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besodislikedandstillremain.Thusdaysandweekspass.Hetravelsaroundwithhishaughtyidol orratherpursueshimunremittinglyformilesandmiles.Theonlyprogress:thesaintnolongerwaves himaway.Butstillhedoesnotlookathimnordoeshespeaktohim.Untilonedaythemiracle happens:themasterlooksathimandspeaksonesentencethenheturnsawayandthehappyseeker nolongerexistsforhim.Thatseekercannowquietlygohomeforitisquitecertainthathewillnot elicitanotherwordfromtheguru. WhathashappenedhereWhydoesitseemsostrangeFirstofallletusdiscardthenotionthatthe masterdidnotheedtheimportunatestudent.Nothingduringtheseweekswastohimmoreimportant thanthestudentwhodidnotnoticethemastersconcern.Surelyhetestedthestudentbutmorethan thishewasmasterenoughtoknowfromhisvibrationsallthevirtuesandallthefaultsofthat studentAndwhenhefinallydecidedtospeakitwasonlyafterhehadformedhisopinion.The opinionofaWesternpsychotherapistafteryearsofdepthanalysiscouldnotapproachthismastersin itsabsoluteandcompletecertainty. AndthesentenceItcontains−−mostlyintheformofacategoricalimperative−−−thedecisive wisdomwhichistobethestudentsabsoluteleitmotivforanumberofyears.Outofthissentence evolveseverythingthathenowneedstoaccomplishhishighgoal.Ifhelivesthinksandactsstrictly accordingtotheinjunctionofthatsentenceandcontinueswithhispreviousyogapracticehewill suddenlyseeeverythingwithneweyesandthesuccesshehasbeenyearningforwillmaterialize. Whenwelookatsomeofthesesentenceswearelikelytobealittleshockedbytheirapparent meaningless""simplicityandexclaim:"WhatSuchagreatsainthasnothingmoreprofoundtosay" Butweshouldnotforgetthatpsychotherapeuticprescriptionsaretheaimnotspiritedphrases.The effectivenessofamedicinedoesnotdependonitscolorortaste.Whatisessentialisthatitcontain thatwhichcuresthebody.Theeffectiswhatcounts.TheAmarSwamiaSouthIndianaPacceke Buddhatomyguru:"Takeyourreasonandlook."TheYogaSwamiaSouthIndiansiddha: "Whateverhappenshasitsmeaning."Andtothesamestudentsevenyearslater:"Summairu"which meansboth"bestill"and"letgo."YogiChellapaalsoSouthIndian:"Makeitnew."Thesearejusta fewexamples.Onemustnotforgethoweverthatinthenativelanguagethesesentenceshavea muchdeeperandmoremanifoldmeaningandthatthroughassociationtheircontentisconsiderably enhanced.Tosubmitsuchasentencetopsychologicalanalysiswouldmakesenseonlyifwehada thoroughacquaintancewiththestudentinvolved. Inaneasyandsimplesentencewecantesttheeffectivenessofsuchanapproach.Foroneweekask yourselfaftereverythingyouhavedone:"Wasthisnecessary"Wasitnecessarytoberudetobe angryWasitnecessarytoletyourselfgoHereisnohiddenteachingnoyogawisdomasone wouldliketohaveitpresented.Whatitreallymeansbecomesevidentonlyafteronehascarriedthe sentencearoundforafewweekshavinguseditlikeapairofspectaclesthroughwhichtoview everydaylife.Thisistheanswertotheriddle.Theteachingofsuchasentencedoesnotnecessarily makeus"better."Butweshouldbecomeconsciousofthingswewerepreviouslyhidingthroughfear pruderyornegligence. Theguruknowsintuitivelywhatwemosturgentlyneed.Butthenhedoesnottellusdirectly.Helets usfindoutforourselvesforonlythenarewereallyconvinced.Opencensuremakeseven themostdevotedstudentrebellious.NomatterhowprofoundmaybetheteachingsofaBuddhaa ChristaLao−tzuaMohammedonlywhatwediscoverforourselvescanimmutablypersuadeus. Thisisthereasonwhyweneedagurufortheseteachingsthatareoftenpresentedtoussoclearly thatweunderstandthemintellectuallyandwhytheguruthendoesnotgiveusthedecisive YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika INTRODUCTION 13

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informationbutindicatesthewaysandmeanstorealknowledge.Nobookcanproceedinsucha manner.Butoncewehavefoundthemwealsoknowwhichoftheyogasystemsisthemost beneficialforus. Myguruinkundaliniyogaisalsoamanofgreatlearningintheshastras.OnedayIaskedhimfor themeaningofcertainsymbolswhichseemedtomeofgreatimportance."Icannottellyouthis becauseyouarenotyetinitiated."SoIhadtobepatient WhenthetimecameimmediatelyafterinitiationIagainaskedthesamequestion."MeditateasI havetoldyoubefore.Thenyouwillexperience."Iwasterriblydisappointedbuthadnochoicebut toobey.TheresultwasthatinasurprisinglyshorttimeIreceivedtheanswertomyquestionan answerthatnobodycouldhavegivenmeinwords.Thesymbolisminquestionwasofsuchadeep naturethatitcouldbegraspedonlybydirectexperience.Themeditationthatgavemetheanswerdid notrelayanyintellectualassociationorhintitonlytriggeredofftheprocessofunderstanding.This isthemethodofarealguru. Whenthefirstguruhasfulfilledhispsychologicalaimandhis"magicformula"hasachievedits effectthenextgurutheyogamasterwhoisusuallymoreaccessiblebeginstoactandweconsult certainbookswhichundoubtedlycanalsohelpteachus.KeyexamplesaretheUpanishadsthe BrahmanasandtheTantras. Butheretooitisnotquitesosimple.Noteverythinghasequalvalueforeverybodywhohears.For exampleapersonwantstolearnhowtodrivesohebuysabookthatexplainsindetailhowthe motorworksandnobodytellshimthatthiskindofknowledgealonewillnotmakehimadriver. Whenhehassmashedupthecarherealizeshislackofessentialknowledgeaboutdriving.Actually thisisnotaverygoodexampleforthelawputstheteacherbeforethelicense.Butinyogathelawis stillunwrittenthoughnolessimportantandthatiswhymanyastudenthasfoundered. AswewillseefromourtextwhattheWestunderstandsasyogaissimplyatechniquetokeepthe motoringoodcondition.Thisiseminentlyimportantbutisisnotanendinitself.Ourtext claims−−andrightlyso−−tobeayogasystemhathayogathatleadsfromwhatseemstobesheerly physicalculturetothehighestgoalrajayoga.Thepracticeofthesystempresentscomparativelyfew dangersforthestudentwhodoesnotoverdo.NodoubtdangerexistsbutIamsurethatnoreader willtakeaninterestinthosepracticesthatarepotentiallydangerous.Fortunatelythesearenot particularlyenticingwhiletheothermoreattractiveexercisesaresufficientandrichenoughtomore thanfillalifetimeoftroubledcitylife. SoletusbegintoreadHathaYogaPradipikabyYogaSwamiSvatmarama.Putasideallyour Westernknowledgeandyourprejudiceanddowhatyogastudentshavedonefromtime immemorial:sitdownrelaxandlistenwithjoyfulattentiontotheseancientteachings.Therewillbe ampletimelaterontoacceptorrejectthem. PARTONE YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika INTRODUCTION 14

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THEFUNDAMENTALPRINCIPLES CHAPTERI THEPREREQUISITES 1ReverencetoSivatheLordofYogawhotaughthiswifeParvatihathawisdomasthefirststep tothepinnacleofrajayoga. Itisagoodpracticetoevokeadivinepowerbeforebeginningseriouswork.WemaycallitSivathe BenevolentorGodorGanesaganalegionsisamastertowhominfacttheyogiauthorhas dedicatedhiswork. 2Havingthussolemnlysalutedhismaster.YogiSvatmaramanowpresentshathavidyavidya wisdomsolelyandexclusivelyfortheattainmentofrajayoga. Nowitcanbegin−−anditbeginswithanadmonition.Theclassicalcommentaryattimesso tediouslywordyherehasanimportantmessage:"solelyfortheattainmentofrajayoga"indicates twodelimitations.Thelowerlevelindicatesthathathayogaisnotbeingtaughtforitsownsakefor theachievementofphysicalfitnessandworldlypowerbutisamethodtopreparethestudentforthe rigorsofrajayoga. Theupperdelimitationneedsalittlemoreelucidation.Aswewillsoonandoftenheartherealgoal ofayogiistobecomeasiddha.Asiddhaapersoninpossessionofsiddhishasdevelopedpowers thatcanreadilybecalledsupernatural.Thereareeightsiddhisthehighestofwhichisnirvanathe greatliberation. IfinIndiaevenwithgreatmastersonesoseldomhasachancetowitnessthemiraclesthatthese siddhashavethepowerstoperformitissimplybecauseasiddhawhodoesnotwanttogetthe reputationofablackmagicianwillkeephispowerscarefullyconcealedandrefusetousethemfor worldlypurposes.Ifhedoesmisuseasiddhithemisusedsiddhistrikesbackathimandcauseshim somekindofunpleasantnessusuallyofaphysicalnature. Onedoesnotnecessarilyhavetobelievesuchthings.Youmayputthisdowntothefabulous imaginationoftheEastandsayso.Theyogidoesnotresentyourdoubtsandtheywillnotinany wayimpedetheobjectivestudyofthewisdomofyoga.Infactthetextgiveswarningagainst strivingprimarilyforpowers:"solelyfortheattainmentofrajayoga." Thedeeperpurposeofthesiddhisissomethingelse.Throughthedevelopingforcesthestudent recognizeswhatstageofevolutionhehasreached.Certainphenomenawilltellhimthatheshould changehiswayofpracticeandifafterduepracticethesephenomenadonotoccurhesurelyhas madeamistake.Thesiddhisaresignpostsonhiswaytothefinalgoalliberation.Tobeasiddha meanstobeinpossessionofallthecharacteristicsofthefinalyogagoal. "Siddhis"mygurutoldme"arenottheaimofourwork.Wewanttobecomesiddhasinorderto enjoytherealizationandperfectionofasiddhanottogainworldlypositionorevade THEFUNDAMENTALPRINCIPLES 15

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responsibilities."Andsincehehimselfisasiddhathissentenceclearlyindicateswhatisdefinedas theupperdelimitation.Yogaisnotforbraggartsoregocentricsnorisitforthosewhomerelywant toaddmethodtotheirphysicaltraining. 3Forthosewhowanderinthedarknessofconflictingcreedsandphilosophiesunabletoreachto theheightsofrajayogaself−knowledgeandcosmicconsciousnessthemercifulYogiSvatmarama haslitthetorchofhathawisdom. Rajayogatheroyalyoga 1 isagoalthatmanystrivetoreachwithoutevenbeingawareofitwithout havingtheslightestinklingofyoga.WhatelseisFaustaspiringtobutperfectself−knowledgeand cosmicconsciousnessto"knowthatforcewhichholdstheuniversetogethertoseecreativepower andtheseed" ForthestudentofIndianwisdomthisreferencetoFaustpresentsanespeciallyinterestingparallel. GoethespeakshereofcreativepowerandofseedinSanskritshaktiandbindutwoofthemost importanttermsintantrayogaaswewillseelateron.AtthetimeofGoethetheseteachingshadnot yetreachedtheWestanditspeaksforhisuniversalgeniusthatherecognizedtheirsupreme importance. 4−9GorafkshaandMatsyendraweremastersofhathavidyaandbytheirgraceYogiSvatmarama learnedit.SivaMatsyendraShabaraAnandabhairavaChaurangiandmanyothergreatsiddhas whohaveconqueredtimearestillroamingthroughthisworld. Adaringstatement:aftertheenumerationof33mastersofhathavidyawhohaveilluminatedthe agestoclaimthattheyarestillroamingthroughtheworldfor"theyhaveconqueredtime." Wehavealreadyspokenofthesiddhisandhereitisspecificallystatedthatthesemasterswere siddhas.Theyreachedwhatsomanycovet"eternalyouth."Manyarethetalesofyogiswhoaresaid tobeseveralhundredyearsoldandlooklikeyouthsbutitisuselesstodiscussthiskindofdoubtful rumor.Awandering 1.Thetranslationoftheterm"rajayoga"as"royalyoga"isexoteric.Esotericallyitis"theyogaof radiatinglight"for"raja"canalsomean"toshine."Thuswehaveanallusiontothe"innerlight" whichisdealtwithinthefourthpartofthiswork. yogihasnobirthcertificateanditseemsstrangethatonecanstatethatheisexactly250yearsold whilehisyoungercolleaguesdonotknowwhethertheyare102030or40yearsold.Besidesa hundredyearsmoreorlessisimportantonlytous.Toayogiwholivesaloneinthewoodstimeisof noconcern.TrueIdidmeetsomeyogamasterswholookedyoungerthantheirgrownsonsandthis aloneseemsquiteadesirablegoal.Anditisalsotruewhatisstatedabove:thattheseyogaroasters hadconqueredtime.Thatistheywerenolongersubjecttothelawsoftimetheywereroastersof thisstrangeunfathomablemystery"time." Forustimeisinseparablefromtheclockbutnoonehaseversucceededinreallydefiningtime.Itis impossible−−becausetimedoesnotexistoutsideofourownminds.Asourconsciousnesssoour time:longaseternitythehourofdangershortandfleetingthehourofhappiness.Sowhenwesay thatayogihasconqueredtimeitmeansthathehasconqueredhisrelativeconsciousness. 10Thereforehathayogaisarefugeforallthosewhoarescorchedbythethreefires.Tothose whopracticeyogahathayogaislikethetortoisethatsupportstheworld. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEFUNDAMENTALPRINCIPLES 16

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Thesethreefiresarewellknowntoustheyarethefireofself−createdsufferingthefireofsuffering throughhigherpowersandthefireofsufferingthatiscausedbyotherbeings. Nobodycaneliminatefromthisworldtheinfluencesthatcreatesuchsufferings.Whatwecanand shoulddoistopreparethephysical−mental−spiritualsoilinsuchawaythattheseedofimpressions cannotsproutintosuffering. Sufferingsareunfulfilleddesires.Therealizationofthesedesiresdependsnotonlyonourselvesbut issubjectprimarilytoexternalinfluences.IfIwantsomethingIhavetotrytoreachit. ForthisIamdependentonmyownpowerasagainsttheopposingforces.Andwealwaysdesire somethingevenifitisthedesireforthehappinessofadesirelessstate. Nowweareonthetrackofouridea:tobedesirelesslyhappymeanstowantnothingtohaveno needstobehappywithoneselfandthegivenconditions.Butyogadoesnotmeantolearn self−satisfaction.Ratheritmeanstostriveforsuchastateofperfectionthatsomedayitwillbeour naturetobedesirelesslyhappy−−andtohavegoodreasonforit. Thisisbynomeansastateofapathydevoidofthedynamicsofnaturalactivities.Onthecontrary ourendeavorswillnolongerbewhippedbypassionstowardagoalwherewithopeneyeswe uselesslyinvestourmostpreciousforcesinsenselessintoxication.Wewilllearntoevaluateour wishestoknowourownforcesaswellastheopposingpowers.Andifwehavetorenouncewewill thendosowithclearunderstandingnotwithapainfulsensationofloss. Astothesymbolismofthetortoisethisisameaningfullegendwhichwewillencounterlaterand whichwillaccompanyusthroughoutthewholebook. 11Ayogiwhoisdesirousofdevelopingsiddhisshouldkeepthehathayogastrictlysecretforonly thenwillhehavesuccess.Allhiseffortswillbeinvainifherevealseverythingwithout discrimination. Physicalexercisesarenothingshamefulandtheyarefunbutpracticedonahighwaytheybecome insanity."Whenyoupraygointoaroombyyourself."Ormoredrastically:"Donotcastpearls beforeswine." 12Thestudentofhathayogashouldpracticeinasolitaryplaceinatempleorahermitagean arrowshotawayfromrockswaterandfire.Thelandshouldbefertileandwellgoverned. Herewehavethefirstgreatproblemlargerperhapsthanthatofthesiddhis:tofindaquietspot undisturbedandsafe.Predatoryanimalsearthquakesandfloods:thoseweretheproblemsatthat time.Todaysproblemsareprofessionalfinancialpoliticalwhichconstantlydragthepractitioner backintothestreamofsociallife. Howeveritisnotentirelyimpossibletocreateahermitageundermodernconditions.Perhapsthere isaquietatticawayfromtheattractionsofmoviesradiotelevisionwherewecanmeetour neglectedandignoredownselves. 13Thehermitageshouldhaveasmalldoorandnowindows.Itshouldbelevelwiththegroundand havenoholesinthewall.Itshouldbeneithertoohighnortoolongandcleanandfreefrom insects.Itshouldbelaiddailywithcowdung.Outsidethereshouldbearaisedplatformwithan YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEFUNDAMENTALPRINCIPLES 17

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elevatedseatandawatertank.Thewholeshouldbesurroundedbyawall.Thesearethe characteristicsofayogahermitageasdescribedbythesiddhasthemastersofhathayoga. DonotdespairIhaveseenmanyhemitagesthatconformedinonlyafewpointstotheideal.Some hadholesinthewallsandmostofthemwerelackingthecowdung.Butallofthemwereclean.We shouldnotbetoodependentonexternalconditionshelpfulthoughtheymaybe.IfIsowillmy hermitagehasneitherdoorsorwindows.AndwhenIamdistractedmyrestlessmindwillpenetrate thethickestwalls.Ifthehermitageisnotidealalittleextraeffortmustbemade.Thegoalofyogais bynomeansdependentoncowdung. 14Seatedinsuchaplacetheyogishouldfreehismindfromalldistractingthoughtsandpractice yogaasinstructedbyhisguru. Ourkeenestweaponandoftenouronlysalvationisourthoughtpower.Ifyourthoughtisopenso isthechanceofsuccessifitisslowandlimitedyouwillbeleftbehindinthegreatraceforsuccess. Notonlyisrightthoughtessentialbutalsothecapacitytothinkofseveralthingssimultaneously. ManyWesternmenwithexecutiveulcerscouldwritereamsaboutthis. MustmenbelikethisEvidentlyiftheywishtosucceed.ButwhatissuccessNothingagainst success−−whichafterallisthefoundationofa"happylife."Successiswealthwealthishappiness thereforesuccessishappiness.Alogicalconclusionbutsomehowitleavesusuneasy.Istheman whohasboughtsuccesswithhishealthwiththesacrificeofhismostpreciousattributereallyhappy Thereisadifferentway.Oneofthemostremarkablemenofourtimeandbynomeansapiousman swearsbyyoga.EverymorningPanditNehruthecoolestthinkerofhiscountryandamakerof worldhistorystoodonhisheadandwithhim63membersofCongress.YehudiMenuhinthegreat violinistmakesnosecretabouthisyoga.Andlikehimmanyofthemostsuccessfulmenofourday includingmedicalmenwhoareworldfamousfindinyogathepurestsourceofhumanharmony. Harmony:thekeywordtheall−important.Thereisnoobjectiontothesearchforsuccessaslongas theharmonyoflifeisnotdisturbed.Noneedtorelinquishanyofourplansandprinciplesaslongas thereisharmony. HowdoesharmonycomeaboutTheveryquestionprovesthatthisfundamentallawoflifeis becomingmoreandmoreamythasweareturnedmoreandmoreintomachines.Soletustrytofind theyogawaytoharmony. 15Theyogaforcesaredissipatedbytoomucheatingheavyphysicallabortoomuchtalkthe observancesofasceticvows promiscuouscompanyandagrowlingstomachtoomuchfasting. Herewehavethedisharmoniesofeverydaylifeandnoteventhegreatones.Notdistrustnot rudenessnotlackofconsiderationnotangeranddespair.Justimmoderation.Andthatisbad enough. Theyogineverquitefillshisstomachtheexecutivealwaysdoes.Theyogiishealthytheexecutive hasailments.Harmonyversusdisharmony. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEFUNDAMENTALPRINCIPLES 18

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16Successdependsonacheerfuldispositionperseverancecourageself−knowledgeunshakable faithinthewordoftheguruandtheavoidanceofallsuperfluouscompany. Againthemagicwordofourtime:success.Andwithitevenaformula.Nothingaboutovertimeor nightworkand"youmust..."Notevenawordaboutthinking. Acheerfuldispositionisincompatiblewithexecutiveulcers.PerseveranceThatsoundspromising. Butthekeynoteisharmonyandtheperseverancereferredtohereisnotthatoftheexecutives marathonconference. Butdontforgetthatyogahasnotyetbegun.Weareslatinghereonlytheminimalprerequisites withoutwhichanyattemptatpracticewouldbesenseless.Thesepreliminaryrequirementscanbe fulfilledbyanyoneandtheywillbestowmorehappinessuponyouthanyouwouldexpect−−without exercisewithoutrisk.Oncewereallyembarkuponyogahowevertheevasionofasingle requirementcanturnnectarintopoison. Yogapracticeregardlessofthesystemwefollowhasapsychologicaldeptheffect.Oneexercise goesinthisdirectionanotherinthat.Oftentheyhaveaperplexingsimilarityhereandtherewefind aminimaldifferencewhichseemsinconsequential.Theguruhoweverwatchesnotsomuchthe exercisesingeneralbutjustthoselittledetails.Thestudentdoesnotknowwhyandisliableto ridiculesuchpettinessbuttheguruknowsourneedsbetterthanwedo.Heknowsthateachphysical actionhasitspsychic−spiritualreflexjustaseverypsychic−spiritualattitudeismanifestinthebody. Westernsciencetooisawareoftheinseparableinterrelationbetweenbodysoulandmind.Abitof iodineadrenalineorcortisonewillchangeourwholeworldview.Ourwholelifeischemically conditioned.Everythoughtactivatesoneortheothernervecenterwhichinturninfluencessome endocrinegland.Theglandsendsitshormonesintothebloodstreamwereactnewthoughtsarise whichinturnagaininfluenceanervecenterandcreatenewreactionscombiningwithothernerve centers.Therearemanycentersmanyglandsandcountlesscombinations.Andthiscycleisonly oneoftheinnerprocessesaffectedbyyoga. Ifacertainpracticehitssomethingunhealthyanasanacantouchonanorganicillnessadeep meditationonsomementalsufferingthentheresultisnotasdesireditcanevenleadtodisaster. Quiteoftennaturehelpsitself.Butinverydeepmeditationwhichishardlyeverallowedwithout initiationsomeverypowerfulphenomenacanappearwhichwillfrightentheweakintorefraining fromfurtherinvestigation.Thatiswhythepassageabovecallsforcourage. Onethingiscertain:thesepreliminarychaptersarethemostimportantpartofthebook.Hewho disregardsthemshouldcertainlyconsideryogadangerous. 17aNottocausesufferingtoanylivingbeingtospeakthetruthnottotakewhatbelongsto otherstopracticecontinencetodevelopcompassionandfortitudetobemercifultoallandhonest tobemoderateineatingandpureinheart.Thesearethefirstprerequisitesofyogatheyamas. Self−limitation tapasausteritiescheerfulnessreligiousfaithcharitycontemplationlisteningtosacred scripturesmodestyacleanmindrecitationofmantrasjapaandobservanceofrulestheseare thesecondrequirementsofyogatheniyamas. Thusequippedonecanventuretotakethefirststepintothewonderlandofonesownself.Youdo YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEFUNDAMENTALPRINCIPLES 19

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nothavetotakealltherulesliterallybutyouhavetolookatthemseriously.Nottheword"yoga" butthepowerbehinditisdecisive.Andthispower"Tattvamasil−−ThouartThati" CHAPTER2 YOGAANDTHEARTOFHEALING InJapantherearephysicianswhokickthepatientinthebacktwisthisneckorsimplygivehima heavyslapontheshoulderandthepatientfeelslikeanewman.InChinatherearephysicianswho practiceacupuncturetheinsertionofneedles.Theyprickaplacequiteapartfromtheailingorgan andpaindisappears−−quitesuddenly.InCeylontherearedoctorswhotouchthepatientsskinwitha redhotiron−−andtheyaimwiththeprecisionofafractionofamillimeter.Aquickpain.Thepatient iscured. Thesearenotmedicinemenatwork.Herewehavefull−fledgedphysicianswhomasteranart−−that nobodyintheWestcanunderstandThesetimeshavepassed.TheexampleoftheJapanesedoctors hasprovenitselfahundredtimes.InAmericachiropracticehasbecomeanacademicdiscipline. Thustooitiswithacupuncture.WenowhavethesesonthesubjectaswellaspracticingWestern physicians.ThethirdexampleCeylontoowillnodoubtsomedaybeacceptedperhapsalongwith somepracticesofmedicinementhatweridiculedsome50yearsago.Primitivepeoplearereallynot asprimitiveasweinourarrogantprejudiceareapttoimagine.Arenotthemethodsofmodern politiciansmoreprimitivethanthoseofamedicinemaninthejungle Wewanttostudythefollowingchaptersonasanasandtheirpsycho−physicalbackgroundwiththis inmind. "Whysomanywords"somewillask."Asanasarephysicalexercises."Andinasenseheisright. "Nonsense"anotherwillsay"allthesesenselesscontortions."Andinasensehetooisright. Athirdwillconsiderasanasapracticethatnobodycanquiteunderstand.Righttoo. Afourthonestandsthoughtfullyinacorner."Iwilllearntounderstandtheinnerconnections.Ihave studiedmedicineandwillsoonfindoutwhatbodilyfunctionsareinvolved.Icannotimaginethatthe yogishavetakenallthisoutofthinair.Theremustbeacorrespondingscientificterminology." Bewareofthisman. Eachofthefirstthreecriticsacknowledgedacertainpositiveaspectofthepractice.Thefirstspeaks ofgymnasticsandexpectsnomorethanthesuccessofgymnastics.Verygood.Oneshouldapproach thesepracticesnotwithvagueexpectationsbutwithclearpurposefulness.Afterallonlythe literatureoftheWestpresentsthesepreliminaryexerciseswithsuchgreatmystificationwhereasin comparisonwithwhatfollowsafterthemtheyarereallylittlemorethangymnastics. Norshouldhewhospeaksofmeaninglesscontortionsbecondemned.Perhapsheisright.Forwhois capableofexplainingtheinternalrelationshipsWhygivethecontortionsameaningforwhichwe havenottheslightestproof−−exceptforafewbookswhosevaluetheaverageWesternreaderis unabletoascertainThisskepticisnotlikelytostartpracticebutheisjustifiedinhisstatementifby "sense"heunderstandsthatwhichcanbeclearlydefinedbyourintellect.Thesearepracticesthat "nobodycanreallyunderstand"becausetheyreachtoodeeplyintoourinnerworldtouchonareas YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika YOGAANDTHEARTOFHEALING 20

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thathavenotyetbeennamed.Fromthisanglenosensecanbediscoveredjustasitcannotbe convincinglydenied.ItisonlytheWesternerwhoseeks"sense"ineverything.TheAsiaticaccepts mysteryasafactandthusthe"senseless"inanintellectualsensebecomesforhimsensein relationtohisexperience.Heexperiencesthevalueofthatwhichwecannotunderstand. Thefourthisthedangerousoneforheswearsbyhisintellectualknowledgealone.Hehasstudied heisperfecthecannoterr.Andimaginehimasastudentofamedicineman.Sciencehas canonizedourintellectandacknowledgesnothingassuperiororevenequaltoit.Fortunatelywe havethereallygreatlikeC.G.JungErwinRoussdieandotherswhohavegonetothe"primitive"to expandtheirknowledge. Nobodywillclaimthatourknowledgeacquiredthroughthecenturiesiswrong.Noitiscompletely rightbututterlyincompletebecauseitissoone−sided.Therearemorethingsinheavenandearth thanaredreamtofinacademiathingsthatweknowexistandthatwecannotfathomwithour scientificallytrainedintellect. "Well"hewillsayifheisjudicious"Iadmitthisbutwemusthaveacertainframeofreference.It isquiteclearthatchakrasarenervecentersandnadisrepresentnervestrands.Whyshouldwedeny thisKnowingthisdoesmakeiteasier."Howeverconvincingthesewordsmaysoundtheycontain theseedofthegreatesterrorinyoga:founderingthroughthought.Inotherwordsthedangerous suppositionthattheessentialcanbefathomedbythoughtthatitis"nothingbut"thatwithalittle effortofourconceptualintellectwecandescendtotheverydepthsofoursoultothefoundationof theuniverse.Certainlythistrendofthoughtislogicalbutwhatgoodislogicwhenyogawisdomis beyondlogic Thisphrasehasdiscreditedyogawiththeintellectuals.Butletuslookatourlives.Islifealways logicalWhereisthelogicofthescientistwhoanalyzesnaturallawssixdaysaweekandonthe seventhgoestochurchtopraytoaGodwhohasnoplaceinhislogicalsystemofscienceWhereis thelogicofthedrugaddictwhoknowsheisdigginghisgraveandstilldoesnotdesistWhereisthe logicofthegreedyoldmanwhowithonefootinthegravestillcravesmillionsthoughhecannot takeapennywithhimIsthecosmicmathematicsofEinsteinwhichcreatedouratomicagelimited tologicAndhowaboutthefateoftheevilrichmanandthevirtuouspoorIschancelogicalNo thedecisivefactorsofourexistencehavenothingtodowithlogicandthereforewecanreadily postulatethattheessentialinterrelationsinyogacannotbepenetratedbylogicaldeductionswhich howeverdoesnotmeanthatthereisnolaw. WhenweseemtodetectananalogybetweenacertainconceptinyogaandaWesternscientificterm wemustatoncedenyourselvesallfurtherinvestigationsofananalogy.WhyWhenonemistakes thepartforthewholeasoftenhappensinWesternscienceoneunderestimatesthewholebecause oneappliestoitthelesservalueofthepart.Andhowcanwepossiblyjudgeanythingifweknow onlyoneofitsmanyfacetsandnoteventhemostessentialoneatthatTaketheexampleofthe chakrasthecentersofpowerwhichareoftenidentifiedwithchiefnervecentersgangliaorwith mainglandssimplybecausethereisatopographicalsimilarity.Withthisweconfusecauseand effect. Althoughweknowverylittleaboutthecentralnervoussystemandtheglandswedoknowenough togaugetheireffects.Butwhatwecanlearnaboutchakrasinyogaisimmense.Ifthesystemof chakraswereidenticalwiththecentralnervoussystemCNStheneitherallouracademic knowledgewouldbewrongortheyogateachingswouldbeemptyfantasies.Butneitheristhecase. OurknowledgeabouttheCNSappliestothematerialaspectonlywhilechakratheorygoestothe YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika YOGAANDTHEARTOFHEALING 21

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deepestsourcesofalldynamicprocessesinmandowntothedeepestcosmicfunctionstowhichwe areundeniablybound.TherearemanyeffectsresultingfromtheactivityoftheCNSandtheglands whichwillforeverremainamysteryifweignorethemuchsubtleraspectsofthesechakras. ItischaracteristicthatthetantricBuddhismofTibetteachesthattheyogihastocreatethechakrasat therelevantplacesinhisbody.Theyaresotospeak"psychiccenters"thatcannotbepractically recognizedunlessIwillit.Theyarevibrationcenterswhicharedevelopedinthecourseofyoga practice.Thisaloneproveshowelusivetheyaretothesurgeonsknife. Butwehavenotyetcometothesestrangethings.Firstnowtothe"gymnastics"ofhathayoga.Even hereweshoulddenyourselvesanyprofoundspeculations.Certainlyonecould−−andevenwithafair measureofsuccess−−drawpsychosomaticconclusionsfromasanasuch−and−such.Butagainlogic desertsusafteracertainpointandwhatremainscannotbeinvestigatedbysciencehoweverfineits intentions.Andthiswouldmean:beyondtheborderlineoflogicthere"really"isnothing.But actuallyagreatdealistherenotonlyisittherenowbutithasbeentheresincetheverybeginning. ThelogiciandoesnothavetoMotheraboutallthisofcoursesincehehasawealthofconcrete factualmaterialathisdisposal. 2 Inanyeventwhetherornotcertainpranayamasbreathingexercisesregulatetheoxygencontentof ourbloodisnoneofourconcern.Whatisimportantforusisthatforcescurrentsarebeingactivated thatnoWesternscientistisablefullytoevaluatebutwhicharetheveryfoundationofthewhole yogastructure. ThereforeWesternsciencedespiteitsundisputedmeritswillbeneglectedinthefollowing chaptersinfavorofthatancientsciencewhichisthefoundationofyogatherapy.ThisIthinkis muchmorevitalfortheunderstandingof"Easternexotics."WeshouldtrytothinkIndianwhile studyingthisbook−−Indiannot 2."Attheborderlineoflogicsciencestopsbutnotnaturewhichblossomstherewherenotheory hasasyetpenetrated"C.G.JungThePsychologyofTransference. onlyinrelationtoyogabutalsoinrelationtothepresuppositionsofyoga. TheartofhealinglikeallelsetrulyIndianisbasedontheVedastheoldestbookofhumanity. EverythingthatconcernsmedicaltheoryintheRig−VedatheSama−VedatheAtharva−Vedaand theYajur−VedawaslatersystematizedintoAyurvedicmedicine. AlthoughitisnotpossibletosummarizethisgiganticworkwhichisstillinpracticaluseinIndia todaymuchlessgiveasurveyofthewealthofitsprincipleswecanatleastconsiderthethreemain conceptsofhumanphysiologyuponwhichthissystemisbased.Thisisimportantbecauseprejudiced WesternerswhocastasuperficialeyeuponthestandardworkofAyurvedicmedicinetheCharaka Samhitahavemisinterpretedthoroughlythesethreeconcepts. Theteachingstatesthattherearethreedominantforcesinman.andaccordinglythreemainsources ofillness:vatapittaandkapha.Theusualtranslationsaswindgallandphlegmaremisleading incompletesenselessandsimplywrong−−aswrongasthefalseanalogiesdiscussedearlier.All threetermsareinfinitelymorecomplexandbecomemeaningfulonlyintheircompleteness.To understandthetermsvatapittaandkaphaweneedthehelpoftheclassicaldefinitions. Comprehensionofthesetermsisallthemoreimportantbecausehathayogaiscloselyboundto ayurvedicprinciplesaswesoonshallsee. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika YOGAANDTHEARTOFHEALING 22

