Biofertilizer Using Biotechnology

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Role of biotechnology in biofertilizer

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Welcome

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Himanshu Kashudhan Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel University Of Agriculture And Technology Biofertilizer Using Biotechnology kissu1214@gmail.com B.Tech Biotechnology

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FERTILIZERS: When high yielding varieties are grown they remove nutrient from soil. In such condition we need fertilizer which maintain nutrient value of soil. Fertilizers Chemical Fertilizers (Conventional Farming) Biofertilizers (Organic Farming)

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FERTILIZERS: When high yielding varieties are grown they remove nutrient from soil. In such condition we need fertilizer which maintain nutrient value of soil. Fertilizers Chemical Fertilizers (Conventional Farming) Biological Fertilizers (Organic Farming) Biofertilizers (Organic Farming)

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What is Biofertilizer? Biofertilizer are eco-friendly and pose no danger to the environment. They improve fertility of the land using biological wastes. Do not contain any chemicals which are detrimental to the living soil. Use of bio-fertilizer is recommended for improving the soil fertility in organic farming.

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The term biofertilizer refers to preparation of fertilizer containing live microbes which helps in enhancing the soil fertility either by fixing atmospheric nitrogen, solubilization of phosphorus or decomposing organic wastes. Bacteria in root surface Bacteria in root surface Rhizobium Bacteria Concept of biofertilizer

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Types of Biofertilizer Biofertilizers Compost Biofertlizers Nitrogen Biofertilizers Phosphorus & Potassium Biofertlizers Rhizobium Azotobacter Acetobacter Azospirillum Frateuria aurantia Phosphobacteria Protozoa Yeast Fungi

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Nitrogen Biofertilizers

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Rhizobium sp. is the symbiotic nitrogen fixer. F ormed in the roots of leguminous plants. A lso produces enzymes ( nitrogenase ) that supply a constant source of reduced nitrogen to the host plant. Suitable for: Ground nut, Black gram Green gram, Red gram Cow pea, Bengal gram Mustard, Soy bean Rhizobium Fix 30-50 Kg N/ha Increase yield from 10-20%

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Azospirillum lipofereum is a very useful soil and root bacterium. It is a nitrogen fixing biofertilizer. P roduces growth-promoting Substances like gibberellins, pantothenic acid, thiamine and niacin. Promotes root proliferation and it improve the plant growth yield. Increased uptake of mineral and water. Suitable for: O ilseeds , fruits & vegetables, sugarcane, banana, coconut, oil palm, cotton, chilly, lime, coffee, tea , areca nut, rubber , flower etc. Azospirillum Fix 20-40 Kg N/ha Increase yield from 10-15%

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Application & its Benefits

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Phosphorus Biofertlizers

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Phosphorous helps in root formation and plant growth. The plants utilize only 10–15% of phosphate applied. The balance 85 – 90% remains in insoluble form in the soil. So we use Bacillus megaterium bacteria that grow and secrete organic acids, which dissolve this unavailable phosphate. It improves soil quality with subsequent uses. Phosphobacteria

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Potash Mobilizes Frateuria aurantia is a beneficial bacterium capable of mobilizing  Potassium available in soil into the root zone of plants. The ability to mobilize 8-12 Kg/ha. Benefits: Increases the yield from 10% - 20% Improves the quality of produce crops and thus we get good price. Results in increased mineral and water uptake.

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Compost Biofertlizers

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Compost biofertilizers are those which make use of the animal dung to enrich the soil with useful microorganisms and nutrients. To convert the animals waste into a biofertilizers, the microorganisms like abcteria undergo biological processes and help in breaking down the waste. Animal Waste “Cellulytic fungal culture and Azetobacter cultures can be used for the compost biofertilizers.”

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What can a Biotechnologist Do?

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Current Research Biotech plans to provide an eco-friendly solution to the agriculture society by offering effective biofertilizers. This endeavor would relieve the chemical burden the environment is facing. It can provide protection against drought and some soil borne diseases. In 1999 Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) employed advance molecular tools for genotypic characterization of microbial strain. “Biotechnology also help in identification and performance evaluation of strain in the field”

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A number of technologies developed during 9th plan period. The technologies developed under this programme are as follows: Mycorrhiza Technology for Mass production of Mycorrhiza suitable for majority of crops including plantation crops developed by TERI, New Delhi. Rhizobium Technologies have been developed for mass production of Rhizobium strains specific for chickpea, moongbean and soybean in fermentors upto 1000 lt. Technologies/Products Blue Green Algae Technology has been developed at IARI, New Delhi for cheap and environment friendly biodegradable carrier material and bulk production of inoculum under controlled conditions. Technology for production of BGA biofertiliser with simple nutrient medium in just 5 days.

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Biotechnological Approaches Basically two kinds of approaches can be taken for the application of microbial biofertilizers. First a large number of strains are screened on selected crop plants under laboratory or greenhouse conditions ( to improve their germination, root elongation, root branching, nitrogen fixation, and legume nodulation). Selected strains are further tested in pots in soil and finally under field conditions. The best strain(s) will be developed into a product. eg .- Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium inoculants were developed in this way.

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Another approach consists of trying to understand why certain strains exert beneficial effects. This understanding will provide notions for improvement of strains and screening procedures nd of the inoculant production or storage process. A clear advantage of the latter approach is that it will result in qualitatively superior products. However, the disadvantage is that this approach is so expensive that it is not feasible for most agroindustrial products.

