102_South Asia, West Asia (Week 5) RECORDING

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South Asia, west Asia & Africa (19th c):

South Asia, west Asia & Africa (19 th c)

Terms!:

Terms! Anti-Colonialism – A movement in states within Africa and Asia toward independence from Colonial European control; manifests in various ways (violent & non-violent) Home Rule – a proposed post-colonial state in which a former colony is able to elect a semi-independent legislature, judiciary, executive as well as negotiate treaties, set monetary policy (and currency), and conduct business as a stand-alone state while remaining part of the European home empire (i.e. Canada or Australia) Nationalism – The belief that the individual is part of a larger, inter-connected whole, usually promoted through education, sloganeering, and propaganda. Usually in contrast to colonial control and/or traditional regional/familial ties. Pan-Nationalism – An appeal to residents and subjects of other countries in an effort to unite them against other ethnicities or outside control; Pan-Arabism, Pan-Slavism Kemalism – nationalist movement in post-ottoman turkey which emphasizes secularism, nationalism, and westward-looking society

India:

India

India & The Opium Wars:

India & The Opium Wars Opium used for centuries as medicine in China, India Europeans learn how to concentrate, mix opium w/ tobacco for more addictive product Opium introduced to China in 18 th century Banned by Imperial law 1 st Opium War 1839 Indian-grown opium seized by Chinese, sparks war with England England gains control of Hong Kong, wins concessions 2 nd Opium war 1856 England has unfettered access to Chinese markets France, Germany, USA follow with “Unequal Treaties” & begin China’s “century of humiliation”

India & the EIC:

India & the EIC Control of India through the EIC established, codified through series of Parliamentary acts which establish East India Company’s monopoly over India’s economy, politics, and social structure In 19 th century, Industrial Revolution in England fostered in part by Indian farmers Cotton is king! Emphasis on Cotton explodes in 1860’s Why?

East India Company Act 1813:

East India Company Act 1813 Established that EIC had a royal “charter” to rule in Crown’s place EIC economic monopoly ends except over tea & any good traded to China (ex: opium) Governor Generals of Presidencies in Bombay (Mumbai), Calcutta (Calicut) and Madras (Chennai) have greater control over territories Including deposing princes, divesting landlords of lands, establishing missions, etc. EIC charter to be reviewed in 20 year increments or at behest of parliament

Slow Erosion of EIC:

Slow Erosion of EIC 1833: Parliament re-authorizes EIC charter with some alterations EIC no longer a monopoly Free market practices allow English producers to sell wares in India directly Bans discrimination of “loyal subjects” born in India No discrimination based upon skin color, religion, place of birth Muslim subjects seen as increasingly loyal, educated 1835: EIC begins to favor English-only policies Schools, courts, government bureaucracy British belief that Sanskrit, Persian, other languages ‘inferior’ to English, incompatible with Democracy

Cash or Crops:

Cash or Crops India faces regular famines during colonial period Famines are a lack of food available, not lack of food BEI required taxes paid in cash Food crops low cash value; cash crops have higher cash value

Faux pas:

Faux pas 1853: EIC control re-authorized Based upon glowing reports from EIC officials Ignoring simmering tensions (perhaps indifferent?) 1857 “ Sepoy Mutiny” (aka First War of Independence, Great Uprising) EIC weapons use cartridges lubricated with beef, pork tallow How would this affect Hindu, Muslim troops? EIC ignored other, more expensive lubricants Bengali troops kill British commanders, march upon Delhi (seat of EIC gov’t) along Ganges river Encourages large-scale troop mutiny throughout North, East India

Causes of Mutiny; A tale of two viewpoints:

Causes of Mutiny; A tale of two viewpoints Indian Viewpoint Emerging Nationalism Taxes far steeper, regularly collected Traditional elite (princes, landlords) replaced by pro- british middle class Farmers discouraged from growing traditional crops Cash crops (cotton, opium, tea) Cyclical famines exacerbate underlying social tensions Poor increasingly working for low wages in factories Urban pressure increased social divide British (Conservative) Viewpoint Liberalist reforms angered ‘traditional’ Indians with rapid modernization, Anglification , & Christianization Laissez faire economics EIC too ham-handed in administration “Sullen” Indians not ready to accept Liberal ideals such as non-discrimination, egalitarianism, secularism ; Indians too “excitable” for Democratic reforms

1857:

1857 Mutineers supported by some elite Ex: Queen of Jhansi – RanI Laxmi bai Used rebellion to increase personal power Rebels attack towns, forts and target white men, women, children (EIC officials) Also carve out portions of neighboring ‘neutral’ or ‘loyal’ states LaXmi bai becomes “the Mother of Indian nationalism” “We fight for independence. In the words of Lord Krishna, we will if we are victorious, enjoy the fruits of victory. If defeated and killed on the field of battle, we shall surely earn eternal glory and salvation.”

