Dyslexia - Myths, Gifts & Tips

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A session on theoretical understanding of dyslexia, it's impact on literacy and how to make a classroom more 'dyslexia-friendly'. For more: www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk

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© Matt Grant, May 2013 www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk

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What is dyslexia? How does it impact literacy?

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Dyslexia in numbers… 20% Estimated proportion of students thought to have some form / level of dyslexia. 18.8m Approximate number of adults in the UK who present with dyslexia-type difficulties. £1b n Predicted cost of undiagnosed dyslexia, and resulting lack of functional literacy and numeracy, to the UK economy in 2004. 75% Reported percentage of prisoners presenting with dyslexia-type difficulties.

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Wen you think of dyslexia, what worbs or frases imediateley sqring to mined? But is there + to  lexia than meets the  ? dys = an inherent difficulty (or difference ) with lexia = using written language / words

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What dyslexia ISN’T: “She kicks off every time we ask her to do homework. She tries every trick in the book to avoid writing. She’s lazy and you need to watch her…” “My Adam’s got the brain of a 5 year old…” “He would rather choose to chat and joke around with his friends than get on with his work.” “I just can’t learn…” “He wants to read aloud in class but he slows it down and it gets awkward… it’s not something he can cope with so I try and avoid it…”

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Part of a family of labels we use to describe identifiable difficulties in school. Dyspraxia Dyslexia Autistic Spectrum Disorder Dyscalculia ADD/ADHD Speech and Language MLD / SLD Irlen Syndrome What dyslexia IS:

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Behaviour Clusters of behaviours we see up front in the classroom. Psychology Underlying differences in the brain’s processes that we can speculate on. Biology Genetic-based differences in brain structure. What dyslexia IS: A complex condition rooted in neurobiology.

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Biology The Science of Dyslexia Orton-Gillingham method - dyslexia as specific difficulty. fMRI technology in the 1980s and 1990s. Wholesale differences in wiring of brains. Dyslexia as issue of neurodiversity. Observation of brain injury patients in 1920s. Correlation between dyslexia and right brain reliance. Commonality of dyslexia in family trees – genetics. ‘All the world’s a spectrum…’ [Accompanying Booklet - Page 2]

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R L The psychological implications of right-sided dominance and reliance: http://www.roblambert.com/2007/10/08/right-brain-vs-left-brain/ thinking in images holistic – seeing the whole picture but not the parts abstract thought - imagination and creativity emotional linking – making personal / intuitive links interpreting and inferring space conscious – focusing on size of task / end product artistic and musical skills thinking in words analytical – processing parts rather than whole concrete thought – an eye for detail - facts, figures etc. rational linking making sequential / cause and effect links calculating and recording time conscious – breaking a task down into steps, working to a schedule literacy and numeracy skills Psychology

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Psychology In dyslexic-type brains, activity is less apparent in the parts of the brain that process visual information such as letters and words. There is more activity in the front part of the brain which processes language. There is also research to suggest low working memory , especially the holding and transfer of language-based information across the brain, is not as efficient. dyslexic-type profile neuro-typical profile [Accompanying Booklet - Page 3 to 4] (requires activation of animation feature)

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Behaviours Clear discrepancies between intelligence and reading / writing skills (highlighted through testing). Is hesitant and laboured when reading but understands or reads at a reasonable rate but does not comprehend. ‘Randomly’ fails to recognise common words – omits, adds, repeats words when reading. Has a poor standard of written work compared with oral ability . Has specific handwriting difficulties – often slow and neat or fast and untidy. Has good ideas but cannot turn them into a organised, punctuated, fluent piece of writing. Has poor spelling – often appearing ‘random’ in approach i.e. no sounding out, simple words spelt wrong etc. Often uses high-level vocabulary in conversation. Does not respond readily to literacy programmes / explicit teaching of literacy. Often loses their place in reading or loses their ‘thread’ during writing, will often lose concentration and tire easily during literacy tasks. Can become hostile / avoidant during literacy tasks. Typical observable general behaviours… Struggles to remember facts, figures etc. - particularly when not linked to personal experiences. Finds many aspects of sequencing difficult - dates, mental arithmetic, formulae etc. Misreads or mishears instructions – particularly 2 or more part instructions. Appears disorganised and forgetful – will lose equipment, miss deadlines, has untidy uniform etc. ‘Switches off’ when spoken to for extended period of time. Often appears tired and lacking in concentration – particularly at end of morning / end of day. Confuses left and right – appears clumsy. Shows greater strengths in art, music, drama, design tech, food tech etc. …and typical observable behaviours related to literacy…

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Behaviours Or if you find all that writing too much… www.text2mindmap.com [Accompanying Booklet - Page 5]

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Kara Tointon: ‘Don't Call Me Stupid’ (BBC Documentary) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9DQFbQWyOdw What’s it like to have dyslexia?

