Slide1: Ensuring Continuous Employability and Workplace Competency in the Knowledge Economy Slide2: Knowledge-Economy Both World Bank and OECD define knowledge economy as one where organizations and people acquire, create, disseminate, and use knowledge more effectively for greater economic and social development. Slide3: Knowledge-Economy Advances in technology are fuelling growth in the knowledge economy. K-economy requires enabling policies, clear goals and investments in the knowledge infrastructure. Knowledge is the critical factor for competitive advantage in the K-economy. Slide4: Knowledge Infrastructure A sound education system; A research and development system (R&D); A strong intellectual property (IP) regime; A technology transfer system (R&D to Market); A critical mass of innovative firms and entrepreneurs (knowledge to marketable goods); A financial system (high-risk venture capital); An ICT enabled ecosystem (ensure knowledge flow). Slide5: The Enabling Environment National Innovation System (NIS) and National Innovation Council (NIC). National Information Technology Agenda (NITA) and National IT Council (NITC). Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) Programmes. National Strategic Framework for bridging the digital-value divide (e-Inclusion ) for the benefit of under-served sections of society in Malaysia. ( 9th Malaysia Plan ) Malaysian Qualification Framework & Agency. Slide6: A True Cybercity True cybercities have set public policy goals to empower their citizens to have access to the global information network and are using public/private partnerships to achieve these goals. A cybercity by definition implies that social and economic progress of communities is mainly achieved through the advancement and application of knowledge. e-SERVICES: e-Government, e-Business, e-Learning, e-Living Slide7: Learning Goals in a Cybercity In a cybercity, two different but related learning goals are to be achieved: The education system in the city should support efforts to individualize learning for every citizen;
To engage the learners in collaborative, rather than solely competitive learning. Slide8: Competencies at the Workplace OECD classified competencies into three broad categories:
Use tools interactively (e.g. language, technology);
Interact in heterogeneous groups;
Act autonomously Key “workplace competencies” include communication skills, problem-solving skills, the ability to work in teams, & ICT skills. Slide9: Revan’s axiom: Learning > Change
“For organizations to survive and grow, their rate of learning must be equal to, or greater than the rate of change in their environment.” Rapidly Changing Work Environment The more change that is going on, the greater the need to get learning attitudes and structures right. This learning process is probably the key challenge for all organizations in the K-economy. Slide10: Profile of a Knowledge Worker Knowledge workers need to be able to: Balance work, learning and knowing;
Carry out R&D work;
Rapidly acquiring new skills regularly;
Apply existing skills and knowledge to solve new problems using their pattern recognition skills;
Maintain a balance between productivity and creativity;
Collaborate in both face-to-face and virtual environments. Slide11: Knowledge Obsolescence Degree level knowledge in the ‘useful’ disciplines has a half-life of just a few years; New knowledge and new technologies make much of what we learned obsolete very soon; Human knowledge is now doubling every few years and is accelerating; In such an environment, we must not stop learning when we leave school, we must learn throughout life – or become unemployable. Slide12: e-Learning in the Cybercity “a concept where learners would learn completely within an online environment, with learning centers that are wired to the hilt as the central hubs.” Gooler, D. and C. Stegman (1994) A Scenario of Education in Cyber City. Paper presented to Japan-United States Teacher Education Consortium (JUSTEC). Slide13: The Learning Markets in K-Economy The Academic Market “The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read or write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn and relearn.” - Alvin Toffler The Corporate Market The Consumer Market
Life-long Learning Slide14: High Low Medium TIME Effective Delivery Cost Evolution of Technology-Based Learning Source: Morgan Keegan (2000) eLearning – the Engine of the Knowledge Economy Early Phase 1997-99 Intermediate Phase 2000-03 Learning-on-Demand Phase 2004-08 Non-Networked Networked Transition COST Slide15: Internet & Digital-Based Learning Slide16: Phase 1 and Phase 2 Slide17: High quality learning content, created & delivered at low cost;
Tracked network learning;
Correlation of learning to individual and enterprise performance;
Easy to use sophisticated interactivity technologies;
Wide acceptance of object-based content standards;
Easy availability of learning modules on the Web;
