Food Adulteration & Food Safety

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Food Adulteration

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Welcome Himanshu Kashudhan h imanshu.gbu@gmail.com

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Food Adulteration & food Safety

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The process of lowering the nutritive value of food either by removing a vital component or by adding substances of inferior quality, is called food adulteration. The substance that is used to lower the quality is known as adulterant. Food Adulteration (A Threat to Consumers)

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Concept of Adulteration An article of food shall be deemed to be adulterated: If the article sold by vendor is not of the nature, substance or quality demanded by the purchaser . If the article contains any other substance which affects the substance or quality thereof. If any inferior or cheaper substance has been substituted wholly or in part for the article so as to affect the nature, substance or quality of the product If any constituent of the article has been wholly or in part extracted to affect the quality thereof . If the article contains any poisonous or other ingredient which renders it injurious to health . If the article contains any prohibited preservative or permitted preservative in excess of the prescribed limits

Food Additives:

Food Additives Direct food additives Substance intended for use in food. Serve a particular functional effect Indirect food additives Substances that become a part of food from processing, packaging or food contact surfaces reasonably expected to become part of food

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Some of the Food Adulterants

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FOOD ADULTERANTS TEA IRON FILLINGS RICE MARBLE PIECES SALT SAND & GRIT MAIDA TALCUM POWDER GHEE VANASPATHI SWEETS COLOURS

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PREVENTION TEA POWDER Place a strong magnet on a paper and add tea powder on it. If some of them attracts the magnet , then we are sure that there are iron fillings in the tea powder… RICE Take some water in a beaker and add rice in it and if the rice goes to the bottom fastly then we can assure that marble pieces are present in it….

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GHEE Add a teaspoon full of ghee in a testtube and add hydrochloric acid & pinch of sugar in it. Stir it well and if crimson red colour appears then we can say that vanaspathi is present in ghee… MILK Add a few drops of milk on a slanting glass plate . if white trial is left behind then it is pure milk & if not then water is mixed in it…..

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S No. Name of the food product Common Adulterants Diseases caused 1 Black pepper Dried papaya seeds Stomach irritation, Liver damage, Cancer 2 Arahar Dal Yellow dye, Kesari Dal Leprosy, Paralysis 3 Coffee Powder Chicory Derived from nutrition Value 4 Gram Dal Kesari Dal , Clay, Stone Stomach disorder, Lathyrism 5 Butter and pure Desi Ghee Starch, Vanaspati Ghee Food Poisoning 6 Milk Water, Starch, Fatless Milk Stomach Disorder 7 Jeera Stone, Alike seeds from wild plants Stomach disorder, Liver damage 8 Chilly Powder Brick powder, Artificial colours Liver damage, Stomach, irritation 9 Sugar Fine white sand, Chalk powder, Rawa Stomach disorder 10 Cereals Stone pieces, Mud, Ergot seeds Stomach disorder

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SOME COMMON WAYS OF DETECTING FOOD ADULTERATION Papaya seeds are used to adulterate black pepper seeds. Add some of the adulterated sample to glass water. papaya seeds float while pepper seeds do not. Kesari dal is an adulterant in arahar dal and chana dal . Kesari dal pointed and wedge shaped. chana dal / arahar dal is smooth and round. Starch is used as an adulterant in milk. put few drops of iodine solution in milk . A blue or black colour indicates starch.

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5. Cheap edible oil in vanaspati . Add a solution of washing soda to vanaspati and shake well. If froth appears on top, cheap oil has been added to vanaspati . 6. Artificial dye in tea leaves. Put tea leaves or moistened blotting paper. Artificial colour leaves will impart colour to blotting paper. 4. Old used spices are often mix with spices sold as fresh. Smell the spice . no or less smell indicates the adulteration

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Effects of adulteration on humans

Effects of adulteration on humans:

Effects of adulteration on humans Symptoms like headache, gastro-intestinal disorders, muscular pain, drowsiness etc., appear, if adulterated food substances are used regularly.

How dangerous are these adulterants??:

How dangerous are these adulterants?? The argemone oil used to adulterate ghee and butter is highly toxic. It causes a disease known as dropsy . Watery fluid collecting in some parts of the body is the main symptom. It affects the normal functioning of the body. It may also paralyse the limbs. Metanil yellow used to brighten the colour of pulses, turmeric powder and sweet meats, is a coal-tar dye. It may cause cancer.

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Washing soda often added to powdered sugar and other food items , may cause intestinal disorders . Food items prepared under unhygienic conditions and stale foods cause food poisoning.

