102_The Middle East in The Modern Era (Week 2) RECORDING

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The Middle East in The Modern Era:

The Middle East in The Modern Era From Apogee to Colony

Critical Thinking:

Critical Thinking What do you know about early modern Middle East societies? Were these societies as successful, more successful, or less successful than European societies? HOW do we define ‘success’? Science? Medicine? Philosophy? Military power? Political organization?


Terms! Sultan : A Turkish title of Arabic origins meaning “one who hold power” or “one who rules.” Used concurrently with older titles such as Caliph. Ottoman Turkish rulers primarily used this title Capitulation : a portion of a diplomatic agreement; over time, these agreements become lop-sided in the case of the middle east, eventually resulting in foreign monopolies and individuals immune from ottoman or safavid law Ulema : Religious and philosophical authorities who are perceived as being cultural and religious experts in the Muslim world. Janissaries : Initially elite fighting core of the army and trained government bureaucrats of the ottoman empire; the cadre becomes less elite and less disciplines (and more political) over the course of the modern period.


Previously… Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II (Mehmet the conqueror) captured Constantinople in 1453 Ottomans have control over all terminuses of the silk road Ottoman navy controls majority of eastern Mediterranean Some Christians flee to Italy, central, and eastern Europe Many intellectuals help fuel renaissance in Italy, western Europe Russians declare themselves the “3 rd rome ” Czar = Caesar

Ottomans on the Move:

Ottomans on the Move

Turks at the gates of Europe (1529):

Turks at the gates of Europe (1529) Ottomans had been adding European territories for centuries Under Suleiman the magnificent, new conquests were added to open Europe to conquest Vienna, Austria: seat of power of Hapsburg dynasty Control of danube opens up Russia, holy roman empire Holy roman empire also opens up Italy, papal states, western Europe Ottoman siege broken by weather, terrain, tenacious defenders Russians try to call crusade vs. ottomans Italian merchant princes lose black sea colonies Crete conquered


Suleiman Rules ottoman empire from 1520 – 1566 Also known as ‘the lawgiver’ in turkey Oversees apex of extension of empire Led some conquests Initiated legal reforms Set up non-religious courts to hear disputes between muslims & non- muslims All subjects guaranteed justice regardless of faith, money More efficient bureaucracy


Suleiman Disinterested in empire after executing son Power devolves to vizirs , pashas, wives Beset by rivals within, without empire Best friend, Ibrahim pasha First-born son, Mustafa Safavid Persians Successors raised to be pliant, not dominant Control by eunuchs, mothers

The Good & The Bad:

The Good & The Bad Ottomans in control of vast portions of European territory, Mediterranean Ottoman plurality offers a modicum of peace for non-dominant religions Control of mecca, medina, Jerusalem brings prestige Ottoman control of territory challenged by safavid Persia (east) and latin Christian Europeans (west) Battle of lepanto 1571 Ottoman diversity challenging to administer Far-flung empire prone to rebellion

A long, slow slide…:

A long, slow slide… Ottoman conquests slow by the end of the 16 th century Ottoman dominance challenged through a new, enriched Europe Diplomacy Military Ottoman society increasingly uneasy with technological, intellectual changes from Europe Printing press banned in ottoman empire until 19 th c. Ottoman markets in competition with new products By 19 th c. European manufacture overtakes, marginalizes Turkish hand-crafting Capitulations have short-term benefit, long-term detriment Foreign monopolies on: Tobacco Sugar Salt Transportation & communication (19 th c.)

Return to Vienna & Treaty of Karlowitz:

Return to Vienna & Treaty of Karlowitz Ottomans lay siege to Vienna again in 1683 Ottoman troops poorly-trained, ill-equipped compared to Europeans Ottoman losses stun muslim world Ottomans forced to cede territory to Hapsburg dynasty Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) signals the beginning of the end for the ottoman empire

Times they are a–changin’:

Times they are a– changin ’

Critical THinking:

Critical THinking WHAT information that we’ve discovered about the Ottomans helps us further understand how history is shifting in the early modern period? HOW does this inform our view of human behavior?

A sultan by any other name:

A sultan by any other name Heirs to throne in 17 th – 18 th c. usually uninterested in ruling More interested in privilege Older, less ambitious sultans favored by factions within the government Janissary corps no longer cutting-edge shock troops Hereditary position Corruption, laziness Popular opinion controlled by conservative religious leaders Alliance with politicians, janissaries to control empire

From ulemma to juhala:

From ulemma to juhala Ottoman educated elite ( ulemma ) became increasingly inward-looking and suspicious (or xenophobic) of European ideas, technology Printing press Professional schooling Military training, arms Critics within the ottoman empire argued that the country was beset by morons ( Juhala ) who thought they knew what was best, despite evidence to the contrary

The “Society”:

The “Society” During 18 th c & beyond, educated critics argued that ottoman empire must adapt to a new world or be eaten away by European gains Several books emerge (many are banned) critical of Political appointees lining their pockets with public money Hereditary offices in the bureaucracy Tax dodging elite Debasing of currency Religious leaders who espouse insularity Some Sultans try to reform the government, society Hit-and-miss


Counter-reform Muhammad ibn abd al- Wahhab – founder of Wahhabism (1703 – 1792) Argued that god had withdrawn the blessing upon muslims by making them subservient to Europeans Muslims must purify themselves to regain god’s blessing & temporal success Entered into political alliance with Muhammad bin saud to rise against ottoman rule Ottomans engage in an on-again, off-again counter insurgency with Saudi, wahhabist muslims in Arabian peninsula Mainstream ottoman ulemma argue Turkish ‘worship’ of European ideas, fashion, technology morally corrupts turks Lead campaigns against reformers in order to ‘restore’ bygone era of glory

It’s the economy, dummy:

It’s the economy, dummy Capitulations between Ottoman empire & Europe initially have similar give-and-take in 17 th c. By 18 th & 19 th c. Europeans increasingly benefit from lucrative trade deals European traders unfamiliar with Turkish laws, customs afforded ‘leeway’ to trade in empire Language always made agreements seem reciprocal Trade barriers, cultural tendencies prevented many ottoman merchants from benefiting from European market Turkish industries increasingly expensive as new materials, new manufacture make European products cheap, easy, and durable No taxes collected thanks to capitulations

New Problems from an old enemy:

New Problems from an old enemy Russian Czars look to recapture black sea ports from ottoman control Crimea Czar peter the great’s naval fleet affords Russia a chance to challenge ottoman dominance of black sea in 1695 Catherine the great would succeed by 1783 Peter, other czars stump for ‘crusade’ against ottoman turks Lackluster response from rest of Europe (except poles & Hapsburgs) Europeans interested in preventing ottoman reform France, Great Britain

The Importance of Geography:

The Importance of Geography

Russia v. Ottomans:

Russia v. Ottomans Russia engaged in several wars against the Ottomans in the 18 th century & beyond. Think about the map you just saw. Why would Russia go to war with the Ottomans ? After the late 18 th century, Russia went to war against the ottomans & safavid Persians regularly Extract deeper capitulations from each Prevent their European rivals from gaining advantage in the middle east

The Rest of Europe & The Ottomans:

The Rest of Europe & The Ottomans Throughout the 18 th c. and into the 19 th c. French, English, and Dutch trade with Ottoman Empire extremely lucrative for Europeans (and some Turks) Wars with Russia & Austria disrupt the flow of goods and services between Fr., En ., & Ne. and the Ottoman Empire Fr., En . & Ne need to ensure the profitability of their trade with ottomans due to the influence the mercantile Middle Class has over their respective governments Capitulations also began to include promises of military support in times of crisis Sometimes these agreements were made to deter any other European power as well as Russia, Austria

The British Empire ca 1826:

The British Empire ca 1826

Ottomans, Europe, & Egypt:

Ottomans, Europe, & Egypt By late 18 th c. Egypt had declared itself independent France (led by Gen. Napoleon) invades Egypt “to restore Ottoman rule” and offers to administer Egypt on Ottoman behalf* 1798 – 1801 Ottomans call upon England to assist in ejecting France OtToman forced led by Mehmet Ali English forces led by Adm. Horatio Nelson France leaves Egypt Mehmet Ali announces he is “KHEDIVE” (viceroy) of Egypt 1805 Ottomans would again call upon England for assistance when Mehmet Ali invades Anatolia 1833, 1840

A Short-Lived Reformer:

A Short-Lived Reformer Sultan Selim III (1789 – 1807) introduces new training regimen for modern (European-trained) troops French trainers teach state-of-the-art artillery, engineering, ship architecture, etc. Founds military schools & academies Orders printing presses to mass-produce math, engineering, science textbooks for schools Europeans distracted by French revolution & napoleon Selim deposed, killed by janissaries with ulemma backing House of Saud takes Mecca 1803, institute Wahhabi rule

New Reformers:

New Reformers In Ottoman Empire Sultan Mahmud II (1808 – 1839) Eliminated the Janissaries Sidelined the majority of the ulemma Spearheaded modernizing reforms Economy Manufacture Transportation bureaucracy In Egypt Mehmet Ali Pasha (1801 – 1849) Eliminated landed elite, ulemma in Egypt Declared Egypt semi-autonomous Instituted reforms similar to Selim III Egypt becomes solvent, powerful by 1830s Economy Education Transportation Military

Critical THinking:

Critical THinking WHAT information that we’ve discovered about the Ottomans helps us further understand how history is shifting in middle- to Late modern period? HOW does this inform our view of the world and its history?


Homework READ Chap 19 & 20 – Africa and the World, Islamic World Powers Read Sources “Viewpoints” outlined in syllabus QUIZ #2 available; due Sunday by Midnight Additional resources available in coursework Questions about the material? Email me Have a great week!

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