Thriving electronic commerce in learning and training contents. Phase 3 (2004-08) Full Learning-on-Demand Capability Slide18: Where are we today? Learning opportunities on the Web have gone beyond the dull “read-and-click-to-next-page” style; Content creators have access to more sophisticated multimedia authoring and publishing tools; Learning management systems (LMS) can track, manage and tie together an entire enterprise-wide programme of learning. Content management tools are able to create highly customized courses to suit learners; Slide19: Benefits of e-Learning Customizability (to suit learner) e-Learning focuses primarily on the needs of the learner, instead of on the abilities of the instructor. Interactive (with other learners & instructors) Just-in-Time (anytime & anywhere versus classroom-based learning sessions) Current (access to up-to-date material) User-centric (learner > instructor) Slide20: Transition of Web from a tool of reference (Web 1.0) to one of collaboration (Web 2.0) offers teachers and learners with rich opportunities for e-Learning; Web 2.0 seems to have a great potential for enhancing learning and performance through access to knowledge and collaboration. e-Learning 2.0 provides a more holistic & user-centered approach towards learning; Yeona Jang (2007) How new Web technology can shape e-Learning. In 2nd e-ASEM Global Technology in e-Learning, Seoul, Korea. Web 2.0 and e-Learning 2.0 Slide21: PhD Masters Bachelor Diploma STPM SPM & PMR PhD Masters Bachelor Diploma STPM SPM & PMR MULTI-ENTRY AND MULTI-EXIT LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES Prior Learning Assessment ENTRY [ Concept of Advanced Standing ] Making education flexible, accessible & affordable Slide22: STATE GOVERNMENT TEACHING INSTITUTIONS LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS Fostering Strategic Partnerships HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT KNOWLEDGE CREATION STRATEGIES Main Focal Point: The Learner Slide23: We have to put in place an enabling framework that encourages post secondary education to be more innovative and more responsive to the needs of a globally competitive knowledge economy and to the changing labour market requirements for skilled human capital. Continuous enhancement of knowledge and its application requires the State-active engagement in preparing citizens for the workplace as well as supporting citizens already in the workplace. Joint Responsibilities Slide24: The transformation of modes of delivery of education and training and the organizational patterns of post-secondary institutions requires a major shifting of the paradigm as a consequence of the ICT revolution. The paradigm shift not only involves the mode of delivery but also the curriculum. Educational and retraining provisions for the K-workforce would require a new kind of teaching institution that recognizes a new demand and a totally new delivery culture. New Kind of Teaching Institution Slide25: New Kind of Teaching Institution Such teaching institutions will need the capacity to discern trends in the education and training landscape and adjust its delivery patterns accordingly. They will need to develop curriculum through forward-thinking policies and adaptable administrative structures. The management of re-inventing our institutions of post-secondary teaching is a crucial business skill and a pivotal driver for enabling high quality capability development initiatives. Slide26: Organizations are undertaking paradigm shifts in four areas: The services they deliver;
The results they strive to achieve;
The organizational structure they operate within;
The workforce and body of development practitioners they seek to develop. Slide27: The Learning Organization Bring knowledge to the workplace (facilitate on-demand learning by each individual worker); * EPSS = Electronic Performance Support System Support performance with better help systems and other tools that enable people to achieve workplace competencies and higher levels of performance (e.g. EPSS*) with less “formal” learning; Create virtual communities in which collaboration and knowledge–sharing thrives. Make access to information and expertise within easy reach. Slide28: Change Management: Levels of Commitment
(Patterson-Conner Model) Time Installation Adoption Institutionalization Understanding Awareness Contact Commitment Phase Acceptance Phase Preparation Phase Slide29: Six Messages from Fullan about Change If people cannot find meaning in any reform it cannot have an impact.
Existing strategies will not get us to where we want to go.
Although short-term gains can be achieved by standards-based reform it is deadly if the conclusion is that organizations should do more of the same.
The ‘learning organization/community’ is more than a cliché. It has to be actively pursued.
We need to consider the collective good.
We have to learn to live with change. Slide30: Competitive Advantages Essential Conditions Sustainable Enterprises Making It Happen In the K-Economy Slide31: For our nation and States to be competitive in today’s fast changing economic environment, they must put in much effort and resources in re-training, re-skilling and re-schooling the workforce. Parting Shots Unless efforts, resources and policies are in place for the adult workforce of K-economies to upgrade their educational levels and skills, there is every danger of obsolescence and dysfunctionality creeping in. Then K-economy, like most other kinds of economies, will have a limited shelf life. Slide32: Thank You