Coffee Processing

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

By: anil362338 (51 month(s) ago)

provide download link

Presentation Transcript

PowerPoint Presentation:

Processing of Plantation Product: Coffee By: Himanshu Kashudhan (From Filed to Cup) (M.tech Food Processing & Technology)

Coffee:

Coffee Coffee is a brewed beverage with a dark, slightly acidic flavour prepared from the roasted seeds of the coffee plant , colloquially called coffee beans . Country of origin – Ethiopia (Producers - Brazil, Vietnam, Indonesia, Colombia, Mexico, India etc.)

The Coffee Plant:

The Coffee Plant Is a woody perennial evergreen, that belongs the Rubiaceae family, there are two main species cultivated today: 1) Arabica 2) Robusta Coffee arabica -accounts for 70-80% of the world’s production Coffee Robusta coffee and is more resilient than Arabica shrubs, but does not produce the same taste that is considered inferior to that of Arabica.

The Seed of the Fruit is the Economic Part A Drupe like a Peach:

The Seed of the Fruit is the Economic Part A Drupe like a Peach Both begin bearing in 3-4 years Time to mature fruit Arabica, 7-8 months Robusta, 11-12 months Productive for 20-30 years Both need pruning for best production

The Coffee Fruit is called a Cherry:

The Coffee Fruit is called a Cherry Exocarp Red skin Mesocarp Sweet pulp Endocarp, hull Testa (silvery) Bean (embryo and cotyledons)

Harvest:

Harvest Most done by hand Ripe berries only Pick every 8-10 days In Brazil, allow cherries to dry on tree Machine harvest in Brazil Oscillating fingers 7-9% immature fruit From Wilson, 1999. Coffee, Cocoa, and Tea, CABI Publishing .

Coffee Processing:

Coffee Processing Bean Processing done on the Farm

Wet Method:

Wet Method Start on Harvest Day – Separate trash and defective berries by flotation – Good berries are depulped same day Fermentation – Only to remove mucilaginous covering – Excessive heat destroys flavour Washed – Water under pressure Dried - spread out to dry under – Sun – Artificial heat 8 Gives coffee that is cleaner, brighter, fruitier, better acidity (best quality)

Dry Method:

Dry Method Natural Method Most traditional and least expensive Drying (Indonesia, Ethiopia, Brazil, Yemen) – Initial drying done on trees – Spread on concrete, tile or matted surface 2 ” thick and constantly raked 3-15 days until specific moisture Pergamino is dry and crumbly Remove pericarp – Mortar and pestle or machine Chaff removed via winnowing and picking Sorted by size, shape, density and colour Packed in 60 kg bags for processing

During harvest (April-July) farmers visit their bushes every five days to pick the ripest cherries off the trees. They are hand sorted in the field and delivered to washing stations:

During harvest (April-July) farmers visit their bushes every five days to pick the ripest cherries off the trees. They are hand sorted in the field and delivered to washing stations Coffee from field to cup

Cherries are first presorted before release into floater tanks:

Cherries are first presorted before release into floater tanks

Cherries are graded by density in a floatation tank to insure that heavy and light beans are processed separately:

Cherries are graded by density in a floatation tank to insure that heavy and light beans are processed separately

Here, a pulping machine assures high quality coffee separation before a 36-hour fermenting period in tanks to loosen the mucilage:

Here, a pulping machine assures high quality coffee separation before a 36-hour fermenting period in tanks to loosen the mucilage

After fermentation, coffees are washed four to five times in tanks, and through the wash canal with fresh clean spring water:

After fermentation, coffees are washed four to five times in tanks, and through the wash canal with fresh clean spring water

Coffee is again sorted by density, prior to entering the soak tank where it is submerged for 24 hours:

Coffee is again sorted by density, prior to entering the soak tank where it is submerged for 24 hours

Wet parchment coffee beans are is set out on drying tables and further hand sorted to eliminate off color, insect damage and irregular beans:

