102_The Cold War (Week 7) RECORDING

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The Cold War:

The Cold War Three “Worlds” in the 20 th Century

Terms!:

Terms! Containment : American-led policy of preventing the political, economic, or territorial expansion of the Soviet Union into Europe and beyond. Cold War: A struggle of ideologies between the United States and its allies (the “West”) and the Soviet Union and its allies (the “East”). Never directly confronting each other, the USA and USSR still fought proxy battles or interfered in each others plans regularly. Association of Non-Aligned States : Some nations attempted to form a third, neutral party to the Cold War paradigm as a means of asserting independence or autonomy within the Cold War. S.A.L.T./S.T.A.R.T Treaties : A series of agreements between the major nuclear powers ( the USA and USSR) in which certain safeguards would be placed upon the production, testing, and deployment of nuclear weapons. Eventually led to a modest reduction in the number and capacity of such weapons.

Post WWII World:

Post WWII World Two devastating war in a generation leave Europe on the brink of collapse European unemployment, rationing, disease, poverty unchecked between 1945 – 1947 Fertile ground for anarchists, Communist agitators (esp. Soviet) United States’ producing ½ world’s goods by 1945 Large mass of soldiers re-entering civilian life from military service Call for jobs, security Soviet Union solidifies control over Eastern Europe by implementing coups or elections which favor Communist governments Captured German factories, scientists, technology Alternative to Capitalism & republican institutions

USA – Soviet Relations:

USA – Soviet Relations Harry S. Truman (US) & Joseph Stalin (USSR) dislike, mistrust each other Truman’s order to end Lend-Lease program to Soviet Union but continue it for Europe angers, alarms Stalin Sign of US intention to continue war? Impending invasion? Resentment for use of Soviet bodies as “cannon fodder” vs. Germans

Cold War world at its height:

Cold War world at its height

The Long Telegram & “X”:

The Long Telegram & “X” Dept. of State employee in Russia: George F. Kennan Author of the “Long Telegram” (up to 8000 words) advocated a new approach to a rising Soviet Union Containment Economic, political counters in Europe prevent Soviet export of “The Revolution” “Hawks” point to assessment of Kennan as proof that “appeasement” of Soviet Union would embolden USSR, Stalin Truman Policy : To fight Communism through application of Military, economic aid Confront & Contain Soviet Union Stalin’s “Encirclement” legitimizes harsh policies

Europe in the Crosshairs:

E urope in the Crosshairs United States/Truman Stable, prosperous Europe prevents Soviet economic, political plans Military alliance needed to prevent Soviet aggression Fight Communism on all fronts to “Contain” Soviet Union Undermine Soviet influence at home & abroad USSR/ Stalin Weak, passive Europe prevents invasion of Russia Eastern Europe a bulwark against invasion as well Formation of military empire to prevent invasion, export revolution Counter Capitalist encroachment IMF, World Bank Encircled Soviet Union proof of Western aggression

Early Cold War Confrontation:

Early Cold War Confrontation 1948 - 49 Berlin Blockade 1950 – 53 Korean War 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis

Berlin Crisis 1948 - 49:

Berlin Crisis 1948 - 49 Germany divided into West & East Berlin similarly divided Within Soviet-controlled DDR Soviet show of force, ability Western show of capability, unity Airlift 13,000 tons/day w/ <800 aircraft Food, fuel, medicine, clothing, necessities

Why Berlin?:

Why Berlin? Closest point of contact between Soviet, Western troops Symbol of American, western presence & presige Easy win for Soviets in case of war Weak & Passive Germany vs. self-sufficient G ermany

End of the Blockade:

End of the Blockade 60+ Western airmen, soldiers die in non-combat fatalities No shots fired “Buzzing” May 1949 Agreement on Western terms Embarrassment for Soviet Union 2.3 million tons 280,000 flights (sorties)

Korea before 1950:

Korea before 1950 Japanese control of Korea ends 1945 Divided by pst -war agreement in 1945 Soviet-controlled north of 38 ⁰ Parallel US-controlled south of 38⁰ parallel Separate governments refuse to recognize each other Seoul Pyongyang American troops had withdrawn Soviet troops remained Chinese Communists victorious in 1949

The war 1950 - 53:

