Chapter 10

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Chapter 10: The Internet Database Environment : 

© 2005 by Prentice Hall 1 Chapter 10: The Internet Database Environment Modern Database Management 7th Edition Jeffrey A. Hoffer, Mary B. Prescott, Fred R. McFadden

Objectives : 

2 Objectives Describe environment for Internet database connectivity Describe Internet-based business environment Use and define Internet-related terminology Explain purpose of client-side and server-side extensions Describe web services and their use for e-commerce Explain shopping cart application code in ASP Provide an overview of XML Describe issues for Web-site management Discuss Web security and privacy issues

Slide 3: 

3 Figure 10-1: Database-enabled intranet-internet environment

Business on the Internet : 

4 Business on the Internet Electronic Business (e-business) Development of integrated relationship with customers and suppliers via the Internet Business-to-Consumer (B2C) – retail Business-to-Business (B2B) – interaction with suppliers and vendors Electronic Commerce (e-commerce) Business transactions, including: Order processing/fulfillment Customer relations Electronic data interchange (EDI) Bill payments

Web-Related Terms : 

5 Web-Related Terms World Wide Web (WWW) The total set of interlinked hypertext documents residing on Web servers worldwide Browser Software that displays HTML documents and allows users to access files and software related to HTML documents Web Server Software that responds to requests from browsers and transmits HTML documents to browsers Web pages – HTML documents Static Web pages – content established at development time Dynamic Web pages – content dynamically generated, usually by obtaining data from database

Communications Technology : 

6 Communications Technology IP Address Four numbers that identify a node on the internet e.g. 131.247.152.18 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Communication protocol used to transfer pages from Web server to browser HTTPS is a more secure version Uniform Resource Locator (URL) Mnemonic Web address corresponding with IP address Also includes folder location and html file name

Internet-Related Languages : 

7 Internet-Related Languages Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) Markup language specifically for Web pages Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) Markup language standard Extensible Markup Language (XML) Markup language allowing customized tags XHTML XML-compliant extension of HTML Java Object-oriented programming language for applets JavaScript/VBScript Scripting languages that enable interactivity in HTML documents Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) Control appearance of Web elements in an HML document XSL and XSLT XMS style sheet and transformation to HTML Standards and Web conventions established by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) : 

8 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) An international consortium of companies working to develop open standards that foster the deployment of Web conventions so that Web documents can be consistently displayed on all platforms See www.w3c.org

Web Servers : 

9 Web Servers Provide HTTP service Passing plain text via TCP connection Serve many clients at once Therefore, multithreaded and multiprocessed Load balancing approaches: Domain Name Server (DNS) balancing One DNS = multiple IP addresses Software/hardware balancing Request at one IP address is distributed to multiple servers Reverse proxy Intercept client request and cache response

Server-Side Extensions : 

10 Server-Side Extensions Programs that interact directly with Web servers to handle requests e.g. database-request handling middleware

Web Server Interfaces : 

11 Web Server Interfaces Common Gateway Interface (CGI) Specify transfer of information between Web server and CGI program Performance not very good Security risks Application Program Interface (API) More efficient than CGI Shared as dynamic link libraries (DLLs) Java Servlets Like applets, but stored at server Cross-platform compatible More efficient than CGI

Client-Side Extensions : 

12 Client-Side Extensions Add functionality to the browser Plug-ins Hardware/software modules that extend browser capabilities by adding features (e.g. encryption, animation, wireless access) ActiveX Microsoft COM/OLE components that allow data manipulation inside the browser Cookies Block of data stored at client by Web server for later use

Web Services : 

13 Web Services Set of emerging XML-based standards that define protocols for automatic communication between applications ever the Web. Extends and supplants traditional EDI Web Service Components: Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI) Technical specification for distributed registries of Web services and businesses open to communication on these services Web Services Description Language (WSDL) XML-based grammar for describing Web services and providing public interfaces for these services Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) XML-based communication protocol for sending messages between applications via the Internet Challenges for Web Services Lack of mature standards Lack of security

Slide 14: 

14

Web-to-Database Tools : 

15 Web-to-Database Tools Active Server Pages (ASP) Microsoft server-side scripting language Generates dynamic Web pages Interfaces to databases in MS Windows-based Web servers Cold-Fusion Uses special server-side markup language CFML Modeled after HTML Interfaces to databases Embedded SQL SQL embedded in 3GL programs Provides flexible interface Improves performance and database security

Slide 16: 

16 Figure 10-6: A global.asa file for an ASP application ASP applications include HTML extensions and additional scripting (usually in VBScript, or in JavaScript) ASP code embedded in <% %> tags are executed on the server, instead of the client. This is how dynamic Web pages can be created

Sample ASP Code (from Figure 10-7 Box E and F) : 

