English 8 - Unit 5 - Study habits

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Unit 5: STUDY HABITS

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Mom

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Mom: Tim? Tim? Are you home? Tim: Yes, Mom. I’m in the living room. What is this, Mom? Mom: I went to your school today and Miss Jackson gave me your report card. Tim: Oh, is it good report? Mom: Don’t worry. It’s excellent. You did very well. Tim: May I see the report? Mom: Sure. I’m proud of you Tim. I know you work really hard this semester. Tim: Thanks, Mom. Mom: But there is one thing you need to improve. Tim: What’s that, Mom? Mom: Miss Jackson said you should work harder on your Spanish pronunciation. She asked me to give you this dictionary. Tim: Yes, I know. Some of those Spanish sounds are really hard. I’ll try my best to improve them. Mom: I believe you can do it, Tim.

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2. True or false? Check (v) the boxes. a) Tim was out when his mother called him. b) Tim’s mother met his teacher at school. c) Tim’s report is poor. d) Tim’s mother wants him to improve one thing. e) Tim needs to improve his Spanish grammar. f) Tim promised to try his best in learning Spanish. T F X X X X X X

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3. Answer the questions. a) Who is Miss Jackson? b) What did Miss Jackson give Tim’s mother? c) How did Tim study this semester? d) What did Miss Jackson say Tim should do? e) What did Tim’s mother give him at the end of the conversation? Miss Jackson/ She is Tim’s teacher. Miss Jackson/ She gave Tim’s mother his report card. Tim / He studies very well this semester. Tim works very hard this semester. She said Tim should work harder on his Spanish pronunciation. She gave him a dictionary/ Miss Jackson’s dictionary.

Speak:

Speak 1. When do you do you homework ? I do my homework after school / after dinner / late at night / etc. 2. Who helps you with your homework ? My parents / my brothers/sisters / a friend / etc help me. 3. How much time do you spend on these subjects: Math, History, English, etc. ? I spend half an hour; two hours; less/more than an hour; etc. 4. Which subject do you need to improve ? I need to improve Biology; Physics; Chemistry; Geography; etc. 5. What do you do to improve your English ? I can do grammar exercises; read English stories; etc. Ask each other about your studies.

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Miss Blake: Good evening, Mrs. Chen. Mrs. Chen: Good evening. Miss Blake : I’m pleased to tell you that Sarah has worked very hard this year and her grades are very good. Mrs. Chen: I’m so pleased to hear that. Miss Blake: She missed 5 days of school due to sickness but an attendance of 87 days for the whole term is acceptable. Both her participation and cooperation are satisfactory. So, there are no problems there. Mrs. Chen: How is she doing in English? Miss Blake: Her speaking and reading are excellent and her writing is good. If she works a bit harder on her writing skills, she should get an A for writing next exam. Mrs. Chen: How about listening comprehension? Miss Blake: I’m afraid she’s not very good at that. I gave her a C. Mrs. Chen: How can we help her to improve? Miss Blake: Get her to watch English TV if possible, and encourage her to listen to English radio programs. Also, I have some cassettes here which you can borrow. Mrs. Chen: Thank you very much, Miss Blake. We really appreciate your help.

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Language learners learn words in different ways. Some learners make a list and put into it the meanings of new words in their mother tongue, and try to learn them by heart. However, others do not. Instead, they write one or two example sentences with each new word in order to remember how to use the word in the right way. In order to remember word better, some learners even write each word and it use on a small piece of paper and stick it somewhere in their house so as to learn it any time. Many language learner do not try to learn all new words they come across. They usually underline or highlight only the word they want to learn. This helps them remember important words. There are also different ways of learning the same number of words. For example, if you try to learn ten words in two days, you can do so in two ways. You can learn the first five words the first day, and then learn the other five the next day. However, because revision is necessary, you can learn all the ten words the first day and revise them the next day . This helps you practice the words more times. Language learners should try different ways of learning words so as to find out the best way for themselves. Ask yourself the question: How should I learn words? READ

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X Some X X Many learners do not try X T F

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2/ Answer the questions a. Do learners learn words in the same way? b. Why do some learners write example sentences with new words? c. What do some learners do in order to remember words better? d. Why don’t some learners learn all the new words they come across? e. What is necessary in learning words? f. How should you learn words? Because they want to remember how to use the word in the right way. To remember words better, some learners write each word and its use on a small piece of paper and stick it somewhere in their house so as to learn it at any time. Because they only want to remember important words. Revision is necessary in learning words. We should try different ways of learning words to find out what is the best. No, they don’t. They learn words in different ways.

