Dyslexia Friendly Classrooms

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A guide to dyslexia and how schools can respond to ensure the needs of students with the condition are met. For more: www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk

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Dyslexia-Friendly Classrooms Teaching the ‘Can’t Reads, Won’t Writes’ © Matt Grant, 2012 www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk

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What is Dyslexia? Terminology dys = an inherent difficulty (or difference) with lexia = using written language / words Dyslexic → Dyslexic Tendencies or Dyslexia-Type Difficulties © Matt Grant, 2012 www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk

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What is Dyslexia? Part of a family of specific learning difficulties. Dyspraxia Dyslexia Autistic Spectrum Disorder Dyscalculia ADD/ADHD Speech and Language MLD / SLD Irlen Syndrome © Matt Grant, 2012 www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk

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Behaviour Clusters of behaviours we see up front in the classroom. Psychology Underlying differences in the brain’s processes that we can speculate on. Biology Genetic-based differences in brain structure. What do we mean by ‘identifiable learning difficulties’? What is Dyslexia? © Matt Grant, 2012 www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk

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Biology Genetic-based differences in brain structure. http://www.sciencephoto.com/images/download_lo_res.html?id=773600261 Post-mortems and brain scans highlight structural differences in people with dyslexia. Scans show people with dyslexia typically tend to rely on the right side of the brain. Some post-mortem research suggests people with dyslexia may have a larger right side of their brain. This difference derives primarily from genetics – therefore a key test for dyslexia is to look if there is a family history of literacy difficulties. Brain injury can also be a cause of dyslexia, although less common. Brain activity during reading. MAJORITY DYSLEXIC R R L L © Matt Grant, 2012 www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk

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R L The psychological implications of right-sided dominance and reliance: http://www.roblambert.com/2007/10/08/right-brain-vs-left-brain/ thinking in images holistic – seeing the whole picture but not the parts abstract thought - imagination and creativity emotional linking – making personal / intuitive links interpreting and inferring space conscious – focusing on size of task / end product artistic and musical skills thinking in words analytical – processing parts rather than whole concrete thought – an eye for detail - facts, figures etc. rational linking making sequential / cause and effect links calculating and recording time conscious – breaking a task down into steps, working to a schedule literacy and numeracy skills Psychology Underlying differences in the brain’s processes. © Matt Grant, 2012 www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk

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Behaviours Clusters of behaviours we see up front in the classroom. Clear discrepancies between intelligence and reading / writing skills (highlighted through testing). Is hesitant and laboured when reading but understands or reads at a reasonable rate but does not comprehend. ‘Randomly’ fails to recognise common words – omits, adds, repeats words when reading. Has a poor standard of written work compared with oral ability . Has specific handwriting difficulties – often slow and neat or fast and untidy. Has good ideas but cannot turn them into a organised, punctuated, fluent piece of writing. Has poor spelling – often appearing ‘random’ in approach i.e. no sounding out, simple words spelt wrong etc. Often uses high-level vocabulary in conversation. Does not respond readily to literacy programmes / explicit teaching of literacy. Often loses their place in reading or loses their ‘thread’ during writing, will often lose concentration and tire easily during literacy tasks. Can become hostile / avoidant during literacy tasks. Typically in relation to literacy: Typically in general: Struggles to remember facts, figures etc. - particularly when not linked to personal experiences. Finds many aspects of sequencing difficult - dates, mental arithmetic, formulae etc. Misreads or mishears instructions – particularly 2 or more part instructions. Appears disorganised and forgetful – will lose equipment, miss deadlines, has untidy uniform etc. ‘Switches off’ when spoken to for extended period of time. Often appears tired and lacking in concentration – particularly at end of morning / end of day. Confuses left and right – appears clumsy. Shows greater strengths in art, music, drama, design tech, food tech etc. © Matt Grant, 2012 www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk

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A new species of giant rat has been discovered deep in the jungle of Papua New Guinea. The rat, which has no fear of humans, measures 82cm long, placing it among the largest species of rat known anywhere in the world. The creature, which has not yet been formally described, was discovered by an expedition team filming the BBC programme Lost Land of the Volcano. It is one of a number of exotic animals found by the expedition team. Like the other exotic species, the rat is believed to live within the Mount Bosavi crater, and nowhere else. It is not tame but is unafraid of humans because it has lived in total isolation from them. "This is one of the world's largest rats. It is a true rat, the same kind you find in the city sewers," says Dr Kristofer Helgen, a mammalogist based at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History who accompanied the BBC expedition team. Initially, the giant rat was first captured on film by an infrared camera trap, which BBC wildlife cameraman Gordon Buchanan set up in the forest on the slopes of the volcano. Immediately, they suspected it could be a species never before recorded by science, but they needed to see a live animal to be sure. Then trackers accompanying the team managed to trap a live specimen. The trapped rat measured 82cm in length from its nose to its tail, and weighed approximately 1.5kg. It had a silver-brown coat of thick long fur, which the scientists who examined it believe may help it survive the wet and cold conditions that can occur within the high volcano crater. The location where the rat was discovered lies at an elevation of over 1,000m. Initial investigations suggest the rat belongs to the genus Mallomys, which contains a handful of other out-sized species. It has provisionally been called the Bosavi woolly rat, while its scientific name has yet to be agreed. Task - “Quietly read through the text and then we’ll answer some questions…” © Matt Grant, 2012 www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk

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A new species of giant rat has been discovered deep in the jungle of Papua New Guinea. The rat, which has no fear of humans, measures 82cm long, placing it among the largest species of rat known anywhere in the world. The creature, which has not yet been formally described, was discovered by an expedition team filming the BBC programme Lost Land of the Volcano. It is one of a number of exotic animals found by the expedition team. Like the other exotic species, the rat is believed to live within the Mount Bosavi crater, and nowhere else. It is not tame but is unafraid of humans because it has lived in total isolation from them. "This is one of the world's largest rats. It is a true rat, the same kind you find in the city sewers," says Dr Kristofer Helgen, a mammalogist based at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History who accompanied the BBC expedition team. Initially, the giant rat was first captured on film by an infrared camera trap, which BBC wildlife cameraman Gordon Buchanan set up in the forest on the slopes of the volcano. Immediately, they suspected it could be a species never before recorded by science, but they needed to see a live animal to be sure. Then trackers accompanying the team managed to trap a live specimen. The trapped rat measured 82cm in length from its nose to its tail, and weighed approximately 1.5kg. It had a silver-brown coat of thick long fur, which the scientists who examined it believe may help it survive the wet and cold conditions that can occur within the high volcano crater. The location where the rat was discovered lies at an elevation of over 1,000m. Initial investigations suggest the rat belongs to the genus Mallomys, which contains a handful of other out-sized species. It has provisionally been called the Bosavi woolly rat, while its scientific name has yet to be agreed. What if your brain struggles to focus on and process detailed patterns? © Matt Grant, 2012 www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk

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A new sqecies of giant rat has deen biscovered beeq ui the jungle of Paqua New Gniuea. The rat, which has no fear of hnmans, weasures 28cm long, qlacing it among the largest species of rat known anywhere in the world. The creature, which has not yet beeu formally bescripeb, was biscovered by an exqedition team filming the BBC qrogramme Lost Land of the Volcano. It is one of a mumber of exotic amimals found by the exqebition team. Like the other exotic species, the rat is believed ot live within the Mount 8osavi crater, and mowhere else. It is not tame but is unafraid of humans because it has lived in total isolation frow them. "This is oue of the world's Iargest rats. It is a true rat, the same kind you find in the city sewers," says Dr Kristofer Helgen, a mammalogist based ta the Swithsonian National Nuseum of Natural History who accompanied the BBC expedition team. InitiaIIy, the giant rat was first caqtured on film by an infrared camera traq, which BBC wildlife cameraman Gorbon Buchauan set up in the forest on the sloqes of the volcano. Immebiately, they suspected it could ed a sqecies never before recorbed by science, tub they needed to see a live aniwal to be sure. Then trackers accowpanying the team mana 8 ed to trap a live specimen. The traqqeb tar measured 58cm in length from its nose to its tail, and weighed aqqroximately 1.2kg. It had a silver-bromn coat of thick long fur, which the scientists who examined it believe may help it survive the wet and cold couditions that can occur withiu the high volcano crater. The location where the rat saw discovered lies at au eleuation of over 1,000m. InitiaI investigations suggest the rat belongs to the geuns Mallomys, which coutains a handful of other ont-sized sqecies. It has provisionally been called the Bosavi woolly rat, while its scieutific n6me has yet to be agreed. What if you experience directional confusion? What if you reverse letter symbols and whole words? © Matt Grant, 2012 www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk

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What if you rely on sight vocabulary - tending to miscue and skip uncommon words to keep up? © Matt Grant, 2012 www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk