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Thethreetermsencompassallphysiologicalfunctionsofthehumanbodyandtheirimbalance causesnotonlyillnessbutalsosusceptibilitytocontagiousdiseases. Vata Itistruethatthiswordmeans"wind"literally.Butmoreimportantistherootvamovement.To quotetheCharakaSamhita:"Vataisthesourceofbothstructureandfunctionofthebody.Itisthat whichisrepresentedbythefiveformsofthebodilycurrents:pranaudanasamanavyanaand apana.Itistheinitiatoroftheupwardanddownwardflowofallinternalprocessessuchas circulationmetabolismetc.thecontrollerandguidingforceofconsciousnessthestimulantofthe sensesthecompanionofsensationstheorganizeroftheelementsofthebodytheprincipleof synthesisthestoragebatteryofspeechthecauseoffeelingsandperceptiontheoriginof excitementandstimulationitfansthegastricfiredriesoutharmfulphlegmexpelsexcrementsis purifierofthecoarseandthefinechannelsofthebodythecreatorofthefetalformtheprincipleof lifepreservation.Allthesearethenormalfunctionsofvatainourbody"Char.Sam.1.12:8. Disturbanceofanyoneofthesefunctionsleadstoillnessandsusceptibilitytoinfection. Someoftheillnessesduetotheinfluenceofvataare:rheumatismdislocationslamenesscramps stitfnessoflimbsperistalticirregularitiestremblingemotionalanddepressivestateseverything relatedtotensionrelaxationexpansionandcontractioncirculationandmetabolismcrookedness anddistortionoflimbsabdominaldiseasesmenstrualirregularitiessterilityhallucinationsand convulsions. Pitta Thiscanbetranslatedas"gall"buthereitimpliesratherthatwhichisalsoexpressedbytheword gall:temperament.Butthisagainonlyinalimitedsense.TheCharakaSamhitaderivesthisword fromtheroottap"toheat"andthisbringsusclosertothemeaning.Wequote:"Itisonlythefire whichinpittabringsongoodandbadresultsaccordingtothenormalorabnormalconditionofthe organs.Theresultsaredigestionandindigestionpowerofperceptionanditslossnormaland abnormalbodytemperatureshealthyandunhealthylooktemerityfearnervesangerandjoy moodsconfusionandclarityandothersuchcontrastingpairs"Char.Sam.1.12:11."Thenormal functionofpittacauses:powerofcognitionfireofdigestionfreshcomplexionclarityofthought bodytemperaturehungerandthirstandnimblenessofmind"Char.Sam.1.18:50.Diseasesfrom thissourceare:inflammationfeverpusperspirationsofteningofbodilysubstanceitching metabolicirregularitiesrednessbadodorandtasteaswellasdiscoloration. Kapha Thiswordiscomposedoftworoots:ka"water"andphawhichreferstotheprocessofbiological evolution.Andsinceweknowthatthebodyislargelycomposedofliquidwecouldtranslatekapha as"life−fluid." "Kaphaisthenectarsoma.Itisthefertilewaterfortheplayoflifeitislivingfluidtheprotoplasm thatsustainsalllifeprocessesitisindeedthescaffoldoflife.Itbindsthelimbstogetherand producesalltheconnectingnourishingdevelopingandfortifyingfunctions.Itpromotesthe well−beingofthebodybyitslubricatingaction.Thusitsuppliesthewaterfortherootsoflife.Inits physiologicalaspectkaphaisthepowerandperseveranceofmanwhichhoweverimmediately becomesadisturbingimpuritywhenhisbalanceisdisturbed"Char.Sam.1.12:12.Kaphaailments are:pallidnesscoldedemaconstipationdiabetessecretionscoldsweatlanguidnessand YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika YOGAANDTHEARTOFHEALING 23

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swellingstumors. "Nopainwithoutvatathestreamoflifenoinflammationwithoutpittathefireoflifeno swellingswithoutkaphathefluidoflife"Thisdearlyshowsthecoordinationofthethreeforces butitalsodemonstrates−−andmoreclearlythanWesternmedicinedoes−−theinterdependenceof bodyandmind. NaturallytheancientIndianartofhealingisnotexhaustedbythesethreemainterms.Onthe contrarythisisonlythebeginning.Forushoweverthisshortsurveywillsuffice.Itwillelucidate muchthatistofollowinfactmuchwouldbeunintelligiblewithoutit. Wemustnotforgetthatthesethree"doshas"haveamaterial−bodilyaswellasanetherealandan abstract−spiritualaspect.Thuswhenlateronwedealextensivelywiththepranathelifestreamthat hereis"vata"thenwith"soma"thenectarthe"fertilewaterfortheplayoflife"thathereis "kapha"andfinallywiththeinnerfirethatis"pitta"weshouldnotforgetthissurvey.Soonwewill learnthatallthewisdomofphysiologicalhealingalsohasitsplaceinhigherspiritualspheres. FortheIndianthereisonestraightpaththroughtheuniverseandsituatedonthispathareallthe citiesoftheworld:medicinephilosophymathematicsastrologyandastronomyphysicslogic sportsmagicetc.andtohimwhoisfullyconversantwithanyoneofthemtheothersarenosecret. Soletusstartbylookingatyogawithanewphysiologicalunderstanding.Notsomuchtorelearn buttounderstandthatthereiswisdominthingsthatseemquiteoddtous. CHAPTER3 THEASANAS l7bAsanasarespokenoffirstbeingthefirststageofhathayoga.Sooneshouldpracticethe asanaswhichgivetheyogistrengthkeephimingoodhealthandmakehislimbssupple. Ourconcernisnotyetwithrajayogaanditsmysteries.Letusfirstconcentrateonstrengthhealth andlithencssofbody.Muchofthiswillbeofdirecthelpinrajayoga. 18Ishallnowproceedtoimpartsomeoftheasanasthatwereadoptedbysuchwisemenas VasishthaandpracticedbyyogislikeMatsyendra. 19Sittingstraightonlevelgroundsqueezebothfeetbetweencalvesandthighsoftheopposite legs.Thisissvastikasana.See YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEASANAS 24

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. 20Placetherightfootnexttotheleftbuttockandtheleftfootnexttotherightbuttock.Thisis gomukhasanaandlookslikethemouthofacow.See Figure2. 21Placeonefootupontheotherthighandtheotherfootbelowtheoppositethigh.Thisisvirasana. See YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEASANAS 25

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Figure3. Inthelastthreephraseswesimplyhavevariationsofsittingcrossleggedashasbeencustomaryin Indiaforthousandsofyears.Theseasanasinthemselvesarenotpracticerathertheyare fundamentalconditionsuponwhichtherealpracticeisbased.Thefollowingsentenceisa continuationoftheinstructionsofNo.20. 22Presstheanusfirmlywithcrossedfeetandsitthus.Butdoitwithcare.Thisiskurmasana. Herewemightlookforadeepermeaningsincetheposturedoesnotreallybearanycharacteristics ofgymnastics.Wecannotyetunderstandthesignificanceofthepressureontheanusandthespecial emphasisoncare.Butatthispointofcoursethestudentknowsnothingyetabouttheessentials. 23Assumingthelotuspostureinsertthehandsbetweenthethighsandcalves.Putthehandsfirmly onthegroundandraisethebodyup.Thisiskukutasana.See YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEASANAS 26

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Figure4. Thelotusposturehasnotyetbeenmentioned:thefeetareplacedcrosswiseontheoppositethighsas closetothebodyaspossible.Pushthehandsthroughthis"network"oflegsandplacethemfirmlyon theground. Herewehavewhatclearlyseemsagymnasticexercise.Yetwhatisinvolvedissomethingquite different.Muchlaterwewilllearnthatto"raisethekundalini"alittlehelpisneededandthisasana providesit.Itmayseemadifficultasana.Butthingsgetevenmorecomplicatedinthefollowing: 24Assumingtheabove−mentionedkukkutasanapostureputbotharmsaroundyourneckand remainraisedlikeatortoisewiththebacktouchingtheground.Thisisuttanakurmasana. Herethegymnasticcharacterisevidentinfactitseemssoexaggeratedlyacrobaticthatwewonder whetherthisislessthangymnastics−−ormoreWhatisbehinditKurmaasanameans"tortoise posture."Withalittleimaginationwecanthinkofthebodyinthispositionasatortoise.But strangelyenoughreferencehereistosomethingquitedifferent. Sofarwehaveencounteredthetortoisethreetimes.FirstinNo.10:"Tothosewhopracticeyoga hathayogaislikethetortoisethatcarriestheworld."InthesecondplaceNo.22theasanainwhich theanusispressediscalled"tortoiseposture"kurmasana.AndnowhereinNo.24wehave"the raisedtortoise"uttanakurmasana.Letuslookattheancienttexts.IntheBhagavatPuranaoneof therichestoftheancienttextsofIndianmythologyandsymbolismwefindalegendwhichismore thanmerelyalegend.Inabattlewiththedemonsthegodswerelosing:theyhadconsidered themselvesdivinelysuperiortotheforcesoftheworldthedemoniacbuttheseforcesstoodmore safelyandfirmlyupontheirground.Brahmawhomthegodsimploredforhelpascendedwiththe threatenedonestotheLordoftheWorldVishnutoaskhisadvice. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEASANAS 27

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"Makepeacewiththedemons"heurgedthem"andchurnwiththeirhelpthenectarofimmortality. Thedivinealoneisaspowerlessastheearthlyalone.Togetheryoushouldchurntheoceanofmilk untilitturnsintothenectarofimmortality." SotogethertheswornenemiestookthemountainMandarathebackboneoftheuniversewound aroundittheserpentVasukiinthreeandone−halfturnsandalternatelypullingontheheadthe demonsandthetailthegodstheybegantochurntheterrestrialoceanofmilk. Butsoonthemountainbecametooheavyforthediligentonesandslowlyitsanklowerandlower. ThenVishnutransformedhimselfintoatortoisedovetothebottomoftheoceanandraisedthe mountainsothattheworkcouldbecompleted. Practicallyeverywordinthislegendistheexpressionofadeepsymbolismmuchofwhichwillbe clarifiedinthecourseofourstudyandpractice.Fornowletusconsideronlythemostimportant points.Notonlyinmodernmedicinebutinancientyogaaswellthespinalcolumnisthemost importantandmostsubtlepartofthebody.Infactweshallsoonseethatitisactuallythespinal columnthathasthemostimportanttask. Uponthis"axisofthehumanuniverse"weexertpressureinkurmasanasothatthecombined forcesofthedivinesubconsciousandtheearthlyconsciouscanaccomplishtheirtask.Most asanasinvolvethespinalcolumnasdoesthefollowing: 25Graspbothtoeswiththehands leftwithleftrightwithrightkeeponelegstraightanddrawtheothertotheearasyouwouldthe stringofabow.Thisisdhanurasana.See Figure5. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEASANAS 28

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Thespinalcordhastwoends:theearthbelowandheavenaboveasisfittingfora"holy mountaininthecenteroftheworld."And−−asitshouldbe−−theworldlyproblemsaremostly situatedinthelowerpartandthemoreidealonesintheupperone.Wecannotbeexpectedto comprehendthis.Thattheearthlyproblemsarecenteredinthelowerhalfofthebodyonlyhewho knowssomethingaboutthechakrascanrealize.Theyogidevelopsunderstandingonlyinthethird stage. Wecouldcompareourselveswithatreethathasitsrootsintheearthandthecrownwithitsfruitin thesky.Justaswehavetosatisfytheneedsoftherootsinordertosupplynourishmenttothefruitin thecrownsomostasanasaredesignedtocultivatetherootofourtreeoflifethespinalcolumn.As isthisasana: 26Placeyourrightfootontheoutsideofthelefthipjointandtheleftfootoutsidetherightknee whichisflatonthefloor.Grasptheleftfootwiththerighthandpassingthearmtotheleftsideof thekneeandtherightonewiththelefthand.Turntheheadallthewayovertotheleft.Thisis matsyendrasana. See Figure6. Inthemorecurrentvariationsofthisasanatherightfootisnotgraspedbythelefthandinsteadthe handisplacedonthebackasfaroveraspossible.Thisisseeninourillustration.Slightvariationsin asanasoroccasionalvariationsinnamehavearisenbecauseseveralteachersdevelopedthesame asanas.Thevariationsoccuronlyinminorpoints.Thisbecomesquiteevidentbyacomparisonof ourHathaYogaPradipikawiththemorecommonandmuchlaterworktheGherandaSamhita. 27Thismatsyendrasanaincreasestheappetitebyfanningthegastricfirepittaanddestroys physicalailments.Kundaliniisawakenedandthemoonmadesteady. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEASANAS 29

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Forthefirsttimethetextmentionskundalinialatentforceofhighestpotentialsaidtolieinthree andone−halfcoilslikethesnakeinthechurningoftheoceanofmilksleepingatthelowestcenter muladharachakraatthefootofthe"treeoflife"thespinalcolumn.Thisserpentpowerkundalini cannotbedescribedfullyevenbyonewhohassucceededinawakeningit.Whenitawakensit shootsthroughthebodylikeanelectricshockandtremblingandamazedthepersonrealizesthata powerfuleventhastakenplacewithinhim.Thisisonlythebeginning. Thewholebodytrembles.Adoorseemstohavebeenpushedopenthroughwhichafloodoflight flowsfromsomeunknownworldalightofincomparableradiance.Afteralongtimethetrembling bodybecomescalmbuttheflashoflightshootingthroughthespinalcolumntothecrownofthe headisunforgettable. Thisflashoflightisnotreallythekundalinihowever.Itismerelyasignofitsawakening.The kundaliniitselfdoesnotshootupbutwilllaterriseslowlypassingthroughthestationsthe chakraseachofwhichcreatesanothernewandpowerfulexperience. Whetherthekundalinicanreallybeawakenedthroughthisparticularasanaaloneisquestionable. Buttheasanawillsurelybehelpfulintheprocess.Andthe"moon" Asmentionedabovethe"mountaininthecenteroftheworld"hastheearthatitsfootandtheskyat itspeak.Betweenearthandskyarethesunthecenteroftheplanetarysystemandthemoon. Inthecenterofthetriangleformedbythenavelandthetwonipplesisthe"sun"solarplexusatthe upperendofthespinalcolumnatthemedullaoblongatasitsthe"moon.""Sun"and"moon"arenot chakrasbutarespheresthatstanddirectlyundertheinfluenceoftwochakraslyingrespectivelyjust aboveandbelow. Throughthisasanathe"moon"sphereis"massaged"whichisallthemoreimportantasitis presumablyherethatwefindthesourceofthefluidoflifekapha.Butalsotheoppositepolethe "sun"isaffectedbythisprocessoftwistingthespinalcolumn.Andsinceitisherethatthe"fireof life"pittaoriginatestherearisesfromthecombinedworkofthesetwowell−springsapowerful stimulatinginfluenceuponthephysiologyofthebody. 28Stretchoutbothlegsandtaxingholdofthetoeslayyourheadupontheknees.Thisis paccimasana pashimottanasana. 29Thismostexcellentofallasanascausesthebreathtoflowthroughthesushumnafansthefireof appetitepittamakestheloinssupplevataandremovesallailmentscausedbypittaandvata. Themostessentialphraseofthisslokaneedselucidation.Sushumnaisthenameforthehair−thin channelthattraversesthespinalcolumnlengthwise.Itisthepathwayofkundalini.Isthebreath reallytoflowthroughthischannelItseemsphysiologicallyimpossible."Breath"inSanskritis pranabutwhatwecallbreathisonlyaninsignificentfractionofwhattheIndianunderstandsby prana.Breathismorethaninhaledandexhaledair morethanoxygenandnitrogenevenmorethananychemistcouldanalyze.Breathisthecarrierof anespeciallyefficaciouslifeforceofastreamwhichnourishestheorganism.Thereisactuallylittle differencebetweenthis"lifecurrent"andanelec−calcurrent. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEASANAS 30

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Enoughaboutpranafornow.Therewillbeagreatdealmoreaboutitinlaterchapters.Hereagain inthisasanaweseewhatseemstobeapurelyphysicalexercisebutitisonewithaveryspecific meaningandaim. 30Pressyourhandsfirmlyuponthegroundandbalanceyourbodybypressingtheelbowsagainst yourloins.Raiseyourlegsstraightintheairtillyourfeetarelevelwithyourhead.Thisif mayurasana.See Figure7. 31Thisasanahealsvariousdiseasesofthespleenanddropsyandremovesallillnessescausedby excessofvatapittaorkapha.Itdigestsanoverabundanceoffoodandevendestroysthepoison halahala. Theasanalookslikeourwell−knowngymnasticexerciseontheparallelbars.Andgymnasticsitis. Atthispointoftrainingtheplanistoperfectthebodyandespeciallytotraintheabdominalmuscles soimportantinPartsTwoandThreeofthiswork. Asthegodsandthedemonswerediligentlychurningtheoceanofmilkandtheoceangradually begantochangethedemonssampledtheliquidanddoubledoveringreatpainbecausethefirst productwassheerpoisonhalahala.InordertopreventfurthertroubleSivaswallowedthe remainingpoison.Itremainedinhisthroatandturneditblue. Atthisstageofdevelopmentthestudentdoesnotunderstandthedeepermeaningofthestoryand doesnotyetknowthatitisaromanticallegoryofhisowndevelopment.HeisgladtohearthatSiva drankthepoisonandbelievesthatheisthereforeoutofdangeruntilhelaterlearnsthatdangerwill stillthreatenifhedoesnotcarefullyfollowhisgurusinstructions.Andhedoesnotknowthatthe poisonisnotachemicalbutaspiritualpoisonapsychicdangerwhicharisesfromwrongpractice. Hereagainthequestionariseshowthissingleasanacanhavesuchfar−reachingconsequencesthatit rendersthepoisonharmless.Inordertojudgewemustknowtwothings:firstwhatkindofdangeris referredtosecondwhateffectsareproducedbythisasana. WeshalldiscussthisquestiontogivetheWesternstudentadeeperinsightalthoughitdoesnot reallybelonghere. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEASANAS 31

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AsmentionedbeforethewholeIndianmythologyhasadirectrelationtoyoga.Whentheuniverse macrocosmismentioneditisalsoareferencetomanmicrocosm.Andunder"godsanddemons" wemustunderstandtheforcesthataremanifestinmanonthepsychicmentalandphysicallevels. Thusthechurningoftheoceanisgenerallyspeakingaprocessinyoga.Thismilkoceansymbolizes thebrain.Inthecourseofyogatrainingthereoccursatransformationofconsciousnessfromthe "milkofdevotionalthinking"throughthe"poisonofimperfectdevelopment"tothe"nectarof enlightenment."Inthestateofincompleteevolutionliesthegreatestdangeri.e.prematureaction resultingfromerroneousill−informedjudgment.Thestudentassumeshepossessescertainpowers andmayevenhaveseensomeindicationofthesebutheisnotyetcapableofrecognizingand governingthem.Andthisispoisonespeciallyforfurtherdevelopment.Itisnowimperativeto mobilizecounter−forces. Inmayurasanathepressureofbothelbowssealsoffthe"pranachannels"ofthetwonadisandthus forcesanincreasedbloodsupplyintothosepartsofthebrainthatareinmosturgentneedofit. Itseemsclearthatthebloodsuffusionofthebrainmusthaveaninfluenceonourconsciousnessbut blooditselfislessimportantthanthestreamofpranawhichimpartsitselftothebloodstream.Itisso tospeakanelectrificationofthebrainachangeofgearinthepsychicmechanism.Andithasbeen provenathousandtimesthataclearheadistheresultofyogapractice. 32Lyingfulllengthonthebacklikeacorpseiscalledsava−sana.Withthisasanatirednesscaused byotherasanasiseliminateditalsopromotescalmnessofmind. Hownicethatrelaxationispartofthescheme.Anditispleasanttofindthatnomysteryisinvolved. Simplystretchoutonthefloor. Butthisrelaxationisalsonecessaryasthatwhichfollowsismorethoroughhasgreaterdepth.We areabouttotakeanimportantstepinthedirectionofrajayoga. 33−34TheasanastaughtbySivaare84innumber.OftheseIwilldescribefourofthemost importantones.Theyaresiddha−sanapadmasanasimhasanaandbhadrasana.Ofthese siddha−sanaisthebestandmostcomfortableposture. 35Pressoneheelintotheplacebelowthesexorgans theperineumandputtheotherheeljustabovethisregionclosetotheabdomen.Pressthechin uponthechestsitupstraightwithcontrolledorgansandfastentheeyesbetweentheeyebrows. Thisissiddhasanawherebyallobstaclesonthepathtoperfectionareremoved.See YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEASANAS 32

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Figure8. Itisquiteclearthatmoreisatplayherethanmeregymnasticexerciseespeciallysincethereisno longeranymentionofhealingornimblelimbs. ButwhatdotheseunusualdetailsmeanEachheelpressesacertainpointtheloweronethe muladharachakratheupperonethesvadhistanachakra.Theneckisbentsoastopressthe vishuddhachakrainthethroatandtheeyesareturnedtowardtheajnachakra. Themanipurachakrainthediaphragmregionandtheanahatachakraintheheartregionseemto remainunnoticed.Inreality itisjustthecontrary.Theheartchakrahasauniquepositioninmanywaysitwouldnotrespondto physicalpressureinanyevent.Inthispositionitcanbeinfluencedbyameditativeprocessaswe willseelateron. Themanipurachakraisalsodealtwithinanunusualmannerhereforinstructionsarestaticinnature. Alatersloka41willaddadynamicelementthatwillaffectthemanipurachakraamongother things. 36Placetherightheelabovethesexorganandtheleftheelovertheright.Thistooissiddhasana. See YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEASANAS 33

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Figure9. 37Somecallthissiddhasanaotherssayitisvajrasanaormuk−tasanaorguptasana. WhyIsthereadifferenceofopinionNotherearegoodreasons.Thisasanacanserveseveral purposesandeachnameindicatesadifferentemphasis.Butwedonotwanttogetlostindetails. 38Thesiddhassay:Justasamongtheyamasthemostimportantistodonoharmtoanyoneand thatamongtheniyamasmoderationsoissiddhasanathechiefofallasanas. Weshouldnottakethisasaqualitativecharacteristic.Ratheroneshouldsay:justasnonviolenceis theleitmotivofallotherprinciplesandmoderationtheguidelinetoallotherqualitiessoalsois siddhasanathefoundationofallotherrequirementsfortheinnervisionofrajayogawithoutmaking themsuperfluoushowever. 39Ofthe84asanasoneshouldalwayspracticesiddhasanaaboveallitpurifiesthe72000nadis. Nadisarethosepathsthroughwhichthebodyreceivesitssupplyofprana.Weshouldnotthinkof theseasnervestrandsandwhetherornotthereare72000wouldbehardtoascertainnorisitofany consequence.Onlythreenadisareimportantforus:firstthepreviouslymentionedsushumnapathin thecenterofthespinalcolumnandthenthetwomajornadiswhichrunparalleltothespinal columnidaleftandpingalaright. Theybegininthenostriloftheirrespectivesideswindoncearoundtheajnachakralikethread aroundaspindleandendallthewaydownwherethemainchannelthesushumnaalsoendsinthe muladharachakra.Sinceitisthetaskofthesenadistocirculatethelifestreamofpranatheymustbe keptcleanwhichisnotasimplematter.Underspecialcircumstancesthisasanaservesthepurpose. Butthereareothermethodswhichareindicatedunderotherconditions.Thesecondpartofthiswork utilizesthem. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEASANAS 34

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40Theyogiwhomeditatesontheatmanandeatsmoderatelyachievestheyogasiddhisafterhehas practicedsiddhasanafor12years. Atmanmeditationisreflectionuponourownmysteriousselfitisthewaytoself−knowledge.God BrahmanandatmanhavefromtimeimmemorialbeenthegreatOneness:"Iam"isthenameof GodthatMosesheardandwhichisproclaimedasthefirstnameofGodintheJewishKabbala.It wasthesameinancientEgyptandisstillsowiththeParsis."IamBrahma"brahmasmi.thisisthe meditationevenofHinduswhoarenotyogis.Onlythemeditatorwhocanexperienceitwill understandtheatman.Theintellectualtacklestheproblemwithlogicandphilosophicaldeduction whichresultonlyinmorecomplicationsbutwillneverleadtoasolution.Atmanmeditationis perfectmysticism.Astothe12yearsthisisonlyapplicabletotheaverageaspirant.Oneofmy gurusreachedhisgoalin23daysbutwith16hoursofdailymeditation.Hadhemeditatedonlyeight hourshewouldperhapshaveneededtwoyearsandwithfourhoursprobablynolessthanten. 41Ifsiddhasanaisperfectedandthebreathiscarefullyrestrainedinkevalakumbhakawhatneed foralltheotherasanas Againanewtermkumbhaka.Thisisasimplematter:kum−bhakaisthemomentbetweeninhalation andexhalationorviceversawhenthebreathisretainedforsometime. Anyonecanobservethedevelopmentofprana:afterafewdeepandfastinhalationsandexhalations concentrateonthefingertips.Whatyoufeelthenisthedirecteffectofprana. Thevarietiesofkumbhakaofwhichkevalakumbhakaisonlyonewillbediscussedlateron. 42Whensiddhasanaisaccomplishedwecanenjoytheecstasyofthemeditativestateunmani avasthathemoonandthethreebandhasfollowwithouteffortnaturally. Thisslokaisnotforthestudentbutfortheteacher.Thethreebandhasarestillunknowntheunmani avasthastateisafondhopeandhowthemooncan"follow"isstillamystery.Havepatienceall shallbeexplainedinduecourse. 43Thereisnoasanalikesiddhasananokumbhakalikekevalanomudralikekhecariandnolaya equalsnadaanahatnada. Aslokathattheteacheratthispointcanonlyunderlinewhilethestudenthopefullyawaitstheday whenhecanconvincehimselfofitsefficacy.Whetherornotitisvalidwecanjudgeonlyattheend ofthisbook. 44Placetherightheeluponthebaseoftheleftthighandtheleftupontherightthigh.Crossthe armsbehindthebackandgraspthetoestherightoneswiththerighthandandtheleftwiththeleft. Pressthechinonthebreastandlookatthetipofyournose.Thisiscalledpadmasanaandcuresall diseasesSee YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEASANAS 35

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Figure10. Firstofallitappearsthatwehaveherewithoutadoubtagymnasticexerciseofenormousvaluebut onethatdemandsahighdegreeofskill.Theribcageisexpandedandthelungsandshoulders strengthenedthespinalcolumnisstraightenedoutandtheabdominalmusclesstretched:an exemplaryposturefromasheerphysicalpointofview. Tothisareaddeddeeperresultswhichareimmediatelymanifestwhenwemeditateinthisposture. Firstofallthereiscompletelynewawarenessofthebodythenthespinalcolumnis "Thesecretteachingisthatthereshouldbeaspaceoffourinchesbetweenthechinandthebreast" SriNivasalyangar.TheHathaYogaPradipikaofYogaSwamiSvatmaramatranslationwith commentaryAdyar1949p.22.−Trans. reshaped:itbecomesstraightwhereasusuallyitisslightlyS−shapedthe"kundalinipath"is relievedofitscurvesandthusbecomesmorereadilytraversible.Butthereisalsoaninfluenceonthe chakrasandlastbutnotleasttheprana"circuit"isre−channeled.Yetascontradictoryasitseems thevalueofthisasanaasaphysicalexerciseisgreaterthanitsmeditativeassets. Importantinthisconnectionisthenextasanawiththesamenamewhichcontainsallthebenefits thatarereferredtoassecondaryintheaboveasana.Thetwocombinedinsystematicpracticegive theresultsthataredesiredatthisstageofevolution. 45−47Placeyourfeetfirmlyontheoppositethighsandplaceyourhandsfirmlyinthemiddleone upontheotherinyourlapfastenyoureyesonthetipofthenoseandtouchthebackoftheupper teethwithyourtongue.Pressthechinonthechestandraisetheair apanavayuslowlyupwhilecontractingtheanusmuscle.Thisispadmasanathatdestroysall diseases.Butthiscanbeachievedbyonlyafewveryintelligentpersons. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEASANAS 36

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Thisisthefirststeptorajayoga.Inthepreviouspadmasanawecreatedtheessentialphysical conditions.Thespinalcolumnwasstraightenedandthe"bowofthenadis"wasdrawnasmyguru termeditsothattherealyogacouldnowbegin.Butevenwhenwehaveachievedthispostureitis likeanemptypotforwhatisessentialherethepranawillbedevelopedonlyinthesecondstage. Thissectionintroducesapartoftheanatomythathasnotyetbeenmentionedasindeeditisnot oftenmentioned:thesphinctermuscleoftheanus.Weshouldalsoknowthatinadditiontotheprana circuittherearefourothersimilarcurrentsthatcoursethroughourbodyoneofwhichcalledapana flowsthroughthe"lowerregions"justaspranaflowsthroughtherespiratorysystem.Wecan influencethepranathroughtheprocessofbreathingandtheapanathroughtheabove−mentioned movementofthesphinctermuscle.WhatforAgainwemustlookback.Itwasstatedthatprana shouldenterthehairlinechannelofsushumnabutpranacannotmoveanylowerthanthediaphragm whileapanafindsitsupperboundarybelowthediaphragm. Ifwecan"tic"thesetwostreamstogetheronecontinuousflowreachesfromthenostrilstotheend ofthespinalcordthusconstitutingasingleunitabletofulfillitstask. Heretheconditionhasbeencreatedthatwillbeutilizedpracticallyinthenextstep. 48Havingassumedthepadmasanaposturewiththehandsoneupontheotherandthechinfirmly presseduponthechestmeditateonBrahmafrequentlycontractingtheanusmuscletoraiseapana. Similarlybycontractingthethroatforcepranadown.Thuswiththeaidofkundaliniwhichis arousedbythisprocessweachievehighestKnowledge. 49Whentheyogiremainsinpadmasanaandthusretainsthebreathdrawninthroughthenadigates nostrilshereachesliberation.Thereisnodoubtaboutit. Ifeverythinghasbeenunderstoodthusfaronehasaninklingofwhatisatstake.Onlyonepointis notquiteasclearasitmaysound:thattheyogireachesliberation.LiberationfromwhatWhatis thisliberationlike Heisliberatedwhoseesthisworldforwhatitreallyisafigmentofourownimagination.The nonliberatedbelievedthatheisapartofthistangibleworldhehastosubmittothedemandsof circumstanceandhisfortuneormisfortuneisapparentlytiedtothistangibleworld.Hisdesiresare forpossessionofthingsorpeople.Helivesonlybytheconsciousnessofwhathissensesconveyto him.Andbeyondtheworldofsensesthereexistsforhimonlythedarknessofdubiousfantasies.An uncertainfaithinahigherpowerisabouttheextentofhisother−worldlincssandmoreoftenthan noteventhisisnothingbutaprimitivefearofpunishmentthatheexpectsfromsomeplacewherehis carthboundunderstandingcannotreach.Hisobediencetodivinelawsisbasedonweaknessnoton therecognitionthathehimselfisapartofthatlawapartoftheeternallight−−anddarkness.These "twosoulsalasinhisownbreast"chafeunderthematerialillusionofthecosmos:theinsensitive matterasmasterofwhichheenteredtheworldandwhoseslavehesoonbecame.Hestumblesover theleastlittlestonecursesthestoneandwithhiscursestrikesonlyhisownweakness.His conditionishopelessservitude.Hewhosearchesforthesourceofhissorrowelsewherewhotriesto demolishthestumblingblockwithoutrealizinghisownunmindfulnessisalwaysaslave. Theliberatedoneknowsandseesallproblemswithinhimself.Itisnotthathehaspersuadedhimself ofthisbyphilosophical logic.Noheexperiencesinmeditationtheforcesandthecontentofhisownpersonalityandcan YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEASANAS 37