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A new species of giant rat has been discovered deep in the jungle of Papua New Guinea. The rat, which has no fear of humans, measures 82cm long, placing it among the largest species of rat known anywhere in the world. The creature, which has not yet been formally described, was discovered by an expedition team filming the BBC programme Lost Land of the Volcano. It is one of a number of exotic animals found by the expedition team. Like the other exotic species, the rat is believed to live within the Mount Bosavi crater, and nowhere else. It is not tame but is unafraid of humans because it has lived in total isolation from them. "This is one of the world's largest rats. It is a true rat, the same kind you find in the city sewers," says Dr Kristofer Helgen, a mammalogist based at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History who accompanied the BBC expedition team. Initially, the giant rat was first captured on film by an infrared camera trap, which BBC wildlife cameraman Gordon Buchanan set up in the forest on the slopes of the volcano. Immediately, they suspected it could be a species never before recorded by science, but they needed to see a live animal to be sure. Then trackers accompanying the team managed to trap a live specimen. The trapped rat measured 82cm in length from its nose to its tail, and weighed approximately 1.5kg. It had a silver-brown coat of thick long fur, which the scientists who examined it believe may help it survive the wet and cold conditions that can occur within the high volcano crater. The location where the rat was discovered lies at an elevation of over 1,000m. Initial investigations suggest the rat belongs to the genus Mallomys, which contains a handful of other out-sized species. It has provisionally been called the Bosavi woolly rat, while its scientific name has yet to be agreed. Task - “Quietly read through the text and then we’ll answer some questions…” [Accompanying Booklet - Page 6]

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A new species of giant rat has been discovered deep in the jungle of Papua New Guinea. The rat, which has no fear of humans, measures 82cm long, placing it among the largest species of rat known anywhere in the world. The creature, which has not yet been formally described, was discovered by an expedition team filming the BBC programme Lost Land of the Volcano. It is one of a number of exotic animals found by the expedition team. Like the other exotic species, the rat is believed to live within the Mount Bosavi crater, and nowhere else. It is not tame but is unafraid of humans because it has lived in total isolation from them. "This is one of the world's largest rats. It is a true rat, the same kind you find in the city sewers," says Dr Kristofer Helgen, a mammalogist based at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History who accompanied the BBC expedition team. Initially, the giant rat was first captured on film by an infrared camera trap, which BBC wildlife cameraman Gordon Buchanan set up in the forest on the slopes of the volcano. Immediately, they suspected it could be a species never before recorded by science, but they needed to see a live animal to be sure. Then trackers accompanying the team managed to trap a live specimen. The trapped rat measured 82cm in length from its nose to its tail, and weighed approximately 1.5kg. It had a silver-brown coat of thick long fur, which the scientists who examined it believe may help it survive the wet and cold conditions that can occur within the high volcano crater. The location where the rat was discovered lies at an elevation of over 1,000m. Initial investigations suggest the rat belongs to the genus Mallomys, which contains a handful of other out-sized species. It has provisionally been called the Bosavi woolly rat, while its scientific name has yet to be agreed. What if your brain struggles to focus on and process detailed patterns? (requires activation of animation feature)

