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evaluation of crude drug

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EVALUATION OF CRUDE DRUGS By Ch.HONIKA SAI IV B Pharmacy

Why there is need for evaluation of crude drugs:

Why there is need for evaluation of crude drugs To confirm the identity and determining the quality of crude drug by seeking the presence of adulterants mixed with it used for degradation of quality which can be achieved by- Defective collection of species Intentional adulteration Deficient preparation of drug Inaccurate storage of crude drug

Methods of evaluation of crude drugs:

Methods of evaluation of crude drugs Basically five methods are used for evaluating crude drugs The evaluation can be done by these methods quantitatively and qualitatively both. the methods are 1. Organoleptic evaluation 2.Microscopic evaluation 3.Physical evaluation 4.Chemical evaluation 5.Biological evaluation

ORGANOLEPTIC EVALUATION:

ORGANOLEPTIC EVALUATION

Qualitative evalution can be done by two ways:

Qualitative evalution can be done by two ways A)Morphological evaluation Based on evaluating the size,shape of crude drug Size: a millimeter scale is used for measurement of length,breadth and height of the crude drug. Shape: a) Leaf: Simple, compound b) Flower: campanulate,actinomorphic etc c)Fruit: Globular, oblong etc d)Bark: Flat, curved, quill, double quill

B)SensoryEvaluation: based on evaluating colour,odour,taste,texture,fractures etc:

B) SensoryEvaluation : based on evaluating colour,odour,taste,texture,fractures etc Colour : The crude drug was kept in day light and was checked with the standard crude drug or processed drug. Odour : To achieve odour from the drug it can directly smell or pressed to ooze the odouros material having distinct material. The strength of odour and its sensation was checked Taste : To achieve taste one must sense it after bring it into mouth. Some e.g are : Bitter taste : Gentian, Almond Sweet taste : Honey, Liquorice Sour taste : lemon Texture and Fracture : Texture means touch, either smooth or rough, fracture given to bark part which reveal it powdered, tindles etc

MICROSCOPIC EVALUATION:

MICROSCOPIC EVALUATION

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T.S of LEAF T.S of ROOT By cutting thin sections of various parts of drugs

a) Leaf constants or diagnostic characters of leaf:

a) Leaf constants or diagnostic characters of leaf Palisade ratio Vein-islet number Stomatal number Stomatal index Vein termination Atropa belladonna Atropa acuminata 5-70 5-12.4 1. 2. Atropa belladonna Atropa acuminata S.NO SPECIES PALISADE RATIO 5-70 5-12.4 S.NO SPECIES RANGE 1. Atropa acuminata 8-11

b) Stomata It is a minute epidermal opening present on arial parts of the plant.:

b) Stomata It is a minute epidermal opening present on arial parts of the plant. Stomata is divided into four types 1.Moss type 2.Gymnospermous type 3.Gramineous type 4.Dicotyledonous type Out of this Dicotyledonous type is of various types based on the arrangement of the subsidiary cells

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stomata Subsidiary cells 1 2 3 Diacytic stomata Anisocytic stomata Anomocytic stomata

c)Trichomes Trichomes are long tubular elongated or glandular outgrowth of the epidermal cell. Also called as plant hairs.:

c)Trichomes Trichomes are long tubular elongated or glandular outgrowth of the epidermal cell. Also called as plant hairs . Depending upon the structure and the number of cells present in trichomes they are classified as: TRICHOMES Covering Trichomes Glandular Trichomes Hydathodes Unicellular Multicellular UnBranched Branched Uniseriate Biseriate Multiseriate

Glandular Trichome: These are characterised but the presence of glandular cell at the top of the trichome. These are sub-classified as: Unicellular glandular trichome.eg: Piper,Betel. Multicellular glandular trichome.eg: Digitalispurpurea :

Glandular Trichome: These are characterised but the presence of glandular cell at the top of the trichome. These are sub-classified as : Unicellular glandular trichome.eg: Piper,Betel. Multicellular glandular trichome.eg: Digitalispurpurea Non Glanular Trichomes: Unicellular: eg: Nuxvomica,cannabis. Multicellular branched: eg: Hammamelis,Artisia. Multicellular unbranched: eg: Datura,Digitalis,Malefern Hydathodes: These are the organs of absorption or secretion of water developed in certain parts. Eg: Piperbetal

d) Calcium oxlate crystals:Several cell contents like aleurone grains,muclage,tannin and several other inorganic components like calciumcarbonate,calciumoxalte and silica are naturaly available.Due to the specific shape of inorganic crystalline compounds these are utilised for identification of herbal drugs.:

d) Calcium oxlate crystals: Several cell contents like aleurone grains,muclage,tannin and several other inorganic components like calciumcarbonate,calciumoxalte and silica are naturaly available.Due to the specific shape of inorganic crystalline compounds these are utilised for identification of herbal drugs. Types of calcium crystals: A)Cubic or Prisms: eg: Senna,Glycyrrhiza. B)Rhombic C)Tetragonal: eg: onion D)Monoclinic: eg: Quillia E)Acicular or Raphides: eg: Squill F)Rosettes or clusters: eg:Clove