Wet parchment coffee beans are is set out on drying tables and further hand sorted to eliminate off color, insect damage and irregular beans

Beans are sun dried until reaching 10.5 percent moisture content, which generally takes between 10 and 14 days:

Beans are sun dried until reaching 10.5 percent moisture content, which generally takes between 10 and 14 days

Parchment coffee is stored and labeled by lot numbers indicating the date of processing. In order to allow for proper air flow from below, bags are elevated on wooden floors:

Parchment coffee is stored and labeled by lot numbers indicating the date of processing. In order to allow for proper air flow from below, bags are elevated on wooden floors

Green beans are run through the husker/polisher twice before final hand sorting:

Green beans are run through the husker/polisher twice before final hand sorting

The final and most crucial dry milling step involves the careful hand sorting conducted by skilled women responsible for assigning the coffee its grade (A, B or C):

The final and most crucial dry milling step involves the careful hand sorting conducted by skilled women responsible for assigning the coffee its grade (A, B or C)

Now Your Coffee beans is ready to make a Delicious Coffee:

Now Your Coffee beans is ready to make a D elicious Coffee

Coffee Processing In Industries:

Coffee Processing In Industries (Usually by Importing Company)

Industrial Processing (Usually by importing company):

Industrial Processing (Usually by importing company) Grading process Sort on size and density Remove testa (hulling and polishing) Redry and clean the parchment beans before using Roasting (370°F to 540°F) Removes moisture Light roast lose 3-5% moisture Dark roast lose 8-14% moisture Time (up to 30 min) determines flavor Decreasing the amount of Chlorogenic acid Trigonelline Grinding

Industrial Processing (Usually by importing company):

Industrial Processing (Usually by importing company) Caffeine Reduction Add water to beans Extract with Methylene chloride and ethyl acetate Residual solvent removed via low level steam drying Caffeine can be recovered with water extraction of organic solvent

Industrial Processing (Usually by importing company):

Industrial Processing (Usually by importing company) Instant Coffee Extract soluble solids, volatile aroma and flavor with water Drying Drum drying - poor appearance Spray drying - loses flavor volatiles Freeze drying - best product Best retention of flavor Produces granules No evaporation so no loss of flavor Coffee oil for head space aroma

Where is Coffee Grown?:

Where is Coffee Grown? The top ten coffee producers are highlighted in yellow Brazil makes up a third of this production and is by far the largest producer in the coffee producing market.

World Coffee Production:

World Coffee Production Brazil 21.1%, arabica Only country with frost possibility in coffee zone Colombia 13.9%, arabica Indonesia 7.3%, robusta Other important producing countries Vietnam, Mexico, Ethiopia, India, Guatemala, Ivory Coast, Uganda

Coffee Production and Yield:

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Coffee Production and Yield Africa Africa C. Amer C. Amer S. America S. America Asia Asia

PowerPoint Presentation:

Sr. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

PowerPoint Presentation:

Major Consumers

Health Benefits :

Health Benefits Reduced risk of gallstone disease Cancer Liver protection Cardio-protective Laxative/diuretic Prevention of dental caries Gout Reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease & Dementia Cognitive performance Reduced risk of Parkinson's disease Analgesic enhancement Anti-diabetic Anti-oxidant

Risks:

Risks Blood pressure Effects on pregnancy Iron deficiency anaemia Coronary artery disease Cancer Gastrointestinal problems Anxiety and sleep changes Cholesterol

Transnational Corporations:

Transnational Corporations Market is controlled by 4 coffee companies Nestle, Kraft foods, Proctor and Gamble, Sara lee These companies produce the major coffee brands: Maxwell House, Nescafe, Folgers, and Douwe Egberts . Nestlé's instant coffee alone is consumed at a rate of 3,900 cups of coffee every second

PowerPoint Presentation:

34

authorStream Live Help