101_Europe to 1500s (Week 13) RECORDING

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Europe to 1500s:

Europe to 1500s Later Medieval & ‘Renaissance’

Things to Forget:

Things to Forget European (Western) Dominance Europeans through the 16 th century are largely weak Economically Politically fragmented “Inevitability” i.e. post hoc ergo propter hoc – taking what is now and assuming it was always going to happen Divine Guidance i.e. “Manifest Destiny” or God’s blessing, etc.

Thought about Medieval Life:

Thought about Medieval Life What kind of life did serfs lead? From where did the King (or Queen) receive their power? What kinds of philosophical issues did the Medieval world deal with?

Real-Life Serfs:

Real-Life Serfs Serfs were exploited for most of the Medieval Era New invader from Asia disrupts European society Military ineffective Diplomacy impossible Prayers unanswered Punishment by God

The Black Plague World Tour:

The Black Plague World Tour 1347 – 1349 the “Black Plague” swept along trade routes Originated in China Progressed along the Silk Road (Airborne?) Around 33% - 50% of Europe’s population dies in 2 years Myth, superstition abound Cats = Devil Worship (Circe) Laughter keeps plague at bay Ring around the Rosie

Post-Plague Europe:

Post-Plague Europe Serfs migrate to cities Can demand higher wages because of labor shortage “Serfs” sometimes self-emancipated by changing names, locations Aristocracy passes “sumptuary laws” Clothing laws designed to prevent people mistaking craftsmen for aristocrats Serfs who remain behind become largely autonomous Also become legal experts in own right Administer Lord’s lands while he’s away

Divine Right:

Divine Right The Church explains the right of Kings as divinely-gifted God wills the King (and sometimes Queen) to rule Peasants, serfs, artisans must obey Feudal system keeps aristocrats in check (sort of) Owe allegiance to the King must levy troops, crops

Exception to the Rule:

Exception to the Rule 1215 a group of English nobles force Prince John (brother to king Richard) to sign a document regarding the rule of English Kings “ No free man shall be seized or imprisoned, or stripped of his rights or possessions, or outlawed or exiled . nor will we proceed with force against him . except by the lawful judgment of his equals or by the law of the land. To no one will we sell, to no one deny or delay right or justice.”

English Literature:

English Literature Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer the first such tale written in the ‘vernacular’ (medieval English) instead of Latin

Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales:

Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales 24 people on pilgrimage to Canterbury Each tells tales of their lives, duties Epic, but fragmented, poem in vernacular English Wife of Bath (3 rd fragment) Bawdy Gap-toothed (sexually liberated) Satirical, farcical Geoffrey Chaucer was popular, then became target of “morality purges” Unknown burial place

The Wife of Bath:

The Wife of Bath Praise be to God that I have wedded five! And welcome the sixth, whenever he shall come Forsooth, I'll not keep chaste for good and all, When my husband is gone from the world, Some Christian man will wed me some day, .... Better to marry than to burn (with lust) within Yblessed be God that I have wedded fyve! Welcome the sixte, whan that evere he shal. For sothe, I wol nat kepe me chaast in al. Whan myn housbonde is fro the world ygon, Som cristen man shal wedde me anon, .... Bet is to be wedded than to brynne

Europe by the 1500s:

Europe by the 1500s Relatively poor region on the world stage Asia (China, Japan), South Asia (India), Middle East (Ottomans), New World (Aztec, Incas) Negative trade balance Majority of money leaving Europe European navigation born of necessity Access to luxury goods Access to food preservation, enhancement

Class Question:

Class Question What did you have for dinner last night? What spices were on it? Pepper? Chilis ? Cumin? Allspice? Cinnamon? Sugar? Think about the food in your fridge: Do you have meat, eggs, or milk? How long will that last without refrigeration? On a limited budget (meat used to be expensive, for example) would you throw away meat that was a little smelly? Why or why not?

