The Prediabetes Diet Plan

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A practical, empowering guide to managing and reversing prediabetes through diet and exercise, from a registered dietitian.

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The PRE• DIABETES DIET PLAN How to Reverse Prediabetes and Prevent Diabetes through Healthy Eating and Exercise HILLARY WRIGHTM.EdRD

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THE PREDIABETES DIET PLAN How to Reverse Prediabetes and Prevent Diabetes Through Healthy Eating and Exercise Hillary Wright M.Ed RD 1- TEN SPlED PRESS

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The information contained in this book is based on the experience and research of the author. It is not intended as a substitute for consulting with your physician or other health care pro- vider. Any attempt to diagnose and treat an ill- ness should be done under the direction of a health care professional. The publisher and au- thor are not responsible for any adverse effects or consequences resulting from the use of any of the suggestions preparations or procedures discussed in this book. Text copyright © 2013 by Hillary Wright Foreword copyright © 2013 by Elizabeth M. Ward Illustrations copyright © 2010 by David Parmentier All rights reserved. Published in the United States by Ten Speed Press an imprint of the Crown Publishing

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4/870

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5/870 Group a division of Random House LLC a Pen- guin Random House Company New York. www.crownpublishing.com www.tenspeed.com Ten Speed Press and the Ten Speed Press colo- phon are registered trademarks of Random House LLC The illustrations herein are taken from The PCOS Diet Plan by Hillary Wright published by Celestial Arts in 2010. The Exchange Lists are the basis of a meal plan- ning system designed by a committee of the American Diabetes Association and The Amer- ican Dietetic Association. While designed primarily for people with diabetes and others who must follow special diets the Exchange Lists are based on principles of good nutrition that apply to everyone. Copyright © 2008 by the American Diabetes Association and The American Dietetic Association.

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6/870 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Wright Hillary. The prediabetes diet plan : how to reverse pre- diabetes and prevent diabetes through healthy eating and exercise / Hillary Wright MEd RD LDN. — First edition. pages cm 1. Diabetes—Diet therapy. 2. Prediabetic state— Patients—Diet therapy. 3. Diabetes—Pre- vention. 4. Physical fitness. I. Title. RC662.W75 2013 616.4’620654—dc23 2013018751 Trade Paperback ISBN: 978-1-60774-462-7 eBook ISBN: 978-1-60774-463-4 v3.1

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Contents Cover Title Page Copyright Foreword Acknowledgments Introduction PART 1 Defining Predia- betes and Its Causes

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7/870 CHAPTER 1 Understanding Prediabetes CHAPTER 2 Insulin Resistance Explained PART 2 The Prediabetes Diet Plan: Preventing Diabetes CHAPTER 3 Managing Your Carbo- hydrate Intake to Reverse Prediabetes CHAPTER 4 Building a Balanced Plate: Carb-Distributed Diet Approach 1 CHAPTER 5 Carbohydrate Counting: Carb-Distributed Diet Approach 2

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8/870 CHAPTER 6 The Details of Counting Carbohydrates CHAPTER 7 Making It Happen: Meals and Snacks PART 3 Reversing Prediabetes Through Weight Loss a Heart-Healthy Diet and Exercise CHAPTER 8 The Prediabetes-Obesity Connection CHAPTER 9 Reducing Your Risk of Car- diovascular Disease CHAPTER 10 Exercise: Time to Take It Seriously PART 4 Fine-Tuning the Predia- betes Diet Plan

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9/870 CHAPTER 11 Sensible Supplementation CHAPTER 12 Mastering the Market: An Aisle-by-Aisle Shopping Guide CHAPTER 13 Considerations When Din- ing Out PART 5 Preventing Diabetes with a Healthy Mind-Set CHAPTER 14 Managing Emotions for Success CHAPTER 15 Devising Your Own Predia- betes Diet Plan Appendix 1: Sample Meal Plans Appendix 2: Food Journal Resources Notes

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10/870 About the Author Index Other Books by This Author

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Want to Cure Diabetes Click Here Foreword More than 26 million Americans have diabetes so it’s likely that you know someone with the condition perhaps a family member or friend. Diabetes has serious health consequences and it garners considerable attention from the medical community and the media. Pre- diabetes the forerunner to diabetes gets less press but has recently come

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into its own and is being recognized as a force to be reckoned with. While the number of Americans with diabetes is nothing to quibble about more than three times as many people— an estimated 79 million—have

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12/870 prediabetes. With prediabetes blood sugar glucose is higher than normal but not yet elevated enough to be con- sidered diabetes. Prediabetes may be symptom-free and it’s likely most people won’t know that they have it un- til they take a blood test. In spite of the somewhat disarming terminology there’s nothing “pre” about prediabetes which like diabetes increases the risk of heart attack stroke and high blood pressure. Some experts argue that prediabetes and diabetes are actually one and the same condition because harmful health effects from high blood sugar progress with time. In fact about half of the people with pre- diabetes develop type 2 diabetes within ten years as their blood sugar levels creep upward. The news isn’t all bad however. Today’s prediabetes diagnosis need not

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13/870 become tomorrow’s diabetes nor does prediabetes necessarily have to play havoc with your health in any other way. There is hope for reversing predia- betes and preventing diabetes. That’s the essence of The Prediabetes Diet Plan. If you or a loved one have been ad- vised to lower your blood sugar you’ve come to the right book. Hillary Wright is a compassionate and experienced di- etitian with an obvious passion for pre- vention. It will seem as though she is speaking directly to you in her warm conversational tone when explaining the details of prediabetes and diabetes and how best to manage your health. As a highly skilled communicator Hillary dishes up scientific evidence in easy-to- understand terms an absolute must for understanding what’s happening with your body.

