cognitive radio

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Cognitive Radio Networks:

Cognitive Radio Networks Guided By: Dr. S.Misra School of Information Technology, IIT, Kharagpur Presented By: Bimal Ghimire (10IT60S01) School of Information Technology, IIT, Kharagpur 21/10/2010 1


Outline Today's wireless systems Cognitive radio (CR) system Characteristics of cognitive radio system Spectrum hole concept Wireless ad hoc networks Classification of Cognitive radio networks Cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs) architecture Spectrum management in CRAHNs 21/10/2010 2

Today’s Wireless System:

Today’s Wireless System Most of the spectrums (licensed bands) are already allocated for license users for exclusive use. Few, Small, unlicensed bands are left open for unlicensed users ( ISM bands 900MHz and 2.4 GHz ) Technological advancement has resulted in the huge development of personal wireless technologies like - Wi-Fi/802.11, Bluetooth, digital cordless phones, 3G, and so on which operate on unlicensed band. Licensed bands are under-utilized but unlicensed bands are crowded resulting on spectrum scarcity. 21/10/2010 3


…continue Solution is to let unlicensed users use the licensed frequencies, provided they can guarantee interference perceived by the primary license holders will be minimal (a concept of cognitive radio ). 21/10/2010 4

Cognitive Radio(CR) System:

Cognitive Radio(CR) System Allows the unlicensed users to dynamically and opportunistically access the “under-utilized" licensed bands Cognitive Radio - Termed by Joseph Mitola in 1991 - “Radio that includes a transmitter in which operating parameters such as frequency range , modulation type or maximum output power can be altered by software." 21/10/2010 5


…continue - A software-defined radio with some artificial intelligence to make detection and wise decision according to its environment 21/10/2010 6 Fig 1: An example of cognitive radio system components


…continue In order to access “ under-utilized ” licensed bands dynamically and opportunistically, Cognitive Radio has to - identify the spectrum opportunities ( idle frequency bands ) in spatial and frequency domain. - or use the licensed spectrum with transmit power constraint so that the interference created by secondary users is below the tolerable limit. 21/10/2010 7

Characteristics of Cognitive Radio System:

Characteristics of Cognitive Radio System Cognitive capability Ability to capture or sense the information from its radio environment and allows to identify and select the portion of the spectrum that are unused at a specific time or location. Reconfigurability Dynamically programmable capability according to radio environment to transmit and receive on a variety of frequencies. 21/10/2010 8

Spectrum hole concept:

Spectrum hole concept Spectrum hole Temporarily unused licensed spectrum 21/10/2010 9 Fig. 4: Spectrum hole concept

Wireless ad hoc networks:

Wireless ad hoc networks Ad hoc means - "for this," further meaning “ for this situation on hand.” Wireless ad hoc network -It is a self-organizing and self-configuring infrastructure less network connected by wireless links, in which most of the network devices are part of the network only for the duration of a communications session. Most of the wireless devices available today communicate through wireless ad hoc networks. 21/10/2010 10

Classification of CR networks:

Classification of CR networks Infrastructure based CR networks Has a central network entity to coordinate communication such as base station in cellular networks and access point in wireless LANs. 21/10/2010 11 Fig. 5: An example of infrastructure based CR networks

…continue classification:

…continue classification Cognitive radio ad hoc networks(CRAHNs) Infrastructure less network Does not have a central network entity A CR user can communicate with other CR users through ad hoc connection on both licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands. 21/10/2010 12 Fig. 6: An example of CRAHNs

CRAHN architecture:

CRAHN architecture Consists of two groups Primary networks Existing network , where the primary users ( PUs ) have a license to operate in a certain spectrum band. Operations of PUs are controlled through primary base stations. Cognitive radio networks Does not have license to operate in a desired band. Additional functionality is incorporated to share the licensed spectrum band. Cognitive radio ( CR ) users are mobile and can communicate in a multi-hop manner on both licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands . 21/10/2010 13

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21/10/2010 14 …continue Fig. 7 : CRAHN architecture

Spectrum management:

Spectrum management Functions incorporated in CRAHNs for adapting to the dynamic spectrum environment: Spectrum sensing Spectrum decision Spectrum sharing Spectrum mobility 21/10/2010 15


Spectrum sensing A function in CR networks to monitor the unused spectrum bands . Provides the spectrum availability information required for other functions. It is achieved thorough: PU detection CR user observes and analyzes its local radio environment and determines the presence of PU transmissions and accordingly identifies the current spectrum availability if exists. Cooperation Observed information by CR user is exchanged with its neighbors to improve sensing accuracy Sensing control Coordinates the sensing operations of the CR users and its neighbors 21/10/2010 16 …continue


…continue Spectrum Decision A function to select the most appropriate band (after spectrum sensing) according to the quality of service (QoS) requirement. Spectrum selection decision is performed considering end-to-end route consisting of multiple hops. Available spectrum bands in CR network may differ from one hop to the other. It is achieved through: Spectrum characterization CR user observes the characteristics of each available spectrum which may be varying over time and space due to PU activities Spectrum Selection CR user finds the best spectrum for each hope to satisfy the QoS requirement for end-to-end route 21/10/2010 17


…continue Spectrum Sharing Enables CR users to perform channel selection and power allocation according to their QoS It is achieved through: Resource allocation Based on QoS, CR users selects the proper channel and adjust their transmission power. Spectrum access Enables multiple CR users to share the channel determining who will access the channel or when a user may access a channel. 21/10/2010 18

…continue spectrum sharing:

…continue spectrum sharing Medium access protocols for spectrum access Random access Channel may be opportunistically captured by any CR user for control and data exchanges Time slotted Control and data are assigned fixed durations and prevent simultaneous transmission by multiple users Hybrid Fixed time duration for control packets followed by random access for capturing the channel before data transfer. 21/10/2010 19

Slide 20:

Spectrum mobility CR users are mobile and so called visitors to the spectrum If the spectrum in use by a CR user is required for PU, the communication of the CR user needs to be continued in another vacant portion of the spectrum. Spectrum mobility is required when: PU is detected CR user loses its connection due to mobility of other users Current spectrum band cannot provide the QoS requirements. 21/10/2010 20

…continue spectrum mobility:

…continue spectrum mobility Spectrum mobility is achieved through Spectrum handoff CR user switches the spectrum band physically and reconfigures the communication parameters (e.g. operating frequency, modulation type) Connection management CR user sustains the QoS or minimizes quality degradation during spectrum switching by interacting with each layer. 21/10/2010 21

Cognitive cycle:

Cognitive cycle Spectrum management functions necessary for adapting to dynamic spectrum environment from a cognitive cycle as shown below: 21/10/2010 22 Fig. 8 Cognitive cycle


References [1] “Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks” 7 (2009) 810-836, Ian F. Akyildiz , Won-Lee, Kaushik R. Chowdhury [2] Akyildiz, I.F.; Won-Yeol Lee; Vuran, M.C.; Mohanty, S. “A Survey on Spectrum Management in Cognitive Radio Networks” communications magazine, IEEE, vol. 46, Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 40 - 48 [3] Akyildiz, I.; Won-Yeol Lee; Chowdhury, K. , “Spectrum Management in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks” Network ,IEEE, Volume: 23, Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 6 - 12 21/10/2010 23

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