102_The Two Great Wars (Week 6) RECORDING

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The Two Great Wars:

The Two Great Wars World War I and World War Two

Critical Thinking:

Critical Thinking How has the European attitude towards race, progress, war, and colonialism lead to the Great Wars of the early- and mid-Twentieth Century? Who is to blame for WWI? Why? What effect did the Treaty of Versailles contribute to WWII? Are the French and British at least partially responsible for WWII and the rise of Adolph Hitler?

Overview & Terms!:

Overview & Terms! The Great War’s causes & effects Leading to a sequel? Guilt or Circumstance? Pan-Nationalism: An appeal to others in another country based upon real or perceived cultural similarities Fascism: A strongly conservative government suspicious of Communism, liberal-socialism, and democratic reforms. Typically led by strong authoritarian rulers. 14 Points : America’s reasons for entering the Great War. Based upon Progressivist and free-market ideas but never meant to apply outside of Europe

Balance:

Balance 19 th century peace “Balance of Powers” France, Great Britain, Austria-Hungary, Russia Each country a counter-weight to the others What about Italy, Germany? New countries emerge 1852, 1871 (respectively) Hungry to be taken seriously, participate in European politics as an equal What happens to the “Balance”?

Competing Alliances:

Competing Alliances Triple Alliance (Central Powers) Italy*, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire^ Formed 1882 Pact of mutual protection v. stronger European powers Triple Entente (Allied Powers) Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy* Formed 1907 Alliance aimed at checking growing power of Germany

Europe on the Brink:

Europe on the Brink

Heart of the Matter:

Heart of the Matter Colonization not confined to Africa, Asia Austria Hungary, Russia competed for influence, territory in The Balkans Austria-Hungary acquires Bosnia, Herzegovinia 1908 Serbia worried that they are next Secret pact with Russia for help Europeans confident about the ‘rightness’ of going to war over territory, prestige Balance of Power: Use it or lose it?

Archduke Franz Ferdinand:

Archduke Franz Ferdinand Heir to throne of A-H Empire Visiting Sarejevo Several failed assassination attempts Driver gets lost Opportunity: Gavrillo Princeps Death offers A-H pretext for war with Serbia Serbia reaches out to Russia for help Russian declaration of war triggers interlocking alliances

Beginning of War:

Beginning of War Europeans supremely confident of quick victory Tout mechanized warfare Glory of battle Volunteers eager to sign up for “quick, glorious war” EX: England (almost 1 million volunteers Aug - Oct, 1914) “Lions” led by “Donkeys” Eager soldiers led by inept, ignorant generals?

East Asia:

East Asia Japan member of Entente Secured Pacific for Entente Put down rebellions on behalf of England Secured German holdings in Asia (esp. China) Treated as junior member during Treaty negotiations Western powers suspicious of Japanese intent China technically member of Entente Chinese labor in Western Front unrecognized Chinese hoped to be ‘freed’ from Unequal Treaties by Wilson’s 14 Points US, Europe reaffirm Japanese dominion over Manchuria

Mechanized Warfare:

Mechanized Warfare Machine gun (Vickers, maxim) 600 rounds/minute Oil-based navies Submarine warfare Airplanes Reconnaissance, warfare Chemical weapons Mustard gas, nerve gas Tanks

Spotlight: Chemical Warfare:

Spotlight: Chemical Warfare Chemical irritants used by France, Germany, England in the early years of the war (i.e. tear gas) Germans deploy Chlorine Gas during 2 nd battle of Ypres, 1915 Chlorine Gas: Cases mucus membranes to exude a slimy fluid which prevents absorption of all gases (including oxygen) Acrid smell & profuse tearing cause troops to break easily Phosgene gas: Colorless, ‘musty hay’ smell masks gas attacks Sluggish feeling + coughing blood-laced phlegm (pulmonary edema), heart attack Mustard Gas: combination of ammonia & chlorine Odorless, colorless, long-lasting Caustic sores, corneal rupture, pulmonary edema & blistering Secondary infections (pneumonia)

