101_SPQR (Week 6) Recording

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Rome; its name still evokes images of togas, Senators, and gladiatorial games. But why do we consider it the "height" of civilization? What about the Barbarians? Were they worse than the Romans? How did Rome go from a Republic to an Empire, anyway?

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SPQR:

SPQR The Roman World

Legend & Myth:

Legend & Myth God of War, Mars, impregnated a woman who gave birth to twins Romulus & Remus Left in the woods to die Suckled by a She-Wolf Raised by a shepherd Romulus kills Remus & goes on to found Rome What is the point of this myth? What does it tell you about early Roman mindset?

Legend & Myth II:

Legend & Myth II Aeneid by Virgil recasts Roman mythology 29 – 19 BCE Aeneas, a Trojan prince, fled the destruction of Troy to found a new city, Rome Sanctuary inland away from sea raiders What is the point of this myth? What does this myth tell you about the Roman mindset at this time?

Reality:

Reality Rome settled by nomadic Indo-European tribe ~1000 BCE Adopted the practices of other civilizations around them Dominated by Etruria to the north Vassal state, tribute Carthage rival to Etruria; dominate Mediterranean trade Adopted Greek fighting styles, formations Hoplite, phalanx Not well suited for the Italian terrain

The Etruscans:

The Etruscans Etruria  Etruscan  Tuscany Oligarchic Theocracy Theo = god Cracy = rule by Women had more authority, power than in Hellenic world Baring breasts ward off evil Women accorded large amount of freedom Offended most Greek sensibilities (as well as Roman)

Roman Kingdom:

Roman Kingdom Rome begins as kingdom Legend holds that only 7 kings ruled Rome before the plebian revolt changed the government 7 kings from 800 BCE to 500 BCE? Legend also holds that Rome was founded on 7 hills Last Roman king was a tyrant from Etruria Plebian (Roman commoner) revolt forced his replacement in 509 BCE Romans wage war vs Etruria Roman histories believe their rebellion cause Etruria to fall Probably not

Apogee & Decline:

Apogee & Decline Dominate Italic , Gaelic, Roman neighbors by 800 BCE Encroaching Hellenistic, Carthagian rivals cause power shift by 500 BCE Domination of trade, competent military rivals Rome wages war on former masters roughly the same time

Owned by the Public:

Owned by the Public ~500 BCE Plebian revolt brings about the Roman Constitution Res = ownership Publica = the public Early written guarantee of rights, laws, obligations, penalties 12 tables Elected representatives made laws, governed society in trust with the public NOT demos cratia Why wouldn’t a democracy work in Rome?

Roman Republic Government:

Roman Republic Government Consul Consul Senate

Roman Success:

Roman Success Extension of the right of Citizenship Elite, well-to-do became citizens Not ‘conquered’ per se Codified laws Prevent arbitrary rulings & injustice Protection under the law = stability, peace Checks & Balances 1 year terms Anyone could lead the society (theoretically)

A Rough Start:

A Rough Start Early Republic plagued by hostile neighbors Celtic (Gaelic) raids devastate Rome for many years Rome sacked several times Phalanx fighting requires a lot of logistics, open spaces Barbarian Gauls fight in ways that undermine Phalanx tactics Roman future uncertain in face of larger, determined enemies A need for “reform”

A New Army for a New Society:

A New Army for a New Society “ Gladius ” Gladius Hispaniensis Straight, double-edged sword with triangular point Stabbing weapon Why? “ Scutum ” Curved, rectangular shield Why? “ Pila ” Javelins

The Legion vs. The Hoplite:

The Legion vs. The Hoplite Roman Legion New weapons maximized defense, minimized exhaustion Old formations improved upon Troops homogenized Standard equipment Consistent training Harsh discipline decimation Greek Hoplite Older weapons unwieldy after a while Arms tired yet? Old formations remains the same as it was 3 or more centuries ago Troops individual Equipment similar Training varies Harsh discipline Sparta!

Roman Weapons:

Roman Weapons Gladius: note the “ball” on the end, triangular point Scutum: Curved, Rectangular shield

Pyrrhus of Epiro:

Pyrrhus of Epiro Greek Warlord Invasion of Roman Republic 281 BCE Ally of city-state Taranto Hellenistic military traditions

Roman conquest of Italy:

Roman conquest of Italy Absorbing weak neighbors Etruscan cities Greek cities Conflict with Pyrrhus of Greece, 3 rd century BCE Larger Greek army seeks to sack Rome Smaller Roman force, new weapons and tactics Long, drawn out battle Pyrrhus wins, but at the cost of many more men than it should have “Pyrrhic Victory”

Rome After 3rd C BCE:

Rome After 3 rd C BCE Quickly expands Legion Roads Trade Citizenship Conflict with Carthage Romans attempt to check the power of Carthage Punic wars

Carthage vs. Rome:

Carthage vs. Rome

Punic Wars:

Punic Wars 1 st (264 – 241 BCE) gave Rome control over Sicily New naval tactics 2 nd (218 – 201BCE) led by Hannibal Hannibal and the Alps Vinegar 3 rd (149 – 146 BCE) instigated by Rome Captured, destroyed Carthage

Extent of Roman Republic:

Extent of Roman Republic

Gaius Marius:

Gaius Marius 101 BCE complained he could not tell “allies from Romans” in battle Made all ‘allies’ Roman soldiers Soldiers become citizens Allowed landless to join army Pay, spoils, social advancement Standardized gear Provided by state Retirement 16 years service = land, pension

Roman Republic Golden Age:

Roman Republic Golden Age Humanitas – the humanities Bilingual (at least) Greek literature, language No native Latin literature yet Rhetoric Ability to speak, write well (eq. English Comp) Solve legal matters Initially ignored philosophy Aim: make moral, intelligent, patriotic, pious,, respectful, law-abiding citizens

Education:

Education Responsibility of child to honor parents, defend civilization Male children receive complex education Gifted orators highly respected Some female children receive advanced education Most females receive limited education in domestic skills Slaves often used as educators Physical punishment, discipline to deter failure

Decline of the “Res Publica”:

Decline of the “Res Publica” “Republic” form of government Representatives elected Non-paying senate seats Only the rich could afford to be Senators Increasing number of poor Roman citizens Parents selling children into slavery to pay debts Senators skew legislation, laws to favor wealthy Less responsive to the needs of the poor Decline of ‘ Civitas ’ Senators, Consuls, Governors immune to Roman law

Spartacus & 3rd Servile War (70 BCE):

Spartacus & 3 rd Servile War ( 70 BCE) Gladiatorial slave Incites his fellow Gladiators to revolt Initially 70 slaves with kitchen knives, cleavers Within months, ranks swell to ~70,000 – 100,000 escaped slaves Intend to return home Rebellion coincided with other revolts in Pompey, Sicily Pressure from followers Eventual defeat Crucifixion of 6600 followers along Appian Way

Republic in Crisis:

Republic in Crisis Sense of increased inequality in Roman life Plebians once again becoming restless Power brokers form alliances to maneuver against each other Use politics, patronage to increase influence Nobody really cares about the poor The First Triumvirate to the rescue (?) A trio of powerful men use populist rhetoric to garner support Undercut rivals

Gaius Julius (Caesar):

Gaius Julius (Caesar) One of a trio of power brokers (Triumvirate) Julius, Crassus, Pompey in power-sharing scheme Julius is a General, politician Face of the Triumvirate Promises to restore land to veterans, plebians who back him Rival to Senate & Pompey “The Great” Pompey & Julius have falling out after death of Crassus (53 BCE) Pompey uses money to undercut Julius Julius uses popularity & military connections

Julius’ Conquest & Spoils:

Julius’ Conquest & Spoils Army paid by general [Marian Reforms] Ex: Julius in charge of large, loyal, experienced legions Owe pay, retirement, success to Julius Success in Gaul (51 BCE) ‘Revenge’ for Celtic raids in 3 rd c BCE Lucrative conquest (gold mines) Army gets ‘bonus’ Triumph (parade) after conquest Spoils flung to onlookers Games, food, entertainment for days after conquest

Alea iacta est:

Alea iacta est Struggle between Julius & Pompey puts Rome on verge of Civil War Political enmity Plebian riots common Corruption of Senate obvious, blatant Julius ordered to return to Rome without legions Stand trial for treason, abuse of office Julius returns with a legion ‘the die is cast’ Senate, Pompey flee as home legions inadequate to stop Julius’ experienced legions

Roman Dictatorship (Empire):

Roman Dictatorship (Empire) Dictator Senate Consul Consul

Julius Caesar’s Reforms:

Julius Caesar’s Reforms Redistribution of land By force of arms, if necessary Land given to loyal veterans Restructuring of debts Enforced by his army, if necessary Debts reduced by ¼ Reform of calendar 10 month lunar year changed to 12 month solar year Extra day added every 4 years Senate renames Quintillus to “July” in his honor

Et tu, Brute?:

Et tu , Brute? Caesar’s policy considered “Tyrannical” (King-like) by conservatives in Senate Plot hatched to kill Caesar on Senate floor Ally of Caesar, Marcus Antonius, tried to stop the assassination, but was prevented from entering senate Caesar stabbed to death, March 15 th ‘ides of March’ 44 BCE Alleged to have said “Kai su teknon ” – You too, child? – to Marcus Brutus Shakespeare’s “et tu , Brute” historical fiction

Why Kill Caesar?:

Why Kill Caesar? Brutus, others assumed they were protecting the “Republic” Assumed the plebians would support their actions Use wave of popular support to strengthen Senate Marcus Antonius (Marc Antony) threatens the ‘Liberators’ with mob violence Spontaneous mob violence at Julius’ funeral proves Anthony right Cassius, Brutus tried to explain their role as ‘liberators’ Appeal to traditions of Republicanism

Homework:

Homework McKay Chap 6 Sources ! Additional resources Email me Midterm looms!

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