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14/870 Knowledge is power but knowing what to do doesn’t always mean you’ll do it. As a registered dietitian who hap- pens to have several relatives with type 2 diabetes I am all too aware of how difficult it can be to change your eating habits even when a better diet would greatly improve your health. The Pre- diabetes Diet Plan leaves no stone un- turned on the topics of prediabetes and diabetes but it also goes to great lengths to help you jumpstart your jour- ney to better health and keep you and the rest of your household on the right path. I especially appreciate the way Hillary avoids preaching about what you should do for better health. She goes out of her way to avoid giving one-size-fits-all ad- vice about weight control healthy eat- ing and blood sugar management. Hil- lary embraces difference and in that

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15/870 vein presents reasonable real-life scen- arios to help guide lifestyle choices. Consumers and health professionals alike should thank Hillary Wright for her laser focus on prediabetes a condi- tion that’s become a personal burden for millions of Americans as well as a financial strain on the health care sys- tem. Prediabetes you’re finally getting the attention you deserve Elizabeth M. Ward MS RD Author MyPlate for Moms How to Feed Yourself Your Family Better

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To Cure Diabetes Click Here Acknowledgments As with any large undertaking it took a village to guide and support me through this book. I’d like to start by thanking my parents Alan and Marie Wright who demonstrated that through educa- tion and strong family ties it’s possible to raise healthy children with type 1 dia- betes and my brothers Michael and Christopher and their families who show every day that by taking care of yourself you can still live active suc- cessful lives with this disease. To the

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rest of my siblings Alison John and Brian their families my in-laws Jack and Nancy Holowitz and the Holowitz/

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17/870 Parmentier clan thank you all for your unwavering support. To the hundreds of people with dia- betes I have counseled and learned from over the years thanks for teaching me the real challenges of living with this disease and how taking small steps can make a difference. To my past present and future patients with prediabetes in- cluding all my “PCOS girls” this one’s for you. Thanks to my agent Judith Riven my editor Sara Golski all the folks at Ten Speed Press dietetic intern Emma Las- key and graphic artist David Parmenti- er for helping to massage this book into its final form. Also the encouragement of my friends and colleagues at the Do- mar Center for Mind/Body Health and the Dana Farber Cancer Institute has been invaluable.

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18/870 On a personal level words can’t ex- press how much I valued the support of my “townie” friends my fabulous nutri- tion pals and my nutrition “soul mate” Elizabeth Ward MS RD during this crazy time. Most importantly thanks so much to Tony John Matt and Brian. Without your love and ability to laugh with and at me none of this would have come to be. I love you.

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To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here Introduction Talk about diabetes is everywhere—on the nightly news in health magazines and most definitely in the doctor’s of- fice. In my world it seems like the sub- ject has always been present. I’m one of six children and when I was twelve my seven-year-old brother was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. At the time all I understood was that he had to take shots of insulin every day. If he took too

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much it could kill him so he always had to carry a snack. It was pretty scary stuff for us kids but my parents were so proactive about learning how to manage my brother’s condition that before long

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20/870 it was just part of our family’s reality. My mother credits a dietitian at Chil- dren’s Hospital in Boston with helping them feel confident in their ability to manage my brother’s diabetes. This woman by the way was also the inspir- ation for my mother to encourage me to become a dietitian. Several years later when my youngest brother was eleven he too was dia- gnosed with type 1 diabetes. Although I’m sure this second diagnosis was dev- astating for my parents by this point the rest of us were pretty used to what would be involved. Back in those days it seemed unique to have two siblings with diabetes but because my parents had learned what they needed to man- age my brothers’ health both brothers now in their forties are happy healthy and busy with their own families and careers. Not everyone who develops

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21/870 diabetes this young is as lucky however. Early-onset diabetes either type 1 or type 2 diagnosed early in life is associ- ated with a host of health complica- tions including heart disease kidney failure and blindness. Type 1 diabetes accounts for about 10 percent of all dia- betes. Because injected insulin is neces- sary to manage the disease type 1 dia- betes requires intensive day-to-day at- tention to stay safe and healthy. The other 90 percent of diabetes is type 2 diabetes which was once referred to as “adult onset” because it almost always affected adults but now unfortunately is also affecting children due to the es- calating rates of childhood obesity. When I began my career as a hospital nutritionist in the late 1980s I learned to associate type 2 diabetes with com- plications. Back then many of my pa- tients had not been routinely screened

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22/870 for diabetes as they are more likely to be today. In fact many of them did not even know they were diabetic until they went to the eye doctor complaining of vision problems only to find out they were suffering from diabetic retino- pathy a common cause of blindness. This complication would suggest that they had been walking around with dia- betes for years maybe even decades without knowing it. Many of them suffered from severe forms of vascular disease. In fact about 65 percent of people with diabetes die of heart disease or stroke. 1 Caring for so many people with diabetes—a serious largely pre- ventable illness—was discouraging. Even more depressing many of them hadn’t had the chance to avoid the poor health that eventually befell them be- cause they didn’t even know they had diabetes

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23/870 There’s no guarantee that someone with knowledge of a health problem is ready willing or able to do something about it and the more years that pass without trying to change one’s habits can make it increasingly harder to even- tually get there. Dietitians know that nutrition education during hospitaliza- tion isn’t the ideal time or setting to teach people how to eat differently or change their lifestyle—there are gener- ally too many other more acute health issues to focus on—but I did my best during these years to help my patients see that even small changes could make a difference. Given the readmission rates of my diabetic patients however I saw firsthand that trying to help them eat healthier and get a little exercise through my in-hospital education ses- sions was like swimming upstream.