17 Sample ASP Code (from Figure 10-7 Box E and F) <% REM Get list of Finishes strSQL = “SELECT Product_Finish FROM PRODUCT_t GROUP BY Product_Finish;” Set rsRes = con.Execute(strSQL) %> <TABLE> <% REM Display the list of finishes While not rsRes.EOF %> <TR> <TD align=center valign=top> <%=rsRes(“Product Finish”>)%></TD> <TD> <FORM method=post action=“line.asp”> <INPUT type=Hidden name=line value=“<%=rsRes(“Product_Finish”))%> <INPUT type=submit Value=GO!> </TD> </TR> <% rsRes.MoveNext Wend %> </TABLE> Code is within the <% %> tags are executed on the server, not the client…these are interacting with the database and creating dynamic Web content

Sample ASP Code (from Figure 10-7 Box E and F) (cont.) : 

18 Sample ASP Code (from Figure 10-7 Box E and F) (cont.) <% REM Get list of Finishes strSQL = “SELECT Product_Finish FROM PRODUCT_t GROUP BY Product_Finish;” Set rsRes = con.Execute(strSQL) %> These lines execute a query on the database server using a middleware called Active Data Objects (ADO). The con variable is a connection to the database, which was established in the code of Box C. The rsRes variable contains the result set of the query (the rows returned from the query)

Sample ASP Code (from Figure 10-7 Box E and F) (cont.) : 

19 Sample ASP Code (from Figure 10-7 Box E and F) (cont.) <% REM Display the list of finishes While not rsRes.EOF %> <TR> <TD align=center valign=top> <%=rsRes(“Product Finish”>)%></TD> <TD> <FORM method=post action=“line.asp”> <INPUT type=Hidden name=line value=“<%=rsRes(“Product_Finish”))%> <INPUT type=submit Value=GO!> </TD> </TR> <% rsRes.MoveNext Wend %> </TABLE> These lines of code cause the ASP application to loop through the rows returned by the query until they reach the end

Sample ASP Code (from Figure 10-7 Box E and F) (cont.) : 

20 Sample ASP Code (from Figure 10-7 Box E and F) (cont.) <% REM Display the list of finishes While not rsRes.EOF %> <TR> <TD align=center valign=top> <%=rsRes(“Product Finish”>)%></TD> <TD> <FORM method=post action=“line.asp”> <INPUT type=Hidden name=line value=“<%=rsRes(“Product_Finish”))%> <INPUT type=submit Value=GO!> </TD> </TR> <% rsRes.MoveNext Wend %> </TABLE> These lines of code retrieve the values of the specified field from the current row of the query result

Sample ASP Code (from Figure 10-7 Box E and F) (cont.) : 

21 Sample ASP Code (from Figure 10-7 Box E and F) (cont.) <% REM Display the list of finishes While not rsRes.EOF %> <TR> <TD align=center valign=top> <%=rsRes(“Product Finish”>)%></TD> <TD> <FORM method=post action=“line.asp”> <INPUT type=Hidden name=line value=“<%=rsRes(“Product_Finish”))%> <INPUT type=submit Value=GO!> </TD> </TR> <% rsRes.MoveNext Wend %> </TABLE> The Web page is dynamically created, with one HTML table row for each record obtained from the query. Also, each Web table row includes a button that will link to another ASP page

Slide 22: 

22 Embedded SQL statement begins with EXEC SQL Precompiler translates embedded SQL into host program language Compiler and linker generate executable code

XML Overview : 

23 XML Overview Becoming the standard for E-Commerce data exchange A markup language (like HTML) Uses elements, tags, attributes Includes document type declarations (DTDs), XML schemas, comments, and entity references Provides a template for definition of data set across the Internet

Sample XML Schema : 

24 Sample XML Schema Schema is a record definition, analogous to the Create SQL statement, and therefore provides metadata

Sample XML Document Data : 

25 Sample XML Document Data XML data involves elements and attributes defined in the schema, and is analogous to inserting a record into a database.

Managing Website Data : 

26 Managing Website Data Web Security Issues Prevent unauthorized access and malicious destruction Privacy Issues Protect users’ privacy rights Internet Technology Rate-of-Change Issues Deal with rapid advances in technology

Website Security : 

27 Website Security Planning for Web Security Risk assessment: nature, likelihood, impact, and motivation of security risks Network Level Security Web server and DB server on separate LAN from other business systems Minimize sharing of hard disks among network servers Regular monitoring of network and firewall logs Install probe-monitor software

Website Security (continued) : 

28 Website Security (continued) Operating System Level Security Patch all known OS vulnerabilities Install antivirus software with boot-time, file download time, and e-mail reception time virus detection Monitor server logs for unauthorized activity Disable unrequired services to reduce risk of unauthorized access

Web Security (continued) : 

29 Web Security (continued) Web Server Security Restrict number of users on Web server Restrict access (minimize number of open ports) http and https only, if possible Remove unneeded programs Restrict CGI scripts to one subdirectory For Unix, only install minimum software for Web server

Website Security (continued) : 

30 Website Security (continued) Firewall – hardware/software security component that limits external access to company’s data Proxy server – firewall component that manages Internet traffic to and from a LAN Router – intermediate device that transmits message packets to correct destination over most efficient pathway Intrusion detection system (IDS) – system that identifies attempt to hack or break into a system

Slide 31: 

31 Figure 10-11: Establishing Internet security

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