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A new species of giant rat has been discovered deep in the jungle of Papua New Guinea. The rat, which has no fear of humans, measures 82cm long, playing it among the largest species of rat known anytime in the world. The creature, which has not yet been found out described, was discovered by an expedition team filming the BBC programme Lost Land of the Volcano. It is one of a number of exciting animals found by the expedition team. Like the other extinct species, the rat is believed to live within the Mount Bosavi crater, and now here else. It is not tame but is unafraid of humans because it has lived in total isolation from them. "This is one of the world's largest rats. It is a true rat, the same kind you find in the city sewers," says Dr Kristofer Helgen, a mammalogist based at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History who accepted the BBC expedition team. Initially, the giant rat was first captured on film by an inferno camera trap, which BBC wildlife cameraman Gordon Buchanan set up in the forest on the sloppy of the volcano. Immediately, they surprised it could be a species never before recorded by science, but they needed to see a live animal to be sure. Then trackers accompanying the team managed to trap a live specialist . The trapped rat measured 82cm in length from its nose to its tail, and weighed approximately 1.5kg. It had a silver-brown coat of thick long fur, which the scientists who extremely it believe may help it survive the wet and cold conditions that can occur within the high volcano crater. The location where the rat was disrupted lies at an elevation of over 1,000m. Inside investigations suggest the rat belongs to the genus Mallomys, which contains a handful of other out-sized specimens. It has provided been called the Bosavi woolly rat, while its scientist name has yet to be agreed. What if you over-rely on sight vocabulary - tending to miscue words and skip uncommon words to keep up?

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What if you just find reading laboured and tiring? A new species of giant rat has been discovered deep in the jungle of Papua New Guinea. The rat, which has no fear of humans, measures 82cm long, placing it among the largest species of rat known anywhere in the world. The creature, which has not yet been formally described, was discovered by an expedition team filming the BBC programme Lost Land of the Volcano. It is one of a number of exotic animals found by the expedition team. Like the other exotic species, the rat is believed to live within the Mount Bosavi crater, and nowhere else. It is not tame but is unafraid of humans because it has lived in total isolation from them. "This is one of the world's largest rats. It is a true rat, the same kind you find in the city sewers," says Dr Kristofer Helgen , a mammalogist based at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History who accompanied the BBC expedition team. Initially, the giant rat was first captured on film by an infrared camera trap, which BBC wildlife cameraman Gordon Buchanan set up in the forest on the slopes of the volcano. Immediately, they suspected it could be a species never before recorded by science, but they needed to see a live animal to be sure. Then trackers accompanying the team managed to trap a live specimen. The trapped rat measured 82cm in length from its nose to its tail, and weighed approximately 1.5kg. It had a silver-brown coat of thick long fur, which the scientists who examined it believe may help it survive the wet and cold conditions that can occur within the high volcano crater. The location where the rat was discovered lies at an elevation of over 1,000m. Initial investigations suggest the rat belongs to the genus Mallomys , which contains a handful of other out-sized species. It has provisionally been called the Bosavi woolly rat, while its scientific name has yet to be agreed. (requires activation of animation feature)

PowerPoint Presentation:

A new species of giant rat has been discovered deep in the jungle of Papua New Guinea. The rat, which has no fear of humans, measures 82cm long, placing it among the largest species of rat known anywhere in the world. The creature, which has not yet been formally described, was discovered by an expedition team filming the BBC programme Lost Land of the Volcano. It is one of a number of exotic animals found by the expedition team. Like the other exotic species, the rat is believed to live within the Mount Bosavi crater, and nowhere else. It is not tame but is unafraid of humans because it has lived in total isolation from them. "This is one of the world's largest rats. It is a true rat, the same kind you find in the city sewers," says Dr Kristofer Helgen, a mammalogist based at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History who accompanied the BBC expedition team. Initially, the giant rat was first captured on film by an infrared camera trap, which BBC wildlife cameraman Gordon Buchanan set up in the forest on the slopes of the volcano. Immediately, they suspected it could be a species never before recorded by science, but they needed to see a live animal to be sure. Then trackers accompanying the team managed to trap a live specimen. The trapped rat measured 82cm in length from its nose to its tail, and weighed approximately 1.5kg. It had a silver-brown coat of thick long fur, which the scientists who examined it believe may help it survive the wet and cold conditions that can occur within the high volcano crater. The location where the rat was discovered lies at an elevation of over 1,000m. Initial investigations suggest the rat belongs to the genus Mallomys, which contains a handful of other out-sized species. It has provisionally been called the Bosavi woolly rat, while its scientific name has yet to be agreed. What if you struggle to remember detailed verbal information? (requires activation of animation feature)

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Using full sentences, answer the following. What does the new species look like? Where was it discovered? Who discovered it? Why was it not discovered until now? Is the new species a danger to humans? What name has been given to the new species? What if it takes you extra time to read and understand the questions? What if your handwriting is laboured and slow? What if you struggle to spell common words? What if you struggle to follow a sequence of instructions?