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objectivelyopposethemtosenseimpressions.Onceherealizeshistruepositionheisasfreefrom senseimpressionsastheadultisfreefromattachmenttothetoysofhischildhood.Heviewsthose oh−so−vitalthingsofthisworldasthegrandfatherseesthedollsofhisgrandchildren:notsenseless byanymeansbutnotworthyofbeingidolizedatthecostofinnerpower.Tobesurehecannot persuadethe"unfree"childofthe"objectiveuselessness"ofthedollwithwisewordsbutunderhis guidancethechildcangrowtomaturitysothatonedayshewillrealizebyherselftheworthlessness ofthedoll.Heresimilarlyitisuselesstotrytopersuadetheaveragehumanbeingoftheobjective uselessnessofhistoysaslongasheisnotreadyforit."Donotshowmentherealvalueoftheir worldbutteachthemtofathomitforthemselves."Thisisperhapstheaptesttenetinallyoga. 50Placeyouranglesintheregionofthesexorgansbetweenanusandscrotum:therightankleto therightandthelefttotheleftside. Thismeanskneelwithkneesslightlyapartfeetcrossed.Compare Fig.2. 51Placethepalmsuponthekneeswithfingersspreadoutandeyesuponthetipofthenoseand breathewithopenmouthandconcentratedmind . 52ThisissimhasanaheldingreatesteembythehighestyogisThisasanafacilitatesthethree bandhas. Ifthestudentdoesnotknowsomethingaboutthebandhasthisasanahaslittlemeaning.Bandha comesfrom"tobind."Thatthereissomethingtobindwehaveseennamelypranatheuppercircuit andapanathelowercircuit. Ifwetrythisasanawerealizethatthechestexpandswhenweinhaleandtheabdomenrecedes.This isthefirststeptothebandhas. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEASANAS 38

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53−55Placetheanglesunderthebuttocksrightbelowrightleftbelowleftoneithersideofthe perineum.Pressthesolesofthefeettogetherandholdfirmlywithbothhands.Thisisbhadrasana andcuresalldiseases.Thesiddhasandyogiscallitgorakshasana.Theyogishouldpracticethisuntil hefeelsnomorepainortiredness.See Figure11. Nothingmuchisgainedforrajayogathroughthisasana.Itdoescontrolunwanteddesires. 56Thenheshouldcleansethenadisbypracticingpranayamaaswellasmudrasandkumbhakasof variouskinds. Thesewillbelearnedatthenextlevel.63 CHAPTER4 THEWAYOFLIFEOFAYOGI Afewusefulhintsbeforeweattemptthehighergoalsofthesecondpart.Theymaynotbeas dramaticastheslowlyclarifyingbackgroundofasanasbuttheyareimportantenoughtocause tremendousdifficultiesiftheyareignored. 57aThenfollowstheconcentrationontheinnersoundnada. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEWAYOFLIFEOFAYOGI 39

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ThisslokabelongstothehighestformofrajayogatobediscussedinPartFourandisrather prematurehereitmaybeaninterpolationbyanimpatientstudentofSwatmarama. 57bThebrahmacharinwhoobservingmoderatedietrenouncingthefruitsofhisactionspractices hathayogawillbecomeasiddhainthespanofoneyear. Abrahmacharinisayogiwhoobservescompletecelibacy.Herethequestionofcelibacybecomes acute.HowcompulsoryisitforayogiAtthispointIcannotgiveadecisiveanswerbutshouldsay thatmostoftheyogamastersIhaveknownwerehappyhouseholderswhileIhavemet brahmacharinsontheotherhandwhodidnotdistinguishthemselvesbyhigherknowledge.Itisnot asimportanttowithholdpotencyasitistoknowhowtomanageitandaboveallhowtotransform itintospiritual potency.Celibacywithouttransformationofthepreservedpotenciesonlyforcesthemtofindtheir ownoutletmostlywhereitisleastdesiredattheweakestpointofthewholeorganism. "Yoga"saysmyguru"iseconomyofforcesnotrepressionofnature."Thisstatementmayseem verycomfortingtosomestudentsbut"economy"needscloserdefinitionfortheyogis"economy" seemslikeheavysacrificetomost.Economyofforcesmeanstobeintunewithnaturalharmony. Andthisisexclusivelythemeasuredrhythmofnature.Stimulationdoesnotoriginatefromthe outsideartificiallybutfrominnersourcestheessentialwellspringswhicharewithinus.Itis thereforenotaquestionofoverpoweringthebodyormostcuriousofallendeavorsofshuttingout allthestimulioftheouterworldbutaquestionofilluminatingourownconsciousness.Afterthatthe bodyobeysautomatically.Celibacyofthemindhastoprecedecelibacyofthebody.Anevilthought isworsethanabaddeed. The"deedinthought"isoftenunderestimated.Oneimaginescontrolofactionisthechief accomplishmentandforgetsthatfrequentlylackofopportunityorfearofexternallawsarethe motivationswhichmakeussovirtuous.SigmundFreudhasperhapspaintedtoodarkapicturebut wecanhardlydenyhisprincipleespeciallywhenatalaterstageofmeditationwearefacedwithour fearfulanimalisticself. Anotherinterestingproblemarisesfromthephrase"renouncingthefruitsofhisactions."Thisis purekarmayoga. Adeedisofvalueonlywhenitisdoneforitsownsake.Thisisaplatitudewhichhastheremarkable distinctionofcontainingoneofthedeepestwisdomsoftheworld.Thereasonforthisandits practicalvaluecaneasilybeexplainedpsychologicallybuttheadvantagesthatresultfromit internallyliebeyondthemostfertileimagination.Itiseasilytested:Anyonewhosucceedsindoinga really"gooddeed"withouttheslightestselfishmotive−−oneofthemostdifficulttasksamancan accomplish−−willreapthejoyofitssublimefruit.Everythingthatwemortalsdohasamotivefor weare"creaturesofreason"andreasonalwaysdemandsthemotivewhichaccordingtoancient wisdomwearenotsupposedtohave.Thepsychologicalexplanationforthiscannotbediscussed herebutwhetherornotweadoptthepathofyogaweshouldoccasionallyanalyzeoneofour"good deeds"toseehowmuchselfishnessorself−satisfactionitactuallycontains.Thefruitofeverygood deedisacertainsatisfactionwhichdirectlyorindirectlyresultsfromthisdeed.Anditisthis satisfactionthattheyogirenounces.Hedoesnotcreateanythinginhismindthatcouldbesatisfiedin thisway. Thecarefulobserverwillnotethatthespiritualbackgroundoftheabstinenceofthebrahmacharin YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEWAYOFLIFEOFAYOGI 40

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andtherenunciationofthekarmayogihavethesamesourceandthatthesamepsychological disciplinesaredemanded.Thereisnodoubtthathewhocanfulfilltheseconditionscan"becomea siddhainthespanofoneyear."Somethingmorehastobesaidaboutthe"moderatediet": 58Moderatedietmeanspleasantsweetfoodleavingfreeonefourthofthestomach.Theactof eatingisdedicatedtoSiva. Theclassicalcommentarysays:"Hetheyogishouldfilltwopartsofhisstomachwithfoodandthe thirdpartwithwaterleavingthefourthfreeforairtoaidthedigestiveprocess."Inshort moderation. 59−61Thefollowingareconsideredasnotbeingsalutary:sourpungentandhotfoodmustard alcoholfishmeatcurdsbutter−milkchiclepeasfruitofthejujublinseedcakesasafetidaand garlic.Itisalsoadvisabletoavoid:reheatedfoodanexcessofsaltoracidfoodsthatarehardto digestorarewoody.Gorakshateachesthatinthebeginningtheyogishouldavoidbadcompany proximitytofiresexualrelationslongtripscoldbathsintheearlymorningfastingandheavy physicalwork. Thisdoesnotrefertothecommerciallyculturedmilkwecall"buttermilk."−−Transl. Thesestrictdisciplinesareimposedonthestudentbutdonotnecessarilyapplytothemaster. "Proximitytofire":thetemperatureofayogichangesconsiderablyduringspecificpractices especiallyinthemeditativestate.Theterm"burningasceticism"tapashasitsoriginhereandis notasitmayseemsheerrhetoric.Iftheyogiintrainingsubmitstoexteriortemperaturechanges throughproximitytofireorbyacoldbathafterthewarmthofhiscouchhedamagesthroughthese unnaturalchangesthe"fireoflife"pitta.Thetemperatureoftheatmospheredependson atmosphericpressurewhichinfluencesthewholehumanorganismandregulatesthepitta.Artificial temperaturechangesdonotagreewiththeyogiwhileheisinanalteredstate.Eventhesimplest practiceofmeditationbecomessenselessiftheyogiisfreezing.Thisisoneofthereasonswhythe coveringsofakundaliniyogiconsistalwaysofsilkorwoolneverofcottonormanmadefibers −−Trans.. 62Thefollowingitemscanbeusedwithouthesitation:wheatproductsbreadetc.ricemilkfats rockcandyhoneydriedgingercucumbersvegetablesandfreshwater. 63Theyogishouldeatnourishingsweetfoodsmixedwithmilk.Theyshouldbenefitthesenses andstimulatethefunctions. 64Anyonewhoactivelypracticesyogabeheyoungoldorevenveryoldsicklyorweakcan becomeasiddha. 65Anyonewhopracticescanacquiresiddhisbutnothewhoislazy.Yogasiddhilarenotobtained bymerelyreadingtextbooks. 66Noraretheyreachedbywearingyogagarmentsorbyconversationaboutyogabutonly YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEWAYOFLIFEOFAYOGI 41

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throughtirelesspractice.Thisisthesecretofsuccess.Thereisnodoubtaboutit. 67Thevariousasanaskumbhakasandmudrasofhathayogashouldbepracticedaslongasraja yogahasnotbeenattained. AndwhenwillthathavebeenattainedWhenhumanexistencenolongerholdsanyproblems. PARTTWO YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEWAYOFLIFEOFAYOGI 42

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THERIVEROFLIFE CHAPTER5 THEPURIFICATIONOFTHENADIS afterthebroadoutlineoftheevolutionofthewholeorganismthroughasanasgiveninPartOnewe cometothevataelementinallitsaspects.Onlyhecangraspthedeepestsenseofpranayamawhois open−mindedenoughtovieweachconceptinthreedimensions:grossphysicalsubtlemental andabstractspiritualordynamicstaticandabstract.Whenherecognizestheinterrelationofthese aspectshemaycometothatcognitionwhichconvertsthewisdomofyogaintorevelation. 1Whentheyogihasperfectedhisasanasheshouldpracticepranayamaaccordingtothe instructionsofhismaster.Withcontrolledsensesheshouldnourishhimselfwithmoderation. Atahigherlevelofinstructionthingsbegintochangeinmanyways.Theguruisnotaslenientasin thebeginning.Hegiveshigherinitiationandanewmantramoreaboutthislaterspeaksless expectsmore.Perhapsnotyetinachievementbutintermsofunderstanding.Nordoesheliketo referbacktothefirstlevelofpractice.Wetoowillfindthatrecapitulationisseldomneeded. 2Whenthebreath"wanders" i.e.isirregularthemindalsoisunsteady.Butwhenthebreathiscalmedthemindtoowillbestill andtheyogiachieveslonglife.Thereforeoneshouldteamtocontrolthebreath. HaveyouevernoticedhowthebreathbecomesirregularoncertainoccasionsCertainlyifyoutry tocatchabusyoubreatheirregularlyafterwardsandarefullyawareofthefactthatyouare"outof breath."ButthatisnotwhatImean. Takeforexampletwootheroccasions:inthetheaterandatanimportantinterview.Howwasyour breathinginthefirstinstanceandhowinthesecondWhenwasitslowerwhenfasterWhenwasit regularAndhowwasitwhenitwasirregularThusonecouldaskathousandquestionsona thousandoccasionsandreceiveathousanddifferentreplies−−iftheinterviewedpersonknew anythingabouthisbreath.Butheknowsnothingabouthisbreathandthereforeknowsnothingabout hismind.Thisconclusionisincontrovertible. Certainlywemayknowthisorthataboutourthoughts−−forinstancewhatwehavebeenthinking of−−butdoweknowwhywethoughtjustaboutthisandnotaboutanythingelseWeknowthat suddenlyanotherthoughtarosebutdonotknowtherelationshipbetweenthetwothoughts.We knowthatweremembercertainthingseasilyandforgetothersquitereadilybutwhyItisjustthe thingbehindthis"why"thatisthemostimportantpartofourmind.Itisthesourceofourmental existence. Stillthequestionoftherelationshipofmindwithbreathremainsunresolved.Herewecouldmarshal manyformulaswhichhavephysiologicalfoundationssuchasoxygensupplyheartrhythmblood circulationbloodsupplytothebraincells.Butallthesearenotdecisivefactors.Whatisdecisiveis whatisonlyimperfectlyunderstood:thesignificanceofthelifestreamorpranaaspowersourceof ourthoughtcreator"mind."Alltheseareponderousandcomplicatedproblemsbutletus THERIVEROFLIFE 43

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simplymentionthemhere.Laterslokaswillleadusclosertoasolutionatleastascloseasitis necessaryforayogiatthesecondstageoftraining.Soletusadvancecautiouslyonthisshaky ground. 3Manlivesonlyaslongashehasbreathinhisbody.Ifhelacksbreathpranahedies.Therefore weshouldpracticeprana−yama. Weknowofcoursethatbreathislifeweevenknowthechemicalprocessthatprovesit.Buthowis itthatwecannotkeepadyingmanalivebyattachinghimtoanoxygentankSoitisnotjustoxygen thatmatters.Isthedecisiveelementthelifestreamprana 4Whenthenadisareimpurebreathcannotpenetrateintothesushumna.Thentheyogiachieves nothingnorcanhereachthestateofdeepconcentrationunmaniavastha. Weknowthat72000nadisinourbodyaretheconveyorsofthelifecurrentandthatweliveour everydaylivesbythiscurrent.Thehigherlifeofayogiisachievedbycreatinganadditionalsupply ofcurrenttosendthroughtheotherwiseweaklysuppliedmainchannelsushumna.Thiscauses heightenedactivitiesinthechakrasandbraincentersresultingintheyogishigherstateof consciousness.Itiswellknownthatarustyconductorusesmorepowerthanacleanone.Similarly ifthenadisareimpurepranayamaisawasteofenergy. 5Onlywhenallthenadiswhicharestillimpurearepurifiedcantheyogipracticepranayama successfully. 6Thereforeoneshouldpracticepranayamawiththemindinsattvicconditionuntilthesushumnais freefromimpurities. Therearetwomethodsofpurificationofthenadis.Herewedescribethepsychologicalmethod whichisfarmorepleasantthantheotheralthoughthesecondoneleadsmorespeedilytothegoal. Oneshouldpractice"withthemindinasattvicstate."Weshalltrytounderstandthiswithout burdeningthemindwiththeintricaciesofthegunatheory. Sattvaisthepositivepropensityforpurity.Gooddeedskindwordsnoblethoughtsapleasing personalityinterestinloftypursuitsarethedistinguishingmarksofsattva.Andrememberitisnot theactivitythatisdecisive.Onesingleimpurethoughtduringpranayamaandthecurrentis disturbednotonlythecurrentbutthewholebeingsinceahumanbeingbecomesahumanbeing onlybythiselectromagneticcurrent. Wecanreadilyimaginehowthiscanhappen:weperceivesomethingitiscarriedonthelifestream tothebrainasalivereflex.Sofarwecancallit"thepureidea."Onceitreachesthinkingitis alreadycoloredbythepersonalityandhasthusbecomeindividualized.Itisthenevaluatedandthis againisentirelyindividual.Ifinadditionitisthenstainedbyanimpuremindourwholepersonality iscontaminated. Theseseeminglytrivialimpuritiesarestillcoarseenoughtoblockthepsychicpathwayofthenadis. Thisstatementwouldbeabsurdifthenadiswerewhattheyarenotbodilyorgans.Rathertheyare magneticfieldssuchasaredevelopedbyamagnet. Ifwenowbecomeawarethateverybreathwetakeisinasensepranayamawecanreadilyrealize YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THERIVEROFLIFE 44

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howfrequentlywedamageourdelicatepsychewithanimpureorbadthought.Inthelongrunwe shortenourliveswitheverynegativegestureindeedwordorthoughtbyoverburdeningthe conductorsofthelifestreamwiththeseimpurities. 7Assumingthepadmasanaposturetheyogishallguidethepranathroughtheleftnostril chandramoontotheidanadiandafterhavingretainedthebreathaslongaspossiblein kumbhakashouldexhaleitthroughtherightnostrilsuryasun. 8Thenheshouldinhalethroughtherightnostrildokum−bhakaaccordingtotheruleandexhale throughtheleftnostril. 9Inhalationisalwaysthroughthesamenostrilasthepreviousexhalation.Afterthebreathhas beenretainedtotheutmostpossiblelimituntilperspirationbreaksoutorthebodybeginsto trembleroneshouldexhaleslowly−−neverquicklysincethatreducestheenergyofthebody. 10Takeinpranathroughtheidanadiandexhaleitthroughthepingala.Thentakeinnewprana throughpingalaandreleaseitthroughidaafterhavinghelditinkumbhakaaslongaspossible. Theyogiwhohasperfectedhimselfintheyamashavingthusdevelopedthesatfvicmindwill purifyhisnadisinthreemonthsofpractice. Thisisthetechniqueofpranayama.Justasallthemultitudeofasanasaimatthespinalcolumnso theessenceofpranaiscenteredinkumbhakatheperiodwhenthereisnobreathing.Fromthisas wellasbylaterindicationswecanrecognizethatitisnotthebreathairthatcarriesthecurrentbut thatthecurrentisbeingproducedduringthebreathingprocess. Justastheplungingwatersinapowerplantareonlythemeansofreleasingtheenergythrough whichthebrushesofthestationaryturbinsareactivatedsopranaalsodoesnotoriginateinbreath butinthe"turbins"thechakrawheelswithwhichthenadishaveaninductiverelationship. Thecurrentnecessarytosustainourlifeisautomaticallyregulatedthroughthevaryingstrengthof ourinhalationandexhalation.Sighingandyawningarepranayamasinminiaturebutwithdifferent purposes.Ourcriticalmedicowillpatronizinglytellusthatyawningandsighingarefunctionsthat regulatetheoxygensupplyinourblood.True.Wedonottrytobelittlethisfact.Andweknowthat physiologicallytheproductionofelectromagneticcurrentissominimalastobebarelymeasurable:a negligiblefactorjustasonehundredyearsagothemicroscopicsecretionsoftheendocrineglands wereconsiderednegligible.Butmanismorethanachemicallaboratoryandwehavenorightto designateeventheslightestmanifestationsasunimportantuntilwehaveproof. Weshouldthereforenotbesurprisedattheyogiscontentionthattheheartisnotthemostimportant organofman.Itisthepowercentersthoughtheyhavenotyetbeenseenbyanyonethatareroost vital.Theheartisamuscleandlccomesaregulatoroflaodilyfunctionsonlyinrelationtoandin cooperationwithotherorganswhiletheseinvisiblecenterssuperviseandguidetheorgansbecause theyaredirectlysubordinatetothemind. IIFourtimesadayweshouldpracticekumbhaka:earlymorningmiddayeveningandmidnight untilwecando80roundsatatime. Acommentaryspeaksofthreephasesatthebeginningthebreathshouldbeheldfor30secondsat thesecondstagefor60secondsandatthethirdfor90seconds. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THERIVEROFLIFE 45

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12Atthefirststageperspirationbreaksoutatthesecondstagethebodytremblesandatthethird stagepranareachesthecenteroftheheadbywayofsushumna.Inthiswaypranayamashouldbe practiced. Thismaysoundratherviolentbutdonotforgetthatthemaincharacteristicofyogaisnotviolence butperseverancenotcompulsionbutpatience.Howeverthereisalimitbeyondwhichperseverance becomespigheadednessandpatienceapathy.Theyogihastorecognizeandrespecttheselimits.This isoneofthemostdifficulttasksinhiswholecareer.Proof:takeoneofthemoredifficultasanaand trytoholditlongerthanyourphysicalforcescannaturallyallow.Thesignsofviolenceandundue constraintperspirationandtremblingwillappearheavybreathingandtighteningofthelipswill alsotestifytoaconflict.Onefightsagainstonesownself.Onepartwantstostoptheotherto continue.Thesemanifestationsaresignsofundueforceitisquitedifferentwhenperseveranceand patienceareatplaywithoutanycompulsion.Butforthisweneedacertainnoncompul−sivewayof practicethatistheleitmotivofthewholeyogasystem.Itisdifficulttolearnfrombooksandonlythe gurucanshowusthetruepath:meditativepractice. Thehalf−trainedyogipaysattentionprimarilytothebodywhendoingtheasanasi.c.tothevarious positionsofthelimbsthathewantstoplaceintotheprescribedpose.Andthisisagrossmistake.He shouldconcentrateonthe"asanaassuch"lessonitsphysicalmanifestationandfarlessonthebody thatmovesandgetsintopostures.Thelessconsciousattentiontheyogipaystohisbodythemore perfectwillbehisasana.Ifthephrase"asanaassuch"seemsstrangetousthisindicatesthatwe havenotyetfathomedthedeeperessenceofasanastheirreallygreatmeaning. Inordertoshowyouthatasanasaremorethanconsciouslycreatedgymnasticexercisesletme describeamysteriousmanifestationthatisusuallywitnessedonlybytheinitiated.Theprocess calledkriyavatimanifestsinyogiswhohaveawakenedkundalinibywayofhathayoga. Theyogisitsindeepmeditation.Breathissuspendedthebodyiscoldandstiff.Onlythetopmost centerofhisskullisfeverishlyhot. Thenhestartsmovinghislimbs.Aninnermechanismseemstobeatwork.Slowlysteadilywith unencumberedeasehisarmsintertwinethelegsgointocontortionsthespinalcolumntwists:asanas perfectedtotheutmost.Heincludesasanasnotextbookhaseverdescribedtheguhyasanas positionsthatareimpartedtothestudentorallyonlyaftercertaininitiations.Theyareasanasthatcan beperformedonlybytheyogiwhohaslearnedtogovernhisbodycompletelywithhishigher consciousness. Theyogidoesnotperformtheseasanasinwakingconsciousness."It"performstheasanasinhim whilehiswakingstatehasyieldedcompletelyloastatebeyondtheborderlineofperception. Inthisstatetheyogiiscapableofsuperhumanphysicalachievements.ThuswefindinTibetthe lunggompasyogiswhoinameditativestatecoverhundredsofmileswithgreatspeed.Dizzying precipicesandsnowstormscannothindertheircoursemuchlessstopthem.Attemptstofollowona gallopinghorsehavealwaysfailed.Nohorsehaseverpassedthisprodigioustest. Inthisstatethereisnotremblingnoperspiring.Thisisoneofthehigherformsofyogawearestill workingonaconsiderablylowerlevel.Theidealwearenowaspiringtolieshalfwaybetweenour usualawarenessofbodilymovementandthekriyavatistate.Theebbingofphysicalstrengthduring practicemanifestsbytremblingandperspirationconsciousnessremainscalmandrelaxed.The mindnotburdenedwithanyfeelingof YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THERIVEROFLIFE 46

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compulsiontopersistrestsinitselfinthe"asanaassuch."Thisistheessentialdifference. Sowhenhereonthefirstlevelperspirationbreaksoutthissasignofcompulsiononlyif consciousnessoccupiesitselfwiththisfact.Ifthemindremainscalmthereisnothoughtof compulsion. 13Massagetheperspiringbody.Thisimpartslightnessandstrengthtothewholeconstitution. 14Atthebeginningofpracticetheyogishouldnourishhimselfwithmilkandgheeclarified butter.Whenheisadvancedsuchrestrictionsarenolongerneeded. 15fustaslionselephantsandtigersaretamedlittlebylittlewithpatienceandenergysothe pranashouldbekeptundercontrol.Otherwiseitcankillthepracticer. 16Bythepracticeofpranayamawedeliverourselvesfromalldiseases.Byfaultypracticetheyogi invitesallkindsofailments. 17Thenbreathtakesawrongcourseandpracticeresultsincoughsasthmaheadacheseyeandear painaswellasothersicknesses. TheclassicalexampleofwrongpracticeistoldofRamakrishnathefamousnineteenth−century saint.Inhisyouthhispracticeinvariablyendedinablackout.Laterbloodshoteyesandbleedingof thegumsdevelopedandtheendresultofthisfaultypracticewascancerofthethroatofwhichhe died.Hissaintli−nesswasnottheresultofthistypeofpracticebutself−destructiveextremismisan indicationofthekindofruthlessnessmaniscapableof. 18Slowlyoneshouldinhaleandexhaleandproceedgraduallyalsowithkumbhaka.Thusonewill attainthesiddhis. 19Whenthenadisarepurifiedcertainsignsquitenaturallymanifest:thebodybecomeslightand bright. 20Assoonasthenadisarepurifiedtheyogiisabletoretainthebreathlongerthegastricfireis activatednadatheinnersoundbecomesaudibleandheenjoysperfecthealth. Perfecthealthaloneisreasonenoughtoconcernourselveswithnadipurification.Aboutthegastric fireandthenadasoundwewilllearnmorelater.Butitistheartofretentionofbreaththatisso essentialinthedevelopmentofpranayarna. Howisitthatthepowertoholdthebreathforaconsiderablelengthoftimeshoulddependonthe purityofthenadisratherthanonthecapacityofthelungs Breathgetsshortwhentheairheldinthelungshaslostitsprana.Ifthenadisareimpureasis commonthentheflowofpranaisimpededandissoonunabletoreloadthebreath.Thebreath becomesstalelikeacarbonateddrinkwhenithaslostitsfizz.Ifthenadipathispurehoweverthe pranaflowcankeepbreath"alive"foralongertime. Ayogiwhocansubsistononebreathfordays−−ashasbeendemonstrated−−causestheriverof pranatocirculateinthebodyanddoesnotallowthepranatoescape.Heabsorbsoxygenthroughhis pores.Nowletuslookatthetechniqueofnadipurification. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THERIVEROFLIFE 47

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21Hewhoisofweakconstitutionandphlegmaticsubjecttokaphadisordersshouldfirstpractice shatkarma.Thosenotsufferingconstitutionallyfromthemaindisordersduetovatapittaand kaphadonotneedit. Thenadisofallstudentseventhehealthiestneedpurifying.Themanofperfecthealththe sportsmanthemasterofasanaswhosephysicaltrainingisnearerperfectionthanhis mental−spiritualachievementcanreachnadiperfectionbycultivatingthemental−spiritualaspect. Fortheonewhofirstmustthinkofphysical−organicpurificationbecausehesensesproblemsand shortcomingsshatkarmathe"sixfoldactivity"isindicated. 22Shatkarmaisdhautivastinetitrataka.nauliandkapa−labhati. 23Thesesixpracticeswhichcleansethebodyshouldbecarefullykeptsecretbecausetheyinduce numerouswonderfulresultsandarethereforeheldinhighesteemwiththegreatyogis. WhythissecretivenessWhatarethese"wonderfulresults" Imagineamanwhousesalow−tensionelectricalgadgetwhichisattachedbyatransformerto high−powercurrent.Thecurrentheusesisbarelynoticeablewiththefingertips.Withthe transformerremovedhereceivesanelectricshock. Exactlysoisithere.Theuncleannadisactasatransformertothelifestreamsothatnothing untowardcanhappen.Whenthenadisarecleantheeffectivenessofpranaismanytimesincreased andthiscanbecomedangerous. 24−25Takeastripofcleanclothjourfingersbroadand15spanslongandslowlyswallowitas instructedbytheguru.Thenpullitbackout.Thisisdhautiandiseffectiveagainstasthmaillnessof thepancreasleprosyandotherdiseasesduetokapha. 26−28Sitinatubofwatersoastobesubmergeduptothenavelincrouchingpositionheels pressedagainstthebuttocks. Introduceathinbamboopipeintotheanuscontracttheanusmuscletodrawinthewaterandmove thewateraroundinside.Thisisvastiandcurestroublesofthespleenedemaandotherailmentsthat areduetoanoversupplyofvatapittaandkapha.Thisvastiwhenproperlypracticedrefinesthe circulationofthebodyfluidsthefunctionofthesensesandtheheart.Itmakesthebodybrightand increasesthegastricfire.Allconstitutionaldefectsarethusremoved Somuchadoaboutasimpleenema.IfthissimpleremedyisagoldentreasureintheWesthow muchgreatermustitsvaluebeinthetropics.Itisacommonprocedure.Gandhialwayspracticedit. Allthisofcoursewithoutpranayama.Whenthatisaddedthewholepicturechangesandgreatest cautionisindicated. 29−30Pullathread12inchesinlengththroughoneofthenostrilsandletitsendemergethrough themouth.Thisisneti.Itcleansestheskullandmakestheeyessharp.Italsoremovesillnessesthat areabovetheshoulders. Itcertainlyisnotanagreeablefeelingtopushawetcordthroughthenostrilsandletitcomeoutin thebackofthethroatpickingitupwithtwofingersandpullingitbackandforththroughthenostril. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THERIVEROFLIFE 48

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Butactuallyitismuchmoredisagreeabletowatchtheprocedurethanitistodoit.Theyogihimself getsusedtoitandishappilyfreefromcoldsandsinustrouble. 31−32Gazewithoutblinkingwithconcentratedmindonasmallobjectuntiltearscomeinto youreyes.Thisiscalledtratakabythegurus.Tratakacuresalldiseasesoftheeyesandremoves tiredness.Thereforeitshouldbecarefullykeptsecretlikeatreasurebox. Hereonesensesanulteriormotive.Thepracticemustbekeptsecretjustbecauseittrainstheeyes Thiscanhardlybetherealreason.Thereactuallyisamuchmoreplausiblereasontoobserve secrecy. Hypnosisself−hypnosisvisionstrancestatesecstasieshallucinations−−thesearethingsthathave alwaysseemedveryattractive.Everyonewouldliketoexperiencesomethinglikethatwithout endangeringhimself.Andthispracticeleadsexactlyinthatdirection.Onecouldcallitfalse meditation.Fromthepointofviewofyogaallphenomenarelatedtohypnosisarecompletely uselessifnotdownrightdangerous.Theprematureexperimenterinvariablydrawsthewrong conclusionsfromhisexperiences.Therealmeditativestatesarecognitiveclearconsciousness.There arenosurprisemanifestations.Thispracticetratakamissalutaryifdonewithpropercare.Itis poisonifforcedtoofast. 33−34Withheadbentforwardslowlyrotatetheinnardsintestinesandstomachlikeawhirlpool inarivertowardtherightandtowardtheleft.Thisthesiddhascallnauli.Thisthemostimportant ofallhathayogapracticesremovessluggishnessofthegastricfirestimulatesdigestionandleaves averyagreeablefeelingitremovesalldiseases. Thispracticebelongsnotonlytoshatkarmabutalsotoregularhathayogaalthoughitcannotbe calledanasanasinceasanameans"positionseat"amotionlessposturewhilenauliisamovement oftheabdominalmuscles.Inshatkarmaitisratherasubsidiaryasittrainsthemusclesfordhauti andbasti.Thispractice−−whichistoberecommendedtotheobese−−beginswithdeepexhalation. Atthesametimeleanforwardwithhandspressedonthethighsanddrawintheabdomenwhile raisingtheshouldersthentrytotightenthedrawn−inabdominalmuscics.Oncethisisaccomplished thecircularmotionisnoproblemsincethemusclesstandoutseparatelyonthewithdrawnabdomen asthickasachildsarm. 35Inhaleandexhaleliethebellowsofablacksmith.Thisiskapalabhatiandremovesallailments duetokapha. 36Onefreesoneselffromobesityandphlegmbythesesixpracticesandissuccessfulifoneadds pranayamaafterthem. Yetitismoreadvisabletofollowthementalmethodofnadipurificationbecauseprogressand purificationthengohandinhand.Besides: 37Someteacherssaythatallimpuritiescanberemovedthroughpranayamaalonewithnothing else. Andthoseteacherswhosayitmustknowwhattheyaretalkingabout.Shatkarmaisagrossphysical methodwhilepranayamapurificationcompletelyfoundedonthesattvicmindrepresentsan all−encompassingpurification.Shatkarmaisthepurificationofthelowerstagesofhathayogawhile pranayamabelongstothehigherformofyogarajayoga. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THERIVEROFLIFE 49