Status Quo: Silk Road:

Status Quo: Silk Road

“Silk Road”:

“Silk Road” Term coined in 18 th century to describe trade routes from China to Europe Typically goods came west, money flowed east Overland, maritime routes Each stop added cost to products Taxes, price increased as traders exchanged goods Rarely would a single merchant complete an entire circuit Silk, Rice, Peppercorn, etc. known in Ancient, Medieval Europe Expense made it affordable to the very wealthy only

Henry the Navigator:

Henry the Navigator Portuguese prince Fascinated with exploration, maps Funded expeditions to uncover new lands for Portuguese Looking for alternate route to India, China Begins rich tradition of Portuguese ‘Navigators’ and explorers Bartolomeo Diaz Vasco de Gama

Reconquista:

Reconquista A 700-year-long campaign to eject Muslims from Iberia (Spain) Culminated in the fall of Grenada, the last Muslim Caliphate in Iberia, January 1492 Does not mean the end of hostilities Muslims, Jews begin to flee to Morocco, Anatolia (Ottoman Empire) Some who remain convert to Catholicism Muslims  Moriscos Jews  Conversos

The Spanish Inquisition:

The Spanish Inquisition Attempt by Spanish Church (Catholic) authorities to purge non-believers, false converters from Spain Begins 1478 Intensified with fall of Grenada (1492 – 1501) Secret informants Torture Execution Censorship Portugal also has its own Inquisition in 1530’s

Fall of Constantinople:

Fall of Constantinople Byzantine Empire (Medieval Romans) barely hold onto Constantinople until 1452 Ottoman Empire led by Mehmet II conquer Constantinople Put an end to a sickly, weak ‘Empire’ Move capitol of Ottoman Empire to Constantinople Jews, Muslims fleeing Reconquista find sanctuary in Constantinople 2 nd class citizens but better than Europe News of Inquisition reaches Ottoman Empire quickly

Ottoman Empire:

Ottoman Empire

Italian City-States:

Italian City-States Italian Peninsula divided amongst powerful, wealthy City-States Genoa, Pisa, Venice, Florence, Milan Made wealthy by trade, shipping within the Mediterranean Crusades made city-states very wealthy Late 14 th , early 15 th c. monopoly on trade in Ottoman, Arab lands Monopoly solidified with fall of Byzantines Combination of wealth, access led to ‘Renaissance’ in Italy by late 14 th c.

Why ‘Renaissance’?:

Why ‘Renaissance’? Pejorative term to differentiate from Medieval (‘Dark Ages’) period Re-focus upon human learning, understanding Alteration of artistic styles Rise of new forms of government EX: Florentine Republic Flourishing of scientific investigation

Medieval Art:

Medieval Art

Renaissance Art:

Renaissance Art

Renaissance Advancements:

Renaissance Advancements Art, Architecture Michelangelo, Da Vinci Science Galileo Galilei, Da Vinci Literature/Poetry Machiavelli, Giovanni Boccaccio

Class Question:

Class Question As a Spaniard, Portuguese… Are you willing to give up luxuries (spices, dyes, sugar, silk, etc.)? What kind of welcome do you think you might get when trading in Constantinople? As an Italian… Why would you/would you not fund Columbus’ expeditions?

1492:

1492 Italian explorer, adventurer Christopher Columbus offers services to Isabela & Ferdinand of Spain Knew world was round Easy route to India by going west Ships; Santa Clara (“Niña”), Pinta , Santa Maria Discovery of “New World” changes Europeans’ game

Portugal & India:

Portugal & India Vasco de Gama sails armed vessels into Indian Ocean Attacks, burns Muslim vessels Piracy Portuguese land in Calicut (Calcutta) 1498 CE Trade for spices, looking for Christian allies De Gama’s first shipment of peppercorns from India returns 3x profit for entire voyage Portuguese attempt to conquer Calicut Driven out my Muslim Mughal Empire Establish stronghold in small port town Ally w/ Hindus v. Muslims

Portugal & China:

Portugal & China Portuguese arrive in China 1514 Offensive actions, smell Ex washing clothes in urine Driven out by Chinese until 1557 Allowed to set up trading in Macao Must pay yearly tribute to continue trading in China Chinese refuse to treat Portuguese as equals

Portugal & Japan:

Portugal & Japan 1542 Portuguese delegation arrives in Japan Missionaries Trade deputation First European to visit fabled land Marco Polo wrote about Introduce guns, cannons Portuguese begin to learn Japanese language, customs Kowtow to Shogun Meekness in eyes of Samurai Spread Christianity

Class Questions*:

Class Questions* Think about the Portuguese experience with foreign lands Why were the Portuguese so offensive in India, China? Do you approve of the change in tactics with Japan? Why or why not? Why doesn’t Portugal hold onto its monopoly over trade? What do you think happens with Italian wealth as these trade routes open? Is this a good thing or a bad thing? Why or why not?

Homework:

Homework McKay Chap 14 Sources re: the Crusades! Additional resources online

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