Casualties of the ‘Great War’:

Casualties of the ‘Great War’ 37 million casualties 9.5 million soldiers dead 6.5 million civilians dead Economies ruined Infrastructure destroyed Treasuries emptied

Women & The War to end all Wars:

Women & The War to end all Wars Women volunteer Non-combat roles Nurses, ambulance, etc. Support roles Communication, Liaison, mechanics, etc. Women in the economy Munitions, weapons plants “yellow girls” Bread winners Postal service, bus drivers, bank tellers, elevator operators

End of the War:

End of the War American entry forces Germany to surrender American president Woodrow Wilson cautions France, England not to take revenge Largely ignored France, England force Germany to sign harsh agreements Prevent Germany from becoming military power again Crush German economy Repayment plan would last until 1988

Intermezzo:

Intermezzo Post-war European, Japanese economies boom New generation of veterans (the “Lost Generation”) produce artists, poets, writers Hemmingway, Tolkein , Huxley, etc. United States returns to political isolationism Economies of Europe, USA linked like never before German Weimar Republic constantly on a knife’s edge Deep debt, high loan balance Attempt to renegotiate post-war debt several times Great Britain, France use colonial resources to replenish depleted treasuries Middle East, Africa, Asia Russian Empire replaced by Soviet Union Authoritarian government masquerading as Communist gov’t Russian Civil War fueled by West sows deeper mistrust Western populations distract themselves with good times, good jobs, pursuit of fun & pleasure Mask deeper issues

Life is a Cabaret, my friend!:

Life is a Cabaret, m y friend! German Kabarett fuses traditional French Cabaret performances… Burlesque Comedians Music (jazz, blues) …with German cynicism, satire, and political commentary

“Black” Days of 1929:

“Black” Days of 1929 Credit crunch begins in 1927 Recession in full swing by Summer, 1929 “Black Thursday” Oct 24 1929 Stock market “bubble” burst “Black Tuesday” Oct 29 1929 Stocks tanked, $32 Billion in stock value disappears in about 24 hours World-Wide Effect Cripples European, Asian economy as well

“It’s the economy, Stupid”:

“It’s the economy, Stupid” Italians dissatisfied with end of Great War Still struggling with social, economic stability Benito Mussolini (former Socialist) adopts & popularizes Fascism Mussolini Fascism Primacy of the State Unifying government identity Totalitarianism for order & stability Militarism Co-opting Communist or Socialist ‘buzzwords’ Anti-Communist, Anti- Democratist Glory of the past reborn in a new “Empire”

Taisho Democracy, Japan:

Taisho Democracy, Japan Japan controls large chunks of former German territory in Asia, China Shandong province Marshall Islands Micronesia Western-style parties & emergent economy make for good times in Japan Western recognition Market crash causes Democracy to implode New “Showa Era” of Fascist-like militarism to ensure stability Glory of the Samurai

Weimar Republic in Germany:

Weimar Republic in Germany New, representative republic chosen for Germany High international debts prevent economy from flourishing Worse during Great Depression 8000% inflation at worst Dissatisfied, frustrated Germans turn to radical, reactionary politics Hitler’s “ Brownshirts ” and “National Socialist Party” Hitler becomes Chancellor 1933

Hitler’s Germany:

Hitler’s Germany Abrogates Treaty of Versailles Begins building up military Looks for ‘scapegoats’ in German society Jews, Bolsheviks ruining country Anti-Jewish pogroms displace, murder Jews, dissidents Expanding “ Lebenstraum ” for German people Annex Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland Land wasted on “inferior” peoples

Spotlight: The Axis:

