Speech acts

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it has an essay an clear way of understanding speech acts

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Speech acts : 

Speech acts by Ihor Tytyk AL-11m

Slide 2: 

John R. Searle (born 1932) USA John L. Austin (1911 - 1960) Great Britain

Definition : 

Definition Speech act is an act that a speaker performs when making an utterance; Speech act is an intent utterance given in accordance with speech principles and rules Speech acts are a staple of everyday communicative life;

Speech act components : 

Speech act components Locutionary act the act of ‘saying something’ in the full normal sense is the performance of locutionary act He said to me: Shoot her! Illocutionary act It is a complete speech act, made in a typical utterance, that consists of the delivery of the propositional content of the utterance, and a particular illocutionary force. He advised/ ordered me to shoot her. Perlocutionary act (effect) the consequence of an illocutionary act, some result He has persuaded me to shoot her. (according to John R. Austin)

John R. Searle’s classification : 

John R. Searle’s classification Directives Commissives Representatives Declaratives Expressives

Directives : 

Directives Directive is a speech act that is to cause the hearer to take a particular action 1) I need/ want that car. 2) Give me your pen. 3) Could you give me your pen, please? 4) May I have some soda? Is there any milk left? 5) This has to be done over. What about the renovation?

Commissives : 

Commissives Commissive is a speech act that commits a speaker to some future action (promises, refuses) e.g. Maybe I can do that tomorrow. Don’t worry, I’ll be there.

Representatives : 

Representatives Representative is a speech act that commits a speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition e.g. I went to the Amish quilt exhibit. There are about twenty quilts on display. Some are very old and some are new.

Declaratives : 

Declaratives Declarative is a speech act that changes the reality in accord with the proposition of the declaration. e.g. Class dismissed (students get up and leave) I now pronounce you husband and wife.

Expressives : 

Expressives Expressive is a speech act that expresses on the speaker's attitudes and emotions towards the proposition. e.g. I am very dissapointed. What a great day!!! Oh my, that’s terrible.

Speech act functions : 

Speech act functions 1) Exchange factual information The plain departs at 7:10. 2) Exchange intellectual information These arguments are correct. 3) Exchange emotional attitudes I’m worried about my term papers. 4) Exchange moral attitudes I appreciate your help. 5) Suasion Hand in your assignments. 6) Socializing Hi, Larry, how are you?

Conclusions : 

Conclusions Main features of speech acts are intentionality and purposefulness or commitment. Speech act is a component of the communicative act.

References : 

References E. Hatch Discourse and language education – Los Angeles, 1992. J.R. Searle, F. Kieifer, M.Bierwisch Speech Act Theory and Pragmatics, 1-35, 1980 by D. Reidel Publishing Company. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speech_act http://www.carla.umn.edu/speechacts/definition.html http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/speech-acts/

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