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Using full sentenced, answer the following. 1. What does the new specis look like¿ 2. Where was it discoveried ? 5. Is the news species a danger to humans! 3. How was it discovried it¿ 4. Why was it not discovered until now¿ 6. What name has been gived to the news species ? The Rules… Write with your non-writing hand. Do not use any punctuation. Count to five before writing any words of more than two syllables. Ext! Count to three before writing ‘p’, ‘q’, ‘d’ and ‘b’. [Accompanying Booklet - Page 7]

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How can you spot dyslexic tendencies ? What can we do about it?

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observe assess for discrepancies get second opinion act! Spotting dyslexic tendencies… Remember! A label is only useful if it points to a way forward! [Accompanying Booklet - Page 8]

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Observing with purpose… [Accompanying Booklet - Page 9]

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Name English NC Level Reading Comp. SS Reading Decoding AE Spelling AE Ability-based SS 1. Kevin Banner Secure 4 94 10:05 11:10 93 2. Billy Carr Secure 3 89 10:06> 08:09 91 3. Kieran Darlington Low 4 95 10:06> 06:10 99 4. Jaime Qualu Low 4 84 10:06> 13:10 102 5. Taylor Mount High 3 90 09:11 10:09 89 6. Ola McNally High 3 96 10:06> 11:00 105 7. David Norris Low 2 <70 7:04 <5:00 79 8. Quentin Nwotru Secure 2 81 09:05 07:07 93 9. Edward Morley Secure 3 93 10:02 09:10 90 10. Thomas Percy Low 5 118 10:06> 13:10 113 11. Maddy Prestwich Low 3 90 09:06 09:00 94 12. Nicholas Peters Secure 4 105 10:06> 10:02 101 Identifying discrepancies - aka ‘spiked profiles’ i.e. Non-Reading Intelligence Tests [Accompanying Booklet - Page 10]

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Orton-Gillingham Principles of Literacy Teaching  Targeted     Multi-Sensory  Structured – with Overlearning   Emotionally Sound

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Speech & Language Phonics Reading Decoding Spelling Reading Comprehension & Extended Writing Prerequisites – eyesight, hearing, attachment, reasoning, sequencing, memory, motor skills Dyslexia or?

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Dyslexia Friendly Classroom Principles: Students with dyslexic tendencies may not be built for a ‘print culture’ but are nevertheless built for a ‘learning culture’ – their difficulties with learning in our classroom culture are not their fault or due to choice. Our responses should not be focused on a ‘cure’ but on helping them cope . Students with dyslexic tendencies learn differently – they typically have strengths and weakness related to their condition. Our responses should focus on playing them to their strengths and helping them succeed . Students with dyslexic tendencies often have a history of failure and often have great untapped potential – particularly with regards to creativity. An integral part of the ‘dyslexic-friendly package’ is building self-esteem . How does this look in practice? [Accompanying Booklet - Page 11 to 15]

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[Accompanying Booklet - Page 11 to 15]

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Giant Rat Discovered – Lost Land of the Volcano (BBC Documentary) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3uP-kOPirdg Getting the balance right – reading practise vs. engaging & understanding

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What are the other experiences of dyslexia? What can we learn from them?

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The Dyslexic Advantage ‘big picture thinking’  creativity, 3D / multi-dimensional design ‘connecting the dots’  inference, deduction, linking concepts ‘experiential learning’  presenting concepts through story / drama ‘on the hop thinking’  coping in dynamic environments [Google  “ Wired Magazine – Dyslexia Benefits ”]

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Dyslexia and Talent - What You May Not Have Heard About Dyslexia http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xyab_VSBCAk

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Copyright , Matt Grant, 2013 All rights reserved. Permission to present this material and distribute freely for non-commercial purposes is granted, provided this copyright notice and those in the slides remain intact and is included in the distribution. If you modify this work, please note where you have modified it, as I want neither credit nor responsibility for your work. Modification for the purpose of taking credit for my work or otherwise circumventing the spirit of this license is not allowed, and will be considered a copyright violation. Any suggestions and corrections are appreciated and may be incorporated into future versions of this work, and credited as appropriate. If you believe I have infringed copyright, please contact me via the above website and I will promptly credit , amend or remove the material in question. For further resources or to contact the author, please visit: www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk

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