Spotlight: The Axis Did Germany, Italy, and Japan want to rule the world together? No, they just recognized similar gripes & interests EX: In China, Germany backed the anti-Japanese Nationalists EX: In Vietnam, pro-Nazi Vichy France backed anti-Japanese Communists & Nationalists Asia for Japan “Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere” led by Japan

World Reaction:

World Reaction Great Britain: “Appeasement” PM Neville Chamberlain “Peace in our time” France: alliance with Poland Arming defensive “Maginot line” United States Some politicians, pundits support German recovery Anti-Communist character Majority largely indifferent, isolationist Soviet Union Makes deal to split Poland with Germany, remain out of war

Plunge into War:

Plunge into War German invasion of Poland 1939 ‘Blitzkrieg’ and air superiority overwhelm less-industrialized Poland France declares war on Germany Enlists Great Britain’s help German invasion of France, 1940 The Netherlands, Belgium, France conquered by June 1940 British abandon supplies, war materiel to save troops Pearl Harbor, December 1941 Japanese (German ally) attacks American fleet Germany declares war, US enters into war

A More Modern War:

A More Modern War Rocketry improved V1, V2 rockets & “The Blitz” RADAR invented Secret British ‘death ray’ Atomic Bombs Manhattan Project Hiroshima Nagasaki

Women & WWII:

Women & WWII Women again take roles in typically ‘masculine’ jobs Esp. manufacturing Rosie the Riveter Women’s economic freedom may have lead to the next generation’s push for gender equality (Women’s Movement) Sole ‘bread winner,’ de facto single mothers Women in ‘auxiliary’ military roles WACS, WAVES Fill in positions for men Military rank

Destruction Complete:

Destruction Complete 60+ million deaths caused by World War Two ~20,000,000 soldiers ~40,000,000 civilians Disease Starvation Massacres Bombings ‘final solution’ and other genocides In perspective 1 in 4 Russians were killed during the war Black plague of 14 th century killed fewer Russians

The Final Solution:

The Final Solution Jews, ‘undesirables’ detained in Ghettoes, concentration camps Systematic program of mass murder Dead treated like refuse, raw material Starvation, poison gas, shootings, etc. become norm

The Final Tally:

The Final Tally 11+ Million dead ~6 million Jews ~3 million Polish Catholics African-Germans Handicapped Mentally Ill/Developmentally Challenged Homosexuals Gypsies Slavs Resistance fighters (Holland, France, Belgium, Germany, Hungary, Greece, etc.)

Hiroshima, Nagasaki:

Hiroshima, Nagasaki

End of WWII in Asia:

End of WWII in Asia Hiroshima (Little Boy) August 6, 1945 Nagasaki (Fat Man) August 9, 1945

I Have Become Death…:

I Have Become Death… 75,000+ dead, 74,000+ injured in Nagasaki alone Bombs force Japanese to sign conditional surrender Emperor not forced to resign Allied forces (except Russia) occupy Japan Pacifist Constitution Horror of the devastation haunts Robert Oppenheimer “I have become death, destroyer of worlds…” Campaigns for Atomic Disarmament Frozen out of US research, development

After WWII:

After WWII US Leadership in world important Rivalry with Soviet Union Political, economic, strategic differences Prevent conditions which led to WWII Rebuild Europe, World Even Germany, Japan Marshall Plan spends $13 Billion to rebuild Europe (keep West working to prevent Communism) Establish United Nations Punish ‘war criminals’ for genocide, devastation

Post-WWII (Cold War) Europe:

Post-WWII (Cold War) Europe

Critical Thinking for the Chapters:

Critical Thinking for the Chapters How has the European attitude towards race, progress, war, and colonialism lead to the Great Wars of the early- and mid-Twentieth Century? Who is to blame for WWI? Why? What effect did the Treaty of Versailles contribute to WWII? Are the French and British at least partially responsible for WWII and the rise of Adolph Hitler?

Homework:

Homework Chap 28 & 30 Sources! Additional resources Exam due by Sunday at midnight.

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