TYPES OF ANESTHESIA

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TYPES OF ANESTHESIA : 

TYPES OF ANESTHESIA A. GENERAL- total loss of consciousness and sensation, produces amnesia.; IV, inhalation, rectal B. REGIONAL- reduce all painful sensation in one region of the body without inducing unconsciousness.

REGIONAL ANESTHESIA : 

REGIONAL ANESTHESIA Topical, Local infiltration, Field block, Nerve block, IV, Regional, spinal, epidural block Inhalation of volatile liquids(ethyl ether) Inhalation of gaseous anesthetics(nitrous oxide, laughing gas,, ethylene, cyclopropane)

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Rectal (Pediatrics)- Anectine, Pentothal Na 5-10% IV BARBITURATE ANESTHESIA-Thiopenthal( Pentothal Na 2 ½%), Innovar SPINAL ANESTHESIA- Procaine (Novocaine), Tetracaine(Pontocaine), Lidocaine(Xylocaine), Mepivacaine (Carbocaine), Bupivacaine( Marcaine)

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MUSCLE RELAXANTS- Anectine (Succinyl choline), Pavulon (Pancuronium) Hydrobromide)

STAGES OF ANESTHESIA : 

STAGES OF ANESTHESIA ONSET/INDUCTION- Extends from the administration of anesthesia to the time of loss of consciousness EXCITEMENT/DELIRIUM- Extends from the time of loss of consciousness to time of lid reflex. It may be characterized by shouting, struggling of the patient

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SURGICAL- Extends from the loss of the lid reflex to the loss of most of the reflexes. Surgical procedure is started. MEDULLARY/ STAGE OF DANGER- respiratory/ cardiac depression or arrest. It is due to anesthesia overdose. CPR must be done

COMPLICATIONS AND DISCOMFORT OF SPINAL A. : 

COMPLICATIONS AND DISCOMFORT OF SPINAL A. Hypotension Nausea/Vomiting Headache Respiratory Paralysis Neurologic Complications(Paraplegia, severe muscle weakness of the legs)

INHALATION ANESTHETIC AGENTS : 

INHALATION ANESTHETIC AGENTS Volatile Liquids Halothane ( Fluothane) Enflurane (Ethrane) Isoflurane (Forane) Sevoflurane (Ultrane) Desflurane ( Suprane)

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GASES Nitrous oxide Oxygen

COMMONLY USED IV MEDS : 

COMMONLY USED IV MEDS OPIOID ANALGESIC Morphine sulfate (MS) Alfentanil (Alfenta) Fentanyl ( Sublimaze) Remifentanil (Ultiva) Sufentanil (Sufenta)

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DEPOLARIZING MUSCLE RELAXANTS Succinylcholine (Anectine, Quelicin) NONDEPOLARIZING MUSCLE RELAXANTS- Intermediate onset and duration Atracurium (Tracrium) Cicatracurium (Nimbrex)

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Mivacurium (Mivacron) Rocuronium (Zemuron) Vecuronium (Norcuron) NMR- Longer onset and duration d-Tubocurarine Metocurine (Metubine) Pancuronium(Pavulon)

IV ANESTHETICS : 

IV ANESTHETICS Etomidate ( Amidate) Diazepam (Valium, Dizac) Ketamine (Ketalar) Midazolam (Versed) Propofol (Diprivan) Na methohexital (Brevital) Thiopenthal Na (Pentothal)

REGIONAL /LOCAL ANESTHETICS : 

REGIONAL /LOCAL ANESTHETICS Lidocaine (Xylocaine) Bupivacaine ( Marcaine, Sensoricaine) Tetracaine (Pontocaine) Procaine (Novocaine)

MODERATE SEDATION : 

MODERATE SEDATION Responsiveness- purposeful response to repeated or painful verbal or tactile stimulation Airway- No intervention required Spontaneous ventilation-adequate Cardiovacular function- usually maintained

MONITORED ANESTHESIA CARE : 

MONITORED ANESTHESIA CARE Purposeful response after stimulation Airway- intervention may be required Spontaneous ventilation- may be inadequate Cardiovascular function- Usually maintained

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