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Thefollowingpracticedoesnotbelongtoshatkarma.Trueithasthecharacteristicsofshatkarma butsomethingelseisinvolved. 3SClosingthesphinctermuscleattheanusdrawupapanatowardthethroatandregurgitatewhat isinthestomachinthiswaythenadichakrasarebroughtundercontrol.Thisisgajakarani. Ifwerememberthecountercurrenttopranaapanaintheabdomenweknowthatthiscurrentcannot movebeyondthe diaphragm.Itisimpossibletobringittothethroat.Butonecan−−andshouldinthiscase−−cause theapanacurrenttopressagainsttheudanacurrentthecurrentofdigestionintheupperpartofthe abdomen.Thisiswhatcausesregurgitation. Aspreviouslymentionedwearenotreallydealingwithapurificationprocessheresincedhautihas alreadydoneitswork.Ratherwestimulatethenervoussystemdirectlybytheeffortofregurgitation. Butjustastodaysyogisdonotadvocatethistypeofpracticesowetoowillleaveitaloneasthis sutraclearlyseemstobeamuchlaterinterpolation. Afterthesemoreorlessagreeablepurificationpracticeswereturntopranayama. 39Brahmaandtheothergodswhodevotedthemselvestothepracticeofpranayamadelivered themselvesbyitfromfearofdeath.Thisiswhywetooshouldpracticeit. 40Whenthebreathiscontrolledthemindfirmandunshakabletheeyesfastenedbetweenthe eyebrowswhythenshouldwefeardeath Evenamanwho−−liketheyogi−−hastofearnopunishmentatthelastjudgmentapproacheshislast momentswithatleastsomeapprehensionfortheprocessofdyingisbeyondoursphereofcontrol. Hereforbetterorworsewearedeliveredovertotheplayofnaturalforcesandthisisformanthe mostterrifyingexperience:tobeahelplessvictim. Forthemasterofpranayamathingsaredifferent.Hecontrolsthepowersthatrepresentlife.Hedies consciously.Inlifeasindeathheadaptshimselfwithdeepinsighttothenaturalprocessesofwhich heisalwaysaware.Itisnotonlythelifestreamofpranauponwhichpreservationandenddepend forifsuchwerethecasetheyogiwouldbeimmortal.Ratherherecognizestherhythmtowhichhe likeallotherlivingthingsissubjectanditishistasktogainthehighestpossibleharmonywiththis rhythm.Oncehehasaccomplishedthisandhiscycleoiexistenceiscompletedhewillnottryto influencethelawofhissunset.Thisdeathforhimisonlytheeveningwhichisfollowedbyanew andpurermorninganewcycle.Itissaidtobeoneofthecharacteristicsofthegodsthattheyhave nofearofdeathtowhichtheyaresubjectlikealllivingthingsbecausetheyconsciouslyenterthe eternallynewcycleoflifeandconsciouslypassthroughthetransitorypurifyingstateofdeath. AgainandagainVishnupassesthroughexistence:asanimalmanheroloverdwarforgiant.Heis bornaccomplisheshisdivineworkdiesandisreborn.Hisconsciousnessistheall−preserving Unconscious. TorenderthisUnconsciousconsciousisthegoaloftheyogamasterforthisistheonlywayto becomeequaltothegods.Soletustoopayattentiontothephysicalandspiritualpurityofthenadis whetherornotweareyogis.Letusinhalethelifestreamwithoutweighingitdownwithimpure thoughts.Letusalsolivemoreconsciouslywithourinnervisionconcentratedonthatwhich YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THERIVEROFLIFE 50

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elevatesusaboveallothercreatures:ourspirit.Theneverybreathispranayamawhichmakesus moredivine. 41Assoonasthenadishavebeenpurifiedthroughsystematicpranayamabreatheasilyfindsits waytothesushumnaentrance. 42Whenbreathflowsthroughthesushumnamindbecomessteady.Thissteadinessofthemindis cattedunmaniavastha. 43Toattainthisthesagepracticesavarietyofkumbhakaswherebyheacquiressiddhis. chapter6 KUMBHAKA whenwenowspeakofthevariousformsofkumbhakayoushouldnottrytounderstanditallatonce inthefirstfewsentences.Everythingthatfollowsissoimportantthatsomedetailshavetobemade clearfirst.Sodonotletyourthoughtsraceawaywhateverisnotexplainednowwillbediscussed lateron. 44Thereareeightkumbhakas:suryabhedanaufjayisitarisitalibhastrikabhramarimurccha andplavini. 45Attheendofinhalationpurakaoneshoulddojalan−dharabandhaandattheendof kumbhakaandthebeginningofexhalationrecakauddiyanabandhashouldbedone HowdoesthisworkoutinpracticeTheyogisitscross−leggedonthefloorhandsonkneesand inhalesdeeply.Thenheholdshisbreathwithchinpressedagainstthechestabdomenwithdrawn. Thisisjalandhara−bandha. Assoonashisbreathisshortheraisestheheadandexhalesasdeeplyaspossible.Whenhehas reachedthelimitheagainholdshisbreathstraightensupthebodyanddrawsintheabdomen wherebyapressureiscreatedonthestomachareawhichisincreasedwhenheagainpressesthechin againstthechest.Thefirstpartofthepracticeinhalationandjalandharabandhaconcernstheupper halfofthespinalcolumnthe"moon"thesecondpartexhalationanduddiyanabandhainvolves the"sun"inthecenterofthebodysolarplexus.Butsomethingelseisaddedasthenextsutratells us: 46Whenatthesametimethethroatiscontractedandmula−bandhapracticedi.e.thesphincterof theanusiscontractedbreathflowsthroughthesushumnadrivenbythepressureexertedbythe navelregionatthetimeofexhalation. Anyonewhotriesthispracticeandthinkshehassucceededinguidingthebreaththroughthe sushumnahadbetterrememberthepurityofthenadiswiththesecondattemptheshouldbecome awarehowtenseheisduringthispractice.ThepurposeoftheasanasastaughtinPartOneistotrain thebodysothatnounnecessaryexertionwilldepletetheextrapranasupplythathasbeenacquired. Itisnotsufficienttoinstallthewiringandhaveproperoutletsitisalsonecessarytohavecurrentin propervoltageandamperes.Otherwisetheresultiseithernolightatallorashortcircuit.Wemust beespeciallycarefultoavoidthelatterforhuman"fuses"cannotbereplaced. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika KUMBHAKA 51

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47Bycontractingtheanustoforceapanaupwardandforcingpranadownfromthethroatthe yogibecomesayouthof16yearsandisforeverfreefromoldage. Orstalingitmoremodestly:hewhosucceedsinunitingthetwomaincurrentsinthebodywill therebyeliminatethecausesofprematureoldage.Themostsignificantofthesecausesisthelackof utilizationofthebodysnaturalregenerativepowers.Heretwolimitedmaincurrentsarecombined thatcomplementeachothertogethertheyaccomplishwhattheycannotdosingly.Pranaandapana are"knotted"inthenavelareanabhigranthicreatinganaggregatethatgivesyouthfulstrengthto theagingyogi.Thisisthefirststepinrajayoga. Onceagainthemainpartofpranayamaiskumbhakaandthiscanbeperformedinvariousways. 48Sittingdowncomfortablyinagoodasanatheyogishouldinhalethroughtherightnostril. 49Thenheshoulddokumbhakauntilhefeelsthatthewholebodyfromheadtotoesissuffused bypranathenheshouldslowlyexhalethroughtheleftnostril 50Thissuryabhedakumbhakashouldbepracticedagainandagainforitcleansesthebrain forebrainandsinuscesdestroysintestinalwormsandallthediseasesthatarisefroman overabundanceofvatawind. Thisisthefirstandthemostcommonlypracticedoftheeightvarietiesofkumbhaka.Weshouldalso notethatbeforewebeginthispracticeweexhaledeeply. 51−52Withclosedmouthinhaledeeplyuntilthebreathfillsallthespacebetweenthethroatand thehearti−e„tothetipsofthelungs.Thiscreatesanoise.Dokumbhakaandexhalethroughthe leftnostril.Thisremovesphlegminthethroatandenhancesthedigestivepowerofthebody.Thisis ujjayiandcanbepracticedwalkingorsittingitkeepsdiseasesawayfromtheindividualorgansand thenadisespeciallydiseasesthatareduetokapha. "Thisistobedonealternatelywithbothnostrilsdrawinginthroughtheoneandexpellingthrough theother."PanchamSinhHathaYogaPradipikatranslationwithcommentaryAllahabad1915 p.21 Thenoisementionedisaspecialcharacteristicofthiskumbhaka.Itoccursinaperfectlynaturalway. Weknowthatwithstraightbodyweshouldexhaledeeplybeforeeachkumbhaka.Duringtheshort pausemadeafterexhalationwhentheabdominalwallisdrawninwardtheglottisinvariablycloses. Inhalationthroughbothnostrilssimultaneouslywillcausetheglottistoopenabruptlythusensues thenoise. Thiskumbhakaseemstodealwiththebodyonesidedlyforwhileweinhalethroughbothnostrilsat thesametimeweexhalethroughtheleftonly.Thisofcoursemakesnodifferencetothelungsbut allthemoretothenadisandheretheheartisespeciallyinvolved.Andthattheheartisheavily influencedwecanascertainafterthefirstround.Ujjayikumbhakashouldbepracticedonlybythose whoseheartiscompletelysoundotherwiseitcanleadtocomplications. WhatisthespecialbenefitofthiskumbhakaapartfromitstherapeuticinfluenceonkaphaThe heartrhythmdoesnotfunctionbyitself.Itisthepacemakerofallotherbodilyfunctions.Inyogaitis sometimesnecessarytochangecertainrhythmsandthisisoneofanumberofmethods.Theorganic YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika KUMBHAKA 52

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rhythmismuchtooimportantafunctiontobesubjectedtowillfulexperiments.Theguruknowsits meaningandpurpose. 53−55Withtongueprotrudingalittlebetweenthelipsdrawinthebreaththroughthemouthwitha hissingsound afterkumbhaka:exhalethroughthenose.Thisissitkari.Byrepeatingthistheyogibecomes beautifulasagod.Allwomenadmirehimheisincontrolofhisactionsandfeelsnohungerthirst orfatigue.Hegainsphysicalstrengthandbecomesmasterofyogafreefromalldangers. Obviouslyanenticingpracticeandnotevenadangerousoneifonedoesnotoverdoitasissooften thecasewithenticements. Weshouldhowevernotbedisappointedifwedonotactivatealovecharmbutsimplyfanthepitta the"fireoflife"toheightenedactivity.Wehavealreadyseenwhatbenefitsthisbringsinitswake andhereweshouldnotexpectanythingfurther. 56−57Withtongueprotrudingstiltfurtherinhate.Thenfollowskumbhakaandexhalationthrough thenose.Thiskum−bhalkacalledsitaliremovesillnessesofthespleenfevergallbladdertrouble hungerthirstandtheeffectsofpoisonasforexamplesnakebites. Hereagainthetherapeuticpurposeconcernspittabutthepracticehasalsoanotherpurpose.Hewho succeedsininhalingandexhalingdeeplywithprotrudingtonguewithouthavinghisstomachturn willfeelthatthebreathfollowsanunusualpathforitgetsintothestomach.Andwhathappens there Werememberthatthecountercurrenttopranaisapanaintheabdomen.Thealertreaderwilllong havewondered:Ifwemustdosomuchbreathingtoacquiretheextrapranahowdowegetthe correspondingquantityofapanafortheabdomenForwhataccumulatedtherehaslongbeenwashed outbyvasti.Sitaliisthepracticethatcorrectsthisdeficiency. 58−60Placethefeetonthe oppositethighs.Thisispadma−sanaandremovesalldiseases.Havingassumedthisposture exhalewithclosedmouthuntilapressureisfeltontheheartthethroatandthehead.Thenone drawsinthebreathwithahissingsounduntilittouchestheheart.Duringallthistimeheadand bodyarekeptstraight. 61−62Againinhaleandexhaleasindicatedagainandagainasablacksmithworldshisbellows inthiswaythepranaiskeptillconstantcirculationinthebody.Whentiredexhalethroughtheright nostril.Thisisbhastrikakumbhaka. Therearetwovariationsofthesamepranayamaoneslowtheotherfast.Itbecomesmosteffective whenbothkindsarecombinedinonesitting.Withtoointensivepracticecoloredflamesdance beforetheeyesandablackoutisimminent. Inthispracticeofpranayamathebodybecomessaturatedwithprana−−infactitbecomesso "overloaded"thateventheinexperiencedstudentcanfeeltheprana.Afteraboutfiveroundsofthe "bellows"holdthebreath.Whatthenbecomespalpableinthefingertipsisprana.Afteralittle practicethiscurrentononesskincanevenbefeltbyanotherperson. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika KUMBHAKA 53

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63−64Whenthebreathflowsthroughthebodyclosethenosewiththumbringfingerandlittle finger−−Trans..Havingthenperformedkumbhakaaccordingtotheruleexhalethroughtheleft nostril.Thisremovesillnessescausedbyanoverabundanceofpittakaphaandvataandstimulates thegastricfireofthebody. Throughthisbhastrikakumbhakaaloneitisnotpossibleforthebreathtopenetratethewholebody. Howeverwhenwecombinetheprotruding−tonguepracticedescribedabovewiththe"bellows"−−in thesequencementioned−−thenthisactuallydoeshappen.Andwiththisanotherimportantstephas beentakeninthedirectionofthesleepingkundaliniserpent. 65Thuskundalinirisesquicklythenadisarepurifieditispleasantandofallkumbhakasthemost beneficialinthismannerphlegmatthemouthofthesushumnaisremoved. Theprocedureisasfollows:Insitalikumbhakathebodyisfilledwithapana.Inbhastrikakumbhaka thenecessaryamount ofpranaiscreatedandthenforthefirsttimethetwocurrentsarebroughttofaceeachother. Throughjalandharabandhauddiyanabandhaandmulabandhathesetwocurrentsareknotted togethernabhigranthiandnowrajayogacanbegin. 66Bhastrikakumbhakashouldbepracticedespeciallyforitforcesthebreathtopiercethethree knotsthatareinthesushumna. Althoughthe"threeknots"BrahmagranthiVishnugranthiandRudragranthiareextremely significantweshallgivehereonlyashorttheoreticalsurvey. Thethreestationsofhumanevolution"focusingunfoldingandchange"Rousselleorthe"via purgativaviailluminativaviaunitiva"oftheChristianmysticaredirectlydependentonthethree knotswhichintheprocessofhigherevolutionhavetobepierced.Eachbreakthroughis accompaniedbyacatharsiswhichhereinkundaliniyogaalsomanifestsonaphysicallevel.See PartOneSlokas27−28−−Trans. Wehavenowlearnedtheessentials.Thepropitiousexteriorconditionshavebeenestablishedthe necessaryasanascarefullypracticedandthroughproperpranayamathechannelsofpranathenadis havebeenpurified.Thisisthefirststeptorajayoga.Thenwebeganthe"production"ofprana: 1.Byalternateinhalationandexhalationleftandrightsuryabhedakumbhakapranawas created. 2.Thenthemusclesofthethroatandtheanussphincterweretrainedbandhas. 3.Theheartwasthenpreparedfortheheavyworkaheadujjayikumbhaka. 4.Thevolumeofthelungswasincreasedsitkarikumbhaka. 5.Welearnedtheartofguidingthebreathintotheabdominalcavitysitalikumbhaka. 6.Therethenfollowedthefirstseriousattempttotestwhathadbeenlearnedbhastrika kumbhaka. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika KUMBHAKA 54

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Atthispointwehaveaccomplishedagreatdealbutwearestillfarfromthegoal.Oncetheyogihas experiencedwhathehaslearnedonthisleveloftraininghisrealworkcanbegin.Tobecomea masterinpranayamaissimplyaquestionofperseverancepatienceandendlesseffort. Afewspecialpranayamasfollowwhichshouldnotbeconfusedwiththeothers. 67In/talerapidlyproducingthesoundofamalebee.Thenexhalewiththesoundofafemalebee. Thisisfollowedbykumbhaka.Thegreatyogisbyconstantlypracticingthisexperience indescribablehappinessintheirhearts.Thisisbhramari. Astrangekumbhakaforwhichtherearemanyreasonsthemostprofoundofwhichwewilllearnin PartFour.Whetherornotweimitateabeesuccessfullyisofminorimportance.Essentialisthe hummingsoundwhichshouldbeaccompaniedbyconcentratedinwardvision.Ifthenadisarepure andthereisnomuscletensionthehumminginhalationbringswithitthesensethatoneisabsorbing somethingtangiblesomethingthatexpressesitselfinthesoundandtherebydissolvingit. Kumbhakathenfollowsaccompaniedbyanextraordinarysuspendedpotentiallyfilledsilence. Nowexhalationfollows−−thelongestprocesstimewise−−andherethehummingbecomesan experience.Thevibratingsoundseemstobecomearushingnoisethatfillsthewholeatmosphere.A wholeworldseemstoemergefashionedcompletelyfromvibrations.Itbecomesstrongerand strongeruntiloneistemptedtoopentheeyesasonecannotimaginethatthisroaringsoundexists onlyinonesownbody.Ifoneremainssteadyanddoesnotyieldtothisdesiretoopen theeyesthenthatfeelingofhappinessoccursafeelingasthoughonehadjustwitnessedan extraordinarynaturalphenomenonwherebyonewasallowedaglimpseintothedivineworkshop. Oneisconvincedthatwiththesevibrationsonecouldtumbledownwholebuildingsthatonecould changetheverystructureofobjectsasthough...butnowthebreathisendedanditagainbecomes asstrangelystillasbefore.Butthisisnotthecalmofgreatexpectationsitisthecalmafterthe battlestillechoingwiththreats.Whennowthehumminginhalationfollowsawholeworldseemsto crumble.Everythingonehasbuiltupdisintegratesinashortroughseeminglycruelandhideous process. Thusthependulumswingsfrombreathtobreathfromcreationtodissolutionandfromtherebackto creationagain.Whetherallthiscanhappenwithouttheinfluenceoftheguruishardtosay.Myguru practicedalongwithmeatfirstandthengraduallydroppedbackwithoutmynoticingit. Inprinciplewehaveheretheessenceofawholeyogasystem.Hewhohasgraspedthedeepersense ofthiskumbhakaanditsrelatedphenomenahassavedhimselfyearsofstudy.Onethingofcourse mustbeunderstood:hehasknowledgebutheisnotyetamaster. 68Attheendofinhalationdojalandharabandhaandthenslowlyexhale.Thisismurccha kumbhaka.Itcausesakindofstuporofthemindandisveryagreeable. Thiskumbhakatoohasitspeculiaritieswhicheventhetextitselfrecognizes. WerecallthejalandharabandhaPartTwo45which−−pleasenotethis−−comesusuallyattheend ofexhalation.Hereitisreversedandwerecognizethemany−sidedcharacterofthiskindof practice.Herethepurposedifferswidelyfromourpreviousmethodfornowwehavetolearnto executeapracticewhiletheobservingminddisappears.Thatiswearetostudyinrelativesafety themomentofconsciouslyinducedunconsciousness. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika KUMBHAKA 55

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Thestrangetrancestatetobediscussedlaterisofcoursenotanunconsciousstateintheordinary senseratheritisextremelyheightenedconsciousnessconcentratedonasinglepointinwhichall elsedisappears.Inotherwordsitisanunconsciousstategenerallyspeakingbutitismoreprecisely aheightenedconsciousness.Nowtheyogimustlearntorecognizetheimageofthetransitorystage oftherazorsedgebetweenthesuperconsciousandtheunconscious.Ifhemakestheslightest mistakelaterandfallsfromthesuperconsciousintotheunconsciousstateofafaintitcanmeandeath orinsanity.Hereheislearningtoanaesthetizediscursivethinkingwithoutbecomingunconscioushe hasalsonotyetawakenedthepowerfulforceofkundalini. 69Havingfilledthelungscompletelywithairtheyogifloatsuponthewaterlikealotusleaf.This isplavinikumbhaka. Nothingelseismentioned.Nothingabouthealthorlonglifeonlyaratherextravagant−sounding promise.Forweallknowregardlessofhowdeeplyweinhalewewillhardlyfloatalonglikealotus leafnomoreeasilyinanycasethanweareusedtoinswimming. Sincethiskumbhakathoughusefulisnotinanywaydecisiveweshallonlycommentbriefly:his bodyhavingbeenemptiedcompletelythroughthemuch−debatedprocessofshatkarmatheyogiills allthecavitieswithair:lungsstomachintestines.Thusthe"floatinglikealotusleaf"becomesmore plausible. Somuchfortheeightvarietiesofpranayama.Afewgeneralremarkswillclosethissubject. 70Therearethreekindsofpranayamas:Recakapranayamaexhalationpurakapranayama inhalationandkumbhakapranayamaretention.Kumbhakaisalsooftwokinds:sahitaand kevala. Thetypesofpranaaresummarized: 1.Pranathatresultsfromkumbhakaafterexhalation. 2.Pranathatoriginatesfromkumbhakaafterinhalation. 3.Pranathatisdevelopeda.throughholdingthebreathatanytimeandanyplace withoutforceorexertionsahita b.byholdingthebreathwhenthebloodisoveroxygenizedkevala. 71Aslongasonehasnotyetfullymasteredkevalakum−bhakawhichmeansholdingthebreath withoutinhalationorexhalationoneshouldpracticesahita. 72−71Whenkevalakumbhakawithoutinhalationandexhalationhasbeenmasteredthereis nothingintheinnerworldthatisunattainablefortheyogi.Throughthiskumbhakahecanrestrain thebreathaslongashelikes. 74−75Thushegraduallyattainsthestageofrajayoga.Throughthiskumbhakakundaliniis arousedandthenthesushumnaisfreefromallobstaclesbutwithouthathayogatherecanbenoraja yogaandviceversa.Bothshouldbepracticeduntilrajayogaisperfected. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika KUMBHAKA 56

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76Attheendofkumbhakaheshouldwithdrawhismindfromallobjects.Bydoingthisregularly hereachesrajayoga. 77Thesignsofperfectioninhathayogaare:alithebodyharmoniousspeechperceptionofthe innersoundnadacleareyeshealthcontrolledseminalflowincreasedgastricfireandpurityof thenadis. Andthusequippedtheyogicanconfidentlyembarkuponthethirdstageofhistrainingwherenew greaterandmoredecisivethingsareawaitinghim. PARTTHREE YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika KUMBHAKA 57

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ACTIVEYOGA CHAPTER7 THEMUDRAS 1JustasAnantathelordoftheserpentsthe"infiniteone"withsevenheadssupportsthewhole universewithitsmountainsandwoodsevensoiskundalinithemainstayofallyogapractices. Theleitmotivismajesticallyclearhere.Weareenteringintotheinnersanctumofthesecrettemple. Nowthepreparatoryworkiscompletedthingsarecalledbytheirrealnamesandyet−−:this "master"whonowseeswithopeneyeswhatisatstakesuddenlybecomesawarethatheisstillonly astudent.Themasterofpranayamaisalessermasterforhestillhastoprovehimself.Hedoesnot evensuspectyetthatsomedayhewillhavetoforgetallthathehaslearnedinthecourseofmany yearshedoesnotsuspectthatallthesewonderfulexperiencesaredangerousreefsthatimperilhis waytothehighestabstractknowledge.Ifheknewallthisnowhewouldbetroubledbydoubtsor wouldtrytoreachwhatheisnotyetcapableoffinding.Naturedoesnotmakeanyleapsneither doesyoga. 2−3Whenthekundaliniissleepingitwillbearousedbythegraceoftheguru.Thenallthechakras andknotsarepierced andpranaflowsthroughtheroyalroadofsushumna.Themindisreleasedfromitsworkandtheyogi conquersdeath. Onethingiscertain:kundaliniismorethanjustasymbolictermforoneofourknownforcesor faculties.Itisapotentialofwhichnormallyweknownothingandonethatdoesnotseemtoexistfor theaverageman. Thechakrasareoccasionallyperceptibleineverydaylife.Intimesofdangerthereisusuallya convulsivecontractionofthemuladharachakrainthecaseofacutedangeritintestificsasthe often−mentionedexperienceof"seeingthewholelifeflashthroughthemind."Insexualexcitement thesvadishthanachakraisnoticeable.Bestknownistheinfluenceofthemanipurachakraoncrying andlaughterwhicharerelatedtotheregionofthediaphragm.Onespeaksoflovingdevotionas comingfromtheheartitreallyinvolvestheneighboringanahatachakra.Thewell−knownchoking sensationwhenaspeakeris"blocked"relatestothevishuddhachakra.Theindexfingeronthe brow−−"Eurekal−−meansthattheajnachakrahasspokenandthehaloontheimageofasainthas itscenterinsahasrarachakratomentionjustafewminorcharacteristicsignsoftheseunknownyet soimportantcentersinman. 4Sushumnathegreatvoid:brahmarandratheroyalroadtheburninggroundshambhavithe middleway−−allisone. Howeasilyonegetsconfusedbybigwords.Certainlythisspiritualbackgroundisunfathomably profound.Therearewholephilosophicallibrariesonthe"greatvoid"shunyataandaschoolof Buddhismisbasedonthisterm.Letusleavethissutrabehindusassoonaspossiblefornothingis moretemptingthantodelveintothedepthofthesetermstocomparethemandsearchfortheirinner relationship.Yethowuselessthisisifone ACTIVEYOGA 58

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hasnotexperiencedtheunityofallthesedifferentiationsinmeditation.Thisaloneisthewayof wisdomnotphilosophicalbreeding. 5Theyogishouldcarefullypracticethevariousmudrasinordertoarousethegreatgoddess kundaliniwhoinhersteepclosesthemouthofthesushumna. Mudra:thedecisivethemeofthischapter.Amudraawakenskundaliniitissetinmotionthrough thepracticeswehavelearnedinthefirsttwopartsofthiswork. Thisarrangementtestifiestogreatwisdom.Whatgoodwoulditdotoactivatethisforcewithoutfirst havinglearnedhowtoutilizeitHewhowantstowakeagiantfirstmusttestthesharpnessofhis weaponsandmakesureofhisprotection.. 6−9Mahamudramahabandhamahavedhakhecari:uddiyanabandhamulabandhaand jalandharabandha:viparitakaranivajroliandshakticalanathesearethetenmudraswhichconquer oldageanddeath.−−TheyhavebeengivenbySivaandconfertheeightsiddhisontheyogi.All thesiddhasstriveforthembuttheyarehardtoattainevenfortheGods.Theyshouldbecarefully keptsecretlikeaboxfullofdiamondsandlikeanillicitrelationwithamarriedwomanofnoble birthshouldnotbementionedtoanyone. 10−14Presstheanuswiththeleftheelandextendtherightleggraspthetoeswithyourhand. Thenpracticejalandharabandhaanddrawthebreaththroughthesushumna.Thusthekundaliniwill stretchouttikeasnakethathasbeenhitbyastickThetwonadisdieofftherebybecausetheprana leavesthem.Thenexhale−−slowlyneverfast.Thesagescallthismahamudra.Itdestroysdeathand othersufferings.Becauseithasbeentaughtbythegreatsiddhasitiscalledmahamudrathegreat mudraandoliobecauseofitssurpassingimportance. Eventhefirstpracticeinthisnewstagebiingswithitpowerfulexperiencesaboutwhichthetextsays nothing.Soletuslookatthispracticealittlemoreclosely. Oncemorewecomeuponjalandharabandha.WehaveencounteredittwicebeforeseePartII45 and68.Butwemustnotmakecomparisonsbecausethesamepracticecanservecompletely differentpurposesondifferentlevels. Herewemustalsomentiontheprerequisitesfortheabovepractice. Itisquiteclearthattheasanasofthefirsttrainingperiodaretakenforgranted.Pranayamatoois takenforgrantedandisnolongermentioned.Butforusthereissomethingnew. Thedailynadipurificationmustprecedeeverythinginordertogivethenadisthefinalpolishand thenbeginspranayamaasdescribedinPartTwo.Whenthechestcavityisfilledwithprana rememberthebellowsexerciseandtheabdominalcavityisfilledwithapanabymeansofthe pranayamawithprotrudingtonguewecanbeginwiththispractice.Forgettheoutstretchedlegfor thetimebeing.Theheadloweredtothechestpressesdownpranaithroughpressureoftheheelon theanusapanaisforcedupandbythepressureoftheretractedabdominalmusclesthetwostreams thathavebeenledtogetherareunitedintoonewholetoanarchwhichextendsfromthetwonostrils tothetwonadisidaandpingalaalongthesidesofthespinalcolumntoitslowerendwherethe twomeetagainatthemouthofthesushumnawhichisstillclosedbytheheadofthekundalini serpent.Butnoweverythingshouldbedrawnintothesushumna.AndforthiswegobacktoPart One28/29andcomparethatexercisewiththeabove.Thereasherethebodyisbentdeeplyforward YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika ACTIVEYOGA 59

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andthusplacestheopeningofthesushumnaintoafavorableposition.Thesphinctermuscleisnot contractedandthepressureonthethroatisfelttobestrongerthanthatexertedbytheheelonthe anus.Thusthenowunifiedprana−apanastreamisguidedintotheopeningsushumnawhereitslowly riseslikethemercurycolumninathermometer.Andthisstreamsweepsthekundalinialongwithit. Nowsomethingimportanthappensasthetextreveals:"Thetwonadisdieoff."Inotherwordsthe higherthepranarisesinthesushumnathelessremainsinthetwonadis.Inthisthirdstageof trainingthesushumnaisnotyetcompletelyfilledwiththestreamofpranaandthusthenadisare notcompletelyemptybutsomedaythiswillhappen.Whenitdocstheyogigivestheimpressionof beingdead.Thebodybecomescoldandlifeless.Onlythecrownoftheheadtheupperendofthe sushumnaiswarm.Lifeandconsciousnessarecontainedsolelyinthesushumnawherelifereally originates.Itiswithdrawnfromworldandbody.Theyogihasbecomepurespirit−−untilhe eventuallyexhalesslowlyandreturnstohisformerstate. CanhereallydothatexhalewhilephysicallyinthestateofdeathWerecallthesecondexercise withjalandharabandhaPartTwo68wherethisstateofconsciousnesswasbeingtrained.Andnow weunderstandthesignificanceofthatjalan−dharavariationforhereforthefirsttimeweencounter thisstrangestateof"newconsciousness." 15Firstheshouldpracticewiththeleftfootdrawnupthenwiththerightuntilbothsidesare equallyexercised. 16Nowthereisnothingthatheshouldprefertoeatoravoideating.Allthingsregardlessoftheir tasteorevenwithouttastearedigested.Evenpoisonbecomesnectartohim. 17Hewhopracticesmahamudraovercomesconsumptionleprosyhemorrhoidsdiseasesofthe spleendigestivedisturbancesetc. Thisslokaisfortheignorantandcurious. 18Thisitthedescriptionofmahamudrawhichconferssiddhis.itshouldbekeptsecretandnot giventojustanyone. Andthisslokaisfortheinitiatedwhoknows. Butthereisstillagreatdealmoretoobserveandtodoinordertoreachtheidealstatedescribed wherethekundalinicarriedbytheprana−apanastreamrisesthroughthesushumna.Forinstanceit isessentialthatthestreamshouldnotreverseitsflow.Thefollowingpracticewilltakecareofthis. 19−24Presstheleftankleagainsttheanusandplacetherightfootupontheleftthigh.After inhalationwhenthechinispressedfirmlyagainstthechestcontracttheanusmuscleand concentrateonthesushumna.Havingrestrainedthebreathaslongaspossibleexhaleslowly.This practiceshouldbedonefirstrightthenleft.Somesaythatjalandharabandhashouldbeavoidedhere andthetonguepressedfirmlyagainsttheupperteeth.−−Throughthismahabandhawhichbestows greatsiddhistheupwardflowofpranathroughthenadiswiththeexceptionofsushumnais prevented.ThroughthisonebecomesfreefromthesnaresofYamatheKingofDeathandattains theunificationofthethreenadis:idapingalaandsushumna.Italsoenablesthemindtoremain steadilyconcentratedatthepointbetweentheeyebrows. Thispracticeasaruleprecedesthepreviousone.Itissotospeaktheoverturetothewhole. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika ACTIVEYOGA 60

