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Premium member Presentation Transcript ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MERCURY-CONTAINING LAMP WASTE MANAGEMENT: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MERCURY-CONTAINING LAMP WASTE MANAGEMENT By HgCARE BACKGROUND: BACKGROUND A typical fluorescent lamp tube is composed of a phosphor-coated glass tube with electrode located at both ends. The tube contains mercury, of which a very small amount is in vapor form. When voltage is impressed, the electrodes energize the vapor causing it to emit ultraviolet (UV) energy. The phosphor coating absorbs the UV energy, causing the phosphor to fluorence and emit visible light. Without the mercury vapor to produce UV energy, there would be no light. (1) Figure 1: Composition of a Typical Fluorescent Lamp and Compact Fluorescent Lamp Source: http://www.answers.dom/topic/fluorescentTYPES OF MERCURY-CONTAINING LAMPS: TYPES OF MERCURY-CONTAINING LAMPS a. Fluorescent lamps (compact, linear/tubular, circular) - widely used for general lighting in homes and offices b. High-pressure sodium vapor lamps - used in street lighting or roadway lighting, parks, and parking lots c. Low-pressure sodium vapor lamps - application limited to security and tunnel lighting where color rendering and appearance are not the primary consideration d. Mercury vapor lamps - used in landscape lighting e. Metal halide lamps - widely used in retail clothing and furniture stores, warehouses and factoriesIMPACTS: IMPACTS Health Impacts Mercury and its compounds are highly toxic especially to the developing nervous system, which is very sensitive to all forms of mercury. Exposure to high levels of mercury can cause permanent brain damage, central nervous system disorders, memory loss, heart disease, kidney failure, liver damage, vision loss, sensation loss, and tremors. Mercury is also a suspected endocrine disruptor, which means it damages the reproductive and hormonal development and growth of fetuses and infants. Even low-level exposure to mercury has caused serious health effects that include neurological damage, reproductive system damage, behavioural problems, and learning disabilities. (1) Figure 2: Children with Congenital Minamata Diseases due to intrauterine methylmercury poisoning (Harada 1986) Source: http://www.teratology.org/jfs/Agricultural.htmlPowerPoint Presentation: Environmental Impacts Aside from being a potent neurotoxin, mercury bio accumulates (higher concentrations in tissues of aquatic plants and animals than in water), biomagnifies (higher concentrations at increasingly higher levels in the food chain), and persists in the environment. Once in the atmosphere, mercury is widely disseminated and can circulate for years, accounting for its widespread distribution. Natural sources of atmospheric mercury include volcanoes, geologic deposits of mercury, and volatilization from the ocean. Alkali and metal processing, coal incineration, medical and other wastes, and gold and mercury mining also contribute greatly to mercury concentrations in the environment. (1) Figure 3: Mercury in the food chain Source: http://www.ynhh.org/online/advisor/mercury.htmlEFFECTS: EFFECTS Human exposure to mercury can be through inhalation, absorption, ingestion, and skin/eye contact. The Occupational Health and Safety Administration sets the Permissible Exposure Limit of mercury at 0.1 mg/m3. This value indicates that mercury exposure should not exceed this value during any part of the workday. In addition, the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health has set the Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health limits for mercury compounds and organo mercury compounds at 2 mg/m3 and 10 mg/m3, respectively. These values indicate the lowest mercury exposure causing death or irreversible health effects. (1) One fluorescent lighting tube contains enough mercury to contaminate 30,000 liters of water to an unsafe drinking levelLAMP WASTES GENERATORS: LAMP WASTES GENERATORS Lamp wastes are any type of mercury-containing lamp that is already busted or spent. They are generated by various sectors , most especially the households, businesses, and institutions. Households Refers to the people of the community itself. Solid wastes from this sector contribute significantly to the overall wastes disposed to the environment. Businesses An occupation, profession or trade engaged in commerce, manufacturing, or service. This therefore entails a site in the form of an office or building to which work is carried on. The business establishments comprised primarily of the commercial and industrial sectors.PowerPoint Presentation: Institutions An organization devoted to the promotion of a particular cause or program especially one of public, educational or service. This therefore entails an office or structure to which again execution of function is carried out. Institutional lamp wastes are those generated by government offices, public hospitals, and