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Role of Genetic Biotechnology

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Genetics of N 2 Fixation Klebsiella pneumoniae – facultative anaerobe- Fix N 2 only under anaerobic condition- related to E.coli Easy to culture Nif genes are studied only in K. pneumoniae Genetic map Nitrogenase DG Q B A L F M V S U X N E Y K D H J 0 8 12 16 20 28 kb Nif operons appx gene location NR Synthesis polypeptide for electrone transport NR Synthesis of Fe-Mo cofactor

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The genes for histidine (DG) and nif genes are linked 15 nif genes have been identified +2 unknown function x,y Gene Coding H - Nitrogenase reductase FJ - Synth . polypeptide DK - Nitrogenase MSV - maturation of complete BQVNE - Fe Mo Co factor functional nitrogenase XY - Unknown AL - Regulate expression of nif genes Nif genes of other organisms are similar but usually the genes are scattered- not clustered as in K. When a small portion of chromosome of K. pneumoniae was transferred to E.coli , the latter started N 2 fixation

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Biofertilizer The biofertilizer is a ferment which contains a lot of energy and a very wide variety of minerals It is made of fresh cow manure, enriched with ashes and basalt powder (we call it rock flour or rock dust) and molasses It must ferment anaerobically for at least 2 months. Water Milk Molasses Ashes Fresh Cow Manure Basalt fine powder Gas chamber Water Plastic Bottle ½” hose Gases exhaust Valve INGREDIENTS for the fermentation It can nourish, regenerate and reactivate soil’s life, it also revitalizes plants, at the same time stimulates their immune system against disease, fungi and insect attack. Apart from all this, it can also be used as a substitute for expensive chemical fertilizers which, by the way, keep poor farmers trapped in a vicious circle not only making him dependent on this soluble (plants fast food) so called nutrition but also deteriorating his soil year after year.

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Biofertilizer Preparation Step 1. In a 200 lts plastic container (for food transport use) add: 50 liters of fresh cow manure 2 kg of wood ashes mixed with 2 Kg of basalt rock powder* 100 lts of water (Since what one is looking for the living bacteria, for better results you can replace the cow manure with 50 liters of rumen direct from the cows stomach) *Basalt powder and ashes must be well grinded (the finer the particles the better) 100 lts clean water 2 Kg wood ashes + 2 Kg basalt rock powder 50 Kg Fresh Cow Manure or Rumen 200 lts Plastic container Metallic Ring Plastic lid with gasket

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Biofertilizer Step 2. Disolve 2 lts molasses + 2 lts fresh milk in 10 lts of water 20 lts Plastic Bucket 2 lts Fresh Milk 2 lts Molasses 10 lts Clean water Step 3. Ad this Mix to 200 lts container Mix from step 2 Step 4. Mix well altogether for 5 min. 200 lts container Cow manure dissolved in water + ashes

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Biofertilizer Step 6. After making sure that the container is air tight (bubble in the hose must go downwards and then push bubbles through the water) , leave it in the shade for at least 2 months to ferment peacefully. You are always welcome to see it farting anytime!! Since is a fermentation process, you will notice that during the day is more active (warm) at night is less active (cold), eventually it will seem to have stop farting (NO problem) fermentation continues at a very low rate. The more months ferments The better ¡just like good wines!

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Biofertilizer quality test NO GOOD GOOD Smells putrid its color is violet Smells fermented its color is transparent amber. After 2 or 3 months you can check the quality using the code above shown. To reactivate the fermentation, add 2 lts molasses dissolved in 2 lts of milk and seal again.

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Biofertilizante Dilution Dilute 5 to 10 lts of biofertilizer en 100 lts of clean water. Biofertilizer 5 to 10 lts of biofertilizer Pour through a strainer into 100 lts water Diluted Biofertilizer 100 lts water Strain 20 lts aspersion pump Concentration for foliar applications

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Biofertilizer application Spray early morning during the first hours right before 9 am or late in the afternoon after 6pm when the sun is gone. The reason for this is that pores under the leaves are open only when the sun is not present (to avoid excessive transpiration). Therefore when one sprays them at the recommended times the biofertilizer is more efficiently absorbed by the plant. For better results Aim the nozzle towards the back of the leaves.

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Microorganisms Nutrient fixed Actinorrhizae ( Frankia sp) 150 kg N/ha/Y Azospirillum 10-20 kg Azotobacter > 20 kg Rhizobium 50-100 kg Azolla (Anabaena) 120-150 kg (> 900kg) Cyanobacteria > 25 kg Mycorrhizae (VAM) Solubilize P Important microorganisms Developed by Biotechnological Method

Important Biofertilizer Producing States: 

Important Biofertilizer Producing States Above Six states account for 86% of total Biofertilizer production in the country

Production Scenario: 

Production Scenario

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List of some major biofertilizer producing companies in India Vishal Biotechnologies Manufacturers of biofertilizers, azospirillum , acetobacter , phosphobacterium and vam biofertilizer. Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, 524 001, India Gokulam Biotech Manufacturers of biofertilizers, biopesticides etc. Pondicherry, Pondicherry, 605 013, India Arch Biotech Private Limited Manufacturing and supplying agriculture fertilizer, pesticides, insecticides and biofertilizer. Nagpur, Maharashtra, 440 018, India Bio Private Limited Manufacturer of vermicompost , vermiculture , biofertilizers and organic manure products. Madurai, Tamil Nadu, 625 107, India