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Howeverathirdfactorstillhastobementioned: 25−30fustasbeautyandlovelinessareofnoavailtoawomanwithoutahusbandsoalso mahamudraandmahabandhaareuselesswithoutthethirdmahavedha.−−Theyogisittinginthe mahabandhapostureshoulddrawinhisbreathwithconcentratedmind.Throughjalandharabanda hepreventstheescapeofthepranaupwardorapanadownward.−−Supportinghisbodybythe palmsrestingonthegroundtheyogishouldraisehimselffromthegroundandgentlystrivethe groundwithhisbuttocksseveraltimes.Withthispranaleavesthenadisidaandpingalaandgoes throughthesushumna.−−Thusiseffectedtheunionofidapingalaandsushumnamoonsunand firewhichleadstoimmortality.−−Thebodyassumesadeath−likeaspect.−−Thenheshouldexhale. −−Thisismahavedhaandbestowsgreatsiddhiswhenpracticed.Wrinklesdisappearandthegray hairofoldage.Thereforeitstandsinhighrepute.Thesearethethreemysteriouspracticesthat conquerdeathandoldageincreasethegastricfireandconferthesiddhis.Theyshouldbecarefully keptsecret. Therealpurposeofthislastpracticeisofapurelytechnicalnature.Forthereisnonatural connectionbetweenthethreemainnadiswhichrunparallelintothemuladharachakra.Although theyallendtheretheydonotjointogether.Thisconditionhastobecreatedartificiallyanditis accomplishedbythispractice. Nowtheprecedingpracticemahabandhacanbecarriedoutsuccessfullyfollowedbythefirstone mentionedabovemahamudra.Thusthethreepracticesconstituteoneunit:thekundaliniyoga constitutesboththehighpointofhathayogaandapartofrajayoga. 31Theseareperformedineightdifferentways.Dailyeverythreehours.Thiscreatesgoodand eliminatesevil.Hewhomastersithastopracticethisunusualprocedureonlymoderately. Bothtextandcommentaryaresilentabouttheeightdifferentwaysofpracticeforthereinliesa secretteaching.Thekundaliniasweknowrisesfrommuladharachakrathroughfivefurther chakrastosahasrarachakrasoinallwehavesevenchakras.Howeverthesevenstationsarenot simplytraversedprogressivelyoneaftertheotherinthenaturalcourseofsystematicpractice.We runintosomedifficultieshereforeachchakraisassignedaspecificelement: 1.Muladharachakra:theelementofearth 2.Svadhishthanachakra:theelementofwater 3.Manipurachakra:theelementoffire 4.Anahatachakra:theelementofair 5.Vishuddhachakra:theclementofether 6.Ajnachakra:theelementofconsciousness 7.Sahasrarachakrathedivineelement. Theseelementshavenothingtodowithwhatisknowntousasthedensityofmatter.Ratherthey areplanesofvibrationsasrequiredforthecreationoftherespectiveformsofmatter. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika ACTIVEYOGA 61

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Nowpranaisasweknowalifecurrentandacurrentconsistsofvibrations.Thekundaliniwas arousedbythepranacurrentassoonasthisreachedthevibrationlevelofmuladharachakrathatof the"earthelements."Ifthepranacurrentistotraversetheotherchakrasitwillaccordinglyhaveto betransformedormodulatedseventimes.Iftheyogiisunabletodothishecannotreachthegoalof rajayoga.Andinordertorealizethisgoaltherearcasthisslokasayseightdifferentwaysof practice. 3 3.WhyareeightvarietiesofpracticementionedherewhenthereareonlysevenWiththislogical questionwetouchuponanareathatwillcauseagreatdealofdiscussionamongWesternyoga researchersforitconcernstherevelationofasecretthatisstillkeptcloselyguarded:theteaching thatthekundalinishouldbeledbeyondsahasrarachakra.ManypassagesintheTantrasandthe Puranaspointtothissecretteachinginaveiledway.Thiswillnotbediscussedfurtherinthisbook forinHathaYogaPradipikathereareapartfromthispassagenoreferencestoit. Tobemorespecific:thesearenotmethodsofpracticeinthesenseofthehathayogapractices discussedsofar.Theyareyantrameditationsandmantrarecitations. Toeachchakraareattributedavisualandverbalsymbolwhicharetransmittedorallytothestudent byhisguruonlyafteraninitiationceremony.Botharestrictlysecretandareunattainabletothe uninitiated.Thewell−knownchakrachartswiththelotusleavesandthesoundsymbolsarenot identicalwiththesecretyantrasandmantrasalthoughtheyderivemuchfromthem. Thebeginnernaturallyneedsmoretimeforeachindividualpracticethanthemasterdocs.Soifhe goesthroughtheseeightpracticesonebyoneeverythreehoursandifheneedsanhourforeachas isusuallythecaseforbeginnersthenhewillneedmorethaneighthoursofpracticedailythisis theleastthatisdemandedfromthebeginner.Movingfromchakratochakraamasterofkundalini yogacompletesallthestageswithasinglebreathwhichhowevermaylastforseveralhours.Due tothepurityofhisnadishenowhasthepowertokeepthepranainhisbodyactiveaslongashe likessothatthefeelingofshortnessofbreathdoesnotarise.Thegrossorganshavebeenputoutof commissionandthefewfineorgansthatarestillactivedrawtheiroxygensupplythroughthepores. Thisclosesthedescriptionofthefirstdecisivestagesofrajayoga:thesuccessfulattempttoactivate thekundalini.Asstateditisastagethatprovesimportantbutisonethatisstillfarfromexhausting allthesecretpossibilitiesandtheprerequisitesforcompletesuccess.Whatfollowsisevenstranger andunfortunatelyevenmoredifficulttounderstand.Letstry. CHAPTER8 THENECTAR 32−37Whenthetongueisbentbackintothegulletandtheeyesarefasteneduponthepoint betweentheeyebrowsthisiskhecarimudra.Whenthemembranebelowthetongueiscutandthe tongueisshakenandmilkedonecanextenditslengthuntilittouchestheeyebrows.Thenkhecari mudraissuccessful.−−Takeacleanshiningknifeandcutthebreadthofahairintothefine membranethatconnectsthetonguewiththelowerpartofthemouththefroenumlignum.Thenrub thatareawithamixtureofsaltandturmericpowder.Aftersevendaysagaincutahairsbreadth. Followthisforsixmonths.Themembraneisthencompletelyseparated.Whentheyoginowcurls histongueupwardandbackheisabletoclosetheplacewherethethreepathsmeet.Thebending backofthetongueiskhecarimudraandtheclosingofthethreepathsisakashachakra YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THENECTAR 62

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Hereagainsomefundamentalquestionsarise.Theindignantobjectionofthereaderalthoughatthis pointitrepresentsasuspectprejudiceisquiteunderstandablefromamortalpointofview.Butas weknowagreatdealofyogaisnotaccessibletothelogicalmindandthusthe"reasonable" averagethinkerwillrejectthemoreessentialpartofyogabecausemuchofitseenfromhispointof viewisnonsense.Hewillevenberightforalogicalsensethatsatisfiesthemindinalogical materiallypurposefulmannerislackinginthekeypointsofyoga.Itisnon−senseforthescientific exploreranddeep−sensefortheexperiencer. The"threepaths"areclosed:thenasalpassagethepharynxandthetrachea.Thisisthevasbene clausumofthealchemists. Therearethreewaystoclosethegates:withthenaturalmusclesoftheorgansconcernedwiththe fingersandfromtheinsideastaughthere.Tothelogicianitmayallseemthesamewhichever methodisused.Butlethimtestwhetheritreallyisallthesame.Closeyoureyesandmouthandhold yourbreath.Nothinghappens.Thencloseyourearswiththethumbstheeyeswiththeindexfingers thenostrilswiththemiddlefingersandthemouthwiththeremainingfingers.Howthesensation withthistypeofclosurediffersfromthefirstoneiseasilydeterminedinthisway.Nowinorderto getsomeimpressionofthethirdmethoddescribedabovehavesomeoneelsecloseyourpassages accordingtothesecondsetofinstructions.Andagainthesensationwillbedifferent.Thisbecomes especiallyimpressiveoncethebreathrunsout.Suddenlyyouareatthemercyofanotheryou experiencedependencylackoffreedom.Onasmallscaleyouexperiencethefearofdeaththis feelingofbeinghelplesslyatthemercyofdeaththatactuallymeansbeinghandedovertoonesown inadequacies. 38Theyogiwhoremainsbuthalfaminuteinthispositionwithupturnedtongueand imperturbablecalmisfreefromillnessoldageanddeath. Trytoimaginethefeelingsofapersoninthissituation.Thetongueisfarbackinthethroatthereis nobreath.Thereishoweveragrowingfearastowhatmayhappenifonedoesnotsucceedin bringingthetonguebacktonormal.Tohavetoremainforaslittleashalfaminuteinthisterrible anxietycanleadtoinsanity.Butaslongasthedangeroffearexistsnoguruwilladvocatethis practiceforthedreadedwillmostassuredlyhappenthemomentpanicarises.Onlywithcalm reflectioncanthetonguebebroughtbacktoitsnaturalpositionandthefaceoftheyogiwilltellthe apprehensivespectatorhowdifficultitisandthatitreallyisamatteroflifeordeath.Yethewhois sounperturbedinthefaceofdeaththateventhispossibilitycannotseriouslydisturbhisequilibrium hasthemeansinhishandtopassconsciouslythroughthedarkestregionsofcreationanddissolution. Heisfreefromthatwhichdeathrepresentstotheaveragemortal:thefinaljudgmentthathemust faceinfetters. 39Forhimwhomastersthiskhecarimudratherewillbenomorephysicalhelplessnessinbodily conditionedsituationssuchasillnessdeathmentalsluggishnesshungerthirstorcloudi−nessin thinking. Heisnolongersubjecttotheoverpoweringlawofnaturewhosemostpainfulaspectisthefactthat allspiritualprocessesaresacrificedtothislaw.Heremainsundisturbedandcalmevenatthetimeof deathandthusdeprivesitofitsdarkpower. 40Heisfreefromthelawsofkarmaandtimehasnopoweroverhim. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THENECTAR 63

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Fearinthestateofhelplessnessischieflythepanic−strickenthought:"Whatisgoingtohappen"It isuncertaintyaboutthefutureandthusinvolvementintime.Butheforwhomtimedoesnotexistis nottroubledbyitsuncertainty.KarmatheIndianconceptoffatebasedontheimmutablelawof causalityofcauseandeffectissuspendedwhentimedoesnotexist.Onlyaprocessi.e.a time−conditionedeventcancauseatime− 112 conditionedeffect.Astate−−asituationunconditionedbytimewhichwecannotcomprehend becausethinkingisaprocessnotastate−−iscauseandeffectinnotasdynamicsequencebutas staticens.Karmaistheeffectdynamicofthedeedactive.Theself−containedmeditativestate thathasfreeditselffromthetime−spaceconditionedoutsideworldiskarmicallyneutralstatic passive.Whentimeisconqueredthereisnomorekarma. 41Themudraiscalledkhecaribythesiddhasbecausethemindaswellasthetongueremainsin "ether"forthedurationofthepractice. 4 Etheravibrationplaneintheuniverseisfinerthanallthatiscomposedofatomsandmolecules andthusisanintermediarybetweentheworldofatomsandtheworldofconsciousness.Sciencehas notasyetmadeafinaldecisionconcerningtheexistenceornon−existenceofetherthequinta essentiaofmatter.Buttheyogicannotwastehistimewiththechangingfashionofscience.While scienceinvestigateshecontinuestobuildwithhis"unproventheories." 4243Oncehehasclosedthethroatinkhecarimudrahecannotbearousedbythemostpassionate embraceandevenifhewereinthestateofanecstaticloverhestillcouldnegatetheresultthrough certainpractices. 5 Theexampleofthemostcompellingtemptationispresentedheretoprovethatthroughkhecari mudrathestateofcompleteand 4.Thecommentarybreaksdownthewordkhecariintotherootkhatheemptysphereofthesky andtherootcartomove.TherealoriginofKhecariiskhecarsun.Thereasonforthiswewill seelater. 5.Thesetwoslokashavebeenratherfreelytranslated.ThereasonisgiveninPartThree84. absoluteabsorptioninmeditationispossible.Weknowthatoneofthepreparationsoftheyogiswho allowthemseivestobeburiedfordaysorweeksiskhecarimudra.Inthisstateallbodilyfunctions aresuspendedforthetimebeingandthebodyappearstobedeadbecausetheactivating life−givingpranaisabsorbedinthesushumna. Butitisnotonlypranathatisisolated.WhatelseIsitreallypossiblethattheupturnedtonguecan producesuchmysteriousresults 44HewhowithupcurledtongueandconcentratedminddrinksthenectarconquersdeathinIS days−−providedhemastersyoga. Werecallthelegendofthechurningoftheoceanofmilkwherefromthisoceanwiththeaidofthe YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THENECTAR 64

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worldmountainthenectaroflifewastobeproduced.Themountainoftheworldsowelearnedis inthehumanuniversethespinalcolumnthecarrierofthelifecenters.Thesnakewoundaroundthe mountainiskundalinithepotentialdivineforceofnature.Thegodswhopulledononeend symbolizethehigherlifeforcesthedemonsontheotherendrepresentsheerphysicalforces.The tortoisethatsupportedthemountainisthepowerofyogaofdivineoriginanduniversal. ButwhatistheoceanofmilkandwhatisthenectarThatisthethemeofthischapter.Wehearat thebeginningthatthekaphacurrentofthelifeforceiscallednectarsoma.Andwhereisthesource ofthecurrentthatissaidtoturnintopoisonifthestudentsbalanceisdisturbed Thecosmologyofthe"Puranas"theancientIndiangarlandoflegendsandatreasuretroveofthe secretteachingsifoneknowshowtoreadittellsusthattheoceanofmilklies betweentheIslesofShakaandPushkaraBhagavataPuranaV20.Shakaisthemythologicalname forajnachakrabetweentheeyebrowsandPushkarathatofthesahasrarachakraatthecrownofthe head.Betweenthesetwocentersliestheoceanofmilkthesourceofthenectar.Thatiswherethe kaphacurrentoriginates. Thisshowsthatkaphathenectarisnotustanykindofsecretionfortheprimaryfunctionaland structuralelementscannotbedelineatedsosimply.Truetheexplanationthattheinversionofthe tonguedivertsthekaphacurrenti.c.thebiologicalprocessofevolutionoratleastpartofitisnot evidentwehavetoacceptthisasagivenfact.Irregularitiesinthecourseofthiscurrentorprocess whichasaruleleadtoillnessareproducedatwillandutilizedforpositivepurposes.Through "supremespiritualityaphysicalprocessistransmutedintoaspiritualone. Noonecantellwhatthisfluidisifindeeditisafluid.IsitaglandularsecretionPossibly.Most likelyyes.Butthisshouldnottemptustomakefruitlessspeculations.Inanycasethetipofthe upcurledtonguetouchesapointonthemucousmembraneandthroughthistouchsomeprocessof endocrinesecretionisaltered. 45Theyogiwhodailysaturateshisbodywiththenectarthatflowsfromthe"moon"isnotharmed bypoisonsevenwhenbittenbythesnakeTaskshaka. Youmaythinkasyoulikeaboutkhecarimudrayoumayconsiderthematterofthe"nectar"naiveor ridiculousthefactremainsthattherearecountlessyogiswhocantakeevenlargequantitiesof deadlypoisonswithoutanyharmtotheirbodies.Thisfacthasbeenverifiedbymedicalauthorities. 46Justasfireburnsaslongasthereiswoodasthelampburnsaslongastheoilandthewicklast soalsothelifegermjivanremainsinthebodywhileitisregulatedbythe"beamsofthemoon" nectar. Thesourceofthenectaristhe"moon"intheareaofthebrainstem.The"coolingbeamsofthe moon"atermknowninthemythologiesofallcountriesdripintothe"fireofthesun"thatburnsin theregionofthediaphragmandsotospeakrepresentstheflameoflifesolarplexus.Butthe nectarisnotfuelforthisfiretothecontraryitsubduesandregulatestheembersthatareconstantly beingfannedintonewlifebythevatacurrent.Itisadirectactivemessengerofconsciousnesstothe functionsofthevegetativesystem.Whenthesupplyisimpededwehavefeverwithanoversupply thefirebecomesweak.Whenthedemonsofcoarsebodilynaturewhilechurningtheoceanofmilk prematurelysampledthenectarbeforeithadbeenwiselyapportionedtothembythegodsofmind theypoisonedthemselvesbecausetheorganicbalancewasdisturbed. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THENECTAR 65

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47−49Dailyhemay"eatthefieshofthecow"and"drinkwine"stillhewillremainasonofnoble family.Theword"cow" gomeanstongue.Whenoneletsitpenetrateintothethroatitiscalled"toeatthefleshofthecow" andthisdestroysallsins.−−Whenthetongueentersthethroatthereensuesgreatheatinthebody. Thiscausesthenectartoflowfrom"themoon"andthatiswhatiscalled"drinkingwine" amara−varuni. •"IntheabovetwostanzasisgivenanexcellentinstanceofthewaytheHinduoccultwritersveil theirrealmeaningunderapparentlyabsurdsymbols.Theprincipleseemstobethis.Theythought thattheveryabsurdityofthesymbolanditsinconsistencywiththesubjectinhandwouldforcethe readertothinkthattherewassomethingunderitandsoheshouldlookdeeperforanexplanationof thisabsurdity.Amisconceptionofthisruleseemstohavegivenrisetomanyabsurdinterpretations ofreallyoccultsymbolsandmanyperniciouspracticesthatpromoteanimaltendenciesand passions.Asexamplesofthese...thewholemysticterminologyoftheTantrasthathasgivenriseto somanydisgustingpractices."Iyangarof.citp.58f.−−Trans. Inordertofanthefireof"burningasceticism"thenectarhastobedivertedfromitsusualcourseinto thefireoflife.Butthestreamisnotonlydiverteditisalsoutilizedinotherways. 50−51Whenitremainspressedinthethroatpassagethetongueisabletoreceivethenectar "beamsofthemoon"whicharesimultaneouslysaltyhotandpungentbutalsolilkemilkhoney andghee.Thenalldiseasesareeliminatedandalsooldage.Thushewillbeabletoteachallthe VedasandtheShastrasandhehaspowertoattractthedamselsofthesiddhas.−−Hewhowith upturnedgazeandtongueinthroatmeditatesonkundaliniparashaktianddrinksfromthepure sourceofthenectarstreamthatflowsfromthe"moon"intheheadintothe16−petaledlotusthe vishuddhachakrahewillbefreefromalldiseasesandwilllivelongwithabeautifulbodydelicate asalotuspetal−−ifduringpracticehekeepspranaundercontrol. Herewehavetheanswertothequestion:"Wheredoesthenectarflowonceitisdeviatedfromits naturalcoursethefireoflifesolarplexus"Thetongueguidesitintothevishuddhachakrainthe throati.e.intothemostimportantonethe16−petaledlotusthatcarriesthesoundatheprimeval soundwhichevenprecedes0mAum.ThusheisenabledtoteachalltheVedasandtheShastras. Herewecannothelpbutthinkofthesaying:"Hiswordsflowlikenectarfromhislips"−−likea nectarthatflowsfromhismind. Invishuddhachakrasothescripturestellusthebirthofthewordtakesplace.Cognitionhere becomesword. ThefruitfromtheTreeofKnowledgegetsstuckinAdamsthroatandparadiscislost.Thepoison thatthegodschurnfromtheoceanofmilkisswallowedbySivaanditremainsinhisthroatwhich becomesblue.ThefruitgetsstuckinSnowWhitesthroattoo−−−theundigestedfruitofthedark motheraspectwhichshedoesnotrecognizeasherfruitandthusisunableto"digest." Thefruitoftheprocessofevolutionisalwaystwofold:nectarfortheperfectonepoisonforthe all−too−humanone.Thenectarisatthehighestlevelinitsnoblestaspectpurespirit.Forthe materialistitisjustwhatitsgrossaspectrepresents:themanifoldbodilysecretions.Justasthecrude aspectofalcoholismerelyaliquid−−untilitisimbibed.Thenitshowsitsstrength. 52InsideoftheupperpartofMountMerit−−thatifthesushumna−−thereintheopeningnectaris YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THENECTAR 66

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secreted.Hewhohasapuresattvamindnotovershadowedbyrajasandtamosthereinrecognizes theTruth\hisownAtman.Itisthegullyintowhichthecurrentsdischargethemselves.Fromthe "moon"flowsthenectarthebodilyessenceandhencethedeathofthemortals.Thereforeone shouldpracticethebeneficialkhecarimudra.Otherwisenosiddhiswillbeattained. 53Thesushumnaespeciallyitsupperopeningistheplaceofconfluenceofthefiveriversand bestowsdivineknowledge.inthevoidoftheopeningwhichisfreedfromtheinfluenceofignorance avidyasorrowanddelusionsofmayathekhecarimudrareachesperfection. Justasbreaththevataelementhasfivecurrentsthefivevayussoalsohasthenectarofthekapha elementandsotherearefivefiresthatburninside.Howeverthe"asceticismofthefivefires" pancagnitapasisalittledifferentfromthatwhichisseentodayatRishikeshorBenareswhere Sivasadhuslightfourgreatfiresaroundthemselvesthesunisconsideredtobethefifthandtryto slowlyroastintothesainthoodwhichismoredistantfromthemthanthesun. 54Thereisonlyonegermofevolutionandthatis0mthereisonlyonemudra:khecarionlyone duty:tobecomeindependentfromeverythingandonlyonespiritualstateavastha:deepmeditation mano−mani. CHAPTER9 THEBANDHAS beforegoinganyfurtherletusrecallonesentence:"Maha−mudramahabandhamahavedha khecariuddiyanabandhamulabandhaandjalandharabandhaviparitakaranivajroliand shakticalanathesearethetenmudraswhichconqueroldageanddeath."Sofarwehavelearned onlyafewofthesemudras: Mahamudra:Thejoiningofpranaandapana.Mahabandha:Preventingpranaandapanafrom revertingtheircourse. Mahavedha:Connectingthethreenadisbybeatingthebuttocksonthefloor.Khecarimudra: Bendingbackthetongue. Thefollowingthreebandhasarenotunknowntousbuttheyarediscussedbelowfromanewpointof view. 55−62Uddiyanabandhaliterally"toflyup""toarise"issocalledbytheyogisbecausethereby thepranafliesupthroughthesushumna.Throughthisbandhathegreatbird"prana"constantlyflies upthroughthesushumnathatiswhyitiscalleduddiyanabanda.Drawinguptheintestinesaboveor belowthenavelsothattheytouchthebackandthediaphragmiscalleduddiyanabandha.Itisthe lionwhoconquerstheelephant death.−−Hewhoconstantlypracticesuddiyanabandhaastaughtbyhisguruandasitoccursina naturalwaybecomesyoungthoughhemaybeold.−−Heshoulddrawuptheintestinesbelowor abovethenavelandwithinamonthhewillconquerdeathwithoutadoubt.Ofaltthebandhas uddiyanabandhaisthemostexcellent.Whenitismasteredliberationmuktifollowsnaturally. Wehaveencounteredthisbandhatwicebefore:firstinthepurificationprocessofshatkarma.There itprecededthechurningoftheintestinesPartTwo33/34.Thenwemetitinthenextchapterwhen YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEBANDHAS 67

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wehadtoraisetheabdominalapanaPartTwo45.Inbothcasesthepracticewasmainly mechanical.Hereinthethirdcaseitsays:"becausethroughthispracticepranaflowsthroughthe sushumna..."Wenowknowconsiderablymorethanwedidatthepreviouslevelsoftraining.There aremorethingshappeninginternallysothatuddiyanabandhahasindeedacquiredadecisive meaning. Theinnerprocessofthispracticeisasfollows:Inthetwonadispranaandapanahavebeenunited intoonecontinuousflowandneitheraseparationofthetwonorareversalofthecurrentcanoccur afterthispoint.Fromthenostrilstothemuladharachakraacurrent−bearingpathnowextendsor rathertwopathswhichuniteatthelowerendofthesushumna.Fromtherethepathagaingoes upwardtothe"moon."Theflowofnectarisdivertedbytheupcurledtonguesothatthe"sun"can nowunfolditsfullfierypower. Therestillremainsoneimportantquestion:towhatendshouldthe"sun"yielditsstrongestfire Weknowthatthesunsitsintheareaofthefirechakramanipurabelowtheheartchakraanahata withinwhichdwellsjivanthegermoflife.Thisjivanresemblesthefilamentintheradiotubethat sendsoutelectronsassoonasitiswarmedup.The"cathoderays"thatthejivansendsoutwhen heatedbythesunareconcentratedvitalenergyandthe−practicingyogineedsagreatdealofthisfor hiskundalini.Inordertobringthisaboutthefirehastobeledclosertothejivani.e.totheanahata chakraanduddiyanabandhaaccomplishesjustthis.Butfirecannotkindlewithoutairsotheflame hasasecondtask:toattracttheprana−apanacurrentbydrawingitupthroughthesushumna. 61−64Pressthescrotumwiththeheelcontracttheanusandforceapanaupward.Thisismula bandha.Throughcontractionofthemuladharathenormallydownwardflowingcurrentofapanais guidedupward.Thisiswhytheyogiscallitmularootbandha.−−Presstheanuswiththeheeland pressapanaforcefullyuntilitflowsupward.Throughmulabandhapranaandapanaaswellasnada andbinduunitetogiveperfectiontotheyogi.Thereisnodoubtaboutthis. Throughthepressureoftheheelandthetautanusmuscletheupwardtendencyisfurtheredandthe currentkeptflowing.Hereagainapracticethathadlittlemeaningforthebeginnerhastakenona decisivecharacter.WewillgetacquaintedwithnadaandbinduatlevelIV. 65Throughtheunionofpranaandapanasecretionsareconsiderablyreduced.Throughmula bandhaayogithougholdbecomesyoung. Indeedforthefirethattempersthelifegermisfannedintonewvigorbythispractice. 66−69Whenapanarisesupwardandreachesthefireorbittheflamebecomeslargeandbright fannedbyapana.Whenapanaandthefirejoinwithpranawhichbyitsnatureishotthenthefireof thebodybecomesespeciallybrightandpowerful.Thekundalinifeelsthegreatheattherebyand awakensfromitssleeplikeasnakethatishitbyastickhissesandraisesitself.Thenitentersthe openingofsushumna.Thereforetheyogishouldalwayspracticemulabandha. Shouldanynectarnowflowintothefirealleffortswouldhavebeeninvainfortheorganismwould atoncerevertto"normal."Thereforewehavetotakeprecautionarymeasureswhichwillsupportthe workofthetonguesothatitonlyneedstointerceptbutneednotconduct. 70−73Contractthethroatandpressthechinagainstthebreast.Thisisjalandharabandhaand destroysoldageanddeath.Itiscalledjalandharabandhabecauseitmakesthenadistautandstops YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEBANDHAS 68

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thedownwardflowofthenectarwhichissuesfromthethroat.Whenjalandharabandhais accomplishedandthethroatcontractednotasingledropofnectarcanfallintothefireoflifeand thebreathdoesnottakeawrongpath.Whenthethroatisfirmlycontractedthetwonadisaredead. Hereinthethroatsitsthemiddlechakravishuddha.Herethe16lifecentersarefirmlybound. Wehavealsoencounteredbeforethisjalandharabandhaatatimewhenitdidnothavemuch significancewearemeetingitnowforthefourthtime.Itwillhelpifwefollowtheevolutionary stagesinconnectionwiththisbandhathroughallfourphases.Inthefirstplaceithelpedustolearn kumbhakainpranayamaPartTwo45.Thereithadonlyasupportingrole.Inthesecondcaseit suddenlyhadastrangeresultPartTwo68:itcausedastateofmentalabsence.Thoughthiswas onlytogivethestudenttheexperienceofsuchastateitnevertheless provedtheoverwhelmingpowerofthisbandha.ThenitappearedinPartThree10−14wherethe firstpracticalexperimentsweremadewithkundaliniandtheknowledgeacquiredthusfar.Thefire merelyglowedandnoharmcouldcomeofitforthepowerfulkeykhecharimudrawasmissing. Butnowthefireflaresupandithasbeenbroughtclosertothelifegerm.Nowallthesupplementary practicesformerlysonegligiblehaveathousandfoldgreatereffect. Thenadishavediedoffsoitsays.Indeedtheprana−apanacurrentnowflowsthroughthe sushumna.Thebodyappearstobedeadwhiledeepinsideaninfinitelyintenselifeisburningmore intensethananyofthemanyknownvitalmanifestationsoflife.Ifonetouchesthecrownofthe yogisheadinthisstateonecanfeelalittleofit.Whilethebodyisice−coldthecenterofhishead burnsasthoughinaragingfever. 74−76Practiceuddiyanabandhabycontractingtheanusmuscletightenthenadisidaandpingla throughjalandharabandhaandcausethepranatoflowthroughthesushumnatotheupperpart.in thiswaythebreathisabsorbeditremainsmotionlessinthesushumnaandoldagediseaseand deathareconquered.Theyogimastersthesethreeoutstandingbandhasaspracticedbythegreat siddhasMatsyendraVashishthaandothersandthroughwhichoneacquiresthesiddhisdescribed inthehathayogashastras. Theyoginowhasthemuch−debatedabilitytoputhimselfintoadeathlikestateandtoremain buriedfordaysorweekstoprovethatheisnotcheating.Noonewhohasreadthetextsofarwill contendthatthisconsciousdeathisnownolongerariddle.Eventotheyogiwhomastersititis repletewithmysteries.Onlyonethingmustberemembered:allthis−−−thatseemssostrangeto us−−isnotessential.Theyogidoesnotpracticetheancientartofyogainordertoplaydeadto remainfordaysorweeksundergroundortosquatinthemidstoffiveflaringfiresonnailboards orinablockofice.Ifthisweresowewouldbefoolsnottofindsomethingmoreworthyofour interest.Somethingisatstakethatseemsmuchlessflamboyantthantheseimposingtricks:the perfectionnotthedistortionofmanthedevelopmentnottheabuseofinnerpowers.Thisisafact andthosewhodonotrecognizeitcannotchangeitnoteventhoseinthehomelandofyogaitself. EveninIndiaitishardtofindamaster.Oneencountersmagicianseverywherebutthetruemaster doesnotexhibithimselfpublicly.Nowthereisasecondmethodtodiverttheflowofthenectar. 77−79Everyparticleofnectarthatflowsfromtheambrosial"moon"isnormallyswallowedup bythe"sun."Thusthebodygrowsold.Butthereisanexcellentpracticewherebythesunis deceived.Butthiswecanlearnonlyfromtheguru.Notheoreticalstudyevenofamillionshastras canelucidateit.Itisviparitakaraniwherebytheattributesofthe"moon"andthoseofthe"sun"are exchanged.The"sun"inthesolarplexusandthe"moon"abovethepalateexchangeplaces.This mustbelearnedfromtheguru. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEBANDHAS 69