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24/870 So after six years of hospital work I decided to put my counseling skills to work in the area of prevention. By this time I had several relatives with type 2 diabetes who were taking good care of themselves and staying healthy. I un- derstood that diabetes was something to tackle early on—even before diagnosis. What we appreciate now more than we did twenty years ago is that diabetes can be prevented According to data on almost eighty-five thousand women from the Harvard Nurse’s Health study about 90 percent of type 2 diabetes cases in women can be attributed to such lifestyle factors as excess weight lack of exercise a less-than-healthy diet and smoking and there’s no reas- on the same shouldn’t be true of men. 2 Preventing diabetes might be easier than many people think. According to the American Diabetes Association

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25/870 studies have shown that type 2 diabetes may be prevented or delayed by losing just 7 percent of one’s body weight for example this is just fifteen pounds for a two-hundred-pound person through regular physical activity thirty minutes a day five days a week and healthy eat- ing. 3 For most people making changes to their diet and lifestyle is not easy. Uprooting old habits and replacing them with healthier ones is tough. The process takes time. Readiness to make these important changes is a strong pre- dictor of success and no one can make someone else be “ready.” Rather readi- ness has to come from within. Concern about a new health threat—in oneself or a close family member or friend—can often move someone closer to readiness to make important diet and lifestyle changes. Primary care doctors today are much more likely to screen for diabetes

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26/870 earlier in life—even in children—so in- creasingly people are learning that they are at risk for developing diabetes based on medical or family history. In some cases people discover that they are actually already prediabetic. This means that their blood sugar levels are starting to rise but are not yet high enough to be classified as diabetes. In a perfect world we’d all know what our risk is and be able to address it be- fore prediabetes sets in. It would be ideal to avoid having problems with blood glucose regulation by addressing it prior to the point when you start flunking your blood glucose tests. The reality is however that sometimes we need to see it in black-and-white on a lab slip: that fasting blood glucose test with an H for “high” next to it. For many people this isn’t surprising news particularly if they’ve been overweight

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27/870 for a long time or if there is a lot of dia- betes in the family. My hope is that armed with the knowledge that type 2 diabetes is something that can be pre- vented people will use this health threat as the starting gate to get into the game of diabetes prevention. As a registered dietitian with more than two decades of experience helping people manage their diabetes I’ve counseled thousands of men and wo- men from all walks of life on how to start with their current habits and move toward a healthier place. Since 2000 I’ve also been counseling women with an endocrine problem called polycystic ovary syndrome PCOS which is a ma- jor cause of infertility and places wo- men with the condition in a high-risk category for type 2 diabetes. While no one would want a condition like PCOS which also increases the risk of

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28/870 cardiovascular disease at least these women know they are at higher risk of developing diabetes and are often mo- tivated to learn how to reduce their risk. The same diet and lifestyle strategies that can improve their fertility also lower their risk of diabetes. In 2010 I wrote a book on diet and lifestyle man- agement of PCOS The PCOS Diet Plan. The idea for The Prediabetes Diet Plan came from a physician Dr. Diane Kauf- man who told me she advises all her patients with prediabetes to read The PCOS Diet Plan “and just skip over the PCOS parts.” There is an urgent need for more in- formation on managing prediabetes through a healthy diet and lifestyle. Ap- plying what I know about managing in- sulin resistance—the condition that un- derlies both prediabetes and PCOS—I focus in this book on diabetes

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29/870 prevention. My goal is to provide the same sense of empowerment and doable realistic diet and lifestyle strategies to the much larger population of people who have prediabetes. To sup- port the positive thinking needed to al- low for change I interject “Mind-Set In- terventions” throughout the book. I can’t emphasize enough how important it is to pay as much—or more—attention to what’s going on with your mind as with your grocery cart your lunch choice or your exercise options. Posit- ive healthy diet and lifestyle changes have to start between your ears long be- fore they have a chance to change what’s happening in your body. A final thought on what this book isn’t: it’s not a diabetes book. A book that tries to deal with both diabetes pre- vention and diabetes management has the potential to try to do too much for

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30/870 too many people with varying needs. There are many excellent books written by talented registered dietitians for those who already have diabetes sever- al of these are listed in the Resources section in the back of the book. The goal of The Prediabetes Diet Plan is to reduce the number of people who need resources for diabetes—or at a minim- um to delay that need for as long as possible. As I tell my patients I’m like the tugboat that’s there to drag you out of the harbor so you can sail on your own. I have no preconception of how long or what path that process takes. The journey is different for everyone. By sharing some useful strategies—and en- couraging you to view lapses not as fail- ures but as opportunities to learn— you’ll soon find yourself charting a course to better health.

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Part 1 DEFINING PREDIABETES AND ITS CAUSES

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1 Understanding Prediabetes To Cure Diabetes in 21 Days Click Here “Prediabetes” refers to the phase before a person develops diabetes where blood glucose levels are higher than normal

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but not high enough for the person to be diagnosed with diabetes. To really un- derstand that definition you need to first know what diabetes is and what

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33/870 you are trying to avoid. According to the Centers for Disease Control CDC rates of type 2 diabetes have more than tripled in the United States since the early 1990s fueled largely by the global obesity epidemic. 1 Most people know that diabetes is when you have too much sugar in your blood—“sugar” here referring to blood glucose which is the body’s fuel “blood glucose” is the tech- nical term and “blood sugar” is the layperson’s term. In my experience though most people with diabetes don’t have a complete or even adequate un- derstanding of what’s happening in their bodies when they have this dis- ease. This lack of understanding makes it tough to internalize what they need to do to manage the condition. This know- ledge deficit is undoubtedly more signi- ficant in the much larger numbers of

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34/870 people who have prediabetes—most of whom don’t know it. Diabetes: A Simple Explanation Diabetes is a chronic medical condition in which the body has a reduced ability to clear glucose out of the blood and in- to the body’s cells after eating or drink- ing anything that contains carbo- hydrates. This reduced ability results in elevated blood glucose or hypergly- cemia. Type 2 diabetes is caused by the coexistence over time of two conditions: insulin resistance and chronic inflam- mation. This results in a progressive state where the body needs to produce higher than normal amounts of the hor- mone insulin to clear glucose out of the

