Introduction of CNS

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Introduction of Central Nervous System(CNS):

Introduction of Central Nervous System(CNS) Prof. Husan Bano Department of Physiology Al- Tibri Medical College, Isra University

Learning Objectives:

Learning Objectives At the end of this lecture you should be able to: Define nervous system . Define neuron . Enumerate the division of nervous system . List the functional components of central nervous system. List the functions of each part . Explain its role in homeostasis .

What is Nervous System?:

What is Nervous System? Definition: Nervous system is a complex network of neuron which transmit the electrical signals.

What is neuron?:

What is neuron? Definition: The neuron is a structural and functional unit of nervous system Cell body Dendrites AXON

Division of Nervous System:

Division of Nervous System Nervous System CNS Peripheral NS Brain Cranio - Spinal Spinal Cord Nerves.



Functional Components of Central Nervous System:

Functional Components of Central Nervous System Central Nervous System Brain Spinal cord



Brain and its functional components:

Brain and its functional components Primary Division Sub Division Structure arises from Subdivision (Functional components) Pro encephlon (Fore Brain) Telencephlon Diencephlon Cerebrum, Basal Ganglia Thalamus, Hypothalamus Mesencephlon (Mid Brain) None Mid brain Rhombencephlon (Hind Brain) Metencephlon Mylencephlon Cerebellum, Pons Medulla Oblongta


Cerebrum Thalamus Hypothalamus Cerebellum Pons Medulla

Functions of Fore Brain (Cerebrum):

Functions of Fore Brain (Cerebrum) Cerebrum is divided into two cerebral hemisphere by means of deep median fissure . Right cerebral hemisphere Left cerebral hemisphere


Right cerebral hemisphere controls all functions of left side of body. Left cerebral hemisphere controls all functions of right side of body. Right cerebral hemisphere Left cerebral hemisphere


Right cerebral hemisphere Left cerebral hemisphere In 95% peoples, the left cerebral hemisphere is dominant . However , if left cerebral hemisphere damage, then opposite side of brain developed full dominant characteristics

Lobes Of Cerebral Hemisphere:

Lobes Of Cerebral Hemisphere Frontal lobe OR Motor area 2. Parietal lobe OR Sensory area 3. Occipital lobe OR Visual area 4. Temporal lobe OR Auditory area

Functions of Each Lobe:

Functions of Each Lobe Frontal Lobe---------------Motor Functions Parietal Lobe--------------Sensory Functions Occipital Lobe-------------Visual Functions Temporal Lobe------------Auditory Functions

Functions of Hypothalamus:

Functions of Hypothalamus Control activity of autonomic nervous system Control the pituitary function Regulate heart rate . Regulate blood pressure Regulate the body temperature .

Functions of Hypothalamus:

Functions of Hypothalamus 6. Regulate the body water . 7. Control other body functions such as hunger , sleep , thirst and emotions

Functions of Cerebellum:

Functions of Cerebellum Has hemisphere like cerebrum It also control all motor activities of body. Control body posture and balance. Control the rate of movement , direction of movement and force required for movement

Brain Stem:

Brain Stem (Mid brain, Pons and Medulla)

Functions of Brain Stem (Mid brain, Pons and Medulla):

Functions of Brain Stem (Mid brain, Pons and Medulla) Mid brain: It connect the fore brain and hind brain. Pons: It relay the impulses from cerebrum to cerebellum It regulates the rate of respiration Medulla: Control respiratory rate, heart rate, coughing and vomiting

Functions of Spinal Cord:

Functions of Spinal Cord Lies in vertebral canal of vertebral column. It relay impulses from brain to different parts of body through spinal nerves.

Role of CNS in Homeostasis:

Role of CNS in Homeostasis The brain is the control center of all activity in the body. It is responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis. Especially hypothalamus  play an important role

Thank You:

Thank You

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