102_The Great Modern Revolutions (Week 3) RECORDING

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The Great Modern Revolutions:

Minds & Machines The Great Modern Revolutions


WHIG : A British political party which held the supremacy of Parliament (over the kings) was the ideal political situation. Whigs would later embrace Enlightenment ideas, particularly fee-market capitalism. Industrial Revolution : A period of time in the late 18 th to late 19 th centuries where societies replaced muscle power with steam-driven engines for a variety of tasks. Liberalism : A collection of philosophies on government, economics, rights, and laws predicated upon Enlightenment philosophies; a broad category Conservatism : A collection of philosophies on government, economics, and society which is based upon precedent and tradition, often opposed to ‘radical’ Enlightenment ideas. Laissez-faire : (Fr.) “leave it be” Generally an economic theory which holds that the government should not interfere in the economy. Terms!

“New World, New Problems…amirite?”:

Exploitation of Western Hemisphere allows European countries a level of wealth and prosperity unparalleled in history Colonies initially dependent upon Motherland become relatively independent Chance to ‘start over’ or reinvent oneself EX: British North American colonists were loosely controlled by Parliament through the mid-18 th c. Established “House of Burgess” or “Assemblies” out of necessity to govern Relatively weak governors “New World, New Problems… amirite ?”

“We hold these truths to be self-evident…”:

Affluent colonials emulated, maintained ties with homeland elites Education Philosophies Politics EX: George Washington became a surveyor, officer of the British Army in 1740s Advancement up social ladder EX: Thomas Jefferon , Benjamin Franklin maintained close ties to British, European friends through & after Revolutionary War “We hold these truths to be self-evident…”

Exceptions to the Rule:

SOME Colonies were more dependent upon their homeland than others EX: Barbados EX: French North America (Quebec) SOME revolutionaries practiced radical Liberal ideas without being well-educated or elite EX: Haudenoshone (Iroquois) tribes of North America EX: Pirates Exceptions to the Rule

Spotlight: Piracy:

Pirate : An independent thief who preyed upon shipping; in this context, New World shipping Privateer : A semi-legal pirate who was contracted by a government to steal another government’s goods, money, and ships Most pirates were opportunists who exploited the large number of ports, relative openness of the oceans, and need for contraband (or smuggled) goods in colonial holdings Freelance wealth redistribution specialists? Piracy’s “Golden Age” was 17 th century Spotlight: Piracy

Pirates as Democrats?:

Pirates operated with rules, benefits packages, and obligations for both crew & captain Checks & balances Voting Retirement, Workman’s Compensation Workplace equality (sort of) Freedom of Religion Pay & benefits* Pirates as Democrats?

Back to North America:

Middle Class increasingly well-educated, wealthy Engage in lively public debate Newspapers Broadsides Salons Social Philosophical Economic Entrepreneurs establish their importance to the growing economies Wealth brings desire for more control, say over government Back to North America

Clash of Classes:

Largely conservative Tory in sympathy, voting Control of “radical” upstarts to maintain harmony, peace in empire Working class needs to be protected Tighter controls over economic interests Capitalism puts profits over people Aristocracy Largely liberal Whig in sympathy, voting More economic freedom for entrepreneurs Working class ignored Loosening of hold over people Laissez-faire Middle Class Clash of Classes

American Revolution, the Prequel:

England in debt from 7 Years’ War (French and Indian War) vs. France Nearly bankrupt Parliament needs to raise capital North American colonies not paying level of taxes other colonies are More regular assessment New taxes “Sugar Act” “Stamp Act” No desire to see colonial representation become commonplace “Taxation without representation” British East India Company to take over many import/export duties Boston Tea Party American Revolution, the Prequel

“When in the course of human events…”:

Attempts to reconcile fail in face of increasing acrimony Moderates in Parliament, Colonies attempt to reach compromise King George III – “Treasonous” Upper class revolution in original 12 Colonies Most middle class, working class ambivalent Need to inspire the ‘common man’ to action Thomas Paine Puts Enlightenment ideals into everyday language “Common Sense” “American Crisis” “radical Democracy” & Enlightenment “When in the course of human events…”

The Little Colony That Could:

Continental Congress split on issue of Independence Ex: Maryland & Baltimore Continental army not what Washington hoped for Poorly trained Ill-equipped Dispirited British use of professionals stymy coastal city defenses Hessian mercenaries, Redcoats, strong navy Colonial defeat of British at Yorktown prompts France, Spain to enter war 1778 France, The Netherlands finance war through loans Peace treaty in 1783 establishes a United States of America The Little Colony That Could

March of Modernity:

During the late 17 th to mid-19 th centuries, multiple advances change European society – and world history – forever New crops New Farming methods Colonial Holdings Industrial revolution March of Modernity

Maize, Beans, and Potatoes:

New World crops change European diets Some crops (corn/maize) used to feed slaves, subject peoples Also used as animal fodder EX: beef and ‘marbling” ‘ indian bread’ Other crops provide more calories per-square-foot than older crops Potatoes Beans Protein, minerals Better nutrition = more children = larger population Modern world changes relationship between landlord & tenant Increased emphasis upon profit of harvest rather than service to lord* Maize, Beans, and Potatoes

Agricultural Innovation:

Modern Method: Land partitioned for more efficient crop development Communal greens disappear Claimed by land owners Wastelands reclaimed for pasture, crops Medieval Method: Crop rotation to ‘rest’ the land Communal greens to graze small flocks Wasteland farmed by the poor Burden of taxes fit level of income, ability (usually) Agricultural Innovation

Spotlight: Cotton Gin Economics:

Spotlight: Cotton Gin Economics

Forward Britain!:

Forward Britain! Culture Largely absent, weak government allows for private initiative Risk-taking entrepreneurs Resources Easy-to-reach deposits make mining less costly Innovation allows deeper delving Economy Colonies supply cheap, plentiful raw materials Colonies also offer captive markets

Playing Catch-Up:

Playing Catch-Up German states, Belgium follow suit Similar resource density France, Russia lag behind Cultural, governmental blocks to efficiency United States (after 18 th C.) Vast resources Similar culture Japan (after mid-19 th c.) Strong central gov’t leadership

Change in Economics:

Change in Economics Colonies provide low-cost resources for metropole (home country) Colonies also offer low-competition markets Displaced rural farmers often gravitate toward cities, production centers Work in factories replaces “putting out system” Remaining rural populations deprived of supplementary income

Class Questions:

Class Questions Would the Industrial Revolution have been possible without the colonies of the Western Hemisphere & beyond? Why or why not? What other factors play into the industrial revolution?


Read Chaps 22 & 23 Don’t forget the Sources Additional videos & links to help you understand the revolutions better Quiz 3 Problems? Emails are always welcome Homework

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