The war 1950 - 53 Kin Il- Sung’s Communist North Korea calls for Korea-wide election June 1950 Rebuffed by gov’t of Syngman Rhee Invasion, June 1950 Startling gains United Nations calls for cease fire No Soviet Presence on Security Council Calls for war vs. North korea US-led coalition reverses gains China (with Soviet support) intervenes Up to 1,000,000 soldiers Stalemate @ 38 ⁰

Cease Fire!:

Cease Fire! Stalemate drags on for 2 years Armistice stops fighting, does not end “hostilities” with peace accord 52+-year pause Atomic Warfare avoided Soviet Union rejoins United Nations UN Monitors 38 th Parallel

Cuba in the 1950’s:

Cuba in the 1950’s Fulgencio Batista (  ) helps overthrow Cuban gov’t in 1940 Writes liberalist constitution Land reforms Free education Minimum Wage President 1940 - 44 Returns to power after 8 years in Florida Coup overturns Democratically-elected gov’t Suspends constitution Police state Anti-Communist Fascist Criminal, corporate alliances fed Batista’s bank account

Cuban Revolution:

Cuban Revolution Fidel & Raul Castro & Ernesto ‘ Che ’ Guevara lead one of many insurgent groups Success breeds followers Followers make success more possible Batista’s US backing evaporates Evidence of torture, criminal support Army abandons Batista Student-led demonstrations Union work stoppages Castro et. al force Batista to flee to Dominican Republic 1959

Between Two Powers:

Between Two Powers Castro begins to chart “third” path between powers Attracted to Soviet philosophy “I have said very clearly we are not Communists; very clearly…” Harlem, NY 1959 Recognizes closeness, power of USA Castro & Nixon Implementation of Socialist agenda Land reform Free hospitals, schools Ends corporate, criminal agreements Batista supporters tried Rigged trials?

1961 & 1962:

1961 & 1962 John F Kennedy picks up Eisenhower-era plan for invasion of Cuba Eager to prove “Cold Warrior” credentials Bay of Pigs Invasion fiasco Castro’s true nature? October 1962 Cuba-Soviet agreement to house medium range nuclear missiles discovered Cuban harassment Tit-for-tat American missiles in Italy, Turkey 13 days, nuclear war Failure to communicate Hotline

Early Cold War Lessons?:

Early Cold War Lessons? Containment clearly not working Soviet Union “jumps the fence” often Cuba, Egypt, Afghanistan, Korea, etc. War by proxy No direct confrontation A world divided into extremes leds itself to extremists Terrorists, dictators, coup d’etat , etc.

Another side of the Cold War:

Another side of the Cold War Space Race Treaties & Negotiation The Third Path

Space Race:

Space Race Soviet Union, United States capitalize upon German rocketry expertise in non-military ‘race’ Technology Soviet Union 1 st in space with Sputnik ( ) 1 st again with Laika , the dog (1 st living creature in space) 1 st a third time with Yuri Gagarin as 1 st man in space Also, 1 st woman (and youngest person) in space was Valentina Tereshkova 1963 US embarks upon ambitious goal to go to the Moon US landing on moon, July 20 th , 1969 DARPA, NASA

Why go to the moon?:

Why go to the moon?

SALT & START & Beyond:

SALT & START & Beyond Strategic Arms Limitation Talks & Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty emphasize cooperation & limitations of nuclear weapons in latter portion of Cold War SALT I, SALT II aim to cap nuclear arms at 1969 (and 1979) levels New SALT begun in 2011 with Russia START I, START II reduced number of warheads deployed -80% by 2001 Other nuclear activities also eliminated, banned Ex: Above-ground testing of nuclear bombs ( ) Lessons learned from 1962?

Association of Non-Aligned Nations:

Association of Non-Aligned Nations India, Egypt, Yugoslavia, and others use non-Soviet, non-US stance to chart a ‘middle path’ to international order Membership fluctuated from one meting to another “Ensure the national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of non-aligned countries” Fidel Castro 1979 Against neo-colonialism, racism, occupation, interference in politics by “Great Blocs” 55% of world’s population

Homework:

Homework Chapters 31 & 32 Don’t forget Sources ! Additional resources Email! The final draws near!

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