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A) Cubic or prism B)Rhombic C)Tetragonal D)Monoclinic E)Acicular F)Rosette

e) Lycopodium Spore method:It is a method for study of powdered drugs having well defined particles like pollen grains,starch grains,single layered tissues or some other type of uniformly thick particles.It is used when chemical and other methods of evaluation of crude drugs fail as accurate measures of quality.On average 94,000 spore per mg of powdered lycopodium are present. N*W*94,000*100 = % purity of drug S*M*P where N= no. of characteristic structures in 26 fields W= Weight in mg of lycopodium taken S= no. of lycopodium spores in the same 25 fields M= weight in mg of the sample P= 2,86,000in case of ginger starch grains powder This method can be used for evaluation of powdered clove,ginger,nutmeg,etc:

e) Lycopodium Spore method: It is a method for study of powdered drugs having well defined particles like pollen grains,starch grains,single layered tissues or some other type of uniformly thick particles.It is used when chemical and other methods of evaluation of crude drugs fail as accurate measures of quality.On average 94,000 spore per mg of powdered lycopodium are present. N*W*94,000*100 = % purity of drug S*M*P where N= no. of characteristic structures in 26 fields W= Weight in mg of lycopodium taken S= no. of lycopodium spores in the same 25 fields M= weight in mg of the sample P= 2,86,000in case of ginger starch grains powder This method can be used for evaluation of powdered clove,ginger,nutmeg,etc

PHYSICAL EVALUATION :

PHYSICAL EVALUATION

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PHYSICAL EVALUATION Moisture content Viscosity Melting point Optical rotation Solubility Refractive index Ash values Extractives

CHEMICAL EVALUATION :

CHEMICAL EVALUATION

Chemical evaluation: This evaluation reveals with screening of phytoconstituents present in crude drug. It includes chemical test for every constituent. This can be done either by chemical tests or chemical analysis.:

Chemical evaluation: This evaluation reveals with screening of phytoconstituents present in crude drug. It includes chemical test for every constituent. This can be done either by chemical tests or chemical analysis.

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CARBOHYDRATE .Molish’s test .Fehling’s test .Benidict’s test ALKALOID .Wagner’s test .Mayer’s test .Dragondroff’s test .Hayger’s test GLYCOSIDE .Brontrager’s test .Legal test .Baljet test SAPONINS .Foam test .Hemolysis test FLAVANOIDS .Schinoda test TANINS .Golbeater’s Skin test PROTEINS AND AMINO ACIDS .Millon’s test .Biuret test . Ninhydrin test

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CHEMICAL EVALUATION Test for Alkaloids Test for Carbohydrates Test for Glycosides Test for Phytosterols Test for Fixed oils and Fats Test for Saponins Test for Gums and Mucilage Test for Proteins and Aminoacids

BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION:

BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION

Biological Evaluation: When the estimation of potency of crude drugs or its preparation is done by means of its effect on living organisms like bacteria,fungal growth or animal tissue or entire animal,it is known as bioassay. Bioassay methods are mainly of 3 types .Toxic .Symptomatic .Tissue methods In toxic and symptomatic techniques, the animals are used, whereas in tissue method, the effect of a drug is observed on isolated organ or tissue.The drugs that are subjected to bioassay are Cardiac Glycosides, natural pesticides and antibiotics :

Biological Evaluation: When the estimation of potency of crude drugs or its preparation is done by means of its effect on living organisms like bacteria,fungal growth or animal tissue or entire animal,it is known as bioassay. Bioassay methods are mainly of 3 types .Toxic .Symptomatic .Tissue methods In toxic and symptomatic techniques, the animals are used, whereas in tissue method, the effect of a drug is observed on isolated organ or tissue.The drugs that are subjected to bioassay are Cardiac Glycosides, natural pesticides and antibiotics

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BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION Anti Inflammatory activity Anti Fertility activity Anti Ulcer activity Neuro pharmacological acitivity Anti Insect activity