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Onthesurfacethepracticeitselfseemscomparativelysimpleaswewillsee.Thedifficultieslie onceagainwithinus.Butletthetextleadusalittleclosertothesecret. 80−82Inhimwhopracticesdailythegastricfireincreases.Thereforetheyogishouldalwayshave anamplesupplyoffoodonhand.Ifherestrictshisfoodintakethefirewilleathisbodyinstead. −−Onthefirstdayheshouldremainonlyalittlewhileintheheadstandwithlegsintheair.Thisis viparitakarani.Increasethepracticetimealittleeachday.Aftersixmonthsgrayhairandwrinkles disappear.Hewhopracticesthreehoursadayconquersdeath Throughaheadstandvaluesarereversed.Andwhatissodifficultaboutlearningthis Firstofallwemustknowonething:Amongtheasanasthephysicalexercisestreatedinthefirst bookthereisonethatourtextdoesnotmentionalthoughitiscalledthequeenofasanasandthisis theheadstand.Thisasanaiscalledsirshasana. Asmentionedabovethereisnogreatdifficultyinthispractice.Anditisnottheheadstandthatis referredtointhetextasnotbeingteachablethroughbooksordescription.Itistheprocessof deceivingthesunthatcanbelearnedfromaguruonly.Howtoexchangethepositionofthemoon andthesunthatiswhathastobelearnedfromtheguruforthisexchangeisnotaccomplishedby simplystandingonourhead. Butitdoeshappenassoonasonehasbecomeaccustomedtothispositionassoonastheorganism functionsexactlyasinthenormalposition.Weknowthatthrougharadicalchangeinconsciousness organicprocessescanbeinfluenced.Nowwehavetoreachthepointwhereconsciousnessdoesnot registerthisinvertedpositionasunusual.Thenalltheorganswilladjusttoit.Howthisistobe accomplishedisthegreatproblemdiscussedinthissloka.Ifitwereaproblemofmeditationit wouldbeacomparativelysimplematterfortheexperiencedyogi.Butifhedoesnotwanttofall downhehastokeepfullyawake−−andstillconverthisconsciousnessThiscannotbeachieved throughanykindoftechniquebutonlythroughthesuggestiveinfluenceoftheguru. Thispracticebythewayisnowadaysseldomencountered.Isitperhapsduetothefactthatthereare notanymoregumswhohavethesesuggestivepowers 83Whensomeonethoughleadingaworldlylifewithoutobservingthelawsofyamaandniyama practicesvajrolimudrahewillbecomeavesselforsiddhipowers. Thefollowingslokas84−103describethevajrolisahajoliandamarolimudras.Thesearepractices thataimatreversingtheflowofthesemenvirileincoito.Thepurposeofsuchpracticesisclear:to enjoyallthebenefitsofyogawithoutsacrificinganyoftheworldlypleasures. Inleavingoutthesepassageswemerelybypassthedescriptionofafewobscureandrepugnant practicesthatarefollowedbyonlythoseyogiswholackthewillpowertoreachtheirgoalotherwise. Inthese20slokasweencounterayogathathasnothingbutitsnameincommonwiththeyogaofa PatanjalioraRamakrishna. Anytechniquethatenablesayogitosublimatehisvirilitywithinhisorganismmeritsapproval. Whateverhedoesoutsidehisorganismcannotbecalledyoga.Forayogawithoutyamasand niyamasdoesnotexist.Eventheveryprofoundmaithunapracticesi.e.ritualcohabitationofthe Shaktismcultcanbeacknowledgedasasymbolicbackgroundofareligiousritualbutnotthis techniqueofunitingpleasurewiththebenefitsofyoga.SoletustakeadetouraroundOrcusintothe YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEBANDHAS 70

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purerfieldsofkundalini. CHAPTER10 THESHAKTI everythingsofarhasreallybeenonlypreparation.Everythingessentialhasbeenaccomplished exceptthemostessential:theraisingofkundalini.Tobesuretheyogiisnowcapableotgoinginto deepmeditationhecanputhisbodyintoadeathlikestateandhecanfanorquenchtheinnerfire. Hehascompletecontroloverthefunctionsofhisbody.Allinallheismasterofhathayoga. ButwhatofitHeisstillonlyaninsignificantapprenticeofrajayoga.Wehavealreadyseenthatit isnotthebodilyfunctionsandtheircontrolthatcount.Decisiveisthedegreeoftotal perfection−−physicalmentalandspiritual.Masteryofhathayogaisonlyapreliminarytothe masteryofrajayoga. Thisfinalchapterofthethirdstageoftrainingisconcernedwiththelastthoughthemost magnificentofallphysicalphenomena:theguidingofthekundaliniserpentthroughthevarious chakrastoitshighestgoalthesahasrara.Notehoweverthatitdoesnotbringintheall−important phenomenathatcharacterizeabsoluteconsciousnesstheessenceofrajayoga.The technical−dynamicprocesswhichistaughtinthefollowingwillleaduptothatgoaltowhichPart Fourisdevoted. 104Inowdescribeshakticalanakriyaliterally:theactionthatloosenstheinnerpowerofnature. Kutitangikundalinibhujangishktiishvarikundaliarundhati:allthesearenamesforthesame shakti. Shaktiisthenameforalldynamicforcesofnature.Thereleaseoftheshaktiinmancorrespondsin itseffectdirectlytothereleaseofthelatentshaktiintheatom.Throughnuclearfissionwedonot callforthanexternalpowerbutsimplyreleasethepowerlatentintheatom.Inmantoorepose unsuspectedpowersthatdonotmanifestmateriallyblitactwithequalforceonthementalplane whichinturnreactsonthespiritualplane.Weneedsuchanatomicspiritualpowerinordertoreach thegoaloftheyogi.Withourthreadbareeverydayintellectwegetnowhere.Itleadsusifanywhere intoahopelessblindalley. Whereelsecanwefindtheneededforcesforthehighestgoalifnotfromwithinourownselves Sincethereisapathtoliberationtherealsomustexistthemeanstopursueittotheend.Andallthe meansthatwerequiretoreachourultimategoalhoweverhighitmaybeliewithinus.Theproblem isonlyhowtoreleasethem. 105−110Asoneopensthedoorwithakeysotheyogishouldopenthegatetoliberation mokshawiththekundalini.Thegreatgoddesskundalinisteepsclosingwithhermouththe openingthroughwhichonecanascendtothebrahmarandhracrownoftheheadtothatplace wherethereisneitherpainnorsuffering.Thekundalinisleepsabovethekandawherethenadis converge.Shegivesliberationtotheyogiandbondagetothefool.Hewhoknowskundaliniknows yoga.−−Thekundaliniitissaidiscoiledlikeaserpent.Hewhocaninducehertomoveupward isliberated.Thereisnodoubtaboutit.−−BetweenGangaandYamunasitsayoungwidow arousingcompassion.OneshoulddespoilherforthisleadstothesupremeseatofVishnuher spouseinsahasrara.ThesacredGangaisidanodiandYamunaifpingalanodi.Betweenida YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THESHAKTI 71

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andpingalasitstheyoungwidowkundalini. 111Youshouldawakenthesleepingserpentbygraspingitstad.Theshaktiwhenarousedmoves upward. Oncemorerememberthechurningoftheoceanofmilk.Thedemonsseizedtheheadofthesnake thegodstookholdofthetailandthustheworkwasaccomplished. Herewehavethesameprocess.Thephysicallymanifestedpowerspranaandapanapullonthe headthatiswherethecurrentflowsintothesushumnawhichisclosedbytheheadoftheserpent. Thespiritualforceshoweverworkfromthetail.Wewillpresentlylearnaboutthenatureofthese spiritualforces. 112Afterinhalingthroughtherightnostrilperformkum−bhakaaccordingtotherules.Then manipulatetheshakfiforanhourandahalfbothatsunriseandatsunset. ButdidntwelearnbeforethatweshouldpracticeeighthoursadayAndnowsuddenlyonlyat dawnandduskHerewehaveanexampleofboweasilythewordsofasecretteachingcanbe misleading. Wehavetounderstandthatlastsentencesymbolically.Theshaktishouldbemanipulatedforanhour andahalffromtwosidesheadandtailfromthesideofthesunriseaboveandfromthesideof thesunsetbelow.Herewemustknowthefollowing:hathayogaiscomprisedofyotilightand mantrasound.Thispassagemeansthatthepowersareawakenedbymeansoftheuppersphereof vibrationslightwhichextendsfromthecosmicetherraysthroughtheultracolorstoinfraredthe raysofheatandtheyarealsoawakenedthroughthelower sphereofvibrationsfromsupersonicsounddowntothelowestplaneofvibrations.Thesearethe meansbywhichthekunda−linishouldbemanipulated"fromthetail"themeansusedbythegods. TheattributesthatKrishnaholdsinhisfourhandssymbolizethesepotentials.Thesymbolofpranais withSiva. 113Thekandauponwhichthekundatinirestswithitstailliesabovetheanusandextendsfour inches.Itisdescribedasofroundshapeandasthoughcoveredbyapieceofsoftwhitecloth. Inordertoawakenthekundalinitheyogihastoknowtheplaneoflightorcolorvibrationsaswell astheplaneofsoundvibrationsthatcorrespondtothemulandharachakraandhastoprojectthe respectivelightandsoundsymbolsontothatwhiteclothofthekanda.Butthesetwosymbolsare justassecretasthoseoftheotherchakrasandonlytheinitiatedcanknowthemfortheyarethekeys tothemostvitalgateofyogatothespiritualatomicforcethatcanbringblessingsordestruction. Whateverhasbeenrevealedinthecourseofthecenturies−−carelesslynotedanddiscoveredby othersbetrayedbytalkativestudents−−thesesecretsymbolshaveescapedthatfate.Andevenwhen singleelementsbecomeknownthesystemhasremainedimperviousbecausetheinitiatedhave alwayscarefullykepttheessentialstothemselves.Thisisduetotheextremelydiscriminatingcareof theteacherinselectinghisstudentsandalsotothefactthatthespiritualresultsofthisscience matureonlyafterthelongandstrenuouspracticeofmeditation.Iftheuninitiatedevenascientist discoveredsomeofthesethingsparticularlythoseconcerningthemantrasystemhewouldnot knowwhattodowiththem.Heisthereforeskepticalfromtheverybeginninganditishighly doubtfulthataskepticwouldbewillingtorecitemantrasthatseemsenselesstohimforthreehours daily.Eventhenon−skepticseldompossessesthestrength−toaccomplishthisfrom3:00to6:00 YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THESHAKTI 72

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a.m.Personalweaknessisusuallythebestsafeguardagainsttheabuseofsecretteachings. Threecomponentswhenunitedleadtosuccessinguidingthekundaliniupward:thespiritual mentalandphysicalpowersasrepresentedinthepracticeofasanaspranaandlightandsound meditation.Sooncemorebodyposturesareincluded: 114−116Seatedinthevajrasanaposturesee Figure12firmlyholdthefeetneartheanglesandbeatagainstthekanda.Inthepostureof vajrasanatheyogishouldinducethekundalinitomove.Thenheshoulddobhastrikakumbhaka. Thusthekundaliniwillbequicklyawakened.Thenheshouldcontractthe"sun"throughuddiyana bandhaandthusinducethekundalinitorise.Eventhoughhemaybeinthejawsofdeaththeyogi hasnothingtofear. TheearlierreferencetolightandsoundactuallybelongsinPartFourwhichiswhythetextreferred toitonlyindirectly.HereinthelastfewslokasofPartThreediscussionislimitedtotheessentials ofactiveyoga. 117−122Whenonemovesthekundalinifearlesslyforaboutanhourandahalfsheisdrawn upwardalittlethroughthesushumna.Inthiswayshenaturallyleavestheopeningofthesushumna freeandiscarriedupwardbythepranacurrentinthiswayoneshoulddailymovethekundaiini.The yogiwhodoesthisisfreedfromdisease.Theyogiwhomovestheshaktigainsthesiddhis.Whytalk aboutitsomuchWitheaseheconquerstime.Thatyogionlywholeadsthelifeofacelibate brahmachariandobservesamoderatehealthfuldietwillreachperfectionintheproper manipulationofthekundaliniwithin45days.Oncethekundalinihasbeensetintomotionheshould persistentlypracticebhastrikakumbhaka.Hewhoisperfectinyamasandpracticesthusneednever feardeaththroughhisownkundalini. Thealertreaderwillhavenoticedthatintheseandthepreviousslokasonlythemotionofthe kundaliniismentionedandthatshe"risesslightlyinthesushumna"−−thatissofarasshedoesnot encountertheresistanceofthenextvibrationlevel. Wealsonoteinthelastsentencethatwhenthekundaliniisputintomotionweshoulddobhastrika kumbhaka.Howisthispossiblewheneverythingstopsduringthedeathlikestateincludingbreath Therealmeaningoftheslokaisthis:oncewehavesucceededinputtingkundaliniintomotionwe shouldemphasizebhastrikakumbhakaduringthedailyhathayogapracticebecausethisincreases pranaproduction.Theamountofpranaavailableoftenmakesthedifferencebetweenlifeanddeath forifthekundaliniisledupwardandthroughsomeerrorinpracticethepranaisprematurely exhaustedthereisimmediatedangerofdeathfortheyogi. 123−125Whatotherwaysaretheretopreventthepollutionofthe72000nadis−−Thesushumna isstraightenedthroughasanaspranayamaandthemudras.−−Hewhopracticesthiswithunflagging concentrationobtainssiddhipowersthroughshambhaviandthemudras. Thefirstsentencecouldbetranslatedintomodernlanguageasfollowsabovealldonotallowthe nadistobecomeimpurebecausethenallelseisinvain.Thenextsentencesays:keeponpracticing thefirstandsecondstepsforifthesushumnarevertstoitsoldcrookedshapethepathofthe kundaliniisimpeded.Andthethirdsentence:inanyeventremaintirclesslyconcentrated. 126−129Withoutrajayogathereisno"earth":withoutrajayogano"night"uselessareallmudras YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THESHAKTI 73

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withoutrajayoga.Allpranayamasshouldbeconductedwithconcentratedmind.Thewisemandoes notpermithismindtowanderduringthepracticetime.Thushavethetenmudrasbeendescribed byLordSiva.OnewhoisrepletewithyamaPart1 17reachessiddhisthrougheachofthemudras.−−Hewhoteachesthesecretofthesemudrasas transmittedfromgurutoguruheistherealguruandcanbecalledIshvarainhumanform. The"earth"istheactivatedmuladharachakra"night"isthestateinwhichthe"light"shinesbright thatlightwhichwewillpresentlydiscuss.From"earth"risesthekundaliniwindingitselfuponthe TreeofLifetosahasrarathecrownoftheheadandfromherunionwiththehighestprinciple originatesthe fruitwhichshetenderstotheseekerthefruitfromtheTreeofKnowledge.Thustheyogibecomes IshvaraGodinhumanform:EritissicutdeusscientesbonumetmalumGen.3.5. Overandoveragaintheconcentratedmindismentionedthemindthatmustremainwithinitself. Wehayelearnedtheartofthemudra.Nowletstrytotrackdownitssecret. 130Hewhocarefullyfollowsthewordsoftheguruandattentivelypracticesthemudraswill obtainthesiddhisaswellastheartofdeceivingdeath. Andwiththisletusclimbtothelastandhigheststepofyoga. PARTFOUR YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THESHAKTI 74

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PASSIVEYOGA CHAPTERII SAMADHI ImaginethatonthefirstmorningafterEastervacationaprofessorentershisclassroomand announces:"Ladiesandgentlemenforgeteverythingthatyouhavelearnedsofar.Everythingthat youhavehadtocramintoyourheadsofarwasgoodandimportantbutitwasonlynecessaryforthe lowerclasses.Nowthatyouareworkingforyourfinalsandareabouttograduatewewillpay attentiononlytotheessentialnamelytheknowledgeofourselves." Everyonefreezes.Allthoseyearsofworryingthewakefulnightstheexpensivebooksthepainof memorizing−−everythinguselesssenselessThetopstudentjumpsup.Hefightsforthefruitsof thosepainfulyears:hishighgradeswhichareabouttobecompletelyforgotten. Theprofessorsmiles."Youarenowgoingfromtheseminarroomoutintoreallife.Thereyouwont beaskedwhetheryouhavecarefullyanalyzedPlatobutwhetheryoucanbeausefulmemberofthe Stateinthesenseoftheplatonicpolis.Hardlyanyofyouwillhaveoccasioninhisprofessionto workwithtangentsandpis.Forgettherulesandlaws−−butneverforgetthatyouhavehadthe opportunitythroughthelawsofmathematicstoglimpsethegreatuniversallawsandremember thattheselawsarevalidevenwherewedonotyethaveformulas."Forgetthesentencesthatyouhad tomemorizebutrememberthattheirmeaninghasnowbecomesecondnaturetoyou.Itisinthe forgettingofthemechanicalprocessthattheeffectofrealknowingisproduced.Nowthemindis completelyfreeandcangivefullattentiontoitsownself.Ifyoustillfeeltheneedtohaverecourse tothefirstthreestagesyouarenotreadyforthefourthstage.Youarereadyonlywhenallyour spiritualeffortsaredevotedtothisfourthstage.Onceagainforgettheteachingsfornowyouhave experience.Letusbegin:" 1VenerationtoSivatheguruwhoisintheformofnadabinduandkala.Hewhoisthusdevoted reachesthemaya−freestate. Wehavetopaycarefulattentionhereforthisdevotionalsentenceharborssomevitalinformation: Shivawhoisintheformofnadabinduandkala. Itisnotdifficulttounderstandthisprovidedoneiswillingtostudytheintricatesymbolismof Indiantantra.Howeverthatisnotthepurposeofthisbook.Wewanttoturndirectlytothepractical sideoftheproblem. Letusimaginethestrangecaseofamanwhowantstorecreatetheuniverse.Firsthemustdecide whatherequires.Hisanswertothisis"quitesimply"vibrations.Whatkindofvibrationswouldour presumptuouscreatorneed Letusclassify.Thehighestrangeofvibrationisthatofcosmicrayswhichweterm"light"forshort themiddlerangeis"heat"andthelowestrange"sound."Butmantooispartoftheuniverseand sinceeverypartofthecreationissubjecttothesamelawsletour"creator"limithimselfforthetime beingtothecreationofmanfromhisarsenalofvibrations.Thismanisamechanismofthemost manifoldforcesandtendenciesthatintheirtheoreticaltotalitybearthenameofSiva.Andsincethe compositionoftheuniverseisnotdifferentfromthatofman PASSIVEYOGA 75

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andtheybotharesubjecttothesamegreatlawthisSivaiscreatedoutofthelowerrangeof vibrations"sound"nadaandthehighest"light"kala.Wewillspeakaboutthemiddlerange later. Butjustastheuniverseisnotadynamoneitherismanamachineforheunderstands"sound"asa conceptasanameand"light"asimageasform.Inthistoohecorrespondstothecosmoswhere divineforcesfinerthanmatterruleinprofoundregions.Butletusremainwithman. Hecomprehends.Inotherwordshenotonlyexistsbutheknowshimself.Everythinginhimisa processsustainedbyaforceaprocessthatisinfactitselfthisforcetheforceofnature.Andthis forceofnatureprakritiorshaktiisinseparablefromhimtheSiva.Infactwithoutthisforcehe wouldnotexistfortheirrelationshipisthepolarityofallbeings. Thusasstatedmancomprehendshimself.Andwhathecomprehendsisnotonlythetechnical processofvibrationsbutalsothefineraspectofbindutheprincipleofintelligence.ThusSivaisnot onlynadasoundandkalalightbutalsobindusense. Themiddlerangeofvibrationsheatisaswealreadyknowthemetabolism.Butthis"fire"isnot sheerlybiologicalittoohasitsfineraspectitsbindu.InPartThreewesawhowwecaninfluence thisfireinanindirectwaybyinhibitingitthroughthe"nectar." Nowwhentheyogiwishestoproducehishighestandlowestvibrationfieldstogivenewcharacter tohispersonalitywhichconsistsofthesetworangesofvibrationhewouldfounderhopelesslyif headdressedhimselfdirectlytohiswholepersonalitywithallitsfieldsofvibrations. Insteadhehastolearntoworkonthe"centers"ofenergythechakras.Andhiswholeeducationis pointedinthisdirection.WhatpartdothesechakrasplayonthedifferentlevelsofvibrationLets analyzeaword−−somethingthathashadamagicalcharacterfromtimeimmemorial−−andletstry withthiswordasanexampletoclarifytheinnerprocesses. Takeyourownnameandpronounceitslowlyclearlyandaudibly.Amultiplereactiontakesplace: 1.ThepronouncedwordevokedbythethroatchakraringsoutButifyouhavecarefully registeredthissoundwiththephysicalcaryouhaveheardthesoundandnothingmore. 2.Nowpayattentionnottothesoundbuttothesense.Notthesuccessionoflettersbutthe nameisourchiefinterest.Thisinvolvestheheartchakra.Thewordevokesafeelingbecause thistimeyoudidnotlistenasattentivelybutbecamemoredeeplyinvolvedinternally. 3.Nowdontpayattentionatalltrytooccupyyourmindelsewhereandletyourselfbe spokentobyyourownname.Expectnothingjustbeaddressedunconsciouslybyyourname. Againsomethingelsehappens:youarestartled.Itisasthoughsomeonesuddenly unexpectedlycalledyoubyname:somethinglikeaninaudiblesignalresultseverytime.And thisthirdplaneofvibrationsthesourceofyourpersonalityliesintherootchakrathe muladharachakraatthelowestendofthespinalcolumnseatofthekundalini.Withthis examplewehavepresentedthethreelevelsonwhichvibrationsbothlightandsoundcan manifest:coarsefineandabstractor:perceptiblethroughthesensesperceptiblethrough feelingandperceptiblethroughintuition. Thecorrespondingmanifestationsofthesethreelevelsofreceptionarealsothreefold:physical YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika PASSIVEYOGA 76

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perceptionthroughconcentrationdharanamentalperceptionthroughmeditationdhyanaand spiritualperceptionincompleteabsorptionsamadhi. Beforediscussingthesethreemethodsofperceptionextensivelyintheirrelationtorajayogaletus comparethemwiththeaboveexampleofthename. 1.Notingwiththesensestonewithearsorimagewitheyes. 2.ReceptionthroughfeelingWhatisthemeaningofthisorthatsymbol 3.Nothingthereception"speaksforitself"becauseeverythingconceptualiseliminated. NothingmuchcanbesaidaboutNo.1.Itmeansperceptionandnothingmoreinthewayananimal perceives:puresensoryperception.Thisistheareaofmechanicallearning. Processesonthesecondplaneareconsideredmorecomplicatedforherewehavetopresumean immanentspiritualprimordialentitywhichresemblesatuningforkinthatwhenapproachedbya similarfrequencyofsoundorimageitwillvibratewithit.Herethe"meaning"penetratestheshell ofappearancesandhitsthehiddenoppositepoleofconsciousnesswithwhichitcondensesintoa dynamicmentalprocess.Thefactthat"meaning"heredoesnotnecessarilyindicatethe"logical meaningoftheword"isintellectuallydifficulttograsp. Beforethestudentbeginshismeditationonthesymbolssuggestedbyhisguruhehastorootthem andtheirinnermeaningwithinhimselfforitisnotenoughtoadoptanapparentlymeaningless patternofsoundorformmantraandyantraandgivethemanarbitrarysense.Hehastoabsorbthe symbolssothattheycanfreelyunfoldtheirnaturalforcestomobilizethearchetypalspiritual powersforsuchistheirpurpose.Theymustbecomeasmeaningfulasonespropernameorones ownmirrorimage. Beforebeginningtoworkwiththesesymbolsmeditativelyhemusttakehismainrosaryand pronounceeverysyllableofthegivensoundsymbolmantra100000timesjapawhileviewing thecorrespondingformsymbolyantra.Oncethisisdone−−andhestartspracticeearlyseePart Onechapter17−−hehasreachedthebeginningofhispowers.Bythenthemantrahasbecome name:thenameofthedeitythatdwellswithinhim.ItisthenameofSivaoroneofhispowersfor everyyogiknows"Sivoham"IamSiva. Mantrabecomesthekeywordyantratheguideposttotheinnerworldswhosesourcehemustfind. Theseinnerspheresarefundamentallyprimordiallyadarkinextricablelabyrinthandevenhewho knowstheultimategoalneedsaguideinordernottogohopelesslyastrayfortheintellectlikean uncleangarmentisdiscardedattheentrancetothismysteriousworld.Itwouldbeofabsolutelyno helpanyway.ThesymbolaloneisAriadnesthreadthemagnetthatpullstheseekertowardtheother polethatispartofhimself.Inthelightofeverydayreasonthesymbolseemsstrangeand incomprehensiblebutinthedepthoftheunconsciousitreachesaclaritythatthoughthasnever experienced.Allthisofcourseisvalidonlyforonewhohaslearnedtodelvebelowthesurfaceof consciousnessintothesubconsciousforhimwhohasmasteredtheartofmeditationtheartof samadhi. 2−7Inowwillspeakofsamadhiwhichconquersdeathandwhichleadstoblissandunionwith Brahman.−−Rajayogasamadhiunmanimanomaniimmortalitydissolution empti−ness−but−not−emptinessthehigheststatepassivityoftheintellectnon−dualism YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika PASSIVEYOGA 77

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beginninglessnesspurityliberationinthislifetimetheprimordialstateandturiyatheFourth Stateallthesearesynonyms.−−Justasagrainofsaltdissolvesinwaterandbecomesonewithit soalsoinsamadhithereoccurstheunionofmindwithatman.Minddissolvesinbreathandbreath subsides.Bothbecomeoneinsamadhi.Thisstateofequilibriumresults fromtheunionofthejivatmanandtheparamatman.Whenmindthusiscalmweareinsamadhi. Thelasttwoslokascontainthreepairsofjuxtaposedterms:mindandatmanmindandprana breathjivatmanandparamatman.Tounderstandthemeaningofsamadhiwemustunderstandthe significanceofthesepairedterms. Mindandatman:"A. thoughtmindhasjustcometomeatman"saysthestudent."Towhom"askstheguru."To whomcamewhatandwherediditcomefromArethesethreeseparatethings:youyourmindand thethoughtprocess" Mindandbreath. "Hereisaprocess"thestudentthinksduringpranayama"andIamdetachedwatchingtheprocess." Thisreflectionisthecontraryofsamadhitheunification.Justasthetheatergoerdoesnotthink: "HereIamandthereistheplay"butidentifieswiththeplayforgetshimselfforgetstheprocessis absorbedintheplayintheimmediacyofadeepexperience.Assoonashebecomesawareof himselfandknowsheishereandthetheaterthereitistheintellectatworkthatdestroyshis involvementandwiththishelosestheessentialthespiritualexperience. Jivatmanandparamatman: JivatmanistheindividualselfparamatmantheabsolutethedivineSelf.Theuniverseconsistsof energyandmatternothingmore.Thisenergyisalwaysoneandthesameregardlessofhowit manifestsitselftooursenses:aselectricitythemotionoftheairthedensityofmatterorthebeating oftheheart.Itistheenergythatisinherentinprayerandtheenergythatanswersprayer.The measureandthemassofthisenergyseemsdiverseonlybecauseofthevariouskindsofmatter throughwhichitmanifests.Energy−in−itselfisparam−atman"theenergywhichcreatesthe personalityofthelivingself."IfInowsucceedinexperiencingtheinnermeaningthe interrelationshipofthisthreefoldjuxtapositionsheerintellectualreflectionisoflittleusethen samadhitheesstablishtnentofonenessisrealized.TherealOneisthenrecognized. 8−9Hewhorecognizesthetruemeaningofrajayogacanbythegraceoftheguruachieve realizationliberationinnersteadfastnessandthesiddhis.Withoutthegraceoftheguruandwithout indifferencetoworldlythingsrecognitionofTruthattainmentofsamadhiisimpossible. The"graceoftheguru"ishisreadinesstohandthestudentthekeytosuccess:theyantrasthe mantrasandtheirapplication. Moreimportantatthisstageisthe"indifferencetoworldlythings."Theprofessionaltheatercriticis notsupposedtobedetachedfromtheworldhemustkeephisintellectalert.Onlywhenhenolonger succeedsinthisandiscarriedawaybytheactiondoesherecognizeandadmitthatwhathas happenedtohimisthatwhichfromtimeimmemorialhasbeenmostimportanttoman.Therewasa realexperiencethesoulwastouchedworldlymatterssuddenlylosttheirattraction.Whatisreally YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika PASSIVEYOGA 78

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grippingisalwaysthespiritualexperienceandnevertheintellectualandthemoreneutralwe becometowardworldlyintellectualthingsthemoreopenwebecometorealexperience.Theless criticallywewatchthemagiciansfingersthemorestartlingarehistricks.Thecriticmayknow morebutheexperiencesless. Yetitwouldbeanerrortounderstandthisuncriticalattitudeasblindacceptanceofeverydeception. Thecriticalintellectcanabsorbonlytheunessentialpartofaso−calledtruthwhilerealTruth revealsitselfonahigherlevelintherealmofthesoul.Civilizedmandiffersfromprimitivemanin thatamongotherthingsheseparatesandobjectifieswithcriticalintellect. Butwiththisheimmediatelyclosesthedoortoarealunderstandingofspiritualprinciplesor religion. Lackofthoughtisnotadvocatedasaprinciplethecapacitytobreakthefettersoftheintellectatthe crucialmomentiswhatreallycounts.Similarlytheidealisnottheblindfuryoftheragingelements butthearttoreleasethoseforcesandthencontrolthem. 10Whenthekundalinihasbeenraisedthroughthepracticeofosanaskumbhakasandmudrasthen emptiness sunyaabsorbsprana. Emptinessfromanydiscriminatingintellectandtheprocessofthepranacurrentbecomeonethus allinnerforcesareconcentratedontheoneprocesstherisingofthekundalini. 11Theyogiwhohasraisedthekundaliniandhasfreedhimselffromallclingingkarmawillreach samadhinaturally. 12Whenpranaflowsthroughthesushumnaandthemindisdissolvedinemptiness sunyathentheperfectyogidestroysallkarma. ThusSamadhiisthekarma−freestate.Onecouldalsosay:thestateofconsciousnessestablishedin onenessneutralizestheeffectsoffate. Indianreligionassumesthatthefateofmanisthenaturalresultofhisdeeds."Asyouthinkandact soyoucreateyourfate"isthesaying.Thelesswecontrolourthoughtsthemorehaphazardwillbe thecourseofourlife.Thisisnotaquestionofgoodandevilbutsimplyofdoingornotdoingofa directingofourintentionsandoftheirnaturaleffectonourendeavors.Thisviewispurely psychologicalandtobeunderstoodonlyassuch.Adivinepowerisatplayonlyinsofarasthis logicallawexistsatall. Thiskarmaresultofactionexistsonlyaslongasmanisdependentontherelativevaluesofthis world.IfhisconsciousnessisestablishedintheAbsoluteindependentoftimeandspace independentfromalldynamicsinstaticconditionthenthereisforhimnoactionnotevenamental actionoractionofwillandnoeffectcantakeplacebecauseeffectonlyresultsfromcauseand absolutestaticBeingcannotproducecause.Sincekarmaisatime−conditionedconceptitis eliminatedassoonastimenolongerexists.Forwherethereisnoflowoftimetherecanbeno happeningsandwhennothinghappensthereisnocauseforaneffectand"cause−effect"isa synonymforkarma. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika PASSIVEYOGA 79

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13SalutationtoTheeohImmortalOne.Eventimeintowhosejawsfallsthemovableand immovableuniversehasbeenconqueredbyThee. Samadhiisthemostprodigiousthemostfar−reachingachievementofayogi.Forbeingfreefrom timeasheisinthisstateheisalsobeyondthebondsofdeathbeyondrebirthbeyondallkarmas whichholdintheirclutchesalltheworldspain. Ofcourseheisnotliberatedwithhisfirstsuccessfulpracticeforinthissamadhithekarmicseeds thatliedormantwithinhimarenotdestroyed.Eachchakracontrolscertainkarmictendencies.Only whenthekundaliniforceactivatesonechakraafteranotherwilltherespectivebindingforcebe dissolved.Foractivatingthechakrasmeansgaininginsightintotheparticularplanethathasbeen reached.Andgaininginsightmeansdissolutionofthatspecifickarma.Tomentionjustafew examples:Inthemuladharachakrathereisthekarmaofexistenceinsvadhisthanachakrathatwhich isbornfromtheIThourela− tionshipinmanipurachakrathekarmaresultingfromambitionsforpower. Samadhiofcourseisnottheonlywaytoliberationbutitisthemostradicalandwithinthe frameworkofthisparticularyogathemostessential. CHAPTER12 MINDANDBREATH mindandpranasoitissaidareoneandthusmindandbreathareinterdependent.Wherethereis breaththereisthoughtwithoutbreaththeactivitiesofthemindwilldryup. Theseratherunusualassertionsmustbeinvestigatedfurtherfortheyarethecoreofrajayoga.Itis notbyaccidentthattheGermanwordAtembreathandtheSanskrittermatmantheselfhavethe sameroot.Inourunderstandingtoceasebreathingmeanstodie.Inyogateachingitmaymeandeath butdoesnotnecessarily.Certainlyconsciousnessinageneralsensedisappearsalongwithbreath butwhatreallyhappensafterthatwedonotknow."Unconsciousness"isameaninglessterm.Dowe reallyknowwhetherdyingandbeingdeadarethesamethingwhetherso−calledunconsciousness doesnotencompassinnumerablesubconsciousstatesThesearejustafewproblemsrelatingto consciousness.Wecanbecomeconsciousonlyofeventsthatreflectstatesneverofstates.Weare unabletograspwithourconsciousmindastatethatisnotreflectedbyanevent. Weareawareofsomeofourthoughtprocessesamongothersthosethatbringtheselfintoreality: thisis"self−consciousness."EverythingthatIperceiverecognizeandjudgeisapartofmyselffor myalreadyexistingrelationshiptotheperceivedindicatesthattheimageoftheobjectisalreadypart ofmystore ofexperienceandthatIthereforealreadyhavethatkarma−producingelementthe previously−experiencedobject"within"me.Andmyrelationtotheobjectiskarmically conditionedaswellaskarma−producing.Itisthusanintegralpartofmypersonality. TotheIndianminditmeansthatweareunderanillusionsolongasweconsidertheselfasa constantunitthatwhichexistsinitselfanddoesnotresultfromthesumtotalofconsciousness factors.ThusthetotalofwhatI"know"evensubconsciouslyismyself. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika MINDANDBREATH 80

