101_The Renaissance (Week 14) Recording

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Europe: Renaissance:

Europe: Renaissance 15 th – 16 th Centuries


Terms! Renaissance : fr. “Rebirth” – a term coined to describe the late Medieval period’s renewed fascination with humanistic learning, scientific investigation, and advancement of arts and sciences Philosophy: In the late Medieval period and Renaissance, Philosophy enmeshed science, theology, and speculation. During the Renaissance, a movement towards detaching “hard” sciences from the “soft” sciences and theological debates emerged. Medici: A prominent Italian family which leveraged its vast (and growing) wealth to rise from the “Middling Sort” (not peasants but not Aristocracy) to dominate Florentine, and even Church, politics Heliocentric: A refutation of Ptolemaic and Aristotelian thought, as well as Christian Church tradition, about the solar system; a model which proved mathematically that the earth revolved around the sun.

Why ‘Renaissance’?:

Why ‘Renaissance’? Loaded term to differentiate from Medieval (‘Dark Ages’) period Re-focus upon human learning, understanding Alteration of artistic styles Rise of new forms of government EX: Florentine Republic Flourishing of scientific investigation

Urban Life:

Urban Life Wealth drew immigrants Immigrants brought new skills, demands EX: water Size of cities increases as more wealth garnered Importance of trade “Middling Sorts” begin to take control of politics NOT traditional aristocracy but as wealthy as (or more than) Elites NOT mean peasants, day laborers Bankers, merchants

Origins: Italian City-States:

Origins: Italian City-States Italian Peninsula divided amongst powerful, wealthy City-States Genoa, Pisa, Venice, Florence, Milan Made wealthy by trade, shipping within the Mediterranean Crusades made city-states very wealthy Late 14 th , early 15 th c. monopoly on trade in Ottoman, Arab lands Monopoly solidified with fall of Byzantines Combination of wealth, access led to ‘Renaissance’ in Italy by late 14 th c.

Renaissance Italy:

Renaissance Italy

Renaissance Advancements:

Renaissance Advancements Art, Architecture Michelangelo, Da Vinci Science Galileo Galilei, Da Vinci Literature/Poetry Machiavelli, Giovanni Boccaccio

Medieval Art:

Medieval Art

Renaissance Art:

Renaissance Art

Spotlight: Anatomy & Physiology:

Spotlight: Anatomy & Physiology Antonio Pollauolo the first “Renaissance” artist given permission by church to dissect human bodies (1460s) Da Vinci’s Vitruvian man illuminates the idea of perfect human proportion & symmetry (1490s) Based upon anatomical dissections Dissections were sometimes clandestine, though a few were officially sanctioned Vitruvian Man  named after Roman Architect, Vitruvius Ideal proportions for buildings Da Vinci, Michelangelo, others pioneered medical descriptors for accuracy Based upon architectural terms, adopted for human body Dissections published after death become standard medical techniques for centuries Art fueled science, science fueled art

Medici: Middling Sorts as Patrons:

Medici: Middling Sorts as Patrons Medici family uses conspicuous consumption to patronize city (Florence) and accrue political power Sponsor architectural & engineering feats to glorify city Glorify selves as well Medici never become monarchs outright Florentine Republic allows them to put family members in positions of power 4 popes Dukes, Grand Duchy Maintain power until 18 th century

Interlocking Disciplines:

Interlocking Disciplines

Center of the Solar System:

Center of the Solar System Aristotelian & Ptolomaic view of the world reinforced by Story of Creation (Bible) Supports Church dogma Not supported by mathematics Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer, lawyer, physician commented upon, improved earlier works by European & Muslim astronomers Mathematically more sound to have earth revolve around sun Prints “On the revolutions of the planetary spheres” 1543

Food for Thought:

Food for Thought “Middling Sort” patronage of arts, architecture (and political clout) challenges older “Medieval” power structures Sort of… Scientific investigation into art, architecture, physics & astronomy alter the way humans understand the universe Sort-of… Italy may have “spawned” the Renaissance, and Italian patrons may be the most famous, but they’re not the only ones Poland France England Holy Roman Empire

The Western Schism:

The Western Schism Papacy split by politics 1378 College of Cardinals elect Italian pope [Clement VI] Returns to Rome, Italy as center of Church Cardinals announce they had been coerced & elect second pope [Clement VII] Resumes papal see in Avignon, France European kingdoms split along political lines as 2 “Antipopes” excommunicate each other & their followers Avignon: France, Aragon, Castille , Cypress, Scotland, Naples Rome: England, Holy Roman Empire, Denmark, Flanders, Poland, most of Northern Italy A THIRD Antipope was elected in Pisa, Italy, 1409 Eventually resolved in 1415 but the Church’s reputation (and cohesiveness) was ruined

More dangerous than Gunpowder:

More dangerous than Gunpowder Johannes Gutenberg’s Bible ca 1450 Takes printing, dissemination of knowledge out of hands of Church, monks New technology allows for emergence of newspapers

Why is it Important?:

Why is it Important? Think about Blogs, Tweets, Facebook, cable news, Wikipedia, cell phones What if it all went “dark”? How would you know what was happening in your community? In the world? Would you know about international incidents? Presidential speeches? Newest inventions? How dependent are we upon information?

95 Theses:

95 Theses 1517 – Martin Luther critiques Catholic church practice, dogma Salvation comes from God, not works Laymen could be own priests Marriage of clergy renounces celibacy in priests Publication of Bible in ‘vernacular’ instead of Latin Average people could read, learn from bible No need for Church interpretation Emergence of schism between European countries, principalities

Martin Luther: One of Many:

Martin Luther: One of Many John Wycliffe: English philosopher, theologian (1331 – 84) Advocated translation of bible into Vernacular (local language) to increase access Fallibility of the Church vs. infallibility of divine word (i.e. bible) Predestination Declared a heretic in 1415 Jan Hus: Czech priest & philosopher (1369 – 1415) Decried moral failings of Medieval/Renaissance Church 1408 – 1415 Selling of indulgences Crusades: Popes & Bishops as “emissaries of Peace” could not “Take up the Sword Burned at the stake for heresy 1415 Class Question: Why was Luther so much more successful than Hus or Wycliffe?


Recap Renaissance or just “not medieval”? Art, architecture, science, investigation reinforce each other New powers rising give hint of “Modern” European possibilities Technology changed battlefield, minds


Homework Chapter 15! Resources to better understand some of the advancements of the Renaissance Email!

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