101_Cusp of the Modern World (Week 16) RECORDING

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The Early Modern World


Terms Atlantic World – The countries, cultures, and societies connected by the Atlantic Ocean; Africa, North & South America, Europe Columbian Exchange – the movement of people, plants and pathogens across the Atlantic, linking the continents of Eurasia, South America, Africa, and North America Sengoku – A period shortly after the failed Mongol invasions of Japan wherein the Japanese government collapsed into warring factions which last until the 16 th century Monsoons – Regular, predictable trade wind which govern sailing in the Indian Ocean; Summer Monsoons generally blow from ocean towards land while cooler month Monsoons flow the opposite way. Sail-dependent travel in the contravening direction during these periods.

Henry the Navigator:

Henry the Navigator Portuguese prince Fascinated with exploration, maps Funded expeditions to uncover new lands for Portuguese Looking for alternate route to India, China Begins rich tradition of Portuguese ‘Navigators’ and explorers Bartolomeo Diaz Vasco de Gama


1492 Italian explorer, adventurer Christopher Columbus offers services to Isabela & Ferdinand of Spain Knew world was round Easy route to India by going west Ships; Santa Clara (“Niña”), Pinta , Santa Maria Discovery of “New World” changes Europeans’ game

Class Question:

Class Question What is a “Classic” Irish dish? What about a “Classic” German side dish? Italian? What foods are associated with these regions? Where does Chocolate, Vanilla, chillis , potatoes, tomatoes, and tobacco hail from

Toward an Atlantic System:

Toward an Atlantic System Mercantilism allows European states to maximize colonial products Monopolies are often private/government partnerships Increase revenue quickly without overburdening the populace with taxes Columbian Exchange allows poor of Europe to diversify, maximize diet Increased nutrients Vulnerability to famine?

The Columbian Exchange:

The Columbian Exchange

New Players:

New Players Spain, Portugal agree to split Western Hemisphere Treaty of Torsedillas 1494 Spain has near monopoly on New World by early 16 th c. Plunder Plantations France, England, The Netherlands only begin colonizing well into the 16 th century Establish small enclaves in less desirable, easily defended areas Caribbean, virgin islands, North America

Trade & China:

Trade & China Ming dynasty initially xenophobic, closed to outsiders Focus on internal improvements, stability One big exception* By 16 th c. Ming emphasis on foreign trade (Japan, Korea, Spain, etc.) Positive trade balance with world Height of craftsmanship, artistry

Ming Exports:

Ming Exports

Class Question:

Class Question Famously, Europeans and others came to China seeking these exotic (and lucrative) products Did China ever explore the world outside its borders? Why or why not?

Zeng He:

Zeng He 15 th c. ‘explorer’ from China Expeditionary voyage to: Southeast Asia Southern Asia Middle East East Africa 1405 – 1433 America?

Zeng He’s Voyages:

Zeng He’s Voyages 300+ ships of varying size 28,000 men Largest was 6-masted ship “Treasure ship” Most other ships were supply, support ships Not exploration Tribute extracted from ports Put down pirates Fate of fleet

Class Question:

Class Question Why do you think the Ming abandoned large-scale expeditions like Zeng He’s? Does that mean there were no more Chinese traders roaming the world?

Isolation & Efficiency:

Isolation & Efficiency Traders from world come to China Influx of silver from Mexico, Peru, Asia Inflation increases prices Land Food Necessities Mongols not completely gone Military raids along northern borders Cause political turmoil Confucianism Struggle between eunuch faction & scholar-bureaucrats Expunging Zeng He ‘rights a universal wrong’


Upshot China remains a “Closed Society” well into 19 th century Foreigners (Dutch, French, Portuguese, Spanish, etc.) forced to trade in one city Subject to Imperial rule Forced to give tribute for honor of trading Limited in types, amount of goods tradable Chinese society grows by leaps & bounds Increased population + expense of economy = declining standard of living in 19 th c.

Muromachi Japan:

Muromachi Japan Japanese spared full-scale Mongol invasion by freak weather interference Typhoon = “Kamikaze” Divine intervention? Post-invasion Kamakura Shogunate weak, unstable after invasions Reward to the loyal = land No new land to give Re-emergence of the emperor & a new shogun dynasty A new dynasty in china = a new relationship with Japan

Ming & Muromachi:

Ming & Muromachi Chinese eager to rid Pacific coast of Japanese-dominated pirates Stability of trade important for Ming Dynasty Tribute extracted from Japanese Emperors 50 year open trade helpful during 15 th century to jump-start economy in post-Mongol China Japanese goods (swords, copper, paper fans) desired in China Japanese Shogunate eager to shore up economy of unstable Japan Merchant-Pirates a nuisance to Japanese trade as well Pay tribute for access to Chinese goods (tea, jade, porcelain, etc.) 50 year relationship eventually sours Resurgent Emperor clans cause trouble, sink relationship Japanese society looks inward

Sengoku Period:

Sengoku Period 1467 Muromachi power diminished by in-fighting, civil unrest, weak claims to Imperial control NOT emperors themselves Warlord (Sengoku) period still raging in 1543 when Portuguese traders arrive in Japan Japanese warlord Odo Nobunaga purchases firearms from Portuguese Portuguese missionaries ( St. Francis Xavier) begin spreading Catholicism to Japanese Conversion of high-ranking Daimyo (warlords) often brought wide-spread conversion through military edicts Portuguese trade extremely lucrative despite 2 year journey from Portugal to Japan

Portugal & India:

Portugal & India Vasco de Gama sails armed vessels into Indian Ocean Attacks, burns Muslim vessels Piracy Portuguese land in Calicut (Calcutta) 1498 CE Trade for spices, looking for Christian allies De Gama’s first shipment of peppercorns from India returns 3x profit for entire voyage Portuguese attempt to conquer Calicut Driven out my Muslim Mughal Empire Establish stronghold in small port town Ally w/ Hindus v. Muslims

Portugal & China:

Portugal & China Portuguese arrive in China 1514 Offensive actions, smell Ex washing clothes in urine Driven out by Chinese until 1557 Allowed to set up trading in Macao Must pay yearly tribute to continue trading in China Chinese refuse to treat Portuguese as equals

Portugal & Japan:

Portugal & Japan 1542 Portuguese delegation arrives in Japan Missionaries Trade deputation First European to visit fabled land Marco Polo wrote about Introduce guns, cannons Portuguese begin to learn Japanese language, customs Kowtow to Shogun Meekness in eyes of Samurai Spread Christianity


Homework! FINALS THIS WEEK! Chapter 16 Acceleration of Global Contact Sources! No Late Assignments this week Emails

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