Write:

Write A Body of the letter B Heading – writer’s address and the date C Closing - Your friend / Regards / Love D Opening - Dear ... , 1. Look at Hoa’s letter to Tim. She wrote it at the end of term. Identify the sections. Label them with correct letter.

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D A C

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12 Tran Hung Dao St. Ha Noi February 10, 200... Dear Tim, Thanks for your letter. I’m pleased to hear you had an enjoyable Christmas vacation. We received our first semester report a few days ago. I got good grades for Science, English and History, but my math result was poor. My math teacher asked me to spend more time on it. I must study harder next semester. It is almost Tet. That’s the Lunar New Year Festival in Viet Nam. I think I told you about it in my last letter. We’re going to Hue tonight to celebrate the festival with my grandmother. I’ll send you a postcard from there. Write soon and tell me all your news. Regards, Hoa B A D C

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Language Focus

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a/ Hoa: Does Mrs. Nga speak English? Lan: Oh,yes. She speaks English (0) _____. b/ Hoa: Ba always gets excellent grades. Lan: That’s because he studies (1) _____. .c/ Hoa: That’s our bus! Lan: Run (2) _____ and we might catch it. d/ Hoa: I’m very sorry. I know I behaved (3) ______. Lan: It’s all right. e/ Hoa: I can’t hear you, Lan. Lan: Sorry, but I’m speaking (4) _______ because I have a sore throat. 1. Complete the dialogues. Use the adverbs of manner in the box badly softly well fast hard well hard fast badly softly

Modal verb: SHOULD:

Modal verb: SHOULD - Mr. Hao should paint the house. - He should cut the grass.. - He should replant the tree. - He should mend the door and the windows. - He should repair the roof.

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(Command) (Request)

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4. Work with a partner. Report Jackson’s advice she gave in her conversation with Tim’s mother. Miss Jackson said: Tim’s mother reported it to Tim:

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a. “Tim should spend more time on Spanish pronunciation.” b. “Tim should practice speaking Spanish everyday.” c. “Tim should listen to Spanish conversations on TV.” d. “Tim should practice reading aloud passages in Spanish.” e. "Tim should use this dictionary to find out how to pronounce Spanish words.” “ Miss Jackson said you should spend more time on Spanish pronunciation.” “Miss Jackson said you should practice speaking Spanish everyday.” “ Miss Jackson said you should listen to Spanish conversations on TV.” “Miss Jackson said you should practice reading aloud passages in Spanish.” “ Miss Jackson said you should use this dictionary to find out how to pronounce Spanish words.”

Unit 5: Study habits:

Unit 5: Study habits http://www.learnenglish.de/Games/Adverbs of manner exercise http://www.englishpage.com/modals/might.html http://englishteststore.net/Reported speech Tests

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ADVERBS OF MANNER Adverbs of manner tell us how something happens. They are usually placed after the main verb or after the object. Examples: (after the main verb) He swims well .  He ran ... rapidly , slowly , quickly ... (after the object) He plays the flute beautifully . He ate the chocolate cake greedily . Adverbs of manner are the most common and they are easy to recognize because they end with -ly . Ex: Mary sings beautiful ly . TRUNG TÂM GIA SƯ HOA THỌ 145 Đỗ Bí – Phú Thạnh – Tân Phú Web: hoatho.notlong.com Adjective + ly = Adverb

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BE CAREFUL! The adverb should not be put between the verb and the object: He ate greedily the chocolate cake [incorrect] He ate the chocolate cake greedily [correct] If there is a preposition before the object, e.g . at , towards , we can place the adverb either before the preposition or after the object. Ex: The child ran happily towards his mother. The child ran towards his mother happily . Sometimes an adverb of manner is placed before a verb + object to add emphasis: Ex: He gently woke the sleeping woman. Some writers put an adverb of manner at the beginning of the sentence to catch our attention and make us curious: Ex: Slowly she picked up the knife. (We want to know what happened slowly , who did it slowly , why they did it slowly ) However, adverbs should always come AFTER intransitive verbs (=verbs which have no object). Ex: The town grew quickly He waited patiently Also, these common adverbs are almost always placed AFTER the verb: well badly hard fast The position of the adverb is important when there is more than one verb in a sentence. If the adverb is placed after a clause, then it modifies the whole action described by the clause. Notice the difference in meaning between the following pairs of sentences: She quickly agreed to re-type the letter (= her agreement was quick) She agreed to re-type the letter quickly (= the re-typing was quick) He quietly asked me to leave the house (= his request was quiet) He asked me to leave the house quietly (= the leaving was quiet) *** Happy  happ i ly careful  carefu ll y Adjective Fast Far Straight Good Late Early Hard Adverb Fast Far Straight Well Late Early hard