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What if you find reading laboured and tiring? A new species of giant rat has been discovered deep in the jungle of Papua New Guinea. The rat, which has no fear of humans, measures 82cm long, placing it among the largest species of rat known anywhere in the world. The creature, which has not yet been formally described, was discovered by an expedition team filming the BBC programme Lost Land of the Volcano. It is one of a number of exotic animals found by the expedition team. Like the other exotic species, the rat is believed to live within the Mount Bosavi crater, and nowhere else. It is not tame but is unafraid of humans because it has lived in total isolation from them. "This is one of the world's largest rats. It is a true rat, the same kind you find in the city sewers," says Dr Kristofer Helgen, a mammalogist based at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History who accompanied the BBC expedition team. Initially, the giant rat was first captured on film by an infrared camera trap, which BBC wildlife cameraman Gordon Buchanan set up in the forest on the slopes of the volcano. Immediately, they suspected it could be a species never before recorded by science, but they needed to see a live animal to be sure. Then trackers accompanying the team managed to trap a live specimen. The trapped rat measured 82cm in length from its nose to its tail, and weighed approximately 1.5kg. It had a silver-brown coat of thick long fur, which the scientists who examined it believe may help it survive the wet and cold conditions that can occur within the high volcano crater. The location where the rat was discovered lies at an elevation of over 1,000m. Initial investigations suggest the rat belongs to the genus Mallomys, which contains a handful of other out-sized species. It has provisionally been called the Bosavi woolly rat, while its scientific name has yet to be agreed. © Matt Grant, 2012 www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk

PowerPoint Presentation:

A new species of giant rat has been discovered deep in the jungle of Papua New Guinea. The rat, which has no fear of humans, measures 82cm long, placing it among the largest species of rat known anywhere in the world. The creature, which has not yet been formally described, was discovered by an expedition team filming the BBC programme Lost Land of the Volcano. It is one of a number of exotic animals found by the expedition team. Like the other exotic species, the rat is believed to live within the Mount Bosavi crater, and nowhere else. It is not tame but is unafraid of humans because it has lived in total isolation from them. "This is one of the world's largest rats. It is a true rat, the same kind you find in the city sewers," says Dr Kristofer Helgen, a mammalogist based at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History who accompanied the BBC expedition team. Initially, the giant rat was first captured on film by an infrared camera trap, which BBC wildlife cameraman Gordon Buchanan set up in the forest on the slopes of the volcano. Immediately, they suspected it could be a species never before recorded by science, but they needed to see a live animal to be sure. Then trackers accompanying the team managed to trap a live specimen. The trapped rat measured 82cm in length from its nose to its tail, and weighed approximately 1.5kg. It had a silver-brown coat of thick long fur, which the scientists who examined it believe may help it survive the wet and cold conditions that can occur within the high volcano crater. The location where the rat was discovered lies at an elevation of over 1,000m. Initial investigations suggest the rat belongs to the genus Mallomys, which contains a handful of other out-sized species. It has provisionally been called the Bosavi woolly rat, while its scientific name has yet to be agreed. What if you struggle to remember detailed verbal information? © Matt Grant, 2012 www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk

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Using full sentences, answer the following. What does the new species look like? Where was it discovered? Who discovered it? Why was it not discovered until now? Is the new species a danger to humans? What name has been given to the new species? What if it takes you extra time to read and understand the questions? What if your handwriting is laboured and slow? What if you struggle to spell common words? What if you struggle to follow a sequence of instructions? © Matt Grant, 2012 www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk

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Using full sentenced, answer the following. 1. What does the new specis look like¿ 2. Where was it discoveried ? 5. Is the news species a danger to humans! 3. How was it discovried it¿ 4. Why was it not discovered until now¿ 6. What name has been gived to the news species ? The Rules… Write with your non-writing hand. Do not use any punctuation. Do not use any words over three syllables. Count to five before writing any two-syllable words. Count to three before writing ‘p’, ‘q’, ‘d’ and ‘b’. © Matt Grant, 2012 www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk

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Dyslexia-Friendly Classrooms Key Principles  Students with dyslexic tendencies may not be built for a ‘print culture’ but are nevertheless built for a ‘learning culture’ – their difficulties with learning in our classroom culture are not their fault. Our responses should not be focused on a ‘cure’ but on helping them cope .  Students with dyslexic tendencies learn differently – they typically have strengths and weakness related to their condition. Our responses should focus on playing them to their strengths and helping them succeed .  Students with dyslexic tendencies often have a history of failure and often have great untapped potential – particularly with regards to creativity. An integral part of the ‘dyslexic-friendly package’ is building self-esteem . © Matt Grant, 2012 www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk

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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l_qGJ9svUbM&feature=player_embedded © Matt Grant, 2012 www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk

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Copyright , Matt Grant, 2012 All rights reserved. Permission to present this material and distribute freely for non-commercial purposes is granted, provided this copyright notice and those in the slides remain intact and is included in the distribution. If you modify this work, please note where you have modified it, as I want neither credit nor responsibility for your work. Modification for the purpose of taking credit for my work or otherwise circumventing the spirit of this license is not allowed, and will be considered a copyright violation. Any suggestions and corrections are appreciated and may be incorporated into future versions of this work, and credited as appropriate. If you believe I have infringed copyright, please contact me via the above website and I will promptly credit , amend or remove the material in question. For further resources or to contact the author, please visit: www.HumansNotRobots.co.uk

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