Civilization of Man

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Welcome

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Project Work By Syed Azhar Farhan And Abdul Fahad Sayeed

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Human Civilization

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What we Will learn?

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Based on different Archeological evidences the stages of mans evolution is enumerated as five . These stages indicate the cultural evolutionary steps. In the first stage on account of life on earth .Later the Ice-Age gradually changed into warmth .As a result of this climate Man like creature appeared on the earth. Its chief characteristics were to stand erect to look straight with both the eyes and to move the limbs with the co-operation of the brain. Evolution of man

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The man of this evolutionary stages are named as below :- Austrophythicus . Rama- Phythicus . Homo Erectus. Neanderthal. Homo Sapiens. Stages of evolution

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The efforts made by the mankind from the ages past to lead a happy life is called History . The activities of the mankind from the past are called Historic achievements. The period for which the written records of the development are available is Historic age . History

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Orangutan Crown lemur Primate Family Tree

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The three-age system in archaeology and physical anthropology is the periodization of human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective tool-making technologies: The Stone Age The Bronze Age The Iron Age The Three Tier-Age System

3 Million Years Ago:

3 Million Years Ago 3 million years ago, our planet was teeming with life! There were deer, giraffes, hyenas, sheep, goats, horses, elephants, camels, beavers, cave lions, ants, termites, woolly mammoths, saber-toothed tigers, giant sharks, dogs with huge teeth, and all kinds of birds and plants and fish.

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The Stone Age: It is Divided into four ages namely:- 1. Paleolithic 2. Mesolithic 3. Neolithic 4. Chalcholithic The Stone Age

Very Early Humans:

Very Early Humans It was during this time that the higher primates, including apes and early man, first appeared. There was a difference between apes and man. Early human-like hominids could stand upright. Apes could not. Their hands were different, too. Ape hands were made for climbing and clinging. Man’s hands were jointed differently, which allowed them to make and use tools.

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"Paleolithic" means " Old Stone Age ," and begins with the first use of stone tools. The Paleolithic is the earliest period of the Stone Age. The early part of the Paleolithic is called the Lower Paleolithic, which predates Homo sapiens, beginning with Homo habilis and with the earliest stone tools, dated to around 2.5 million years ago. Throughout the Paleolithic , humans generally lived as nomadic hunter-gatherers. Hunter-gatherer societies tended to be very small and egalitarian, though hunter-gatherer societies with abundant resources or advanced food-storage techniques sometimes developed sedentary lifestyles with complex social structures. Paleolithic Age

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PALAEOLITHIC AGE( 5000,000 BC – 100,000 BC) The word ‘ Palaeolithic’ comes from a Greek word which means ‘old stone’. The primitive men were basically nomads. They moved from one place to another in search of food and shelter. Men at that time lived in forests. They used to eat raw flesh of animals which they hunted and fruits of trees and root vegetables.

PALAEOLITHIC AGE( 5000,000 BC – 100,000 BC) :

PALAEOLITHIC AGE( 5000,000 BC – 100,000 BC) In summer they did not wear anything. In winter they used animal skins, bark of trees and leaves to keep themselves warm. They lived close to rivers so that water was available.

Early man made important discoveries: :

Early man made important discoveries: The discovery of fire was a mere accident. The striking of two pieces of stones, which is known as ‘flint’, produced a spark, which, when it came in contact with dry leaves, burst into flames. Fire provided man with warmth and light.

Fire made life easy:

Fire made life easy From then onwards, man started eating roasted meat instead of raw flesh. They used to light a fire at the entrance of the caves in order to protect themselves from wild animals. Fire also helped men during the cold season as they wore minimum clothes.

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The " Mesolithic ," or " Middle Stone Age " (from the Greek "mesos," "middle," and "lithos," "stone") was the period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. Remains from this period are few and far between, often limited to middens. In forested areas, the first signs of deforestation have been found, although this would only begin in earnest during the Neolithic, when more space was needed for agriculture. Mesolithic Age

MESOLITHIC AGE ( 10,000 – 8000 BC) :

MESOLITHIC AGE ( 10,000 – 8000 BC) This period is of shorter duration but significant changes took place during this age. Man now started making smaller, sharper and more efficient tools. Because of their size, these tools were called microliths ( micro means small, lith means stone).

New tools:

New tools The new tools included bone tools, borers, scarpers and arrowheads. The bows and arrows helped them in hunting fast moving animals. They could fish because of the hooks and the baits. It was during the end of this period that man discovered agriculture and cultivation.