Class Questions:

Class Questions Think about the EIC and India… What is the purpose of promoting an English-only government & education system? What do you think about the argument that ‘liberalism’ is to blame? What other revolutionary( ies ) do LaXmi bai’s words echo? Be specific. What do you think the official British reaction should be?

End of Rebellion June 1858:

End of Rebellion June 1858 LaXmi bai may have been ‘forced’ into rebellion British troops, neighbors invaded her territory before arrival of Sepoys Rani fought as cavalry officer, commander Wounded, orders her body burned to deny British a trophy British troops punish local populations Mass arrests, interrogations British troops loot recaptured cities

A New, British India:

A New, British India EIC control of India abolished by Parliament in 1858 EIC dissolved shortly after Crown assumes direct control over India at behest of Parliament Established as a Viceroy ends deposition of princes, landowners Refunds lost land to dispossessed landlords Queen Victoria receives oaths of loyalty & fealty from princes in line with Indian Imperial tradition De-emphasized control over schooling, education

Industrial Revolution:

Industrial Revolution Infrastructure modernized Bridges, railroads, telegraph, etc. Economy modernized Factories, mechanical ag. Production Taxes lowered 1% tax rate lowest in history Ports-of-call updated Farmers afforded direct access to British markets world-wide Displaced farmers Cash-crops lead to famine 10,000,000+ die Unequal wealth, opportunity Very few places for educated Indians Closed economy Gov't monopolies, restricted trade Indian exodus Following job opportunities in British Empire South America, South AfRica , UK

Slow Steps:

Slow Steps British forced to give low-level Government jobs to Indians 1909 Government of India Act; limited rule, parliamentary body Culmination of internal pressure by Indians for political change Racial attitudes of British limit 'home rule' successes Viceroy not held accountable to legislature Indian elite begin to use English technologies & methods of organization to rouse public opinion against British Rule Force more concessions Pave way to “Home Rule” “Westernizing” elements embrace modernity through emulation Revivalist & Fundamentalist religious elements in Hindu, Muslim societies emerge

World War I & India:

World War I & India 1.5 Million soldiers from India (ethnic & british) participate in campaign India & 'Dominions” (Australia, Canada, New Zealand) important to war effort Expectation of Indians for home rule (ie. Indian PM similar to Canada PM, etc.)

India after the War:

India after the War Indians served in support roles Mohandas K. Gandhi formed medic corp Increased self-reliance, economic importance Martial Law remains in effect after end of war Fear of rebellion, mutiny of returning Indian soldiers Racially-motivated fears High unemployment Britain needs to recover economically Taxes increased

Unrest & Pacifism:

Unrest & Pacifism Lawyer working in South Africa Combating entrenched racism Inspired to return home to help “home rule” cause Pacifism, non-violence Civil disobedience Non-compliance Amritsar Massacre (CLIP) ends most talk of Home Rule in favor of complete independence

British Response, Amritsar 1919:

British Response, Amritsar 1919 Pacifist meeting held in defiance of anti-association, anti-protest laws Martial law administered by Gen Reginald Dyer 50 British-Indian troops fire upon gathering with no warning 1650 rounds fired into crowd 380 dead, 1000+ injured Children, women among casualties Martyr's Well – in Resources

Beginning of the End:

Beginning of the End Gen Dyer's testimony: “I think it quite possible that I could have dispersed the crowd without firing but they would have come back again and laughed, and I would have made, what I consider, a fool of myself.” - response to why he opened fire without warning “Certainly not. It was not my job. Hospitals were open and they could have gone there” - when asked if he offered medical aid to the wounded. Dyer 'retired' to hero's welcome in Britain British papers reported a “mutiny” had been put down with 'minimal loss of life'

Independence & Death of Gandhi:

