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See all Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide1: Global Warming 15 July 2010 by Prof. Dato’ Dr. Ho Sinn Chye Assistant Vice-Chancellor (Academic Support) What does it mean to me?Slide2: GLOBALIZATION OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH SEE, OBSERVE, MEASURE AND MODEL TO UNDERSTAND AND FORECAST OUR OCEAN IN ALL ITS MOODSSlide3: THE DIGITAL AGE OF OCEAN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Remote SensingSlide4: Does “global warming” mean the same as “climate change”? Five basic questions What are the causes and impacts of global warming? What will happen to our world if global warming was allowed to continue? What choices do we have for responding to the impacts of global warming? What can we do to slow global warning?Slide5: Does “global warming” mean the same as “climate change”? Question 1Slide6: Definitions: Global warming – An overall warming of our planet Earth, based on average temperature over the entire surface of the Earth. Climate change – Changes in regional climate characteristics, including amount of sunshine, temperature, humidity, rainfall, air pressure, wind, and severe weather events. (Note: Climate change can also mean global cooling, which ended 10,000 years ago during the last Ice Age.)Slide7: There’s also a difference between weather and climate. Weather is the mix of events that happen each day in our atmosphere including temperature, atmospheric pressure, rainfall and humidity. Climate is the average weather pattern in a place over many years, usually 30 years.Slide8: Sun drives our climate system Sunlight brings energy to Earth. Most of this energy is absorbed by the oceans and land. Source: "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth%27s_energy_budget"Slide9: The Climate System Source: Image from Dave Briggs, Met Office, Hadley Centre, UK (simplified diagramme)Slide10: Green-House Gas Effect Figure from Koshland Science Museum (US) website. Global warming is caused mainly by carbon dioxide from burning coal, oil and gas. Higher concentrations of CO2 and other human produced greenhouse gases such as methane, the halocarbons (CFCs), nitrous oxide, and ozone trap more infrared energy in the atmosphere than occurs naturally.Slide11: Earth’s average temperature has risen about 0.6ºC in the past 100 years and has been projected to increase by 1.1º to 6.4ºC by the year 2100. Global Temperature Rise Source: Graph from http://globalwarmingart.com.Slide12: How do scientists study how warm planet Earth is?Slide13: Global Sea Surface Temperature The satellite measurement is made by sensing the ocean radiation in two or more wavelengths in the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. (measured from an orbiting satellite)Slide14: Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) How do we measure the ocean temperature at greater depths?Slide15: Global Temperature Highlights The world wide ocean surface temperature was the highest for any March on record, 0.56ºC above the 20th century average of 15.9ºC. The global land surface temperature was 1.36ºC above the 20th century average of 5.0ºC (the fourth warmest on record). The combined global land and ocean average surface temperature for March 2010 was the warmest on record at 13.5ºC, which is 0.77ºC above the 20th century average of 12.7ºC. Source: NOAA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA) (March 2010)Slide16: What are the causes and impacts of global warming? Question 2Slide17: Global Warming Climate Change Life on Earth Slide18: Causes of Climate Change a) Natural causes b) Man-made causesSlide19: Volcanic eruptions - Volcanic dust acts as a shield to solar radiation and causes cooling in the atmosphere. Natural Causes Sunspots - Changes in the Earth's solar radiation levels can have impact on the Earth's climate. Increased solar activity can cause short-term warming cycles on the Earth. Earth’s orbital variations - As the Earth spins, it does not achieve perfect rotation. Such variations exposes the northern and southern latitudes to more and less solar radiation. This behaviour has been causing changes in the temperature of the atmosphere for many millions of years.Slide20: Yes, and our activities presents serious challenges to all of us on this planet. Common factors include: Are human activities the major cause of recent warming? Man-made Causes Fossil fuel burning Deforestation Forest fires Air pollution Slide21: Great Ocean Conveyor Belt Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), USA Slide22: Increases in world temperatures Melting of the north and south poles (sea-ice) Melting snow and ice-caps on mountains Sea level rises (affecting coastal populations) Ocean acidification due to dissolved CO2 excess Some regions become warmer and dryer (El Niño), other regions become colder and wetter (La Niña) Changes in plant and animal life when ecological conditions are altered (e.g. coral bleaching) Impacts of global warmingSlide23: coastal populations (sea level rise, coastal erosion, climate refugees) water resources (supply, quality) traditional cultures (natives, livestock) health and diseases (pollution, malaria) agriculture (crop yield, irrigation) natural habitats (loss of biodiversity) Socio-economic ImpactsSlide24: Evidence of sea-level rise Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)Slide25: Global Sea Level Rise Sea level has already risen due to warming and is projected to rise much more with increasing rise in global temperature.Slide26: Earth cannot do without its oceans! Neither can we! Oceans store heat. They play important role in the climate system by regulating the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. More than 30% of man-made carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions will eventually be absorbed naturally by the oceans. Like terrestrial plants, marine plants too play an important role in natural carbon sequestration. One side effect of global warming is ocean acidification which affects marine life.Slide27: Global Carbon CycleSlide28: OCEAN – ATMOSPHERE INTERACTIONS Source: World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), WMO, ICSU, IOC, 2005 OCEAN ATMOSPHERESlide29: Ocean Acidification Source: Image from publication of University of Maryland, USASlide30: What is carbon sequestration? Carbon sequestration – The removal and storage of carbon from the atmosphere in carbon sinks (such as oceans, forests or soils) through physicochemical or biological processes (i.e. photosynthesis). Slide31: Bio-sequestration occurs in oceans. More than 80% of human-produced CO2 emissions will in the end be absorbed by the oceans. OceansSlide32: Rainforests are carbon stores and CO2 sinks. They absorb about 18% of CO2 emitted from fossil fuels, processing it through photosynthesis and storing it as carbon through biological sequestration. RainforestsSlide33: How is global warming related to El Niño? El Niño events in recent decades are due to warmer ocean temperatures resulting from global warming. Higher global temperatures are increasing evaporation from land and adding moisture to the air, thus intensifying the storms and floods associated with El Niño. Slide34: What will happen if global warming is allowed to continue? Question 3Slide35: If the world warms by ... the consequences will be:Slide36: What choices do we have for responding to the impacts of global warming? Question 4Slide37: What can be done? Protecting the world’s climate by stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses will require enormous reductions in current emissions. Who should be involved? International Organizations and Treaties National and Local Governments Private Sector Companies (Businesses) Scientists and Researchers Citizens (Individuals, both young and old)Slide38: Some key players and roles Climate Scientist Produce the scientific data behind climate change and better measuring instruments or tools to study global warming. Policy Analyst Apply laws, state and local policies to reduce fossil fuel consumption. Economist Study the economic impacts associated with global warming and convince business leaders to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Energy Expert Develop alternative technologies to reduce fossil fuel energy needs for producing electricity. Urban Planner Promote the use of sustainable materials and energy efficient designs to make a house more energy efficient.Slide39: An international and legally binding agreement called the Kyoto Protocol COP15 - United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) It requires countries that signed up to it to reduce the CO2 emissions they put into the environment.Slide40: What are the binding conditions of the Kyoto Protocol? COP15 - United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Industrialized countries will need to cut their combined CO2 emissions into the environment to 5% below the 1990 levels by 2008-2012. Individual governments of the countries that signed up to the Protocol will need to implement their own policies to ensure that their country meets its obligation. If countries do not reduce their CO2 emission to the level required, they will need to purchase ‘carbon credits’ from those countries (or companies) that are emitting fewer carbon emissions than they are offsetting through forests, or who have reduced their emissions below the required level. This is known as ‘carbon trading’.Slide41: Global CO2 Concentration Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), USASlide42: CO2 concentration in ice core samples and projections for next 100 years Projected