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35/870 blood after a meal or snack that con- tains carbohydrates. Insulin resistance starts at a low or “subclinical” level that can exist for years before being dia- gnosed by a blood test. If left untreated however glucose levels can worsen over time particularly right after meals un- til eventually a fasting blood glucose test shows elevation—clear evidence that someone is potentially progressing from prediabetes toward full-blown dia- betes. Insulin resistance occurs on a spectrum: it starts at a low level where there’s no easy test to see that it’s hap- pening as it progresses insulin resist- ance eventually shows up as predia- betes and if not addressed through diet lifestyle change and possibly med- ication insulin resistance may progress further to diabetes. Current estimates are that most indi- viduals with prediabetes—possibly as

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36/870 many as 70 percent—will eventually de- velop type 2 diabetes. 2 Aside from high blood glucose levels diabetes is associ- ated with a host of other health prob- lems including heart disease stroke amputations kidney failure cancer and cognitive brain function problems. Re- search tells us that the risk of all these problems can be greatly reduced or even avoided altogether when healthy lifestyle changes are implemented early on. As the old saying goes an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure Don’t worry if this explanation about insulin resistance prediabetes and dia- betes doesn’t yet make much sense. We’ll review throughout the book how this process might play out in an indi- vidual moving through this progression. By the time someone is diagnosed with diabetes insulin resistance has been present for some time probably years

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37/870 and has progressed through a stage where the individual was—or could have been—diagnosed with prediabetes. Not everyone who is diagnosed with predia- betes will go on to develop type 2 dia- betes but its presence puts one in a higher risk category for the develop- ment of diabetes. Managing insulin res- istance to treat prediabetes and pos- sibly prevent it from progressing to type 2 diabetes is what this book is all about. You’ll learn how to determine whether you may have prediabetes and what you can do to avoid or delay its progression to diabetes. Unfortunately once someone has diabetes it can’t be cured the condition can only be controlled by weight loss or various interventions whereas prediabetes can often be re- versed. These are very important dis- tinctions between prediabetes and diabetes.

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38/870 Elevated blood glucose is generally without symptoms until it gets very high at levels you would experience only if you were already diabetic and your glucose levels were way out of control. Just because you don’t feel anything doesn’t mean it isn’t there. In a way it’s unfortunate that hyperglycemia doesn’t hurt a little because people would be more aware that something is wrong and might be compelled to pay atten- tion to it. Despite its lack of symptoms in the early stages diabetes is a serious problem with potentially very serious consequences. Before we move on to the must-know information on diabetes and prediabetes let’s start with some facts about how these conditions have af- fected the health and wellness of people in the United States.

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39/870 Alarming Statistics in the United States To Cure Diabetes Permanently Click Here According to 2011 data from the Amer- ican Diabetes Association the number of people affected by diabetes and pre- diabetes is enormous and getting lar- ger. 3 Consider these statistics: • The total prevalence of diabetes in the United States is 25.8 million children and adults or 8.3 percent of the population. There are 18.8 million diagnosed cases of diabetes in the United States and an estim- ated 7 million undiagnosed cases. The number of diagnosed cases has

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40/870 more than tripled since 1980 when the number of Americans dia- gnosed with diabetes was 5.6 mil- lion. 4

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41/870 • The number of children and adoles- cents with diabetes: 1 in 400. • The number of people age sixty-five and older with diabetes: 10.9 mil- lion or 26.9 percent of all people in this age group. • The estimated number of people in the United States with prediabetes is a whopping 79 million. Thirty- five percent of US adults age twenty and older and 50 percent of those age sixty-five and older are predia- betic. 5 Diabetes is an equal opportunity dis- ease affecting both men and women in the United States: • 13 million men or 11.8 percent of all men age twenty and older have diabetes.

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42/870 • 12.6 million women or 10.8 percent of all women age twenty and older have diabetes. The disease doesn’t discriminate by race and ethnicity either. Here’s a breakdown by race and ethnicity of people ages twenty and older diagnosed with diabetes: • 7.1 percent of non-Hispanic whites • 8.4 percent of Asian Americans • 12.6 percent of non-Hispanic blacks • 11.8 percent of Hispanics And things don’t look good for the fu- ture health of US children. According to the CDC if current trends continue one in three children born in 2000 will de- velop diabetes in their lifetimes. 6 Diabetes is a major cause of morbid- ity and mortality in the United States.

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43/870 In 2007 the disease contributed to 231404 deaths. What makes diabetes so potentially life threatening is the close association between diabetes and serious health problems such as heart disease stroke high blood pressure and cancer. Consider these sobering facts: In 2004 heart disease was noted as the cause of death in 68 percent of diabetics age sixty-five and older adults with diabetes have heart disease death rates two to four times higher than adults without diabetes. In 2004 stroke was noted as the cause of death in 16 percent of diabetics age sixty-five and older risk of stroke is two to four times higher among people with diabetes. During the period 2005 to 2008 of adults age twenty and older with self-re- ported diabetes 67 percent had high blood pressure or used prescription drugs for hypertension.