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" Should " is most commonly used to make recommendations or give advice. It can also be used to express obligation as well as expectation. Examples: When you go to Berlin, you should visit the palaces in Potsdam. Recommendation (nhắc nhở) You should focus more on your family and less on work. Advice (lời khuyên) I really should be in the office by 7:00 AM. Obligation (bổn phận) By now, they should already be in Dubai. Expectation (mong muốn) Should = ought to = had better = be supposed to Examples: John should study tonight. John ought to study tonight. John had better study tonight. John is supposed to study tonight. " Might " is most commonly used to express possibility. It is also often used in conditional sentences. English speakers can also use "might" to make suggestions or requests, although this is less common in American English. Examples: Your purse might be in the living room. Possibility (khả năng) If I didn't have to work, I might go with you. Conditional (điều kiện) You might visit the botanical gardens during your visit. Suggestion (đề nghị) Might I borrow your pen? Request (yêu cầu) MODAL VERBS

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TRUNG TÂM GIA SƯ HOA THỌ www.hoatho.notlong.com You can answer the question "What did he/she say?" in two ways: by repeating the words spoken (direct speech). Direct speech repeats, or quotes, the exact words spoken. When we use direct speech in writing, we place the words spoken between inverted commas ("....") and there is no change in these words. 2) by reporting the words spoken (indirect or reported speech). Indirect speech is usually used to talk about the past, so we normally change the tense of the words spoken. We use reporting verbs like 'say', 'tell', 'ask', and we may use the word 'that' to introduce the reported words. Inverted commas are not used. The little pig told his father he liked to save money. 1 2 REPORTED SPEECH Changes: 1. Change verb in the words of the speech. 2. Change pronouns (personal pronoun,possessive pronoun) 3. Changes related to the conception far and near in space and time.

REPORTED SPEECH:

REPORTED SPEECH We use reported speech when we are saying what other people say, think or believe. He says he wants it. We think you are right. I believe he loves her. I told you she was ill. We thought he was in Australia. When we are reporting things in the present, future or present perfect we don't change the tense. He thinks he loves her. I'll tell her you are coming. He has said he'll do it. When we tell people what someone has said in the past, we generally make the tense 'more in the past'. (Pres Sim ) You look very nice. = (Past Simp) I told him he looked very nice. (Pres.Prog) He is working in Siberia now . = (Past Prog) She told me he was working in Siberia then . (Pres Perf ) Polly has bought a new car. = (Past Perf ) She said Polly had bought a new car. (Modal .V ) Jo can't come for the weekend. = (Past Mod) She said Jo couldn't come for the weekend. (Past Sim ) Paul left a message. = (Past Perf) He told me Paul had left me a message. (Future Sim) I will give you a hand. = (Past Fut) He said he would give me a hand. Things are slightly more complicated with imperatives. positive imperative Shut up! tell + infinitive He told me to shut up. negative imperative Don't do that again! tell + not + infinitive He told me not to do it again. imperatives as requests Please give me some money. ask + infinitive He asked me to give him some money. Things are slightly more complicated with imperatives. http://www.primaryresources.co.uk/english/englishB6.htm

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present simple I'm a teacher. past simple He said he was a teacher present continuous I'm having lunch with my parents. past continuous . He said he was having lunch with his parents. present perfect simple I've been to France three times. past perfect simple He said he had been to France three times. present perfect continuous I've been working very hard. past perfect continuous He said he had been working very hard. past simple I bought a new car. past perfect He said he had bought a new car. past continuous It was raining earlier. past perfect continuous He said it had been raining earlier. past perfect The play had started when I arrived. past perfect NO CHANGE POSSIBLE past perfect continuous I'd already been living in London for five years. past perfect continuous NO CHANGE POSSIBLE will I'll come and see you soon. would He said he would come and see me soon. can I can swim under water for two minutes. could He said he could swim under water for two minutes. must All tickets must be bought in advance. had to He said that all tickets had to be bought in advance. shall What shall we do about it? should He asked what we should do about it. may May I smoke? might He asked if he might smoke. Changes in verb: 2 Yes/no questions are reported with if or whether. ( Backshift of tenses )

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Time and place references often have to change: now then today that day here there this  these that  those this week that week tomorrow the following day / the next day / the day after next week the following week / the next week / the week after yesterday the previous day / the day before last week the previous week  / the week before ago previously / before 2 weeks ago 2 weeks previously / 2 weeks before tonight that night last Saturday the previous Saturday / the Saturday before next Saturday the following Saturday / the next Saturday the Saturday after / that Saturday Examples: I went to the theatre last night . He said he had gone to the theatre the night before . I'm having a party next weekend. He said he was having a party the next weekend. I'm staying here until next week . He said he was staying there until the following week . I came over from London 3 years ago . He said he had come over from London 3 years before . 3

