Introduction to Reproduction (1)

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Introduction to Reproduction:

Prof. Husan Bano Department of Physiology Al- Tibri Medical College, Isra University Introduction to Reproduction

Learning Objectives:

Learning Objectives At the end of this lecture you should be able to: Understand the key functions of the male and female reproductive organs.

Slide 3:

Female Reproductive System

Female Reproductive Organs :

Female Reproductive Organs It includes: Ovaries [ gonads] Fallopian tubes [Uterine tubes ] Uterus Vagina Accessory glands External genitalia

Ovaries and its Functions:

Ovaries and its Functions Functions: Produce eggs ( ova ) 2 . Produce hormones ( Estrogen & Progesterone ) Each ovary is almond shape .

Fallopian tubes and its Function:

Fallopian tubes and its Function Fallopian tube is also called oviduct or uterine tube . Functions: It is site of fertilization . Fallopian Tubes

Fimbria and its functions :

Fimbria and its functions Thin projections around the ovarian end of the Fallopian tube. Millions of tiny hair-like cilia line the fimbria and interior of the fallopian tubes. Fimbriae Function : The cilia beats 100 times/second catching the egg and moving it to the uterine tube.

Uterus and its Functions :

Uterus and its Functions   Pear-shaped . muscular organ The fundus is the upper portion of the uterus . Function : Here fetus implant and pregnancy occurs. The Cervix is the lower portion of the uterus that connects with the vagina Function : It serves as a sphincter to keep the uterus closed during pregnancy until the time of delivery.

Body of uterus and its Function  :

Body of uterus and its Function   Grows to from 10 to 20 times pregnancy. Outer coat of muscle ( Myometrium ) Inner lining of vascular, glandular. ( Endometrium ). Function: Protects developing fetus and nourish it.


Cont… If fertilization does not occur, the endometrium sloughs off and expelled as menstrual flow.

Vagina and its Function :

Vagina and its Function  Vagina (9 cm long) Receives sperm Birth canal Menstrual flow exit Functions 

Slide 12:

Male Reproductive System

Male reproductive system :

Male reproductive system  External organs Penis Scrotum

Functions of Scrotum & Penis:

Functions of Scrotum & Penis Scrotum has a protective function and acts as a climate control system for the testes. For normal sperm development , the testes require temperature slightly cooler than the body temperature Penis ejaculate semen and urine .

Internal Reproductive Organs:

Internal Reproductive Organs Testes Seminiferous tubules Epididymis Vas deferens Seminal vesicles Ejaculatory ducts Prostate gland Bulbo -urethral gland Urethra

Male Reproductive System:

Male Reproductive System Testes Epididymus Ductus defernce Bulbourethral Gland Prostate Gland Ejaculatory Duct Seminal Vessicle Urethra

1: Testes and its Function:

1: Testes and its Function Testes present in scrotum Functions of testis: Testes are responsible for making testosterone , the primary male sex hormone.

2: Seminiferous tubules and its Functions:

2: Seminiferous tubules and its Functions Within the testes are coiled masses of tubes called seminiferous tubules . Functions: These tubules are responsible for spermatogenesis .

3: Epididymis and its Functions :

3 : Epididymis and its Functions The epididymis is a long, coiled tube that lies on the backside of each testis. Functions : transport and storage of the sperm that are produced in the testes . The sperm maturity takes place epididymis

4: Vas deferens and its Functions :

4: Vas deferens and its Functions Vas deferens is a long muscular tube that travels from the epididymis into the pelvic cavity , just behind the bladder .

4: Vas deferens and its Functions:

4: Vas deferens and its Functions Function: Vas deferens transport the mature sperm to the urethra for ejaculation.

5: Seminal Vesicles and its Function:

5: Seminal Vesicles and its Function The seminal vesicles are sac-like pouches that attach to the vas deferens near the base of the bladder . Functions: The seminal vesicles produce a sugar-rich fluid (fructose) that provides source of energy to sperm and helps in sperms’ motility (ability to move). Most of fluid of semen comes from seminal vessicle

6: Ejaculatory ducts :

6: Ejaculatory ducts These are formed by the fusion of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. The ejaculatory ducts empty into the urethra

7: Prostate Gland:

7: Prostate Gland The prostate gland is located below the urinary bladder in front of the rectum. Functions: The prostate gland contributes additional fluid to the ejaculate. Prostate fluids also help to nourish the sperm

8: Bulbo-urethral glands and Function:

8: Bulbo -urethral glands and Function The bulbourethral glands( Cowper’s glands ) located on the sides of the urethra just below the prostate gland . Functions: It serves to lubricate the urethra It neutralize any acidity that may be present due to residual drops of urine in the urethra

9: Urethra and its Function:

9: Urethra and its Function The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of the body. In males, it has the additional function of expelling (ejaculating) semen. When this function is performed, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra

Slide 27:

Thank You

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