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"Neolithic" means "New Stone Age." This was a period of primitive technological and social development, toward the end of the "Stone Age". The Neolithic period saw the development of early villages, agriculture, animal domestication, tools and the onset of the earliest recorded incidents of warfare. The Neolithic term is commonly used in the Old World, as its application to cultures in the Americas and Oceania that did not fully develop metal-working technology raises problems. Neolithic Age

NEOLITHIC AGE : NEW STONE AGE ( 8000 – 3500 BC) :

NEOLITHIC AGE : NEW STONE AGE ( 8000 – 3500 BC) In this age man learnt to make better tools and domesticated animals. This age is better known for advancement in agriculture, making of pottery and invention of the wheel .

Agriculture :

Agriculture Like fire, man discovered agriculture by chance. Significant changes in life of man. It changed man from a nomad into a man who stayed at one place.

Community Living:

Community Living These settlements grew into villages. Man began to produce enough grain which had to be stored and so made baskets which were plastered with mud. He now grew wheat, barley and rice.

Domestication of Animals:

Domestication of Animals Man realised the importance of domesticated animals. He used the animals as means of transport. Animals supplied man with milk. He got wool from the sheep to protect himself from the cold.

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Pottery . As man began to get milk, vessels were needed to store them. These pots were given different shapes and dried in the sun. The pots were then baked in an oven to make them harder. Some pots were decorated with various designs of animal figures on them.

The Invention of the Wheel :

The Invention of the Wheel The invention of the wheel brought many changes in the life of man. It made transportation easier and faster. The invention of the wheel was put to great use by the potters. The wheel was also used for spinning and weaving.

Social Life :

Social Life After agriculture became known to them, they settled down and villages developed. The eldest or the strongest man of the clan was chosen as the village headman. He had the responsibility of protecting the entire clan from outside invaders.

Religion:

Religion Man started to fear the natural forces as they could not understand the mysteries of nature. They prayed to the forces of nature. They buried the dead and kept pots, weapons etc which they believed would be required in the other world.

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I n Old World archaeology, the "Chalcholithic", "Eneolithic" or "Copper Age" refers to a transitional period where early copper metallurgy appeared alongside the widespread use of stone tools. Chalcholithic Age

CHALCHOLITHIC AGE ( 3500—2000) :

CHALCHOLITHIC AGE ( 3500—2000) T he word ‘chalcholithic’ means copper and stone. In this age man used both stone and copper for making tools. Copper was the first metal to be discovered by man. He realised that it was much stronger than stone. Copper began to be mixed with other metals to form alloys.

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Primate Hands

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Bronze Age T he term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced metalworking included techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ores, and then combining them to cast bronze. These naturally occurring ores typically included arsenic as a common impurity. Copper/tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact that there were no tin bronzes in Western Asia before 3000 BC. The Bronze Age forms part of the three-age system for prehistoric societies. In this system, it follows the Neolithic in some areas of the world.

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T he Bronze Age is the earliest period for which we have direct written accounts, since the invention of writing coincides with its early beginnings. Bronze Age cultures differed in their development of the first writing. According to archaeological evidence, cultures in Egypt, the Near East—and the Mediterranean, with the Mycenaean culture—had viable writing systems. Bronze Age

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Although the Iron Age generally followed the Bronze Age, in some areas, the Iron Age intruded directly on the Neolithic from outside the region except for Sub-Saharan Africa where it was developed independently. Bronze Age

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I n archaeology, the Iron Age refers to the advent of ferrous metallurgy. The adoption of iron coincided with other changes in some past cultures, often including more sophisticated agricultural practices, religious beliefs and artistic styles, which makes the archaeological Iron Age coincide with the "Axial Age" in the history of philosophy. Iron Age

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In historical archaeology, the ancient literature of the Iron Age includes the earliest texts preserved in manuscript tradition. Sanskrit literature and Chinese literature flourished in the Iron Age. Other text includes the Avestan Gathas, the Indian Vedas and the oldest parts of the Hebrew Bible. The principal feature that distinguishes the Iron Age from the preceding ages is the introduction of alphabetic characters, and the consequent development of written language which enabled literature and historic record. Iron Age

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Pictograms: picture to show meaning Ideograms: signs to represent words / ideas Phonetics: signs to represent sounds *Phonetics are the basis of most writing systems Development of writing

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Large temples dedicated to the god of the city Temple on top served as the god’s home and was beautifully decorated Inside was a room for offerings of food and goods Famous ziggurat was Tower of Babel (over 100m above ground and 91m base) Ziggurats

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The End -- Reference from Wikipedia ,the free encyclopedia