Edible Coating for Extending Shelf Life of Food Items

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M.Tech Food Processing & Technology Presented To: Presented By: Mr. Ashish Dixit Himanshu Kashudhan 13/PFT/010 Edible Coating for Extending Shelf Life of Food Items himanshu.gbu@gmail.com

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Content Introduction Need of Edible Packaging Materials useful for coating Method of Coating Requirement to consideration How edible coating enhance food shelf life Advantages of Edible Film Ideas For Future Commercialization Challenges Drawbacks of Edible Packaging Conclusion

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Edible Something fit to be eaten:, food or Fit to be eaten, especially by humans. Introduction Coating A layer of substance spread over a surface for protection or decoration. Edible Coating: An edible film or coating is simply defined as a thin continuous layer of edible material formed on, placed on, or between the foods or food components. The package is an integral part of the food, which can be eaten as a part of the whole food product.

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OUR OCEANS ARE TURNING INTO PLASTIC...!! Plastic production has increased from 0.5 to 260 million tonnes per year since 1950. Every year, more than 500 billion plastic bags are distributed, and less than 3% bags are recycled. Why do we need edible packaging?

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U.S. Environmental protection agency says that every year 1.6 million metric tons of packaging waste is dumped into landfills in U.S. Packaging waste is app. 30% of municipal waste by weight, 13% is due to plastic material which is not bio-degradable. This dumped packaging includes mainly plastics which reduces moisture and O 2 transfer rate of soil and deteriorates the quality of land Plastics are non-biodegradable and they are the biggest threats to environment in present world Edible package can be the solution to these environmental problems . Cont…

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Materials which can be used for manufacturing the edible packaging materials: Protein based: Gluten - Soy Collage - Casein Zein - Whey protein Polysaccharide based: Cellulose - Chitosan Alginate - Starch Pectin - Dextrin Lipid based: Waxes - Acylgycerols These are the main ingredients for edible packaging materials. In addition to them some antimicrobial agents, Plasticizers and thickening agents are also used. Materials useful Coating

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Dipping Brushing Spraying Panning Foaming Method of Coating

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Dipping: Nowadays, dipping is a common method for applying coatings on fruits and vegetables (Vargas,2008). The coating is made by dipping in a coating solution with properties such as density, viscosity and surface tension, as well as food withdrawal speed from the coating solution (Cisneros-Zevallos,2003). Generally the food was dipped into the film-forming solutions between 5 and 30s (Ayranci,1997) as represented in figure.

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Brushing: Brushing method for the application of film solution to fresh beans and strawberries was found to be better than wrapping and dipping methods in terms of reducing the moisture loss (Ayranci,1997) . An example of application of film solution by brushing method is represented in figure.

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Spraying: In the food industry, coating by spraying is the conventional method, generally used when the coating-forming solution is not very viscous. Indeed, highly viscous solution cannot be or very easily sprayed. Thus only dipping techniques can be applyied giving high thickness to the coating. (Stone.,1994) .

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I mproved sensorial properties Better packaging systems Traceability and monitoring along food chain Edible coatings should be undetectable It should melt in mouth, but not in hands. It must adhere to the food, but not stick to the packaging materials. Edible coatings should have an acceptable colour , odour , taste, flavour & texture. Requirements to consideration

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Retard moisture migration (coating on F & V ) Retard gas (O2 and CO2 permeability) Retard solute transport Retard oil and fat migration Resistant to microbial and fungal infections Retain volatile flavor compounds Carry food additives Can enhance nutritive value of food How edible coating enhance self life

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Aloe vera gel as a coating material ( Jawadul Misir *, Fatema H. Brishti , M. M. Hoque )

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Antimicrobial Activity of Aloe Vera Gel : It inhibits the growth of microbes such as bacteria ( antibacterial activity ), viruses ( antiviral activity ), or parasites ( anti-parasitic activity ). A. vera gel has inhibited the growth of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria . ( Habeeb , F., Shakir , E., Bradbury, F., Cameron, P., Taravati , M.R., Drummond, A.J., Gray, A.I., Ferro, V.A., “Screening methods used to determine the anti-microbial properties of Aloe vera inner gel methods,” Methods, 42 (4). 315-320. 2007.) There are some reports on the antifungal activity of Aloe vera gel against several fungi including Colletotrichum sp . ( Shelton, R.M., “Aloe vera : Its chemical and therapeutic properties”, International Journal of Dermatology, 30 (10). 679-683.1991.) Aloe vera gel showed good antibacterial activity against some food borne pathogenic microorganisms such as Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium , Escherichia coli, Klebsialla pneumonia etc.

