Theories and Research PowerPoint1

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From Novice to Expert:

From Novice to Expert By: Shawna Buckley Elizabeth Graham Hillary Gray Margaret Redd Heather Stewart


This presentation will cover the following: Purpose and Evaluation of the article, “Expert to Novice: Clinicians Learning New Roles as Clinical Nurse Educators” Define the purpose of the article Research question/hypothesis Overview


Basic concepts of the Novice to Expert Theory Why this theory was used in the article Putting the theory into practice Overview

Purpose Of The Research Article:

The article discusses that due to the nursing shortage, there are an increased need for clinical educators Many nurses express the desire to teach but feel that they are not prepared for this role P urpose Of The Research Article

Purpose continued…:

The article emphasizes that teaching does not come naturally just because of expertise in the clinical field With the help of dialogue and narrative from experienced educators, ongoing mentoring needs to occur Purpose continued…

Points To Remember:

Teaching clinical nursing requires a special skill set Adequate mentoring and education are imperative in order to learn to teach Novice educators have the ability to become expert educators when they have the proper perspective, education, and mentoring Points To Remember

Research Question/Hypothesis:

This article poses the question, “How can narratives of clinicians participating in a Clinical Nurse Educator Academy enhance understanding of the unique needs of these individuals as they prepare for roles as clinical nurse educators?” R esearch Question/Hypothesis

Understanding The Theory:

“A theory is a set of concepts linked through propositions to provide an explanation of a phenomenon ” A theory guides a nurse’s practice It is a list of guided suggestions about what makes a nurse succeed at their practice Understanding The Theory

Basic Concepts Of Novice to Expert:

Nurses develop over time You don’t have to know the theory to know the knowledge and be able to perform skills You have to have experience to become an expert Basic Concepts Of Novice to Expert

Basic Concepts Of Novice to Expert:

There are five steps along a continuum: Novice Advanced Beginner Competent Proficient Expert Basic Concepts Of Novice to Expert

Novice to Expert:

Novice No experience/Only knows the basics Advanced Beginner Limited experience “Acceptable performance” “Principles, based on experiences, begin to be formulated to guide actions” Novice to Expert

Novice to Expert :

Competent 2-3 years experience in one area Well organized and proficient in providing care Proficient Sees the whole picture “Learns from experiences what to expect in certain situations  and how to a modify plan” Novice to Expert

Finally… EXPERT:

Expert Highly Experienced Very intuitive Relies on experience to implement nursing care Extremely proficient Finally… EXPERT

Background to the Theory:

Relatively new theory (about 25 years ago) Dr. Patricia Benner wanted to understand the gap between the theory taught and the actual nursing practice Several schools have taken Benner’s model as a standard of practice Background to the Theory

Benner’s Background:

Morally sound Ethical Believed in helping others Believed in good teaching and education Benner’s Background

Benner’s Background:

Believed in managing changes in patients rapidly Believed in providing quality care to patients She wanted interventions to be therapeutic to patients and delivered in systematic ways Benner’s Background

Using From Novice To Expert To Answer The Question:

Patricia Benner proposes that a nurse’s knowledge comes from their “know how”, or practical knowledge through things like research and the “know how” of clinical experience You must have experience with nursing skills before you can become an expert Using From Novice To Expert To Answer The Question

Using From Novice To Expert To Answer The Question :

Her theory is based on the concept that nurses develop skills and “know how” over time from their education base as well as experience Benner proposed that one could gain knowledge and skills (“knowing how”) without ever learning the theory (“knowing that ”) Using From Novice To Expert To Answer The Question

Using From Novice To Expert To Answer The Question:

Benner’s theory changes a person’s perception of what it means to be an expert This takes away from things like money being the basis for a good nurse and places importance on who gave the best care Using From Novice To Expert To Answer The Question

Why This Theory?:

To show the continuum To show how sometimes you can digress To show how nursing really works along this continuum Why This Theory?

Benner in Clinical Practice:

Benner’s theory has been applied in these care environments: Medical-surgical staff nursing Critical care Advanced practice Community/public health Education Benner in Clinical Practice

Benner in Clinical Practice:

M oving into Clinical Nurse Educator positions: Includes department educators, preceptors, and nursing school faculty The new role requires a unique skill set, which has expert nurses reentering the novice phase Benner in Clinical Practice

Benner in Clinical Practice:

Benner’s theory can apply to nurses in a variety of other situations: New nurses Nurses who have changed departments or facilities Nurses moving into management positions Nurses working in a facility undergoing drastic policy or procedure change Benner in Clinical Practice

Benner in Personal Practice:

Nurses can use Benner’s theory to: Assess and recognize personal level of skill Novice Advanced beginner Competent Proficient Expert Benner in Personal Practice

Benner in Personal Practice:

Work toward advancement of professional skill Recognize current thought process Adjust perception of situations Work toward a holistic view of situations based on accumulated experience Seek opportunities to expand clinical experience Benner in Personal Practice

Benner in Personal Practice:

In light of Benner’s theory, nurses can: Accept the reality of the novice role Fear and discomfort are part of the process Enduring the novice period will ultimately lead to growth Recognize and value progress in personal practice skill Benner in Personal Practice

Benner in Personal Practice:

Remember what it is like to be a novice when higher levels of skill are attained Use expertise to teach and support novices Benner in Personal Practice


Benner, P., (2011). From novice to expert. Nursing Theories: A Companion to Nursing theories and models. Retrieved from http :// _ Benner_From_Novice_to_Expert.html Brykczynski , K. A. (2010). Brenner’s Philosophy in Nursing Practice . In M. R. Alligood (Ed.), Nursing Theory: Utilization and Application (4 th Ed.) (pp. 137-159). Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby Elsevier. Cangelosi , P. R., Crocker, S., & Sorrell, J. M. (2009). Expert to Novice : Clinicians Learning New Roles as Clinical N urse Educators . Nursing Education Research, 30 (6), 367-371. References


Carlson, L., Crawford, N., & Contrades , S. (1989). Nursing Student novice to expert: Benner’s research applied to education. Journal of Nursing Education, 28 (4), 188-190. Schmidt , N. & Brown, J. (2012). Evidence Based Practice for Nurses . Appraisal and Application of Research (2 nd ed.) Lippincott Wolters Williams: Sudbury, MA. References

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