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Theillusionabouthumanpersonalityisfundamental.Wheredowegetourconceptofhuman personalityAslongaswedonotgettotherootofthisquestionwefallvictimtoillusionafter illusion. Wewatchourconversationpartnerrecognizing"inhim"hispersonality.Weconsciouslylookabove allattheeyespresumingthattheseorgansdesignedforseeingarealsothemirrorofthepersonality. Butwhilewearethuswatchingtheeyesinmuchthesamewayaswepreviouslyobservedthesound ofournametheysuddenlydonotseemsoimportantanymoreinfacttheybecomeinsignificantin relationshiptothewholepersonality.Thesameistruewhenweobserveothersinglecomponents: mouthnosechecksorforehead.Onlythesumtotalofallmakesupthepersonality.Werealizethat byobservingthedetailswemisstheessence.Itisasthoughwewerewatchingtheglassratherthan theimageinthemirror.Thenwerealizethatnoteventhesumtotalofallthesedetailsgivesusthe livingimageofthewhole.Butwhatisit Thehumanpersonalityisnot"in−itsdf"itonlybecomeswithinus.Ifwelookmechanicallyatthe surfaceweseenothingbutthesurface.Ourinnerbeingalonenottheeyecanseebehindthe surface.Wehavenospecificnameforthissubtleinnerorgan.Heartintuitionfeelingsoulinner eye−−allthesearecurrentexpressionswhichareasfamiliarastheyarevaguealthoughtheyall expresstherightthing. Soletuslookwithnonmechanicaleyesbehindthesurfacethenweseetheimageoftheobject withinourselvesinwardly."Seeing"isonlyasmallfractionofperceivingwhichessentiallymeansto melttheouterimageandtheinteriorconceptintoone:simultaneouslytoseeandcofeel.Anditis thesamewaywitheverythingthatweperceivewithoursenseorgans.Inrealityitisnotonlysense perceptionforallsensesareonlytoolsorgansofcommunication. Thisourpersonality−shapinginnerworldinitssumtotalisatman.Yetthethousandlittlestones thatmakeupamosaicareintheirmultitudefarfrombeingapicture.Decisiveisthemannerin whichtheyareputtogetherintoapattern.Itisthisunityalonethatcreatesthecompleteimpression notanalyticalobservationitistheinnerperceptionthatisbasedonsomethinghigherthanthesum totaloftheindividualpieces. Thesecountlesselementsofconsciousnessareunitedintothelivingtotalpersonalitythroughprana whichhasitssourceinbreath.Thusthespiritthehumanessenceisbornofbreath.Andsoina waywebreatheintheworldandbreatheitoutinthe"form"ofthepersonalitythuscreated.The problemthatconcernsyogaisthecreationofaharmoniousrelationshipbetweenthestatic personalitycomponentstheatmanthemosaicpictureandthedynamicpersonalitythecreative artistsmind.InIndiantermsthismeanstheharmoniousmarriagebetweenstaticPurushaand dynamicPrakritishaktibetweenthehumanpersonalityanditsinherentforces 14Whentheminditstillunitedwiththeatmanandpranaflowsthroughthesushumnatheneven theextraordinaryamarolivayoliandsahojolicanbereachedthatis.tovoluntarilyreversetheflow ofsemen. Inotherwordsthereisnolimittotheextentofaccomplishments. 15Howcanonereachperfectionofknowledge jnanawhenthebreathisstilllivinginconsciousnessandthemindasamanifestingforce separatefromithasnotdiedHewhocancausepranaandmindtobecomesuspendedone YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika MINDANDBREATH 81

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throughtheotherreachesliberation. 16Onceheknowsthesecrethowtofindthewaytothesushumnaandhowtoinducetheairto enteritheshouldsettledowninasuitableplaceandnotrestuntilthekundalinihasreachedthe crownoftheheadbrahmarandhra. Wealreadyknowwhythisisnecessary.Thechakrastheseactivitycentersofkarmahavebeen penetratedandsincetheyogiskarmahasthusbeeneliminatedsothathismindisnolongersullied andledastraybyblindnessandignorancethisilluminatedmindcannowmeltwiththeatmaninto perfectunion.Thistakesplaceinthebrahmarandhrainthesahashrarachakra. 17Sunandmooncausedayandnight.Thesushumnahoweverswallowstime.Thisisasecret. Hereisanoddfact:ifyouobservetheflowofbreathforawholedayyouwillobservethatyou breathemoreintenselyattimesthroughtherightnostrilandatothertimesthroughtheleftnowthe rightnostrilseemsstoppedupandnowtheleft.Itseldomoccursthatwebreatheevenlythroughboth nostrils.Thereisalwaysadifferencenomatterhowslight.Thisisnotduetoacoldbuttothefact thatthesupplyofbreaththroughtheonenostrilhasadifferenteffectonthepranathanthatthrough theother.Breathingthroughtherightnostrilfurthersextroversionthroughtheleftintroversion.The breathingapparatusregulatesitselfautomaticallysothatthroughthelackofactiveelementstheleft nostrilclosesupslightlyfromtheinsidecausingthebreathtoflowchieflythroughtherightandthe activesideofthebodygetsthegreatersupply.Mentalfatigueismostlyprecededbyalengthyperiod ofbreathingthroughtheleftnostril. Onecanandfrequentlydoesevenouttheimbalancebyintensifiedone−sidedpranayama.Butthe yogihasanothermethodwhichthoughappliedexternallyhasaninternaleffect:Heputspressureon thesideofthebodywhichisoveractivebylyingonthatsidewitharmstronglypressedtothebody. Orheusesaspecialtoolthathecarrieswithhim:ashortcrutchwithacrossbeamwhichheclamps intohisarmpitwhilerestingthelowerendonthegroundwhereheissitting.Afterafewminutesthe nostrilofthesideuponwhichpressureisbeingexertedwillcloseupandwiththisthefieldofprana changesovertotheotherside. Normallythepranaflowautomaticallychangesinaregularrhythmusuallyeverytwohours. Thereferenceheretothesunandthemoonisnotaspreviouslyimpliedtothesourceofnectarand itsoppositepoleintheareaofthediaphragmbuttotheidanadimoonandthepingalanadisun. "Day"meanspranasupplytothepingalanadirightnostriland"night"pranatotheidanadileft nostril.Thecleansingofthenostrilsnetiwhichispartoftheshatkarmasixfoldcleansingprocess isdesignedtopreventanunnaturalcloggingthatcanblockthenaturalbreathingrhythm. Ifpranaistoentersushumnathentheremustbeneither"day"nor"night"breathmustflow preciselyevenlythroughbothnostrils.Thisinturnpresupposesanexactbalanceofactiveand passiveelements.Inshortonlyhewhohasachievedcompleteinnerequilibriumcanhavesuccessin kundalini. 18−23Thereare72000nadisinthiscagebody.Sushumnaisthecentralnadiwhichcontainsthe shabhavishakti.Thishasthepropertyofbestowingblissupontheyogi.Allothersarethenuseless. −−Guidethepranaintothesushumnaandkindlethegastricfireandawakenthekundalini.Only whenpranafiowsthroughthesushumnawilttherebesamadhi.Allothermethodsarefutile.When breathissuspendedthendiscursivethinkingalsoissuspended.Hewhohaspoweroverhismind YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika MINDANDBREATH 82

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canalsocontrolprana. Forthetwocausesthatactivatethemindarepranarespirationandthesourcesofkarma vasanaslatenttendencies.Deathofoneoftheseisthedeathoftheother.Whenmindis absorbedbreathingsubsides:whenpranaisabsorbedinthesushumnanotavailabletothebody thenmindalsoisabsorbed. Thedeepestsenseofthisyogawillbeunderstoodonlybyonewhoisconvincedthatfromphysical processtopsychologicalexperienceandreligiousphenomenathereisonestraightifusuallysecret pathandthatnoneofthethreecanexistandfunctionbyitself.Hewhoispreparedtofamiliarize himselfwithwhatnaturallyseemstobeastrangeterminologywillfindnotonlyconfirmationofthe mostmodernknowledgebutthepossibilityofnewinsightsaswellfortheproblemofrelationship betweentheinnerandouterworldswillalwaysbea topicaloneaslongasthehumanraceexists.Thelastwordonitcanneverbeexpectedforeach cultureeveneachphaseofindividuallifepresentsnewperspectives.Itisbythegreatvisionary worksofantiquitythatwearemostdeeplytouched−−wewhohavebecomesoclever. 24Mindandpranaarerelatedtoeachotherlikemilkandwater.Iftheonedriesuptheotherone alsodriesup.Inwhateverchakrathepranaisconcentratedmindbecomesfixedandwherethemind isfixedpranaisconquered. Thefactthatmensculturallevelsdiffersogreatlyisnotsimplyaproblemofsocietynordoesit dependonambitionorevenonintelligence.Itisreallythechakrasthatcausestratificationin culture. Geniusistheproductofthehighestdevelopmentpotentialofthatchakrabywhichitlives.Aslong asourmindisnotnourishedbythatsamechakraweonlycomprehendthelowerlevels.Atthe highestlevelourunderstandingisnolongerlimited.Thereweneednointellectualhintsweperceive thespiriteverywhereeveninsilence. Thechakradetermineswhateverlevelofdevelopmentweareonandthisleveldeterminesthe measureofourconsciousness. 25−27Theoneisdependentontheother.They mindandpranaactinunison.Suspensionofonecausessuspensionoftheother.Without interventionthesensestheindriyasbecomevictorious.Iftheymindandpranaaresuspended thereisliberationmoksha.Thenatureofmindislikemercury:inceaselessmotion.Whenbothare mademotionlesswhatonearthcannotbeaccomplishedOhParvatiMercuryisheldfastand pranasteadyNowalldiseasesareconqueredanditispossibletoriseintotheair. Alchemyandmagic−−oronlykindredsymbolsMercuryisthesymbolicsquareoftheearththe mulandharachakra.Thealchemicalprocessrepresentstherisingtothesecondchakrasvadhisthana. Hewhotranscendsthethreelowestcentersattainsthefourthchakraanahatathevibrationdomain oftheair."Herisesintotheair."Thatisheultimatelyrisesabovetheworldlyspheresofearth waterandfireintohigherregions.Aslongasthespiritisnotfreefromthelowerspheresitisnot "heldfast." 28Whenmindisheldfastpranaisalsoheldfastasisthebinduinwhichthesattvaelementofthe YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika MINDANDBREATH 83

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bodyisestablished. InthefirstslokaofPartFourwetranslatedthewordbinduas"sense"thatistheprincipleof intelligence.Howeverthewordissoambiguousthatthistranslationisjustastopgap.Bindumay standfor:dropperiodzeroseedthevoid.Theseappeartobequitedifferentconceptsandoneasks howthetranslatorcanaddasixth.HerewegetaglimpseofthedepthoftheSanskritlanguagefor eachoftheseconceptshasenormoussignificance. Perioddot. ItdoesnotstandlikeatombstoneattheendofaSanskritsentencebutisthesignforvocal vivification.Thedotabovetheconsonantwhichisalwaysconnectedwithavowelchangesadull kaintoarichkamorkangataintotarnortangpaintopamandsoonthroughalltheconsonants. Itaddsvibrationtothedullsound.Itisespeciallysignificantthatitraisesofromthechestvibration tothe0msoundintheheadthehighersphere.Thusitraisesthephysicalsoundtothechakraof consciousnesstheajnachakrabetweentheeyebrowsandgivesitmeaning.Inthiswaythedot becomesthesymbolfor"sense." Thezero. Justasthedotisbotha"nothing"andthesymbolforsensesoiszero.Byitselfitisasymbolof no−thing.Addedtoafigureitincreasesitsvaluetenfold.Itgivesthefigureavalueavaluethatthe figurebyitselfpossessesonlypotentially.Itcatalyzessomethingessentialwithoutpossessinga tangiblevalueofitsown. Theseed. Onlywhenitfallsuponfertilegroundcanitsprout.Likethedotlikethezero.Andherethelatent valueisespeciallyclear. Thevoid. Hereagainitisthemeaningthatmakesemptinesspurposeful. Thirtyspokesunitearoundthenave.Thevoidbetweenthemmakesthemusefulasawheel.We shapeapotfromday. Itsusefulnessdependsuponthevoidthatclaysurrounds.Thehouseismadeofwallswindowsand doors.Thevoidbetweenthewallsmakesitahabitation.WeneedwhatisWhat−is−notmakesit useful.Lao−tzuTooTeChingII Nowitshouldbeclearwhybindumeans"sense."Thesattvaprincipleinwhichthe"sense"is foundedisfulfilledpurityinthesaintwhoisallsattva. 29−30Dissolution layadependsonnada.Layaproducesprana.Pranaisthelordofthemindmanomindisthe lordofthesensesindriyas.Whenmindisabsorbedinitselfitiscalledmokshaliberation.Callit thisorthatwhenmindandpranaareabsorbedineachothertheimmeasurablejoyofsamadhi ensues. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika MINDANDBREATH 84

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Weenterachurchandfeelthesattvaelementthatgovernstheloftysacredroom.Somethinglikea shiverofenchantmentpene− tratesus.Itisbinduthatforamomenttransfiguresus.Weknowthatithastodowiththedivineto whichthisplaceisdedicated.Weknowitbuttheinnerconceptofthis"divine"ismorethanthe worditisthatwhichspeakswithinusnada.Letusrecognizethis:notthespecificterm"thedivine" exercisesitspowerbutthe"innersomething"thatvibrateswiththisconcept.Thentheconceptas suchwithitsthoughtcontentdissolveslayaandwhatremainsistheexperienceofthespirit.This phrase"experienceofthespirit"alreadycontainstheduality:pranaexperienceandspirit. Somuchforoureverydayexperience.Fortheyogiapproachingsamadhitheprocessisreversed:he hasrecognizedthemeaningfulgermbinduwithinhimselfandknowsthatthedivinevibrationsin himweremerelyreleasedbythesattvaelementintheoutsidestimulation. Thereforeliketheancientmastermysticsheturnsinwardandfindsliberationindetachmentfrom thereleasingelement.Forliberationmeans"nothingbut"freedomfromexteriorinfluences. CHAPTER13 THEDISSOLUTION onacoldwinternightawanderingmonksoughtshelterinadesolatemountaintemple.Acoldwind waswhistlingthroughthepaperwallsandthefrozenstrangerhuddledintoacornershivering.He longedforafire.Thenheroseforhehaddiscoveredthefirewoodheneeded:theancientgold lacqueredwoodenstatueoftheBuddha.Hebrokeitintopiecesandsoonbrightflameswereleaping up.Withacryofdistresstheguardrushedin."AreyouademonbrotherWhathaveyoudone" Thestrangemonklookedsurprised."WhatdidIdo" "YouareburningthesacredimageofourLordCantyouseeItistheBuddhayouareburning" Themonksmiled."DoyoubelievewecanburnourLordDontyouknowthatthespiritof enlightenmentisindestructibleWaituntilthismortalwoodisburntupthenwewillsearchinthe ashesforwhatissacred." Theguardianshookhisfists."Itwillbetoolate.Youwillfindnothingintheashes.""Nothing" exclaimedthestranger."Tellmedidyouholdsacredsomethingthatcouldsoreadilybedestroyed byfire" ThestrangemonkwasNanzenoneofthegreatpatriarchsofZen. Everyonecantesthisrelationshiptotheessenceofaconcept.Isitthethingitselfthatrepresentsthe valueorisitsomething subtlersomethingintangibleWhatissaintlyinthesaintWhatisbeautifulinthebeautifulItis oursubjectivethinkingthatcreatesvaluesandattimeseveneternalvalues.Thethingitselfis nothingbutaclearmirrorwhichwillreflectthatwhichweknowwithinourselvestobesaintlyor beautiful.Thisholdstruenotonlyforthingsfromtheoutsideworldbutforourownthoughtsand actionsaswell. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEDISSOLUTION 85

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Theactivityofthemindalwaysprojectsbeyondourmomentarysituationoverlookstheessential theBeingandfocusesonBecoming.ButitisonlyinBeingthatwecanperceivetheAbsolute Becomingistherelative.Itisonlywhenmindhasbecomepassivedissolvedinitselfi.e.separated fromimageandconceptunaffectedbyoutsideinfluencesthattheAbsolutepresentsitselfinallas thetrueessenceofthings. Willhoweveristhegreatprotagonistofpassivecontemplation.Themoreactiveelementstheyogi candiscard−−breathingthinkingdesiringacting−−themorepassiveprinciplescanmanifest.And eachpassiveelementisamirrorofself−knowledge. Not−doingindoing.PracticethisAndknowtheunknowable. Lao−tzuTaoTeChing63 31−33Theyogiwhodoesnotinhaleorexhaleandwhosesenseshavebecomepassivewhose minddoesnotregisteranythingnolongerexperiencessubjectiveinclinationshasreachedlayayoga dissolution.−−Whenmentalandphysicalactivitieshaveentirelyceasedthereresultsthe indescribablestateoflayayogawhichonlytheyogicanexperience−−Whensubjectiveviewshave beensuspendedavidyaignorancewhichisusedtocontroltheindriyassensesdissolvesandthe powerofcognitionjnanashaktidissolvesintoBrahmanbecomesonewiththeAbsolute. Avidyaignorancecontrolsthesenses.Inotherwordstheattractionofthesatisfyingpurposeful agreeable−seeminginflu−encesthesensesandinthiswaykeepscaptivethewholepersonality whichseemstohavenohighermeansofcognitionatitsdisposal. Tohearthisfactandreadaboutitwillnotcauseanyinnerchangeonlywhenyouyourselfrecognize itcanyoumasterthesenses.Intellectualconvictionthoughwell−intentionedisonlyasignof prejudicehereofpressureinthedirectionofabeliefwhichcanchangenothing.Anditisthechange alonethatcounts.HewhoseesTruthisautomaticallychanged.Hewhoforceshimselftochangehas onlychangedhisopinionsbutnothimself. Thisistheprincipleofthepowerofcognition:nottodevelopanewopinionbuttodissolveall dynamicactiveelementsinBrahman.Tocontemplateandtobechangedbythat. Amanrisingbeforesunrisesearchesforalanternandcannotbepersuadedbyhisfriendthathedoes notneedit.Whenhestepsoutofthehousethesunrisesandhedirectlyexperiencestheuselcssness ofthelantern.Thethoughtofalanterndidnotdissolveintoanotherbetterthoughtbutintodirect processofrealizationinto"Brahman." Allopinionsthatdonotresultfromdirectexperienceareformedundertheinfluenceofrelative experience.Experienceisfateexperienceiskarma."Ihavehadthisexperience"saysoneopinionto anotheronekarmatoanotheronefatetoanother.Inthelightofknowledgethereisnothingmoreto sayformanstandsaslivingproof.Theseedofkarmaliesinthestimulationsoftheoutsideworld whichcanattractorrepulseus.Undertheinfluenceofdirectexperienceatransformationoccursin whichthesenseslosetheirsignificanceandsenseexperiencesrevealthemselvesasconditionedand limited. 34Layalayapeoplesay.Butwhatiflaya−−Layaifthestateofforgettingthesubjectively YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THEDISSOLUTION 86

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coloredimagesoftheobjectsofthesenseswhenthesamskarasimpressionsonconsciousnessthe seedsofkarmaarenolongereffectivebutareconquered. Butthiscannotbeaccomplishedbyanactofwillforitistheactsofwillthemselvesthatblockthe waytoevolution.Thereisonlyoneway:tocognizeandtherebyknow.Aslongascognitionisnot spontaneousnothingreallyhashappenedandtheprocessofdissolutionhasnottakenplace.Will alwaysrelatestotheexteriorbutdissolutiontakesplaceintheinterior.Soitisaquestionofletting thewilldieoutsothattheclearpictureofrealityappears.Onlyinthevisionoftheinnerimage whichwecannotforcewillrelativitydissolveandceasetoobstructhigherknowledge.Trueout imaginationisextensivebutneverextensiveenoughtohaveapresentimentofthingstocome. Onlythesuddenlyrisingsunwhichilluminesthewholepathaheadofuscanshowusnotonlythe windingsoftheroadthatwereadonthemapbutallthatwhichthebestofmapscannotshow:the grassesbushesstonesandgrainsofsandthelandscapeofthetrueworldinallitsfabulousinfinite diversity.Arenotallartificialmeanstostimulatepresentimentridiculous CHAPTER14 THESHAMBHAVIMUDRAANDTHEINNERLIGHT 35TheVedastheShastrasandthePuranasarelikeprostitutesattainabletoall.Theshambhavi mudrahoweverislikeachastewomancarefullyguarded. WisdomwasneversecretintheOrientSecretareonlythepathstowisdom. Theintellectuallycreatedworldofconceptshasbeendissolved.Nowletsreturntothemanwho createdanewworldbythetwolevelsofvibrationlightandsoundthatinteriorworldofahigher lifewhichrequiresthestrongerflametheflamewhichhelearnedtofanbykhecarimudra. Dissolutionissamadhire−creationisshambhavimudraworkwiththesoundsymbolmantraand theimagesymbolyantrathesourceofinnerlight. 36Shambhavimudraconsistsinfixingthemindinwardlyonanyoneofthechakrasandfixing theeyeswithoutblinkingonanexternalobject.ThismudraisleftsecretbytheVedasandShastras. WhatdoestheyogidoatthisstageoftrainingHowdoeshepractice Herisesat4:00a.m.thehourofBrahmacleanshisbreathingorgansandsitsdownonbistiger skin. 6 Aftertheintroductorypracticessuchasthenadipurificationheveneratesthethreeaspectsof hissadhanahispersonaldeity:KeshavaNarayanaandMadhavaasthethreeaspectsofVishnuor SivaGaneshandBalaasaspectsofSiva.Thenfollowsacomplicatedfivefoldintroductoryritual whichleadshimtohismainpracticetheshambhavimudra.Thistakesthefollowingcourse:Firsthe speakshismantraclearlyandaudiblyinexpressionandintonationexactlyashehaslearneditfrom hisguruandretainsthesoundinhisear. WewillnotanalyzethesoundintheearheresecChapter15butwillconcernourselvesmerely withthequestionofwhathappenstothissound.Theyogimustimaginethatthesoundiscoming fromoneofthechakras.Thechakravariesaccordingtohissadhanaandhisstateofdevelopment. Andthissoundisconceivedofassoencompassingthatitnotonlyvibratesinthegivenchakrabutis passedon−−andthisistheroostimportantprocess−−fromchakratochakra. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THESHAMBHAVIMUDRAANDTHEINNERLIGHT 87

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Themantraconsistsofvarioussoundelementseachofwhichhasadifferentfunctiontofulfill.The introductionusuallyconsistsofthepranava0mwhilethecoretheshaktimantraisasoundwhich influencesthekundalinibyitsvibrationstruc−ture.Theframeworkofthemantraistunedinpartto therespectivechakrainpartitcontainsotheractivatingvibrations. Atthesametimeiftheyogiisnotfullyinpossessionoftheyantrainwardlyhefastenshisgaze upontheformsymboltheyantraandimaginesthatthisisthechakraconcernedthemantrathat soundswithin.Forthedeitythechakrathemantraandtheyantraareoneasnameimage projectionand 6.Onlyyogiswholeadastrictlycelibatelifeusetigerskin.Theothersuseantelopeskin.Thereason forthisisthedifferenceinthepoweroftherespectiveskinstoisolateearthmagnetism. scatofthedeity.Thedeityreposesinthechakratheyantraistheexpressionofthedivinityandof thechacrathemantrasynchronizeswiththevibrationlevelofthechakrafashionsthenameofthe deityandisanalogoustotheyantra. Addtothistheproscribedcolorscaleoftheemanationofdivinelightandthereislittleroomleftfor distractingthoughts.ManyIndianandTibetantextswhichdevotesomuchspacetothedescription ofthedivinemanifestationsservetheyogisolelyasmeanstoreachtheperfectionofshambhavi mudra. 37Itifrightfullycalledthambhavimudrawhenmindandpranaareabsorbedbytheobjectwhen theeyesbecomerigidinthecontemplationoftheobject.Oncethisstatehasbeenreachedbythe graceoftheguruwhogivesthebindingyantraasobjecteverythingperceivedbecomesa manifestationofthegreatShambuSivaandisthusbeyondemptinessandnot−emptiness. EverythingisSiva:everythingiskalaligfit−wavesformyantramanifestationofthedivineimage inallitsformsnadasoundwavessoundmantradivinenameinallitsformsandbindu meaningthedivineandthelogoscommontoboththeotherspheres. Beforegettingtothecentralpointofthischapterwehavetoansweraquestion.Theculminating pointofPartThreewaskhecarimudratheupcurledtonguewherebythelifeprocesswasintensified bythefanningoftheinnerfirethemiddleplaneofvibration.Inwhatrelationdoestheinnerfire standtoshambhavimudra 38Shambhavimudraandkhecarimudraalthoughtheydifferinthepositionoftheeyesandthe pointofconcentrationareoneinthattheybringaboutthestateofblissintheconcentrated consciousnessofthemindabsorbedinatman. Thepositionoftheeyescorrespondstothedirectionofconcentration.Inkhecariroudrathepointlies betweentheeyebrowsfromwherethenectarflowsinshambhavimudraitistheheartchakraand thereforetheeyesaredirectedthatwayi.e.tothetipofthenose.Butthisisnottheessential differencealthoughtherealdifferencemaybesuggestedbythedirectionoftheeyes.Decisive ratheristhefactthatkhecarimudraacti−vatesthemiddleplaneofvibrationswhereasinshambhavi mudrathehighestandthelowestplanesareaffected. Intheregionofheatanimallifemanifestswhilethereislittleinfluenceofthelogosbindu. Howeverintheregionofkalatheupperzoneofvibrationlightandnadathelowerzonesound thereispresent"thegoldengerm"binduinitsplenitude.Thusthestepfromkhecarimudrato YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THESHAMBHAVIMUDRAANDTHEINNERLIGHT 88

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shambhavimudrameansadeepeningofmeditationandextensionofpossibilities Letusconsidertheformsymbolinallitsvariedaspects:ThecrossinChristianitythehalf−moonin IslamthestarinJudaism.Theyantrahasaformthatweperceiveandencompasswithoureyesthis isthecoarseaspect.Italsocontainsa"light"thatweperceivethroughourheartthisisthefiner aspectwhichwewillpresentlydiscussandfinallytheyantracontainsasensemeaninglogosthe binduthepointinwhichyantramantrachakraandthedivineunite. Thislightalthoughithasitssubtleraspectshouldnotbeconsideredmystical.Itisfirstofall somethingthatappearsquitenaturally.Thelightthatemanatesfromthecrosshasmoreradiancefor theChristianthanfortheMuslimwhilethelightofthehalf−moonisconsiderablymoreradiantfor theMuslimthanfortheChristian.Forthesesymbolshavenoradianceinthemselves.Radianceonly unfoldsintheheartofthedevoteethroughhisdevotionandevendiffers−accordingtotheintensity ofthedevotion. The"innerlight"doesnotimplyanimmanentmeaningfortheimagesymbolbuthasapurely emotionalvalue.Itisnotthemeaningthatisessentialbutthekindofmoodthatitspontaneously induces. 39−40Directyourinnergazeupon"light"byslightlyraisingtheeyebrows.Thenperform shambhavimudraasyouhavelearnedit.Thisinducessamadhi.−−Someconfusethemselvesbythe alluringpromisesoftheshastrasandtantrasothersbytheVedicKarmasandstillothersbylogic. Noneofthemrecognizestherealvalueofthismudrabytheaidofwhichonecancrosstheoceanof existence. Onehazardwhichismoreorlessinherentinallreligionsisthattheypromisemoretothedevotee thanhewillbeabletoexperienceunlesshepursueshisgoalwithextraordinaryzeal.Becausethe Buddhadidnotmakesuchexaltedpromisesinregardtothedivine.Buddhismhasoftenbeen accusedofbeingatheistic.Butitisperhapsthegreatestpsycho−religiousdeedoftheBuddhathat ratherthanpromisingblissintheheavenlyrealmshegaveeverythingmanneedstoreachthegoalof truereligionwithoutobstructingthepathwithpreconceivedfantasies.Godcannotbe"spoken."He canonlybeexperiencedandthatisverydifferentfromanythingprojectedthroughwords.Alltoo oftenadevoteeissaidtohave"experiencedGod"whenactuallyhehasonlyseenthepreconceived imageofhisownfantasy. Mantraasdivinenameandyantraasdivineformleavenoroomforfantasy.Andthustheseactive forcesofrealizationtowhicheventhephysicalsometimessubmitcanbedirectedwithout hindranceontheirway.Forthispathdemandsthewholemananddoesnotpermitanyoneforceto deviate.No−bodyhaseverreachedahighgoalthroughdreamingalone. 41Withhalf−closedeyesfocusedonthetipofthenosethemindsteadilyfastened onitsobjectandtheactivepranacurrentoftheidaandpingalanadissuspendedbyguidingit intothesushumnathustheyogireachestheslateofrealizationofTruthintheformofaradiating lightwhichisthesourceofallthingsandthehighestobjectivetobereached.Whathigherstateis therethathemightexpect "Intheformofradiatinglight."doesthismeanthatthedivineimageherebecomesthephysically perceptible"radiatinglight"Yesindeed.Experiencedmysticshavetestifiedthatintheirdeepest concentrationaradiatingbrilliantlightappearsbeforetheireyes.Herethesamephenomenaare YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THESHAMBHAVIMUDRAANDTHEINNERLIGHT 89

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evidentlybeingdescribed.Whatishappening Itisnottheobjectperceivedthroughthesensesthatradiatesnorisitradiancefromtheheavenly spheres.Aneworganofperceptionsotospeakopensupthroughwhichthefinernatureofthe contemplatedobjectisperceived.Thisorganhasnothingtodowiththesenses.Itliesintheheart chakra.Itissoextremelysubtlethatthecorporealityoftheobjectistoocoarsetobeperceivedbyit whileitreactsdirectlytothefinernaturethelightwhichisdirectlysusceptibletoemotionalvalues. Hewhofacesthisstageofcognitionuncriticallywithout 7.Philofudaeus:"...andthedivinelightprecipitateditselflikeaflooduponthesoulanditis blindcdbyitsradiance."Plotinui:"Thevisionfloodedtheseekerseyeswithlightbuthesees nothingelsethelightisthevision."JakobBoehme:"FinallythegatesofeternityopenedI penetratedtotheinmostbeingandawonderfullightradiatedinmysoul.Itwasalightthatdidnotat allfitthepersonthatIhavebeen." recognizingitspsycho−physicalnatureinevitablyfallsintotheerroroftakingtheluminousimageas somethingself−existing.HebelievesthatGodhasrevealedhimselftohiminlightasitisoftensaid whereashehimselfhasonlydevelopedthecapacitytorecognizethedivineomnipresenceforthe perceptionofwhichtheaveragemanhasnodevelopedorgan.ItisnotthatGodhasrevealedhimself tohimbutthatbehaslearnedtocognizetheDivine.Asmallbutessentialdifference.Theemotional valuelightoftheDivineremainsthesamebutthedevoteeisnowinapositiontoexperienceit directly. Atpresenteverythingconnectedwiththissubtleorganandthe"light"isasfarasscienceis concernedamatteroffaithjustasthetheoryoftheatomputforthbytheVaisheshikaschoolof Indianphilosophywasaquestionoffaithuntilafewdecadesago.The"revelationoftheatom"was notaworkofdivinegracebutofmathematicsandoftheelectronicmicroscopeofrefined observation.Whatwasatthattimedivineintheatomstillistoday.Andwhensomedaythesubtler organintheheartchakraisrecognizedwiththeaidofastillsubtlerscientifictoolthentheWestwill bemoretolerantofthestatementsofyogisandmysticsandpossiblyevensurpassthem.Butthe divineaspectwillinnowaybechanged.Onlyonewillperhapsaccorditaplaceinthesystemof fonnulaeperhapsaszeroperhapsasbinduperhapsaslogos.Thenonecouldalsogainscientific knowledgefromtheBibleforthereitsays:"Inthebeginningwasthelogosbindu....andthelogos binduwasGod"JohnI.I."Thatwasthetruelightthatlightetheverymanwhocomethintothe world"Jobn1.9. 42Donotworshipthelingamneitherbydaynorbynight.Onlywhendayandnighthavebeen transcendedshouldthelingambeworshipped−−unceasingly. ThisimportantslokathrowsasignificantlightuponthewholeofHindureligiosity. ThelingamthemuchdisputedphallicsymboloftheSivaitesstandsforthissubtleraspectofall thingsforthedivinelighttheprimevallingamconsistedoffire.Thisiswhatismeantbythe previouswarningnottomistaketheradiantlightforthemanifestationoftheGod. "Neitherbydaynorbynight."Werememberthatidaandpingalastandforsunandmoonthusfor dayandnight.Dayandnightareovercomeassoonasthetwopranacurrentsareunitedinthe sushumnai.e.insamadhi.OnlynowisdevotionrealdevotionandthusitsaysintheKulamava Tantra:"Pujadevotionlastsonlyaslongassaroadhilasts." YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THESHAMBHAVIMUDRAANDTHEINNERLIGHT 90