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Application on mangoes – Shelf-life analysis Weight loss The pectin/chitosan nanolayers reduced the weight loss of the mangoes.

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Application on mangoes – Shelf-life analysis Soluble solids (SS) Titratable acidity (TA) Mangoes with nanolayers: Lower SS variation and lower redution of TA Delay in ripening

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Application on mangoes – Appearance after 45 days Without coating With pectin /chitosan nanolayers

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Application on pears – Appearance after 7 days of refrigerated storage

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Environment friendly, as fully consumed or biodegradable, recyclable . Enhances organoleptic properties like color, sweetness etc Enhances nutritional values by supplementation. Individual packaging is possible for fruits like strawberry. Prevent deterioration. Film work as carrier anti microbial or antioxidant agents. Film also used as micro encapsulation of flavoring agents. As per economic aspect 118.4 $ can be save per outlet. (Source: Euromonitor International from official statistics, trade associations, trade press, company research, trade interviews, trade source) Advantages of Edible Coating ( Over shelf life increasing by conventional method )

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An edible coating to be used in food should be generally recognized as safe ( GRAS ) by the FDA. If the material cannot be demonstrated to be GRAS, then manufacturer must submit a food additive petition to the FDA. There should be a declaration about the type of edible materials some individuals are allergic to certain polymers. Safety & Health Issues

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Edible fruit and vegetable wraps that enhance nutrition for food products could make healthy foods more attractive to consumers Fruit and vegetable films could also be used to cover leftovers for short-term storage in the refrigerator Edible films could provide new flavor combinations. Ideas for the Future

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Raw material Advantages Disadvantages Reference Whey protein isolate Desirable film forming properties Good oxygen barrier low tensile streangth high water vapor permeability Kadham et al ., (2013). Gluten Low cost Good oxygen barrier Good film-forming properties High sensitivity to moisture and brittle Peelman et al., (2013). Soy protein isolate Excellent film forming ability Low cost Barrier properties against oxygen permeation Poor mechanical properties High water sensitivity Pol et al., (2002). Cao et al ., (2007) Cho et al., (2010). Advantages and disadvantages of different Coating

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Cont…… Raw material Advantages Disadvantages Reference Chitosan Antimicrobial and antifungal activity Good mechanical properties Low oxygen and carbon dioxide permeability High water sensitivity Peelman et al ., (2013). Chitosan solution Damaged surface Molded surface Coated fruit Fresh fruit

Commercialization Challenges :

Commercialization Challenges Edible packaging has found limited applications in the industry. Challenges to wide commercialization of edible packaging that need to be addressed include: High Cost: The high cost (>$2.00/kg) of film-forming biopolymers compared to synthetic packaging materials. Handling: Need for effective, economical, and microbiologically safe methods for applying edible coatings on meat and other products on industrial scale.

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3- Quick Process: As we know most of F & V are highly perishable. So we can’t take long time for the processing (coating). 4- Customer Awareness: Customer must know about the advantages of edible coating, because high cost of product may become a reason of rejection. But if customer knows about the product advantage over non coated one they will go this one.

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The edible wraps would not be used alone where unsanitary conditions during food handling can occur They would be used to wrap foods inside a secondary synthetic package during food distribution and storage The new wraps are more expensive than synthetic packages. However, developers believe the nutritional and environmental advantages will justify the increased cost Development of off flavour . Poor mechanical properties. Drawbacks of Edible Packaging

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The potential benefits of increasing shelf life of any food product by edible films is that edible coat contain antimicrobial agents, flavors, antioxidants, coloring agents, vitamins, and nutraceuticals. They are even able to compete, both in price and in performance, with synthetic polymeric materials in packaging. It is also the best option to protect our environment by substituting it with Polyethylene Studies on this subject are rather limited, and more information is required in order to develop new coating applications with improved functionality and high sensory performance, so further researches are required to be done

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