102_Today & Beyond (Week 8) RECORDING

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Today & Beyond:

Today & Beyond Shifts in World History


Terms! BRIC : New, emerging economic powers on the world stage; Brazil, Russia, India, and China are all grappling with different problems that are similar to those experienced in Europe and the United States, but with a different context Climate Change : Often called “Global Warming” it is the addition of energy to the climatological world system. The result, 97% of scientists agree, is hotter, dryer summers and colder, wetter winters. Not to be mistaken for “weather” which is a localized phenomenon. Globalization : Another difficult term; the interconnectedness of the world through trade, diplomacy, travel, and expansion. Hastened since the advent of steam- and oil-powered travel.

Challenges & Revolutions:

Challenges & Revolutions New revolutions are going to center around resources, population, and energy Pre-Contemporary World revolutions: Ideas! Industrial Revolution Enlightenment & Renaissance Nationalist & Anti-Colonial Revolutions Space! “Scramble for Africa” Asian colonies WWI

Benefits of Increased Mechanization:

Benefits of I ncreased Mechanization “Shrunken” world Communications, travel Closer economic ties Wider supply chain Longer lives Medicine Immunization Food Nutrition, amount Convenience Labor Less energy output per person Spare time leisure

Life Expectancy:

Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy:

Life Expectancy

Child Mortality:

Child Mortality

Population by the Numbers:

Population by the Numbers 1000 CE 300,000,000 people world-wide Europe & Africa < 100,000,000 combined 1800 1,000,000,000 people world-wide Most live in China, India 1924 2,000,000,000 people world-wide Population doubled in less than 125 years 1975 4,000,000,000 people world-wide Population doubled in 50 years 2011 7,000,000,000 people world-wide Less than 200 years to grow by 6 billion

Population Levels:

Population Levels

Causes of Population Increase:

Causes of Population Increase Improved farming technology Fertilizers Mechanization Genetic Engineering Improvements in medical technology Detection, diagnosis of disease Treatment, prevention of disease Immunization Improvements in world safety Wars still happen

Spotlight: Vaccination:

Spotlight: Vaccination Inoculation (the process to make harmful organisms harmless to humans) explored in China as early as 10 th c. CE, India ca. 1000 CE Exposure to certain elements (often vague, misleading, unscientific) to prevent future infection Exposure to powdered scabs, dried excretions Immunizations through vaccine began in England in 1798 with humans injected with Cow Pox Similarity to small pox “Vaccine” – Vacca ( cow Lt.) Other vaccinations developed over the next 2 centuries Cholera, tetanus, rabies, etc.


WARNING: HISTORICAL DIATRIBE Vaccines are a victim of their own success Render diseases ‘invisible’ Anti-Vaccination movement ill-informed, misguided Personal choice vs. communal health Visible disease vs. Invisible disease Biases confuse cause & effect Cognitive bias

Immunization by the Numbers & Food for Thought:

Immunization by the Numbers & Food for Thought Polio Vaccine (Jonas Salk) 1955 21,000+ cases reported in 1952 63 cases in 1965 Pertussis (Whooping Cough) 120,000 cases 1954 1080 cases 2015 Meningitis C 99% reduction (UK) since 1998 How can healthcare providers & society overcome biases? Human blind spot: visible threat vs. abstract threat Omission bias Scientific presentation & rational arguments solidify irrational biases Information fails to decrease hesitancy to vaccinate

Challenges still present:

Challenges still present Globalization interconnects the world Dependency theory Information overload Inaction in the face of overwhelming choices, concerns Disparity of wealth, resources Developed vs. developing vs. undeveloped Responsibility Free will, global community, political ideology

Downside of Globalization:

Downside of Globalization Increasing disparity Resource allocation ‘developed’ v. ‘developing’ v. ‘undeveloped’ countries Food Water Energy Wealth Levels of Pollution Use v. Responsibility Who is affected most? Population increase Global tragedy possible


CO2 levels

Pollution & Its Effects:

Pollution & Its Effects Air Pollution Cause of Chronic illnesses Asthma, Emphysema, etc. Climate change Acid Rain Water Pollution Cause of Water-borne illnesses Cholera, dysentery, Typhus Wildlife depletion Combined with over-fishing Land pollution Cause if Birth defects* Cancers* Soil depletion

World Hunger:

World Hunger

Ideological Struggles:

Ideological Struggles Many ‘Emerging’ countries (China, India) struggle with philosophical, political problems China: Pro-Democracy protesters (dissidents) can be jailed, forced into prisons India: Hindu nationalists often target, attack non-Hindu minorities and income disparity is rampant Russia: Political corruption, rigged elections commonplace Brazil: Limited access to education in countryside, favelas

Social Media & The World:

Social Media & The World Changes in communication shaped Atlantic revolutions, Industrial Revolution, World Wars Twitter, Facebook, Pinterest open people to the world Control of information important to all governments, holders of power Wikileaks ? Anonymous? Who SHOULD control information? Who CAN?

Other Concerns & Possibilities:

Other Concerns & Possibilities Net Negative Increase in international terrorism Increase in resource competition Increase in corporate power Net positive Increased communication grows awareness Increased connectivity means people matter Increased education opens creates new problem solvers

Food for Thought:

Food for Thought Think about how the ‘revolutions’ and challenges of the past have affected the status quo What challenges to emerging economies face? Are they the same as what the older economies faced? What does this mean for Europe and America as “Old” economies?


HOMEWORK! Chapter 33 & 34 Global Viewpoints on Islam & Africa! Additional resources FINAL WEEK!

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