Independence & Death of Gandhi After WWII, Britain begins process of withdrawal from India Rift between Muslim & Hindu widen Britain partitions India into India, Pakistan & East Pakistan (Bangladesh) 1947 India becomes independent country Absorbs independent principalities within the country 1948 Gandhi assassinated by extremist Hindu assassin

Eulogy for Gandhi:

Eulogy for Gandhi “Friends and comrades, the light has gone out of our lives, and there is darkness everywhere, and I do not quite know what to tell you or how to say it. Our beloved leader, Bapu as we called him, the father of the nation, is no more. Perhaps I am wrong to say that; nevertheless, we will not see him again, as we have seen him for these many years, we will not run to him for advice or seek solace from him, and that is a terrible blow, not only for me, but for millions and millions in this country.” - Jawaharlu Nehru, Indian PM

18th - 19th centuries:

18 th - 19 th centuries The Retreat of the Ottomans?

Big Picture:

Big Picture European societies far more organized, educated, industrialized by end of 19 th c. Capitulations make competition difficult for home-grown industries, merchants to compete Sultans increasingly incompetent, controlled by coterie of elite hangers-on Reformers are never popular; replaced by sycophants Socially-conservative elements within Ottoman society balk at incorporation of Western technology, ideas – bidna (innovation) EX: printing press v. hand transcription EX: Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab founds new, fundamentalist interpretation of Islam ( Wahhabism )

Toward the 20th c.:

Toward the 20 th c. Military reforms do eventually make their way into army, navy Advanced education in military academies, architecture, engineering schools Reliance upon outside teachers to bring cutting-edge expertise France, England, Germany Social reforms fueled by newspapers & coffee houses Hotbeds of Radical thought; coffee houses closed several times in late Ottoman period 1878 – 1918 Ottoman Empire loses 75% territory, 85% of population Wars, rebellions Young Turk Revolution 1908 changes “Ottoman” gov’t to a “Turkish” one

Committee of Union and Progress:

Committee of Union and Progress Young Turk movement & Committee of Ottoman Unity unify in early 20 th century Similar goals Secular, western, progressive, Constitutional monarchy, modernist Populist rhetoric & gov’t repression created groundswell of popular support 3 leaders emerge to gain de facto control of Ottoman Gov’t in 1908 Reformism & Secularism tested by external events Anti-Turk revolt in Balkans World War One (& Armenian Genocide) Ottoman Sultanate abolished in 1922 Members of CUP tried for crimes & party disbanded 1926

Shame of Ottoman Turkey (WWI):

Shame of Ottoman Turkey (WWI) Ottomans losing on most fronts v. Russians, English Exception; Gallipoli New “young turk ” government (Committee of Union and Progress) fears Armenians siding with Russians Orders ‘removal’ of Armenians from Eastern Anatolia to deserts of Syria ~1,000,000 Armenians killed “An orgy of ethnic violence” Most turks today refuse to accept it happened

Death of an Empire, Birth of A Nation:

Death of an Empire, Birth of A Nation Turkish forces poorly equipped to deal with Allied forces Rebellions in Arabia, Syria, Egypt fostered by British Only ‘victory’ was Gallipoli Hero : Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) Post-war plans to divide Turkish holdings up amongst European powers Constantinople to be an ‘international city” Turks wage “War of Turkish Independence” Hero = Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) New Turkish republic established by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk “Six Arrows” of Kemalism Republicanism, Nationalism, Populism, State Capitalism, Secularism, Reformism ( Revolutionism ) Turkey only ‘defeated’ WWI opponent to dictate terms to Allies

Turkey:

Turkey Ataturk orders ground-breaking changes in Turkish political, social life Reform Turkey from a bastion of Islam into a secularist nation-state Abolished Sultanate, Caliphate Enforces Western-style behavior Choose permanent surname Revamped Turkish from using Arabic-style lettering to European style Free debate within elected assembly NOT an open Democracy – believed Turks not ready to govern themselves Military would remain vanguard of secularism 6 successful coups, 1 failed since 1923

Class Questions:

Class Questions Consider the Turkish experience with modernity… Is there any similarities with India’s? What do you think of Ataturk’s “six arrows”? What do you think of the occasional military coup in order to keep those six arrows in place? What is happening in Turkey right now?

Homework:

Homework Chapter 28 & 30 Sources too! Additional resources can help Email any questions.

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