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44/870 The impact of diabetes on quality of life is enormous. Diabetes is a leading cause of blindness kidney failure neuropathy a painful condition caused by damage to the tiny blood vessels that nourish nerve cells particularly in the legs and lower-limb amputations again due to blood vessel damage over time. As you can imagine the price tag that goes along with treating diabetes and its complications is huge and on track to get a lot bigger: In 2012 the total cost of diagnosed diabetes in the United States was 245 billion 176 billion for medical costs and 69 billion for indirect costs associated with disab- ility lost work and premature death. This represents a 41 percent increase since these costs were last estimated in 2007 at 174 million dollars. 7 Adjust- ing for population age and sex differ- ences average medical expenditures for

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45/870 people diagnosed with diabetes were 2.3 times higher than for those without dia- betes. Overall the economic cost of dealing with diabetes is about a third of what was budgeted on national defense in 2012 8 What’s the bottom line If there was ever a disease to avoid—for life expect- ancy and personal quality of life as well as for the current and future economic health of the United States—diabetes is it. The good news is that we know a lot about how to prevent this disease. Re- search has proven that type 2 diabetes may be entirely avoidable If you’re pre- diabetic the time to act is now. Cur- rently about one in ten US adults has diabetes and statistical trends suggest that by 2050 the incidence may be as high as one in three. 9 By learning to manage the underlying physiology that causes prediabetes and subsequently

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46/870 diabetes—insulin resistance—diabetes can be prevented. Prediabetes can be cured. The first step is determining if your family history or lifestyle places you at higher risk. Causes of Prediabetes and Diabetes: Nature or Nurture As you look within your family you may wonder whether diabetes is a genetic condition. Research suggests the genet- ics of type 2 diabetes is complex and that some people may have a strong ge- netic predisposition to it. In many people however risk can also be influ- enced by environmental and behavioral factors like obesity and a sedentary life- style on some underlying susceptibility

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47/870 that isn’t yet fully understood. 10 It’s of- ten difficult to determine whether dia- betes appears to be running in families because of a genetic predisposition or because of an “inheritance” of unhealth- ful diet and lifestyle habits that have been passed down from one generation to another. One interesting aspect to the diabetes epidemic is the theory that physiological factors currently predis- posing people to diabetes may actually have been a survival adaptation that was at one time beneficial. Some scient- ists believe that insulin resistance is a genetically predetermined physiological trait a so-called thrifty gene that helped our primitive ancestors survive under conditions of drought and fam- ine and is now backfiring under mod- ern lifestyle conditions where obesity and physical inactivity are common. 11 In

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48/870 other words it’s a “good gene gone bad” scenario. There is a lot we still don’t under- stand about why this harmful state is so common today but this theory lends credence to the concept that the best way to counter any physiological predis- position to diabetes is to evolve your lifestyle to one better suited to our cave- man makeup. While you can’t control the genes you were born with type 2 diabetes is largely a preventable disease up to 90 percent of cases may be attrib- utable to lifestyle habits and a number of lifestyle risk factors can potently in- crease your risk for developing it. 12 Un- fortunately every one of these risk factors summarized below is common in our modern environment: • Obesity. Obesity and weight gain dramatically increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and are considered

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49/870 the strongest contributors to the explosion of this disease in the US population. • Physical inactivity. Independent of whether someone is overweight or obese physical inactivity in- creases diabetes risk. • Cigarette smoking. This habit is associated with a small increased risk of diabetes. • Low fiber diet. Eating a diet low in fiber and high in processed foods increases risk. 13 • Saturated fats. Results of human studies are mixed but according to the Archives of Internal Medicine studies suggest that diets high in saturated fats may worsen insulin resistance and increase diabetes risk. 14

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50/870 • Sugar-sweetened beverages. Regular consumption of these beverages has been shown to in- crease type 2 diabetes risk. Factors That Increase Diabetes Risk It’s one thing to know that something may be increasing your risk of develop- ing diabetes but in my experience un- derstanding why helps a lot of people visualize the value of nudging these risk factors out of one’s life. Let’s look at the unhealthy influence of each risk factor in more detail. Obesity According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney

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51/870 Diseases about 80 percent of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese. 15 How obesity contributes to dia- betes is complex and involves multiple influences but research has identified the following factors as playing a signi- ficant role: • Fat cells secrete fatty acids that con- tribute to insulin resistance in the liver and muscles of obese people. • Fat cells secrete a large number of proteins that affect glucose “blood sugar” metabolism and insulin action. • Obesity increases inflammation in the body which is closely tied to diabetes. The physiological stress of obesity on the body seems to worsen insulin resist- ance in the cells and may reduce the

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52/870 pancreas’s ability to secrete enough ex- tra insulin to overcome this resistance which leads to higher blood sugars. 16 Obesity often goes hand in hand with many of the other risk factors for dia- betes like physical inactivity and a low- fiber diet. Physical Inactivity According to the Archives of Internal Medicine a significant body of research has shown that physical inactivity in- creases your risk of diabetes regardless of whether you’re overweight or obese. Conversely if you are overweight or obese being physically active is one of the most helpful things you can do to naturally lower your diabetes risk. 17 Physical activity doesn’t need to be vig- orous to affect diabetes risk. One large analysis of ten studies published in

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53/870 Diabetes Care found that regular parti- cipation in moderately intense activity like daily walking for thirty minutes or longer substantially lowers the risk even if you don’t lose weight. 18 Physical activity increases insulin and glucose absorption into muscle that is it im- proves insulin sensitivity whether baseline levels of glucose are normal or elevated called impaired glucose toler- ance making it a key strategy for dia- betes prevention in someone with pre- diabetes. Physical activity seems to be particularly helpful for reducing ab- dominal belly fat which is known to aggravate insulin resistance and con- tribute to other health problems such as high blood pressure and high trigly- cerides that can raise your risk of heart disease. 19 Physical activity is also an im- portant component of any weight-loss program.