public schools.CATEGORIES OF LAMP WASTE GENERATORS: CATEGORIES OF LAMP WASTE GENERATORS CATEGORY DEFINITION Small Quantity Generators Any person or entity that has less than 300 lighting fixtures or accumulates less than 100 pieces of busted mercury-containing lamps in a year Large Quantity Generator Any person or entity that has 300 or more lighting fixtures or accumulates 100 pieces or more busted mercury-containing lamps in a year Note: Assuming 10,000 hours lamp life and 10 hours per day usage, 300 lighting fixtures will generate 100 busted lamps in a year.GOVERNMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR LAMP WASTES GENERATORS: GOVERNMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR LAMP WASTES GENERATORS Small Quantity Generators Exempted from the requirements for registration and reporting as prescribed by DAO 04-36 and DAO 97-38. Appropriate storage and handling requirements as outlined in Mercury-Containing Lamp Waste Management Guidelines Large Quantity Generators Required to comply with the requirements for registration, management and reporting as prescribed by DAO 04-36 and DAO 97-38 .GOVERNING LAWS: GOVERNING LAWS There are two (2) major laws that directly or indirectly affect lamp waste management in the Philippines and these are: RA 6969 - Toxic Substances, Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Control Act, and RA 9003 - Ecological Solid Waste Management Act. RA 6969 Passed into law in 1990 Goal of ensuring full protection of the people’s health and the environment Provides the legal framework for the country’s program on toxic substances and hazardous and nuclear wastesPowerPoint Presentation: RA 9003 A law that specifies roles and responsibilities of various stakeholders on solid waste management. Contains relevant provisions on waste segregation at source and recycling. Under the implementing rules and regulations of RA 9003, lamp wastes are not explicitly mentioned, but may be defined under the category of special wastes.PowerPoint Presentation: Proof of adherence to RA 6969 and RA 9003 is very much visible within the community and areas of waste generators. This is proven by the existing Materials Recovery Facilities (MRFs). Though the system does exist, questions have been raised as how the community treat wastes from mercury-containing lamps. For the household sector - information dissemination is available and instructions were given on how to manage the wastes. In the business and institution sectors - licensing and regulatory government agencies requires proper management and storage of the said waste Are the methods of management of mercury containing lamp wastes generated by the different sectors does not pose a threat to the environment and the public in general?THE REALITY: THE REALITY Figure 4: Mercury-Containing Lamp Waste from a Household Source: Brgy, Fajardo Jaro, Iloilo CityPowerPoint Presentation: Figure 6: Mercury-Containing Lamp Waste from a Healthcare Institution Sector Waste Generators’ Materials Recovery F acility. Source: West Visayas State University Medical Center/E. Lpez Street Jaro, Iloilo City THE REALITYPowerPoint Presentation: Discarded mercury-containing lamps are stored for recycling at a dumpsite area in Tondo, Manila. Photo by Thony Dizon . Source: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Report January 2011 THE REALITYPowerPoint Presentation: A child watches his father recycle a spent CFL in Pier 18,Tondo, Manila. Photo by Thony Dizon . Source: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Report January 2011 THE REALITYPowerPoint Presentation: An informal recycler directly exposes himself to mercury as he breaks discarded CFLs. Photo by Manny C alonzo Source: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Report January 2011 THE REALITYTHE ISSUES: THE ISSUES SAFETY This refers to the risk of breakages within the wastes generating facility and during transit by accredited wastes transporters STORAGE SPACE The storage space for all sectors demand a certain area CARGO SPACE Space requirements during transit from waste generating facility to the TSD Facilities through accredited Wastes TransportersPowerPoint Presentation: OPPORTUNITIES Presence of these wastes in landfills and garbage attracts informal recyclers and waste pickers to do illegal methods of recovery of recyclable materials for financial gain INAPPROPRIATE DISPOSAL Irresponsibility on the part of the different lamp waste generating sectors in the management of this waste thereby giving opportunities to informal recyclers and wastes pickers to take advantage with.THE SOLUTION: THE SOLUTION The methodology of the operation of the program will be: crushing using OSHA standard bulb crusher (b) containment in a sealed drum All to be done ” on-site ” of the waste generating sectors. LAMP CRUSHING EQUIPMENT 55 GAL STEEL DRUMPowerPoint Presentation: WASTE GENERATOR WASTE TRANSPORTERS “ OFF-SITE ” CRUSHING “PRE-TREATMENT” TSD FACILITIES Mercury-Containing Lamp Crushing Services ™ WASTE TRANSPORTERS STORAGE “PRE-TREATED” CONTAINMENT IN A DRUM “PRE-TREATED” THE EXISTING PROCESS ISSUES OF CONCERN UNSAFE STORAGE CONDITION AT WASTE GENERATOR CONSTRAINT STORAGE SPACE AT WASTE GENERATOR RISK OF BREAKAGES DURING TRANSPORT CARGO SPACE CONSTRAINT ON TRANSPORTERS OPPURTUNITIES FOR INFORMAL RECYCLERS DISPOSAL SENT TO LANDFILLS MIXED WITH CONCRETE STORAGE RECYCLING?THE PROPOSED PROCESS: THE PROPOSED PROCESS HgCARE LAMP WASTE “ON SITE” OF GENERATOR WASTE TRANSPORTERS CONTAINMENT IN A DRUM (PRE-TREATED) CRUSHING “ON SITE” (PRE-TREATMENT ) TSD FACILITIES MRT (FUTURE) HgCARE HgCARE Mercury-Containing Lamp Crushing Services ™ TECHNICAL VEHICLE BY OTHERS A MOBILE TECHNICAL VEHICLE WITH THE OSHA STANDRAD LAMP CRUSHING EQUIPMENT WILL VISIT THE WASTE GENERATOR SITE AND PERFORM THE LAMP CRUSHING “ON-SITE”. THE ENTIRE PROCESS WOULD BE “PRE-TREATMENT AND CONTAINMENT” AND THE END-PRODUCT CONTAINED IN THE DRUM WILL BE ON THE ACCOUNTABILITY OF THE WASTE GENERATOR FOR DISPOSAL TO PERMITTED HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL OR ACCREDITED TSD’s THROUGH ACCREDITED WASTE TRANSPORTERS.THE END RESULT: THE END RESULT The following issues are resolved: Safety against accidental breakages 2. Storage/Cargo space constraints 3. Eliminate opportunities for informal recyclers and wastes pickers 4. Eradicate inappropriate disposal of lamp wastesOTHER BENEFITS: OTHER BENEFITS Additional incidental benefits are as follows: 1. Convenience - On the part of the existing TSD’s the end-product is already contained and ready for storage and further disposal 2. Security - Safety aspect during transit by Waste Transporters from wastes generating sector to TSD Facility 3. Investment Viability - A Mercury Recovery Treatment (MRT) Recycling Facility can bet put up since the end-product is already “pre-treated” and a raw material for recycling. 4. Data generation - Mercury from lamp waste generated can be quantify.CONCLUSION: CONCLUSION The call for energy conservation and efficiency does not end by its accomplishment. An end-product that threatens the environment has long been identified and programs and guidelines were formed to address it. This conceptualized new methodology to enhance the current programs and guidelines will essentially be the conclusive end to the dilemma on safety of mercury-containing lamp waste that exist in the very occupational area and environment of the different sectors. With the following factors : Technology and methodology on the pre-treatment and containment of these lamp wastes in conformity with international safety regulatory standards Support of all government agencies and LGUs both in awareness program and enforcement of governing laws Sincerity of the project proponent in his own way of contributing to the global cause on environmental preservation and protection Awareness and cooperation of all sectors of the Filipino people . . . . . realization and success of this project eliminating the threat to the global community will be achieved.PowerPoint Presentation: PRACTICAL STEPS IN MANAGING SPENT LAMPS PRIOR TO CRUSHING 1. Do not break . Handle spent mercury-containing lamps with extreme care as they can easily break. 2. Do not burn lamps containing mercury or throw them into regular waste bins. 3. Do not play with discarded lamps or leave them lying around. 4. Return spent lamp to its original box container or place in a clear plastic bag, seal and mark the container: “Toxic: Lamp Waste with Mercury.” 5. Put the properly wrapped and labelled lamp waste into a secured place for temporary storage. 6. For increased protection against breakage, store spent lamps in an upright position and place in a covered tin or plastic container for smaller lamps or in a cupboard for linear lamps. 7. Mark the container where the lamp waste is stored with a readable warning: “Toxic: Lamp Waste with Mercury.” 8. Keep the storage area safe , out of children’s reach and away from the elements and human traffic. 9. Contact fluorescent lamp manufacturers and/or distributors to check if they have a take-back program for their spent products or contact a legitimate service provider for “on-site” lamp crushing activity.PowerPoint Presentation: EMERGENCY MEASURES The following procedures must be observed when handling broken mercury-containing lamp wastes: Ventilate area by opening windows and doors. 2. Carefully scoop up glass fragments and powder using stiff paper or cardboard — DO NOT use a traditional vacuum or broom as these may spread the mercury-bearing phosphor powder. 3. Place fragments and powder in a heavy duty plastic. 4. Use tape or a wet paper towel to clean up remaining fragments and powder. 5. Place tape or paper towel in the same plastic with the fragments and powder. 6. Place the plastic with fragments and powder in the storage bins of your spent lampsPowerPoint Presentation: THANK YOU IN SUPPORT WITH : You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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