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Dayandnightarealsothesignsoftimewhichisconqueredinsamadhi.Everythingthatoccursin timebelongstoworldlyconsciousnesstotheimage−formingconcept−boundwayofthinking. Aworshipthatveneratesthelingamasaconceptisnotthekindofdevotionthatisrequiredfordeep resultsdeepexperience.TheIndiandoesnotmakeanimageofhisGodforhimself.Thisstatement whichseemssoparadoxicalinviewoftheinexhaustibleHindupantheonactuallyfindsits confirmationhere.Foralltheimagesofdeidesarenothingbutrepresentationsofvariousaspectsof manifestingdivinepowers−−withtheexceptionofBrahmanwhoisunrepresentable.Nowsome technicalremarks: 43−50Whenpranaflowsnaturallythroughthetwonadisthenthereisnoobstacletokhecari mudra.Thisisbeyonddoubt.−−Whenthepranacurrententersthesushumnabetweenidaand pingalathenkhecarimudrabeginstobecomemeaningful.−−Betweenidaandpingalathereisan unsupplied i.e.withpranaspace.Itistherewherethetongueperformskhecarimudra.−−Thekhechari mudrainwhichthenectarfromthe"moon"iscollectedstandsinhighesteemwithSivawhoiskala nadaandbindu.Theincomparabledivinesushumnaisblockedoffbytheinvertedtongue.−−The sushumnawillalsobeclosedwhenthepranacurrentissuspendedbyenteringthesushumna.This istheperfectkhecarimudrathatleadstosamadhiunmanimindlessness.−−Betweentheeyebrows istheseatofSivaofhigherconsciousness.Thereconceptionalthinkingisabsorbed.Thisstateis samadhituriyawheredeathhasnoaccess.−−Oneshouldpracticekhecarimudrauntilthestateof samadhiYoganidra.Yogasleepisachieved.Hewhosucceedsinthiswillconquerdeath.−−After mindhasbeenfreedfromclingingwithdrawnfromconceptualizingobjectsitshouldnotproduce furtherthoughts.Thenitresemblesanemptypotsurroundedandfilledwithspaceakashaether. ButwhathashappenedtoyantraaridmantraWhyarewegoingbacktoPartThree Oncetheyogihasreachedthefourthstageheisalltooapttoforgetthetechnicalrequirements whichcanleadhimintothegreatestdifficulties.Againandagainitmustbeemphasized:onthe highestlevelofconsciousnesstheinnerfiremustburnfiercelyifthepranaflowisnottoceaseand withittheyogislife.Butthefirewillonlyblazewhentheflowofnectarisdeviatedi.e.through khecarimudra.Thusonceagainhighpraiseisbestowedonthismudra. Ifnomentionismadehereoftheshambhavimudraofmantrasandyantraswemustnotforgetthat theseareinnereventswhilekhecarimudraisatechnicalprocess.Onecannotmixtwo fundamentallydifferentconcepts.Shambhavimudrabecomessignificantonlywhenkhecariroudra haspreparedtheconditionsforitandconstantlyrenewsthem. 51Whentheouterbreathceasestheinnerbreathpranaproductionalsoceases.Pranacurrentand mindcurrentbecomepassivewhentheyreachtheircenterofactivity. Humanspiritisimpelledonlyaslongasithasagoalbeforeitseyes.Oncethegoalisreachedthe spiritremainsthereforacertaintime.Thisperiodofabidingisusuallythereasonformansstriving atall.Anartistoftensearchesfortheconflictofsufferinginordertobringitintounitybyresolving itinhiswork.Tobe"desirelesslyhappy"ispossibleonlywhenanurgentdesireisfulfilledand relaxationthusinduced−−usuallythecalmbeforethestormofnewtensions. WhenthemindoftheyogireturnstoitsownSelfafteritseverydaysense−relatedactivitiesitis relaxedforwiththesubsidingbreathduringpracticetheactivemindwhichlivesfromprana YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THESHAMBHAVIMUDRAANDTHEINNERLIGHT 91

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subsidesaswell. Thepranaheneedsisinthesushumnaandiskeptactivetherebytheblazingflameoflife.Alllifeis concentratedthere. 52Whenonethuspracticescontrolofbreathdayandnightthepranabecomesmorepassiveinthe courseoftimeandmindisnaturallycompelledtofollowthesamecourse. Forassoonasthepranabecomespassiveitunfoldsitshighesteffectivenessinthesushumnaandas soonasmindispassivetherealnatureoftheworldofappearancesisrecognized. 53Whenthebodyisthusbathedinthenectarstreamofthemoonitbecomesstrongandhardy. Inotherwordswhenthefireisburningfiercelyenoughthereisnodangertolifeandlimb. 54Placethemindintheshaktithemanifestingpowerofnaturekundaliniandtheshaktias "lighfinthemindthroughmeditationthenmindandshaktibecomeone.Awa\entheshaktiby listeningtothemind"withearinheart"andthusstriveforthehighestgoalofsamadhi. Tolisten"withearinheart"isthemostcrucialfactorinthewholeprocessofmeditation.Thisisthe trueinsighttheprerequisiteofallEasternmethodsofspiritualtraining.Nothingelseisofassuch decisiveimportancefromthefirststeptoself−realizationuptothearousingofkundalinitheinner lightonthehighestlevel. 55−56TheIatmanaltinemptyspaceandemptytheIofconceptualbeing.Whenthus everythingisemptywithoutlimeandspacethenthedynamicintellecthoisubsided.Thusthe yogiisemptywithinandwithoutlikeanemptypotinspace akashaetherandalsofiledwithinandwithoutlikeapotintheocean. ApertinentsimileAnemptypotatthebottomoftheocean.Waterinsideandout.Isthepotempty orfullEmptyyetfullfullyetempty.Hewhohasinwardlyunderstoodthissimilehas comprehendedtheessenceofrajayoga.Foritisemptiness−−thoughhardtograsp−−whichisthe decisivefactorinsamadhi.Butthisisinnowayamortifiedspiritbutaspiritthathasbeencalmed. Whatthismeansonlyhecanunderstandwhosemindhasbeencompletelyabsorbedinagreat experienceatleastonce. 57−58Heshouldnotthinkofexternalthingsallpersonalthoughtsheshouldgiveupalso: abandonallsubjectiveandobjectivethoughts.−−Theexternaluniverseinitsconceptualdiversity isacreationofourmindsoalsoistheworldofimagination.Whentheideahasbeenabandonedthat theseprojectionsofthoughtarepermanentandmindisconcentratedonthatwhichiswithout changeohRameternalandcertainpeacehasbeenreached. 59Mindconcentratedontheatmanbecomesonewithitlikecamphorwiththeflamelikesaltwith thewateroftheocean. ThenthereisnoIofwhichthoughtisawareforIandthoughthavebeenabsorbedintoeachother becausethinkingisnolongerattachedtotheobjectorconceptbutexperiencespurelythe contemplativestate.Itistheabsorbedobserverofagreatgameinwhichitparticipatesandwhichis nolongerastrangeeventtobeanalyzedandcriticized. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika THESHAMBHAVIMUDRAANDTHEINNERLIGHT 92

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60Mindandobjectofcontemplationhavebeenabsorbedineachothersothatthereisnolonger anyduality. Thegreatsymbolofthisunionistheunioninloveofmanandwoman.ThereforetheUpanisbads say:"Theatmanisasgreatasmanandwomanincloseembrace."TheblissthatensuesisneitherI noryoubutthemeltingtogetherofIandyouinthemutualexperienceoftheparamatmanthe divineSelfthatisinherentinallthatiscreated. 61−64Theanimateandtheinanimateuniverseisacreationofthemind.insamadhithereisonly oneness.WhenallsenseperceptionsaresuspendedthereremainsonlytheAbsolute.−−Thegreat ancientseersexperiencedthesevariouspathstosamadhithentaughtthemtoothers.−−Salutations tothesu−shumnatothenectar−flowofthemoontosamadhiandto thegreatcitShaktithepowerofabsoluteknowledge. CHAPTER15 NADATHEINNERSOUND theconceptofprayeriswellknown.Herehoweverwearenotconcernedwithprayerbutwith mantrathoughacertainrelationshipdoesexistbetweenthetwo.Prayerismostlyexpressedinthe spontaneousfreely−chosenwordsofthedevoteewhilethemantraisboundnotonlyinitssoundbut alsoinitsintonation.Inprayerthedivinityisimportunedinmantraitisexpressed.Theprayergoes tothedivinitythemantraisanessentialattributeofthedivineits"name."Theprayerisamessage bearerthemantraisitselfthemessage.Theprayerisborninthemindthemantradoesnotoriginate inthemindbutitgoestothemind.Prayercontainsthetendencythatbecomesclearlyexpressedin themantra. Forexample:everyChristianprayercloseswithan"Amen.""Amen"isinitselfcompletelyneutral untilitisprecededbyaprayer.Inthatcase"Amen"istheexpressionofallthattheprayerimplies. "Amen"iswhatmakesaprayeraprayerinfactitistherealprayer.Thewordsthatprecededitplace itmentallyandspiritually."Amen"isthearticulatepower−potentialofthedivinitythemantra.The mantrainthisexample"Amen"ispuresattvaprinciple.Everybodywhoentersachurchprays participatesinaritualorcontemplatesasacredsymbolexperiencesthissattvaprinciple.Everything non−sattvic hasadisturbinginfluenceandisimmediatelyconspicuous.Thuswegotochurchfestivelydressed soastoattractthefullmeasureofsattvicvibrations. Justastheinwardlightiskindledbytheimagesymbolsoalsothroughthesoundsymboltheinner soundisawakenedthenadathemostsubtleaspectofthemantrathesoundinthe"earoftheheart." 65InowshalldescribethepracticeofnadaashasbeenproclaimedbyGorakshanathandasitis acceptedevenbythosewhoareunabletorealizeTruthbecausetheyhavenotstudiedtheshastras. Itis"thedissolutionofimageandconcept"layainaspontaneousexperiencewhichhasfromtime immemorialbeenconsideredthehighestspiritualprocess.Itisalsothegoalofthehighestyogaand allpathsofyogaculminateinlaya. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika NADATHEINNERSOUND 93

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66LordSivahasshowninnumerablepathstolayabutitseemstomethatthepracticeofnadais thebestofthemall. Thereasonforthisisperhapsthefactthatitseemseasiertodealwiththesoundsymbolthanwith theimageandthattheinnersoundiseasiertoproducethantheinwardlight.Thetimehasnow comefortheyogitopracticedaily: 67Heseatshimselfinsiddhasanaandassumesshambhavimudralisteningtotheinnersoundthat ringsinhisrightear AndwhynotintheleftcarDakshinameans"right"butalso"goodpropitiouscapable."Soitreally sayshere"inthetrueear"andthisisthe"caroftheheart." 68Closeearsnosemouthandeyesthenyouwilldistinctlyhearaclearsoundinthesushumna whichhasbeenpurifiedbypranayama. Thereaderwillperhapsfeelimpelledtomakeanexperimentandtolisteninwardly.FutileeffortHe willhearnothinglikethis"sound."Why Wouldtheyogibecompelledtogothroughthreestagesofhardpracticeifheonlyneedstocloseup hisearsinordertoperceivetheinnersoundAreournadispureistheflamethesourceofhigher lifeablazeIsthesymbolofthedivinerootedinourbeingDowefulfilleventheminimal requisitesofdeepreligiousdevotionAnswerthesequestionsbeforetryingtolistentothatwhich hasfromtimeimmemorialbeenthemysticsmostprofoundexperienceofGod. 69Allyogapracticescontainfourstages:introductionaram−bha.transitionghataattainment paricayaandperfectionnishpatti. Thisisvalidforyogaingeneralfortheindividualsystemsasshownbythedivisionofourtextas wellasforeachspecificpracticeinfactforallthingsinlife.Thereisgreatpsychologicalinsightin thissentence.Maywelearnthatthethirdsteptheattainmentisnotthelast. 70−71Inthefirststagearambhavasthawhentheheartchakrabrahmagranthiispiercedwe heartingingsoundstiejewelsinthespaceoftheheartinthecenterofthebody.Assoonasthese soundsbecomeaudibleintheinteriorvoidtheyogibecomesgod−likeradianthealthyand fragrant.Hisheartbecomesthevoid. Thesoundwhichintheregionofthethroatwasstillsoundhasnowpenetratedtotheheartandthere meetsprana.Afeelingriseslikeadeephappybreathandfillstheheartandtheinnersoundofthe mantrafallslikeagoldendewdroponthisbuddinghappiness.Everythingthatwasbeneficialonthe technicalpathoftheasanasisachievedinonemomentofrealexperiencefor: 72Inthesecondstagepranaandnadabecomeoneandthisoneentersthemiddleheart chakra.Theasanasbecomeeffectivenowanddivinewisdomarises. Unionisaccomplishedandthechalicewithitsgoldenpearl−−thatpearlwhichwilllaterexpandinto awholenewworld−−extendsupwardtowardhigherspheres.Whatdoesitmeantogrowupward Whyshouldweraisealowersphereratherthansimplygofromthelowersphereintothehigher Werememberthattheinnersoundofthemantraistoemanatefromoneofthechakras.Thesound YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika NADATHEINNERSOUND 94

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thentakesonthevibrationfrequencyoftherespectivechakraitbecomestheprinciplethatthe chakrarepresents. Inordernottounderestimatethevalueofthispracticewemustrememberanearlierpracticethat relatedtothephysicalaspectofsoundtheaudiblesoundinbhramarikumbhaka.PartTwo67 Afterthenadiswerepurifiedthesoundofahummingbeewasproduced.Thishappenedandthe soundgrewtoarumblingroarthatmadetheworldtremble.Itwasoneofthefirstgreatexperiences ofhathayoga. Atthattimeweknewnomorethanwhatweheard.Nowthisimpressivesoundcreatedwiththeaid ofthepersonalmantraisnotprojectedintospacebutdirectedinwardtoachakraandthisisour presentsituation 73Whenthevishnugranthiinthethroatispiercedbythevibrationsitisasignthatdivinebliss brahmaanandawillfollow.Inthesoundboxofthethroatchakraatishunyatathereacomplex soundariseslikethatofabigdrum. Thisisthesubtleraspectoftherumblingandroaringthatwecametoknowinthebhramari kumbhakatheeffectofwhichishereevenmoreimpressive. 74Onthethirdstageasoundlikethatofamardalaadifferentkindofdrumisperceivedinthe spacebetweentheeyebrows.Withthisthevibrationsenterintothegreatvoidmahashunyatai.e. sushumnatheseatofallthesiddhis. Thistoowehaveencounteredinitsgrossphysicalforminthebhramarikumbhakabutsincenow thesoundisnotproducedbythevocalcordsitispurelymentalandthatmeansmoreprofound.Itis noteasytofindanexampleofthisinourarsenalofreligiousexperienceasacertaininnerdevotion andprayerareprerequisites.Stilleventhesobermodernmanwillbenostrangertoexperiences underthespellofmusic. "Arise"theangelcallsouttoMohammedinthedesertandthesoundsymbolofthewarningangels voiceisthesoundofbellsandthusprayeroronahigherlevelrevelationbecomespassionatejoy. Theprescientsoundofbellsisthepreliminarytotherevelationoftheangelprayeristheecstatic revelation.Prayerlivesintheheartchakrarevelationinthethroatchakra. 75Havingovercometheblissfulslateofthemindheexperiencesthehappinessthatarisesfrom cognitionoftheatman.Thenheisdeliveredofallfaultspainsoldagediseasehungerand tiredness. Greaterthanhappinessisequanimity.Happinessisthegoalofmanequanimityisthedivinegoal. Immutablearethegods alone.Humanityswingslikeapendulumbetweendesireforhappinessandenjoymentofhappiness. Hewhovoluntarilyrenounceshishappinessandneverthelessremainshappycannolongerbe measuredbyhumanstandardsalthoughnotalwaysbydivineoneseither. 76Afterthevibrationhaspiercedthelastknot theagnachakratheforeheadscenterofconsciousnessitrisestothedivineplace.Withthisthe fourthstagesetsinwhereonehearsthesoundofthefluteandthevina. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika NADATHEINNERSOUND 95

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Letusstopanalyzing.Ourexperiencedoesnotsufficetounderstandthemeaningofthesoundofthe fluteofKrishnaorthevinaofthedivinemessengerNarada.Thosewhohaveexperiencedthishigh statehavebecometeachersfromwhoselipsflowedtheVedastheEddastheAvestastheSermonof theMounttheKoran.Thesoundsnowgrowevermoresubtleyetmorepowerful.Theyaresounds thatproclaimtheEternalWisdomofGodthepowerofUltimateTruthundisturbedandunimpeded bytheword.Nothingisunderstoodeverythingknown.ThegatesoftheKingdomofHeavenfly opentheeternallightismanifestthemusicofthespheresringsout. 77−83Whenthemindbecomesunifiedthisisrajayoga.Theyoginowmasterofcreationand destructionbecomesonewithGod.−−Whetherornotyoucallitliberationhereiseternalbliss.The blissofdissolutionlayaisobtainedonlythroughrajayoga.−−Therearemanywhoaremerely hathayoginswithouttheknowledgeofrajayoga.Theyaresimplepracti−cerswhowillneverreap therealfruitsoftheirefforts.−−1believethatconcentrationonthespacebetweentheeyebrowsis thebestwaytoreachsamadhiinashorttime.Forthoseofsmallintellectthisistheeasiestmeansto attaintorajayoga. Thestateofdissolutionlayaarisingfromtheinnersoundnadacreatesthisspontaneous experience.−−Allyogiswhohavereachedthestateofsamadhithroughthisconcentrationonnada haveexperiencedablissintheirheartsthatsurpassesalldescriptionandcanbeknownonlybya god.−−Thesilentascetichavingclosedhisearslistensattentivelytothesoundinhisheartuntil heattainsthestateofonenesswithallsamadhi.−−Thepowerofinnersoundgraduallysurpasses theexternalsounds.Thustheyogicanovercometheweaknessofthemindandreachhisgoalin15 days. Thepoweroftheinternalsounditsmeaningasanaudibledesignationofourpersonalityisa thousandtimesstrongerthanthelogicalcombinationofthesoundsofletterswhichhasreallyno meaningatall.Thepronouncingofthename−wordispurelyinnersound. Nowthemantraisthatnamewhichisthecommonpropertyofboththejivatmanandthe paramatmantheselfandtheSelf. Atfirstitisseparatenessthatimpingesuponourears.ThereisstillanIandaThoutheonewho perceivesandtheonewhoisperceived:thedynamicmindisactive.Intheinnersensehoweverall separativetendenciesallsound−conditioneddifferentiationsceaseaccordingtothedegreeoftheir innerrefinementi.e.thedegreetowhichtheysinkandbecomeonewiththestaticmind.Themantra becomesthetruename. Atthebeginningofanacquaintanceanameonlytellsuswhothepersonis.Lateronitstandsforthe sumtotalofwhatthepersoniswhatwehaveexperiencedwiththatperson.Thenamethendoesnot merelyspeakofthe"Thou"butequallyofthe"I"anditsrelationshipto"Thou." 84−85Duringtheinitialstageofpracticevariousstrongsoundsareaudiblebutasprogressis madetheybecomemoreandmorerefined.−−Atfirsttheysoundliketheroaringoftheoceanorlike thunderlikekettledrumsortrumpets.Thentheybecomemoreandmoresubtleuntiltheysound likeflutesandharpslikethehummingofbees.Inthiswayonehearstheminthecenterofthebody. InBhramarikumbhakatheyogisearsmayring.Inshambhavimudrahisphysicalearsaredeafbut theearinthehearthearsthefortissimoofinnerprayer.SoLao−tzusays: ThemultiplecolorsblindtheeyesThemultiplesoundsdeafentheear YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika NADATHEINNERSOUND 96

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ThereforethesagecultivateshispersonAnddoesnotcravetosee. TooTeChing.12 87−89Evenastheloudsoundsstillringoutoneshouldconcentrateonthesubtlesoundinthe heart.−−Onemaywelllettheattentionswingbetweenthesetwosoundsbutthemindshouldnever beallowedtowandertoexternalobjects.−−Theattentionturnsnaturallytothesoundthathasthe strongestattraction. DonotbecomeimpatientIfyouareagainandagaincaptivatedbytheroaringsoundinthephysical carthenthewatchwordispracticeandwait.Maturationbringsperfection.Toneisoutsidethe ringingsoundisinward.Thetonereleasestheringingsoundandthatsoundisfullerandpurerthan anythattheearcanabsorb.Consciousnessdirectsitselftowhereitcanexpecttheripestfruits.No needhereforthought.WhowouldevercomprehendmusicwiththeintellectThemindresembles thebeefor: 90Justasthebeewhodrinkstheflowershoneyisnotconcernedwithitsscentsoalsothemind whenabsorbedinsounddoesnotcareaboutthepleasure−boundsenses. Thescentattractsthebeewhoforgetsitwhilesuckingthehoney.Thesensesattractconsciousness whichinnadatheexperiencebeyondthesensesforgetsthem. 91−92Thesharpironprongofnadacaneffectivelycurbtheelephantmindwhenitwantsto gambolinthepleasuregardenofthesense−objects.−−Whenthemindhasbeendivestedofitsfickle natureandhasbeenfetteredbytheropesoftheinnersoundthenitreachesthehigheststateof concentrationandremainsstilllikeabirdthathaslostitswings. 93Hewhowishestoreachthemasteryofyogashouldrenounceallhisrestlessthoughtsand practicewithcarefullyconcentratedmindthedissolutionoftheworldofsensesinnadalaya. Inaconcertinthecathedralorinthepoetswordthe"sound"isalwaystherewhereanimmortal spirithasdippedintothedeepestsourcesoflife. 94Theinnersoundthebinduislikeatraptocapturethegazellethemindlikeahunteritkills theanimalconceptualthought. Everywordofeverylanguagehasthisinnersound.Wehearitreadilyinthewordsofourown languagewhicharetousmorethansheerletterformations.Butwhenwewanttolearnaforeign language−−andthemantrainasensebelongstoaforeignlanguage−−thenwehavetostartwiththe audiblesound untilonefinedaytheinnersoundofthenewwordsmanifestsitself.Conceptualthoughtthen becomessuperfluous.Aslongasonehastothinkaboutaforeignwordtheinnersoundismissing. Wehaveadoptedmany"foreignwords"whoseinnersoundswehavelearnedtohearandthathavea meaningforusthatcannotbeexpressedinourownlanguage.TheJapaneseword"harakiri"tellsus morethantheword"suicide"theChineseword"kowtow"morethanthewords"tobow."Theseare notwordsthatstandforsomethingtheyhavebecomeiden−ticalwithclearlydefinedconcepts. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika NADATHEINNERSOUND 97

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9−96Theinnersoundislikeaboltonthestabledoorthatkeepsthehorseconceptualthinking fromroamingaboutThereforetheyogishoulddailypracticeconcentrationonthisnada.−−Mercury distilledwithsulphurbecometsolidanddivestedofitsactivenature.Itbecomescapableofrising intotheair.Similarlytheminditmadesteadybytheinfluenceofnadaandbecomesunitedwiththe all−pervadingBrahman. Brahmanis0mAurnandthisiskalanadaandbinduSivaistheaspectofBrahmanasdestroyer. HewhodestroysconceptsandliberatestheAbsolute.SivathedarkaspectofBrahmanappears terrifyingonlytothosewhoareafraidtheywilllosetheworldofconceptnotsuspectingthatbeyond thisworldthereiseternity. 97Whenthemindfreeofconceptscomestoknowitdoesnotruntowardtheringingsoundin thephysicalearlikeacuriousserpent. Thisisthefamouscharacteristicofthewiseman:lackofcuriositybecauseheexperiencesgreater thingswithinhimself.Onlyhewhoisnotself−sufficientseeksfulfillmentinthings.Hewhois inwardlypoorseekswealthintherelativeworld. 98−99Thefirethatburnsapieceofwooddiesoutwhenthewoodhasbeenconsumed.Soalsothe mindwhenitremainsconcentratedonnadamanddoesnotsearchfornewfuelgetsabsorbedinit. −−Whenthefourfoldmindantakharanahasbeenattractedbythesoundofbellsetc.likeagazelle askillfularchercanhititwithhisarrow. TheUpanishadsays:"PranaisthebowatmanthearrowBrahmanthetarget.Hewhocarefullyaims atthetargetbecomesonewithit."AtmanandBrahmanbecomeone. 100−102Theabsoluteconsciousnesscaitanyacognizesthenada−soundintheheartwhilethe antakharanamindbecomesonewithcaitanya.Whenthishashappenedinsamadhi para−vairagyaallmodificationsdissolveandbecomeabstractthought.Thisisthepureatmanfree fromallexternaladjunctsupadhis.−−Spaceakashaexistsonlyaslongasthesoundisheardby thephysicalear.InsoundlessnessatmanandBrahmanareoneparamatman.Whateveris manifestedassoundintheheartorintheearisapowerofnatureshakti.Thestateofdissolution layaofconceptualthoughtisbeyondallform.Itisdivineparamesvara. Aswehavenowascertainedthereisnorealdifferencebetweenthe"innerlight"kalaasdescribed inthepreviouschapterandtheinnersoundnadabecauseinessencetheyareunitedby ThisistheonlycasewhereRickerstranslationdeviatesfromtheliteraltranslationofthetext whichreads:"Themindislikeaserpentforgettingallitsunsteadinessbyhearingthenadaitdoes notrunawayanywhere"PanchamSinhof.dt„p.164.−−Trans. binduthesense.AllthreepowerskalanadaandbinduinabsoluteformareSivaintheiractive powertheyareshakti.SivaandShaktiareoneastheinseparablecosmiclovers:energyandmatter areoneassourceoftheworld. Ourimaginaryhumancreatornowhaseverythingthatheneeds:energyandmatterinalltheir aspects.Thegrossmaterialaspectassoundandlightthesubtleaspectasinnersoundandinner radiancethecausalaspectasthedivineexperienceofsamadhiwherethereisnolongerany differencebetweenthethreerealmswheretheyoncemorearewhattheyhaveeternallybeen:Siva YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika NADATHEINNERSOUND 98

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theaspectofdissolutionofBrahaman. 103Allhathayogapracticesserveonlyfortheattainmentofrajayoga.Hewhoisaccomplishedin rajayogaovercomesdeath. To"overcomedeath"doesnotmeantobecomeimmortalforwhatisthebodyItmeanspowerover allthatwhichescapesconsciousnessatthetimeofdeath.Samadhiismorecloselyrelatedtodeath thansleep.Hewhohasreachedtheinnervisionofsamadhiwillmeetdeathwithclearunderstanding ofwhatawaitshim.Hehascontroloverthestateafterdeathandthewaytorebirth. 104−114Mindistheseedpranayamathesoildispassion vairagyathewater.Outofthesethreegrowsthetreethatfulfillsallwishes.−−Throughassiduous practiceofconcentrationonnadaallsinsaredestroyedandmindandpranabecomedissolvedin absoluteconsciousnessniranjanatheabsolutelyspotlessdevoidofallgunas.−−Duringsamadhi unmaniavasthathemindlessstatethematerialbodybecomeslikealog.Thesoundoftheconch andofthebigdrumpassbyhisphysicalearfortheearinhisheartistunedtosubtlersounds. −−Theyogiisfreefromallstatesavasthasconditionedstatesfromallthoughts.Heislikeone dead.Andyetheismasterofdeathofhisfateandhisenemies.Hissenseshavediedawayhe nowsnothimselforothers.Heisonewhoitliberatedinthislifetimejivanmuktawhenhismindis neitherawakenorasleepandwhenheisfreefromrememberingandforgetting.Hedoesnotlive andyetheisnotdead.−−Heisimpervioustoheatandcoldtopainandblisstohonorandinsult. −−Heseemstobesleepingandyetheisawake.inhalationandexhalationhavesubsided.Heisin jagraavastha.−−Weaponscannotharmhimi.e.hisnowmanifestrealbeingnohumanpower canovercomehim.Heisbeyondcursesthroughmantraandcharmsyantra.−−Butaslongas pranadoesnotenterthesushumnaandreachitshighestgoalatthecrownoftheheadthe bramaradhraaslongastheabsoluteisnotmanifestedinsamadhiaslongasthebindudoesnot comeundercontrolbyrestraintofbreathaslongastheIdoesnotbecomeonewiththeitsolong arethosewhotalkaboutdissolutioninBrahmanmerebabblersandprevaricators. YogaSwamiSvatmarama.Hathayogapradipika NADATHEINNERSOUND 99

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EPILOGUE whenIreviewwhatIcouldgatherfromthefewhiddensaintsImetinIndiamyimpressionis twofold.Thestateofenlightenmentthestatethatprecedessainthoodispositivelythegreatestand mostdesirablegoalofall.Onestillisahumanbeingbutnolongeravictimofnaturenaturallaws stillprevailbutimposenoburdens.Onestillhasneedsbutisnotdependentonthem.Onefeelsand actsbutonedoesnotactduetofeelingstheaimisalwaystobeintunewithcosmicharmonyrather thantogivesatisfactiontotheego.TheTruthofabsoluteharmonywhichincludesthecreaturesand theCreator:thatisthesignofenlightenmentabsolutehumanness.Butthesaintofthelaststageis beyondeverythinghuman.Heisasinglesoundthatdoesnotblendintoaharmonyofanykindfor healreadyoccupiesahigherplaneofexistenceonethroughwhichtheenlightenedonepassesonly atthetimeofdeathorratherafterdeathwhenhisindividualityisdissolved.Amanwhobeginsto outgrowworldlyconditionswillberebornintothelevelofexistencehehasreached.Thesaintofthe higheststagepassesthroughthisconditioninhisinnerconsciousnessbeforehisearthlydeath becausehehassucceededinfreeinghimselffromeverythingthatbindsotherstotheworld.Again andagainIhadtheimpressionandsawitconfirmedfrommanysidesthattheenlightenedone representsthemostperfecthumanbeingwhilethesaintonthehighestlevelcouldinmanyrespects nolongerbemeasuredbyhumanstandards:obviousomnisciencepairedwiththesymptomsof insanitybutneverthelesswiththedistinguishingsignsoiagenius.Phenomenalmanifestationssuch ascompleterenunciationofsleepandfoodsuspensionofallnaturalfunctionssuchasgrowthofhair ontheheadperspirationeliminationcompleteabsenceofsignsofagecombinedwiththe proverbialsiddhisthemiraculouspowerswhichnobodyhasarighttodoubt.Eventodayonemaybe fortunateenoughtomeetsiddhasinSouthIndiainwhomallthesephenomenaareunited.Thesefew arelivingproofthatsaintsofthehighestlevelarenotlegendaryfigures. Thereaderwhonowconcludesquiteunderstandablythatdespitehisdesireforthepowerofa siddhathepractiseofyogaisnotforWesternmanislikeastudentwhoabandonstheuniversity becausehehasheardthatgeniusbordersoninsanityandhenolongerwantstoattempttobecomea genius. TherearetodayinIndiathousandsofyogisandhundredsofmasters.Thereareperhapsafewdozen whohaverealizedthehighestlevelofrajayogaandapproximatelyhalfadozensaintsonthe highestlevel. ShouldwenotatleastmakeabeginningandtakeafewstepstowardmasteryForthedangerof developingtoolittleyogaandbecomingavictimofourinadequateworldisfargreaterthanthatof becominganunearthlysuperman. EPILOGUE 100

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