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Tim’s mother went to his school to know about Tim’s study. Miss Jackson said to Tim’s mother: “Please give Tim this dictionary.” or “Can you give Tim this dictionary?” Tim’s mother came home. Tim asked his mother: “What did Miss Jackson say?”. She said to Tim: “Miss Jackson told me to give you this dictionary.” or “Miss Jackson asked me to give you this dictionary.” Form: Use : report a command or request. Miss Jackson said to Tim’s mother: “Tim should work harder on his Spanish pronunciation.” Tim’s mother reported it to him: “Miss Jackson said (that) you should work harder on your Spanish pronunciation.” Form: Use: report an advive 1 2 S + said + ( S + should + V (bare ) + … ) S + told/asked + (sb) + V (bare) REPORTED SPEECH In appearance: Direct speech “Say” can stand before or after direct spe.. He said, ’I like to save money.’ He said: “I like to save money.” ‘I like to save money’, he said.(Not said he) ‘I like to save money’, said the little pig.(N.) ‘I like to save money’, the little pig said. Indirect speech He said to his Dad (that) he liked to save…. He told his Dad that he liked to save money. positive imperative Shut up! tell + infinitive He told me to shut up. negative imperative Don't do that again! tell + not + infinitive He told me not to do it again. imperatives as requests Please give me some money. ask + infinitive He asked me to give him some money. Things are slightly more complicated with imperatives. Commands and requests in Indirect Speech: S+asked/told+O+(not)+to+Verb * Can you meet me next week? She told me to meet her the next week. Report an advice in Indirect Speech: S+said/told+(that)+S+should+Vo * You should practice English. She said they should practice E.

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Trong cấu trúc này người ta dùng so that với nghĩa sao cho, để cho. Sau so that phải là một mệnh đề hoàn chỉnh có cả S và V. Động từ ở mệnh đề sau so that phải lùi một thời so với thời của động từ ở mệnh đề chính. He studied very hard so that he could pass the test. She is sending the package early so that it will arrive in the time for her sister’s birthday. Susan drove to Miami instead of flying so that she could save money. Chú ý : Phải phân biệt so that trong cấu trúc này với so that mang nghĩa do đó ( therefore ). Cách phân biệt là ở thời của động từ đằng sau so that mang nghĩa “do đó” diễn biến bình thường so với thời của động từ ở mệnh đề đằng trước. We heard nothing from him so that we wondered if he moved away. Cũng cần phân biệt với cấu trúc so + adj/adv + that nêu ở phần sau. Trong tiếng Anh nói có thể bỏ that trong cụm so that nhưng trong tiếng Anh viết không được bỏ that . Đây là bẫy mà bài thi TOEFL thường nêu ra. Công thức như sau: 1) Mệnh đề + SO THAT/IN ORDER THAT + S can/could/will/would + V ... Lưu ý:Thông thường nếu không có NOT thì dùng can /could còn có NOT thì dùng won't / wouldn't ,trừ những trường hợp có ý ngăn cấm thì mới dùng can't/couldn't. I study hard so that I can pass the exam.  I study hard so that I won't fail the exam. I hide the toy so that my mother can't see it. ( tôi giấu món đồ chơi để mẹ tôi không thể thấy nó -> ngăn không cho thấy ) 2) Mệnh đề + IN ORDER TO/SO AS TO/TO + Inf. Lưu ý: Nếu có NOT thì để NOT trước TO, tuy nhiên mẫu TO không áp dụng được trường hợp có NOT. I study hard. I want to pass the exam. -> I study hard in order to / so as to /to pass the exam. I study hard. I don't want to fail the exam. -> -> I study hard in order not to pass the exam. đúng -> I study hard so as not to /to pass the exam.đúng -> I study hard not to pass the exam. sai Cách nối câu : 1) Dùng SO THAT/IN ORDER THAT : Trong câu thứ hai nếu có các động từ : want, like, hope... thì phải bỏ đi rồi thêm can/could/will/would vào -Nếu sau các chữ want, like, hope..có túc từ thì lấy túc từ đó ra làm chủ từ. I give you the book .I want you to read it. -> I give you the book so that you can read it. 2) Dùng IN ORDER TO/SO AS TO/TO : - Chỉ áp dụng được khi 2 chủ từ 2 câu giống nhau - Bỏ chủ từ câu sau, bỏ các chữ want, like, hope...giữ lại từ động từ sau nó. I study hard .I want to pass the exam.  I study hard in order to pass the exam.