101_East Asia (Week 7) RECORDING

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East Asia: Chinese Hegemony:

East Asia: Chinese Hegemony


Terms! Hegemony – Cultural, political influence of one country (or empire) over another; usually expressed through adoption and emulation of stronger states by weaker states Mahayana Buddhism – An evolutionary strain of Buddhism influenced by the needs of China and other East Asian societies; emphasis shifts from individual salvation to communal salvation, enlightenment Bakufu - literally “tent government’, a form of Japanese governance distinctly independent from Chinese systems and structures; usually used in conjunction with the Shogunate period of Japan – 12 th – 19 th c.

Comfort in Religion:

Comfort in Religion Buddhism introduced into China from India, Afghanistan Along Silk Road Buddhism embraced as a new philosophy, religion Entire culture looking for change Mercy Hope Love Messianic

Mahayana Buddhism:

Mahayana Buddhism


Mahayana Buddhism Alteration of original Buddhism Messianic figures or “Saints” Bodhisavatas achieve enlightenment but put off Nirvana to help others achieve enlightenment Amalgam of different teaching philosophies Some not necessarily Buddhist Some contradictory teachings De-emphasis of release from suffering, attaining Nirvana Living justly, modestly

Buddhism’s Penetration:

Buddhism’s Penetration Adopted as part of the Chinese culture by neighboring states, cultures Japan Korea Vietnam Tibet Fusion of Confucian, Taoist teachings Used by rulers to legitimize rule

Buddhist-Christian Parallels:

Buddhist-Christian Parallels Established monasteries in a time of turmoil Centers for preservation of knowledge, learning Priestly caste Pilgrimages to, from India Divergent beliefs Not all Buddhists pacifists

Mount Shaoshi:

Mount Shaoshi Abbot Batuo traveled from India to China on foot 464 CE Came to the “forest mountain” and established a monastery Contemplation of natural world inspired ways to defend self


Shaolin Monks learned to defend selves with everyday items Achieve a zen state of focus called Samadhi Ignore pain Focus concentration Expend internal energy outward

Once more, with feeling:

Once more, with feeling Chaotic period ends by unification Warlord of Wei China (Emperor Yang Jian) Established Sui Dynasty Short-lived Dynasty (29 years) Re-established unified legal system Re-established Chinese bureaucracy Re-builds infrastructure Tang Dynasty builds upon unification Similar to Han Dynasty succeeding Qin Capitalize upon dynamic, short-lived predecessor

Chinese Prominence:

Chinese Prominence Chinese culture seen as best by neighbors Imitated by Korea, Japan, Vietnam Culture accepted, not hegemony Chinese wealth rebuilt through trade, conquest Capitalizing on Chinese goods once again Silk, ceramics, etc. Chinese the “yardstick” by which other cultures measured selves Especially Japan, Korea



Native Japanese:

Native Japanese Continental Asian societies conquer 2/3 to 3/4 of Japanese islands ~500 CE Claimed descent from Shinto sun goddess ~ 550 CE Buddhism imported by rival Asian clan Religious war ~550 - 587 Shinto ‘Religion’ Not tied to gods, per se Reinforcing connection with the past Folklore, history, mythology

Soga Japan:

Soga Japan Buddhist Soga win war Adopt other Chinese innovations along with Buddhism Bureaucracy Art Crafts Writing system Poetry Music Culture Emperor equated self with Chinese Emperor Rejected as a “prince” and not a true Emperor


Kyoto ~794 CE New Capital Begins diverging from Chinese emulation Same capital used for more than 1000 years Diverged from Chinese culture Established Japanese phonetic script Established Japanese style of music, art, literature Japanese mythology takes precedence over Chinese-inspired mythology Shinto re-adopted as pre-eminent religion Buddhism tolerated

Tale of Genji:

Tale of Genji World’s oldest complete novel (11 th c. CE) Fictional prince’s adventures Written in Japanese with distinctly Japanese style, sensibilities Romance War Adventure Supernatural Lasting part of Japanese culture, history

Frailty of the Emperor:

Frailty of the Emperor Emperor increasingly irrelevant in Japanese society Dominant clan forces Emperor to marry clan’s women Forced Emperor to abdicate if male heir born Undermined legitimacy of government Rise of the Warrior caste system Samurai caste emerges Embraced many Buddhist beliefs, mixes with Shinto Samurai culture influences Japanese society into 20 th century & beyond

Complimenting Religions:

Complimenting Religions Shinto Honor the past Cleanliness Heritage Connection with spirit world Buddhism Ceremonies for dealing with the dead Passivity in face of ‘fate’ Relinquishing worldly ties

Impermanence, Detachment:

Impermanence, Detachment

Age of the Samurai:

Age of the Samurai







Japanese Social Structure:

Japanese Social Structure

Kamakura Shogunate:

Kamakura Shogunate Lasts 12 th c – 14 th c. CE Feudal Military-led government Establishes precedence for later military governments Height of Kamakura Shogunate Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty in China orders Japan to surrender or be destroyed Japanese work closely with Korean spies to anticipate Mongol invasion 2 invasions by Yuan Dynasty 1274 CE: stout defense prevents foothold in Japan Typhoon destroys 1/3 of fleet 1281 CE: defensive walls, flexible forces defeat numerically-superior forces Typhoon again wreaks havoc; ~1/2 force destroyed Kamikaze = “divine wind” – heavens interceded to stop Mongol conquest





Kingdom of Silla:

Kingdom of Silla

Fall of the Silla:

Fall of the Silla

What’s in a name?:

What’s in a name?

Korean Military:

Korean Military Chinese invaders respected Korean archers Smaller nation able to inflict casualties upon large, massed armies Chinese can afford war of attrition Advent of gunpowder makes new addition to Korean military arsenal Psychological warfare Exploit large army formations

Hwa Cha!:

Hwa Cha!


Homework Chapter 7 Sources Viewpoints: Buddhism in China Pp 156 – 161 Resources (Including these videos!) Email!

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