hari project 1st year_Updated

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Nine education project work:

Nine education project work HYDRO ELECTRICITY

What is hydro-electricity? :

What is hydro-electricity? Hydro-electricity can be defined as the process of generating electricity with the help of water. It is the most common method for used in sea shores for generating electricity. Many countries like UAE, USA, India, Australia etc. follow this process. They have world’s largest hydroelectric plants. In India, Maharashtra has got the largest one and its capacity is up to 300MW.


Hydropower has been used since ancient times to grind flour and perform other tasks. The French engineer  Bernard Forest De Belidor described the vertical and horizontal axes of hydraulic machines in mid 1770’s which provided a boom to the hydropower generation. Electrical generators and hydraulics were coupled to produce optimal electricity through hydropower. The first hydro electricity generation power plant was built near NIAGARA FALLS ( USA ) to generate 12 KW in 1895. Later, USA installed and developed more than 200 power such power stations within a short duration of 5 years.

First hydro-electric power plant:

First hydro-electric power plant


POWER GENERATION Methods CONVENTIONAL (DAMS) : Most hydroelectric power comes from the  potential energy  of  dammed water driving a  water turbine   and generator . The power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow .


PUMPED-STORAGE : This method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between  reservoirs at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, the excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir .


RUN-OF-THE-RIVER: Run-of-the-river hydroelectric stations are those with small or no reservoir capacity, so that only the water coming from upstream is available for generation at that moment, and any oversupply must pass unused.

How does the plant works?:

How does the plant works? The working of hydro electric plants are as below: Storage: The water is stored in the dams such that whenever there is a need, it can be released. When there is a over flow of water, the dams are opened and the water will flow.


2) Intake: The water which overflowed will pass through a systematic pathway such that the pathway will take the flowing water under the hydro electric plant which will be located in a distance of 1000 m away from the dam. The water will be used to generate electricity. Gate for intake of water


3) Generating ELECTRICITY: The water will flow through the plant. The plant contains a turbine which will rotate when the water falls on it with a force. This continuous rotation of turbine will cause the generation of electricity. It is caused by the conversation of potential energy of water to electrical energy.


4) Out flow of water: After hitting the turbine, the water will flow out to the rivers and dams. An amount of water will be directed away from their path and will flow through the turbine again.

Advantages :

Advantages   Once a dam is constructed, electricity can be produced at a constant rate .  If electricity is not needed, the gates can be shut, stopping electricity generation. The water can be saved for use another time when electricity demand is high . Dams are designed to last many decades and so can contribute to the generation of electricity for many years / decades . The lake that forms behind the dam can be used for water sports and leisure activities . Often large dams become tourist attractions in their own right .


 Dams are extremely expensive to build and must be built to a very high standard .  The high cost of dam construction means that they must operate for many decades to become profitable . The flooding of large areas of land means that the natural environment is destroyed .  People living in villages and towns that are in the valley to be flooded, must move out. This means that they lose their farms and businesses. In some countries, people are forcibly removed so that hydro-power schemes can go ahead .  The building of large dams can cause serious geological damage. For example, the building of the Hoover Dam in the USA triggered a number of earth quakes and has depressed the earth’s surface at its location .  Although modern planning and design of dams is good, in the past old dams have been known to be breached (the dam gives under the weight of water in the lake). This has led to deaths and flooding.

Bibliography :

Bibliography https:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroelectricity http://www.tc.umn.edu/~ dama0023/hydroelectric.html

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