Distillation Process

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Distillation Process,Distillation Equipments, Distillation Column, Types of Distillation and Batch and Continuous Distillation.

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Welcome Himanshu Kashudhan h imanshu.gbu@gmail.com

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Distillation Process

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Contents Definition of Distillation Process Distillation Equipments Types of Distillation Process Why we use Distillation Process Application of Distillation Process

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Is a separation process by which two or more miscible liquids are separated by using their volatility differences(differences in boiling points ). Definition of Distillation

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Distillation Equipments

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Column It is also called as “ Fractionators ”. It separates mixtures into their components or fraction by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which one or more fractions of the compound will vaporize.

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Generally columns are two types… 1- Binary Column- In this feed contains only two components. 2- Multi Components column- Feed contains more then two components. The separation of phases is done by differences in vapour pressure… Lighter vapour rising to the column and The heavier liquid flowing to the bottom.

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Absorption Column Stripping Column Adsorption Column Scrubber Column Distillation Column Types

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1. Absorption Column It is used to removed liquid components from a gas. 2. Stripping Column Used with absorption columns to remove liquid hydrocarbons from the absorption oil. 3.Adsorption Column It will remove specific components of the mixture as it pass over it. (i.e. Selective Quality) 4.Scrubber Column It used to remove chemicals and solids from the process gases.

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The other equipments associated with column are….. Condenser & Accumulator, Reflux Pump Reboiler, Inter Heaters/Coolers, Feed Preheater.

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(The overhead vapour leaving the column is sent to a cooler, or condenser, and is collected as a liquid in receiver or accumulator.) 1- Condenser & accumulator 2- Reflux Pump (Accumulated liquid is returned to the column a “reflux”. Also for distillate “over head product”.) 3- Reboiler ( Provide the necessary vaporization for the distillation process .) 4- Inter Heaters/ Coolers (In some cases we need them.) 5- Feed Preheater (It is use for preheating of feed.)

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Types of Distillation

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Distillation is mainly two types Batch Distillation, Continuous Distillation.

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Batch Distillation Batch distillation refers to the use of distillation in batches i.e. mixture is distilled to separate it into its component fractions before the distillation is again charged with more mixture and the process is repeated. Batch distillation use in production of low capacity and high-purity chemicals. In separation process of the pharmaceutical industry. Also useful in wastewater treatment units. Not too effective for purifying the less volatile components .

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Continuous Distillation In Continuous distillation feed is constantly charged to the column at a point between the top and bottom sections . Section above the feed point rectifies the more volatile while the column section below the feed point less volatile component. The most common form of distillation used by the chemical, petroleum and petrochemical industries.

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Why we use Distillation Process

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It is used to Separate crude oil transportation, power generation and heating. Purify water -remove impurities, such as salt from seawater .

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It is used to Distilled air to separate it’s components like oxygen, nitrogen, and argon Distilled fermented solutions - To produce distilled beverages with higher alcohol content .

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Application of Distillation

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Histology & Pathology Solvent Recycling Xylene Solvent Recycling Alcohol Solvent Recycling Xylene Substitute Solvent Recycling Formalin Recycling Acetone Solvent Recycling

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Purification of materials Natural Products Flavors Essential Oils Fragrances

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Manufacture of pectin by precipitation with alcohol Production of egg lecithin Decaffeination of coffee beans Reprocessing of miscella . Typical Application in Food Industry

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Other application of Distillation : Laboratory Scale Industrial Distillation Herbal Distillate The main difference between laboratory scale distillation and industrial distillation is that laboratory scale distillation is often performed batch-wise, whereas industrial distillation often occurs continuously.

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Laboratory Scale A simple set-up of Laboratory scale distillation Consist of Reboiler or Pot Condenser Receiver

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Industrial Distillation Distillation Towers or Distillation Columns

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Herbal Distillate The distillation is not used as a true purification method but rather to transfer all volatiles from the source materials. Steam distillation is commonly used various aromatic herbs and flowers can result in two products. an essential oil: often used in perfumery and aromatherapy. Watery herbal distillate: have many application in aromatherapy, food processing and skin care.

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