levels of atmospheric CO2 during the next 100 years would be higher than at anytime in the last 440,000 yrs Year 2100 Year 2001 Source: Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)Slide43: Annual Carbon EmissionsSlide44: Annual CO2 Emissions (2007) Source: International Energy Agency website http://www.iea.orgSlide45: Annual CO2 Emissions (2007) Source: International Energy Agency website http://www.iea.orgSlide46: Total CO2 emissions per capita (2006) (Unit: thousands metric tons CO2 per 1000 people) Source: International Energy Agency website http://www.iea.org Slide47: Earth’s CO2 Homepage Source: Earth’s CO2 Homepage at http://co2now.org In 2009, the average concentration for atmospheric CO2 (Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, USA) was 387.35 parts per million (ppm). In 2008, it was 385.57 ppm. What level is safe? The upper safety limit for atmospheric CO2 is 350 ppm. Atmospheric CO2 levels have stayed higher than 350 ppm since early 1988. Slide48: Three principal areas of focus to reduce global CO2 emission: Energy efficiency (e.g. energy efficient lamps and appliances) Renewable energy (e.g. solar, wind, hydro, tidal, biogas, bio-diesel, etc…) Carbon sequestration (with help from technology) Global R&D Needs About 60% of the current global CO2 emission level is from the Energy Sector (IPCC Report, 2007).Slide49: CO2 reduction by means of carbon sequestration Three main methods: Near-term storage in the terrestrial biosphere where vegetation would soak up the C02 and store it in biomass and soil. Long-term storage in the earth’s soil by pumping CO2 into existing or drilled/excavated sub-surface (underground) reservoirs. Long-term storage in the earth’s oceans where CO2 would be injected thousands of feet deep and trapped by the water.Slide50: Geologic Carbon SequestrationSlide51: Question 5 What can we as individuals do to help reduce global warning?Slide52: About carbon footprint You and your carbon footprint Ways to reduce your carbon footprint How to calculate your carbon footprint Your carbon footprint is the sum of all emissions of CO2 which were induced by your activities in a given time frame.Slide53: Important definitions: Carbon footprint – A measure of the impact our activities have on the environment, especially climate change, often reported as units of tons (or Kg) of CO2 each of us produce over time (1 year). Carbon neutral – A situation that arises when the amount of CO2 released into the air equals the amount of CO2 removed from the air, for example by planting trees, or the amount saved by using renewable energy sources to produce the same amount of energy.Slide54: To be carbon neutral … … is to balance the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere by a particular activity, like flying, driving, or planting a tree, with an equal amount of carbon sequestration or carbon offsets from a third party. To be considered carbon neutral, an individual or organization must reduce its carbon footprint to zero.Slide55: Another definition: Carbon offset – A unit, equal to one ton of CO2, that individuals, companies or governments buy to reduce short-term and long-term emissions of greenhouse gases. The payment usually funds projects that generate energy from renewable sources such as wind or flowing water.Slide56: Your carbon footprint … … is a very powerful tool to understand the impact of your personal behaviour on global warming!Slide57: Do an energy audit, save electricity Walk, bike, bus, car-pool, take the LRT Read, to be better informed Talk to your family and friends about global warming and climate change Plant trees to absorb carbon dioxide Use less, reuse, recycle When you buy, consider local stuff first Switch to green power, etc., etc. You can make a difference!Slide58: What is carbon offset? What can you do to become carbon neutral? Hint: To get an idea of how this can be achieved, check out the websites of some carbon offset companies to learn more about carbon offsetting and what sort of carbon offsetting projects they do, and prices for offsetting your carbon footprint. For a start, you may wish to visit the website of CarbonOffset.org to look at some examples of carbon offset projects. Assignment questionsSlide59: Concluding remarks … Global warming is happening and it is going to get worst if we do not do anything about it. There is no single cause of global climate change, and there is no single answer. Technologies that reduce emissions or remove carbon from the atmosphere all play a role. Government policies and actions that encourages businesses to develop and use these technologies are very important. As responsible individuals, we can also strive to reduce our own carbon footprints.Slide60: The End Homepage: http://www.wou.edu.my You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.