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54/870 Cigarette Smoking Smokers are at higher risk of diabetes than nonsmokers possibly because of the increased inflammation that cigar- ette smoke causes in the body. 20 Smoking has been shown to cause elev- ations in blood glucose levels and may worsen insulin resistance. Smokers tend to have more abdominal fat also associ- ated with insulin resistance. 21 Low Fiber Diet Dietary fiber does not raise blood gluc- ose levels because it is not broken down in our digestive tracts. Eating high fiber foods will therefore decrease the amount of insulin needed after a meal or snack. High-fiber diets may also help with weight control. Cereal fiber in par- ticular has been tied to lower likelihood of developing diabetes. 22 The American

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55/870 Diabetes Association recommends 25 to 30 grams of fiber each day though it ac- knowledges that most of us only get about half of this recommended amount so any increase in dietary fiber would be beneficial. 23 Saturated Fats Research suggests a link between diet- ary saturated fat and risk of diabetes. According to the US Department of Agriculture USDA Nutrition Evidence Library replacing some saturated fat in the diet with heart-healthy fats such as olive or canola oil nuts and avocados may improve insulin resistance. 24 Other research in the journal Nature Immun- ology suggests that saturated fats may spur inflammation in liver muscle and fat cells making them insulin resist- ant. 25 Some research points toward

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56/870 unhealthy trans fats as possibly having a similar effect but evidence is limited. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages A huge 2010 analysis of eleven studies including 310819 participants and 15043 cases of type 2 diabetes found that those who consumed as little as one to two sugar-sweetened beverages a day had a 26 percent greater risk of devel- oping type 2 diabetes than those who reported drinking fewer than one soda a month. 26 Sugar-sweetened beverages include soda fruit-flavored drinks sweetened iced tea and so-called en- ergy drinks. Sugar-sweetened beverages may contribute to the risk of type 2 dia- betes in several ways: they are a com- monly consumed source of excess calor- ies contributing to obesity they provide a large load of easily absorbed

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57/870 carbs that spike blood glucose levels and tax the pancreas’s ability to produce enough insulin to clear it and they are a possible source of additional additives that may aggravate insulin resistance. 27 Fortunately diet soda does not seem to carry the same risks but is worth con- suming in moderation due to other po- tential health concerns including some suspicion these drinks may increase people’s subsequent cravings for highly sweetened foods. 28 The common thread through all of these very prevalent modern lifestyle habits or unhealthy situations is that one way or another they contribute to the physiologically dangerous condition of insulin resistance. As mentioned earlier humans may have evolved to be- come insulin resistant as part of a sur- vival strategy. This trait may have helped us avoid starvation during times

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58/870 of drought and famine by redistributing our energy metabolism to give the body’s vital cells a fair shot at glucose the body’s life-sustaining energy source. Likewise pregnancy hormones trigger insulin resistance in pregnant women as a means of diverting glucose from the mother’s cells to those of her developing baby to fuel rapid growth hence the in- creased risk of gestational or pregnancy-induced diabetes in women who are already somewhat insulin res- istant. In short insulin resistance may have been incredibly important to the survival of our species but now stands to threaten it.

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59/870 Other Insulin-Resistant Conditions: Metabolic Syndrome and PCOS To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here Even if you don’t have prediabetes or diabetes insulin resistance could be threatening your health by contributing to other increasingly common health problems. Although the focus of this book is treating prediabetes there are two other common conditions in which insulin resistance is a major player: metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome PCOS. Both are con- sidered major risk factors for the devel- opment of diabetes. Let’s learn a bit more about each condition.

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60/870 Metabolic Syndrome This common and complex health con- dition is skyrocketing in the US

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61/870 population and contributing to the epi- demic of diabetes and heart disease in a major way. About 35 percent of US adults have metabolic syndrome which is driven by insulin resistance and chronic inflammation and is character- ized by a collection of cardiovascular risk factors. An estimated 87 percent of those with diabetes also classify as hav- ing metabolic syndrome. 29 According to the American Heart Association meta- bolic syndrome occurs when a person has three or more of the following measurements: • Abdominal obesity excessive belly fat • Triglyceride level of 150 milligrams per deciliter of blood mg/dl or greater

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62/870 • HDL cholesterol level of less than 40 mg/dl in men or less than 50 mg/dl in women • Systolic blood pressure the top number of 130 millimeters of mer- cury mmHg or greater • Diastolic blood pressure the bot- tom number of 85 mmHg or greater • Fasting glucose of 100 mg/dl or greater • Insulin resistance or glucose intol- erance 30 Although this may vary by race ex- cess belly fat is generally defined as a waist circumference of 40 inches 102 centimeters or more for men and 35 inches 88 centimeters or more for wo- men. 31 People with metabolic syndrome also have a tendency for their blood to

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63/870 clot more easily called a prothrombic state and they are more likely to have chronic inflammation in their bodies called a proinflammatory state which can be diagnosed with a C-reactive pro- tein test a marker for inflammation in the blood. Both of these conditions are like lighter fluid on the fire of heart dis- ease risk. Although any of these factors can increase your risk of having a heart attack—and individually each risk factor should be treated aggressively—when present together as in metabolic syn- drome the risk of having cardiovascular problems is significantly greater. 32 A re- cent review of the research on metabolic syndrome found that overall metabolic syndrome doubled the risk of cardiovas- cular disease heart attack and stroke and increased the chance of dying from any cause by 50 percent. 33

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64/870 Some ethnic groups are more affected by metabolic syndrome than others with Mexican Americans having the highest rates followed by whites and African Americans. Among Mexican Americans and African Americans metabolic syndrome is more common in women than men but the syndrome af- fects white men and women about equally. 34 Despite having less body fat on average than whites Asian Americ- ans have higher rates of metabolic syn- drome and diabetes with both condi- tions growing rapidly among Asians and Pacific Islanders who have immigrated to the United States. 35 Research pub- lished in Diabetes Care suggests that Asians have more body fat at a lower BMI body mass index than whites and that people of Chinese descent have a similar risk of glucose intolerance at a lower BMI than people of European

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65/870 descent. 36 Although research is ongo- ing it is believed that the combination of consuming a Western diet high in fat and calories decreased physical activ- ity and genetic make-up is fueling this metabolic syndrome/diabetes epidemic in Asian populations in the United States. 37 Others at risk of metabolic syn- drome include the following: • Those who have a sibling or parent with diabetes • Those who already have diabetes • Women with PCOS Polycystic Ovary Syndrome This strange-sounding syndrome is the most common hormonal disorder of women in their reproductive years af- fecting 5 to 10 percent possibly more of all women and is the main cause of