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PROCEDURE FOR SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS Any food Inspector can enter and inspect any place where any article of food is manufactured or stored for sale or stored for the manufacture . He can take samples of such article of food or adulterant for analysis. If found any guilty he can take action against that company. N otice will be issued by the Inspector in writing then and there to the seller indicating his intention . T hree samples are taken and the signature of the seller is affixed to them . O ne sample is sent for analysis to Public Analyst under intimation to the Local Health Authority The other two samples are sent to the local health authority for further reference

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Notable incidents on Adulteration

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In 1987, Beech-Nut paid $2.2 million in fines for violating the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act by selling artificially flavored sugar water as apple juice. In 1997, ConAgra Foods pled guilty to federal criminal charges that one of its units illegally sprayed water on stored grain to increase its weight and value. In 2007, samples of wheat gluten mixed with melamine, presumably to produce artificially inflated results from common tests for protein content, were discovered in many U.S. pet food brands, as well as in human food supply. The adulterated gluten was found to have come from China, and U.S. authorities concluded that its origin was the Xuzhou Anying Biologic Technology Development Company, a Xuzhou, China-based company.

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In 2008, significant portions of China's milk supply were found to have been contaminated with melamine.Infant formula produced from melamine-tainted milk killed at least six children and were believed to have harmed thousands of others.

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In 2012, a study in India conducted by the Food Safety Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) across 33 states found that milk in India is adulterated with detergent, fat and even urea, as well diluted with water. Of the 1791 random samples from 33 states, just 31.5% of the samples tested (565) conformed to the FSSAI standards while the rest 1226 (68.4%) failed the test.

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Act for Adulteration

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OBJECTIVE of ACT 1.      To protect the public from poisonous and harmful food . 2.      To prevent the sale of substandard foods . 3.      To protect the interests of the consumers by eliminating fraudulent practices . ACT 37 OF 1954     The Prevention of Food Adulteration Bill was passed by both the house of Parliament and received the assent of the President on 29th September, 1954. It came into force on Ist June, 1955 as THE PREVENTION OF FOOD ADULTERATION ACT, 1954 (37 of 1954).

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LIST OF ADAPTATION ORDER AND AMENDING ACTs 1.The Adaptation of Laws (No.3) Order, 1956. 2. The Prevention of Food Adulteration (Amendment) Act, 1964 (49 of 1964) 3. The Prevention of Food Adulteration (Amendment) Act, 1971 (41 of 1971) 4. The Prevention of Food Adulteration (Amendment) Act, 1976 (34 of 1976) 5. The Prevention of Food Adulteration (Amendment) Act, 1986 (70 of 1986)

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G OVERNMENT MEASURES To check the suppliers of food from doing so, the government has passed a stringent act which is known as preservation of food Adulteration Act. They has been implemented with the objective of providing safety to human beings in the supply of food. It covers safety from risks involved due to contamination of poisonous elements. The specification laid down of various foods under the provisions of PFA Act covers minimum basic characteristics Of the Products Below which it is deemed to be adulterated and also covers the maximum limit of contaminant not considered being safe for human beings beyond a certain level.

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PENALTIES Guilt will be punished with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months and upto 3 years and with fine upto one thousand rupees .

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Complain Against Adulteration District Level: District Consumer Disputes Redressal Forum State Level: State Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission National Level: National Consumer Dispute Redressal Commission

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An historic Cases related to adulteration

United States Vs Coca Cola:

United States Vs Coca Cola Issue: Was caffeine an “added substance” in coca cola. Company argued caffeine even if added separately should NOT be considered an added substance b/c essential to identity of product. (Not coke w/o caffeine) Court decided caffeine was an added substance on basis of protection consumer.

Reasons of Food Adulteration:

Reasons of Food Adulteration Sellers want profit Increase of food production To preserve food for economic activities To earn money in less time To make food look more fresh and natural.

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Safety Or Precautions

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By taking a few precautions, we can escape from consuming adulterated products. Take only packed items of well-known companies. Buy items from reliable retail shops and recognized outlets. Take the help of food adulteration testing centres. Lodge complaints to the concerned authorities, if adulteration is detected. Check the ISI , FPO or AGMARK mark. Buy products of only air tight popular brands. Precautions

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6. Parents should be concerned about the quality and freshness of these food articles like chocolates, sweets that children usually like. 7. Avoid craziness for artificially colored sweets and buy only from reputed shops. 8. Do not buys sweets or snacks kept in open. 9. Avoid buying things from street side vendors.

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Conclusion Selection of wholesome and non-adulterated food is essential for daily life to make sure that such foods do not cause any health hazard. It is not possible to ensure wholesome food only on visual examination when the toxic contaminants are present in ‘ ppm ’ level. However, visual examination of the food before purchase makes sure to ensure absence of insects, visual fungus, foreign matters, etc. Therefore, due care taken by the consumer at the time of purchase of food after thoroughly examining can be of great help.

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Secondly, Label declaration on packed food is very important for knowing the ingredients and nutritional value. It also helps in checking the freshness of the food and the period of best before use. The consumer should avoid taking food from an unhygienic place and food being prepared under unhygienic conditions. Such types of food may cause various diseases. Consumption of cut fruits being sold in unhygienic conditions should be avoided. It is always better to buy certified food from reputed shops.

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