excretory system


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Welcome…. Name: Himanshu Gogoi Class: X ‘B Roll no : 20


Contents….. Excretion in Humans * Introduction * Do You Know ? * Function Of Excretion system * Video on Excretory System * Excretory System Organs * A True Model Of Excretory System


Contents…. * Kidneys * Ureter * Urinary Bladder * Urethra Urine Formation Caring Excretory System


Contents…. Excretion in Plants A True Model Of A Plant Function Excretion in Aquatic Animals A True Model Of A Fish Function Excretion in Birds A True Model Of A Bird Function

Excretion in…..:

Excretion in…..


Introduction The excretory system is a passive biological system that removes excess, unnecessary or dangerous materials from an organism, so as to help maintain homeostasis within the organism and prevent damage to the body. It is responsible for the elimination of the waste products of metabolism as well as other liquid and gaseous wastes. As most healthy functioning organs produce metabolic and other wastes, the entire organism depends on the function of the system; however, only the organs specifically for the excretion process are considered a part of the excretory system. The excretory system gets rid of waste called urine or " pee ".

Do you Know………:

Do you Know……… The Kidneys are half the size as your bladder. A sign that you’ve drunk to much water is that your urine is a medium cloudy yellow. Do you know The Vein that leads to you kidney’s is the biggest in the body.

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Removes metabolic and liquid toxic wastes as well as excess water from the organism.

Slide 10:

Within each kidney there are an estimated one million microscopic nephrons , where blood filtration takes place. Each nephron contains a cluster of capillaries called a glomerulus . A cup-shaped sac called a bowmans capsule surrounds each glomerulus . The blood that flows through the glomerulus is under great pressure. This causes water, glucose and urea to enter the bowmans capsule. White blood cells, red blood cells and proteins remain in the blood. As the blood continues in the excretory system, it passes through the renal tubule. During this time, reabsorption occurs: glucose and chemicals such as potassium, sodium, hydrogen, magnesium and calcium are reabsorbed into the blood. Almost all the water removed during filtration returns to the blood during the reabsorption phase. The kidneys control the amount of liquid in our bodies. Now only wastes are in the nephron . These wastes are called urine and include urea, water and inorganic salts. The cleansed blood goes into veins that carry the blood from the kidneys and back to the heart.



Excretory System Organs:

Excretory System Organs Kidneys Lungs Defecation Ureter Urinary bladder Urethra

A True Model Of …………..:

A True Model Of …………..


KidneYs In some cases, excess wastes crystallize as kidney stones. They grow and can become a painful irritant that may require surgery or ultrasound treatments. Some stones are small enough to be forced into the urethra, others are the size of huge, massive boulders. Kidney Function. Kidneys perform several homeostatic functions: 1. Maintain volume of extracellular fluid 2. Maintain ionic balance in extracellular fluid 3. Maintain pH and osmotic concentration of the extracellular fluid. 4. Excrete toxic metabolic by-products such as urea, ammonia, and uric acid.

Ureter :

Ureter In human anatomy, the ureters are muscular ducts that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. In the adult, the ureters are usually 25–30 cm (10–12 in) long. In humans, the ureters arise from the renal pelvis on the medial aspect of each kidney before descending towards the bladder on the front of the psoas major muscle. The ureters cross the pelvic brim near the bifurcation of the iliac arteries (which they run over). This " pelviureteric junction" is a common site for the impaction of kidney stones (the other being the uteterovesical valve). The ureters run posteriorly on the lateral walls of the pelvis. They then curve anteriormedially to enter the bladder through the back, at the vesicoureteric junction, running within the wall of the bladder for a few centimeters. The backflow of urine is prevented by valves known as ureterovesical valves. In the female, the ureters pass through the mesometrium on the way to the urinary bladder

Urinary Bladder:

Urinary Bladder The urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys prior to disposal by urination . It is a hollow muscular , and distensible (or elastic) organ, and sits on the pelvic floor . Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and exits via the urethra . Embryologically , the bladder is derived from the urogenital sinus and, it is initially continuous with the allantois . In males, the base of the bladder lies between the rectum and the pubic symphysis . It is superior to the prostate , and separated from the rectum by the rectovesical excavation . In females, the bladder sits inferior to the uterus and anterior to the vagina. It is separated from the uterus by the vesicouterine excavation . In infants and young children, the urinary bladder is in the abdomen even when empty.

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In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek οὐρήθρα - ourethra ) is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. The urethra has an excretory function in both sexes to pass urine to the outside, and also a reproductive function in the male, as a passage for semen during sexual activity

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First, the blood goes through the afferent artery, to the capillaries called glomerulus , to the Bowman's capsule. The Bowman's capsule squeezes the blood from its contents-primarily food and wastes. After the squeezing process, the blood will then come back to get the food nutrients it need. The wastes will then go to the collecting duct, to the renal pelvis, and to the ureter , which will be then secreted out of the body.

Caring excretory system….. :

Caring excretory system….. 1.      Have a regular bowel movement and discharge urine in clean toilets. 2.      Drink plenty of water everyday. Water dilutes the concentration of salts in the body. 3.      Take a bath regularly. Regular bathing removes the dead skin cells and dirt that may block the pores of the skin. 4.      Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables. They contain fiber, or roughage, that helps in moving bowels regularly. 5.      Avoid eating too much salty and fatty food. To much salt in the body may overwork the kidneys, causing kidney troubles. 6.      Have a regular exercise. This does not only keep you fit, but also makes the lungs and skin more efficient in excreting body wastes.

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In plants, breakdown of substances is much slower than in animals. Hence accumulation of waste is much slower and there are no special organs of excretion. Green plants in darkness or plants that do not contain chlorophyll produce carbon dioxide and water as respiratory waste products. Carbon dioxide released during respiration gets utilized during photosynthesis. Oxygen itself can be thought of as a waste product generated during photosynthesis, and exits through stomata, root cell walls, and other routes. Plants can get rid of excess water by transpiration and guttation . Waste products may be stored in leaves that fall off. Other waste materials that are exuded by some plants — resins, saps, latexes, etc. are forced from the interior of the plant by hydrostatic pressures inside the plant and by absorptive forces of plant cells. These processes do not need added energy, they act passively.Plants also excrete some waste substances into the soil around them.

Diagram….of Fish:

Diagram….of Fish

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Aquatic animals usually excrete ammonia directly into the external environment, as this compound has high solubility and there is ample water available for dilution. In terrestrial animals ammonia-like compounds are converted into other nitrogenous materials as there is less water in the environment and ammonia itself is toxic .

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Birds excrete their nitrogenous wastes as uric acid in the form of a paste. This is metabolically more expensive, but allows more efficient water retention and it can be stored more easily in the egg Many avian species, especially seabirds, can also excrete salt via specialized nasal salt glands, the saline solution leaving through nostrils in the beak.

True model of bird:

True model of bird

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Special Thanks to :- Wikipedia – for providing Knowledge about this topic Youtube :- For providing a Video on excretory system

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