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66/870 infertility related to irregular or absent ovulation. Research suggests that up to 30 percent of women have some of the symptoms of the disorder. And with the dramatic increase in childhood obesity which often leads to earlier-onset men- struation PCOS is already starting to show up in younger girls. Increasingly PCOS has been recognized as being a major risk factor for prediabetes dia- betes and heart disease. Like metabolic syndrome PCOS is a complex problem but it is believed that insulin resistance is a significant player in at least 75 per- cent of cases. In this scenario the elev- ated insulin levels present because of underlying insulin resistance interfere with the exquisite hormonal balance needed to trigger ovulation leading to trouble conceiving. Insulin is a hor- mone and as such has the ability to in- terfere with other circulating hormones.

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67/870 In PCOS this can trigger reproductive hormone imbalances that spawn some of the secondary symptoms of the con- dition including excess levels of andro- gens or male-type hormones that cause abnormal hair growth on the face and other areas on the body. As with insulin resistance from any cause the strain on the pancreas to make extra insulin over time can wear down its ability to produce enough leading to elevated glucose levels and prediabetes. Research suggests more than 50 percent of women with PCOS will have diabetes or prediabetes before the age of forty. 38 The cause of PCOS is not understood but it is believed to be a complex genetic disorder likely in- volving multiple genes. Genes involved may be those that regulate function of the hypothalamus pituitary and ovar- ies as well as those responsible for

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68/870 insulin resistance. Women with PCOS experience similar risk for the develop- ment of metabolic and cardiovascular problems as those diagnosed with meta- bolic syndrome which makes sense giv- en that in both conditions insulin resist- ance is a contributing factor. 39 Anywhere from 50 to 80 percent of women with PCOS are overweight or obese and the incidence of PCOS in the US population has paralleled the in- crease in obesity suggesting a strong connection between body weight and the severity of the condition. Because hormone imbalance is a major side ef- fect of PCOS many of the symptoms are hormone related. Physical signs that a woman’s hormone levels may be out of whack due to PCOS include the following:

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69/870 • Infrequent or absent menstrual periods signaling problems with ovulation • Excess hair growth on the face chest and back in a male pattern • Thinning of the hair on the crown of the head • Acne • A tendency to accrue belly fat or the “apple body” form of fat storage as opposed to the healthier “pear” who stores her body fat more in the butt and thighs Women with PCOS are more likely to have elevated blood glucose levels as well as high blood cholesterol and triglyceride blood fats levels along with low levels of healthy HDL choles- terol at a young age.

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70/870 The Dangers of Insulin Resistance What prediabetes metabolic syndrome and PCOS have in common is insulin resistance which even without it having progressed to diabetes is a hazard to your cardiovascular system and poten- tially to other organs. Although we have established cutoffs for diagnosing dia- betes and prediabetes insulin resist- ance is present even before any tests show signs of its presence and it may already be wreaking havoc with your circulatory system. We know that many people with prediabetes also qualify as having metabolic syndrome. Most people with prediabetes and metabolic syndrome are also obese which in- creases circulating levels of fats trigly- cerides and other substances that con- tribute to inflammation in the blood

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71/870 vessels and make the blood more likely to form clots which can in turn clog ar- teries and cause a heart attack. These excess circulating fats can aggravate in- sulin resistance in the muscle contrib- uting to high blood glucose levels and lower healthy HDL levels. Insulin resistance alone is known to be an independent risk factor for cardi- ovascular disease as it is believed to af- fect the health of the endothelium or lining of the blood vessels in several ways. Injury to the endothelium is con- sidered the initiating factor in the devel- opment of cholesterol blockages in the arteries. Just the presence of higher- than-healthy levels of glucose even if lower than that needed for a diagnosis of diabetes have been reported to cause damage to the insides of blood vessels. There is a lot of crossover between metabolic syndrome and prediabetes

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72/870 which can make it complicated for sci- entists to determine what is causing what when it comes to heart disease. Having metabolic syndrome alone without prediabetes meaning a fasting blood glucose of 100 milligrams per deciliter or higher is not one of your three qualifiers from the metabolic syn- drome list raises your risk of diabetes fivefold. Having both prediabetes and metabolic syndrome raises your risk of diabetes even further. There is no pre- determined blood glucose cutoff at which microvascular changes meaning damage to the very smallest branches of the arteries that feed blood to the body’s tissues can start to occur. Some re- search suggests that prediabetes is asso- ciated with a small but appreciable in- creased risk for diabetic retinopathy nephropathy microscopic changes to the health of the kidneys and

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73/870 neuropathy. 40 Prediabetes is also thought to possibly affect brain health contributing to premature aging of the brain and Alzheimer’s disease. 41 A person can start developing the typ- ical diabetes complications in the pre- diabetic phase of the disease because it appears that the unhealthy effect of high blood sugar occurs on a con- tinuum—it may start when the problem is in its early stages and worsen as the blood glucose levels get higher over time. Although more needs to be learned about how intervening earlier in the process may change the course of things the hope is that lowering blood glucose levels to normal by treating in- sulin resistance early can help reduce any risk of damage to the large circula- tion— like the large arteries that feed the heart—as well as the microcirculation that keeps our eyes retina kidneys

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74/870 and nerves healthy. Recent scientific evidence has also begun to tie insulin resistance to increased risk of a number of cancers including cancer of the colon liver pancreas and breast. The mechanisms for this connection aren’t fully understood yet but the following factors may play a role: • High levels of glucose and insulin promote the release of insulin-like growth factor I IGF-I which may play a role in tumor initiation and progression in those who are in- sulin resistant. • Higher levels of insulin and IGF-I inhibit the production of a protein that is supposed to bind with sex hormones like estrogen and testosterone and make them less available to encourage the growth

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75/870 of cancer in breast and endometrial uterine tissue. • Insulin-resistant people may over- produce free radicals due to excess- ive oxidation which may damage cell DNA and increase the likeli- hood they may mutate into cancer. • The coexistence of obesity and in- sulin resistance may increase in- flammation in the body creating an environment that is conducive to the growth of tumors. 42 In some ways this connection isn’t new as type 2 diabetes is known to sig- nificantly increase the risk of many forms of cancer because of the way it changes the body’s physiological envir- onment. 43 But just as insulin resistance may contribute to cancer risk making changes to manage it can lower your risk. This is treatable and reversible.

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76/870 What Is Inflammation Inflammation is a natural part of healing but is meant to emerge as needed then dis- appear. In contemporary times however a host of irritants like smoking obesity in- activity and excess intake of too much pro- cessed food can lead to chronic low-grade inflammation that sticks around. This can fuel the development of heart disease dia- betes by aggravating insulin resistance cancer and other chronic diseases. Inflam- mation can be reduced by achieving a healthy weight exercising and eating a diet high in plant foods and heart-healthy fats like vegetable oils nuts and seeds and low in sugar and processed foods. Vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids from seafood vegetable oils walnuts and flax are also anti-inflammatory.

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77/870 Helpful Hopeful Information To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here Despite the statistics not all the news is bad There are many reasons to be op- timistic. Even if you’ve already been diagnosed with prediabetes it’s possible it can be reversed. The odds of pro- gressing to diabetes are high without in- vesting a lot of time and energy into changing the unhealthful diet and life- style habits that may have gotten you to this point. But type 2 diabetes is a largely preventable disease and treating it at the prediabetes phase—or sooner if you know you’re at risk—is hands down the best approach. Adopting healthful

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78/870 diet and lifestyle changes will likely im- prove your daily quality of life in many ways and may lower your risk of devel- oping diabetes by up to 89 percent But the solution isn’t just making single

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79/870 behavior changes like avoiding sugar for example. Rather you must address a collection of poor lifestyle habits. Each one of these contributes to an individu- al’s risk of diabetes and the more un- healthful habits you’ve acquired the more your risk of prediabetes and dia- betes mounts. Fortunately the reverse is also true: the more unhealthy habits you replace with healthier ones the lower your risk. One very large 2009 study of almost five thousand men and women age sixty-five and older enrolled in the Car- diovascular Health Study looked at the participants’ diet and lifestyle habits along with whether or not they de- veloped diabetes over a ten-year period. Low-risk diet and lifestyle behaviors identified among the participants were the following:

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80/870 • Above-average physical activity levels • Higher dietary fiber intake • Eating more heart-healthy polyun- saturated fat and less unhealthful saturated fat • Eating more carbohydrates that have a low glycemic index GI which are carbohydrates that in general are less processed and higher in dietary fiber • Not smoking • Light or moderate alcohol use which is associated with a lower risk of diabetes • Having a body mass index BMI under 25 • Having a smaller waist-to-hip ra- tio—which means having a waist

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81/870 measurement less than 34.6 inches for women and 36 inches for men This may sound like a tall order but the people in the study didn’t need to adopt all of these habits at once to lower their risk. Overall each lifestyle factor in the low-risk category that an indi- vidual had was associated with a 35 per- cent lower risk of diabetes. Those who were in a low-risk category for only physical activity and diet almost one in four of the participants were 46 per- cent less likely to develop diabetes. Ad- ding not smoking and moderate alcohol use to the healthy exercise and dietary habits unfortunately only about 6 per- cent of participants resulted in an 82 percent lower risk of diabetes. Adding in not being overweight or not having a large waist circumference delivered an

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82/870 89 percent lower risk of becoming dia- betic. 44 What’s the bottom line Eight in ten cases of diabetes in the older adults in this study were attributed to the lack of these four lifestyle habits: being moder- ately physically active eating a diet higher in plant foods and lower in sug- ars processed foods and saturated fats not smoking and using alcohol in mod- eration defined as no more than one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men. This is without even factoring in being overweight or having a lot of belly fat It stands to follow that if a lack of these healthy lifestyle factors is causing diabetes then adopting these habits might help prevent eight in ten new cases of diabetes

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83/870 Mind-Set Intervention: Avoid Defeatist Thinking When you look at the list of low-risk healthy diet and lifestyle habits two things may come to mind: 1 These are the same habits you hear about all the time as help- ing you to lower your risk of a lot of health problems. 2 Many people have many high-risk factors and making changes to adopt some healthier habits is hard. Both these thoughts are legitimate and true. There is a tremendous amount of overlap between the things you can do to lower your risk of diabetes and numerous other health problems. If we treat our body the way it was evolutionarily designed to be treated our weight is more likely to hover in a healthy range our circulatory system will be less inflamed and therefore less likely to form cholesterol blockages our blood pressure will be lower and our brain will have better circulation access to the

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84/870 health-promoting nutrients it needs to stay fit well into old age. But we don’t live in the world of our cave-dwelling ancestors. Jobs have moved largely out of the fields and into factories and office cubicles and women have entered the workforce in huge numbers leaving fewer people home during the day to plan and prepare meals. The overly in- vasive convenience food industry has stepped in to fill the void with foods that are quick cheap and crammed with calor- ies fat and processed sugars. Technology has taken over all but a few lifestyle func- tions that used to burn a lot more calories. But there is a bright side: studies show that as little as 5 to 10 percent weight loss may help reverse your course toward diabetes even if in the end you are still technically “overweight.” The first step is to know where you stand on the blood glucose spec- trum. And there’s only one way to find that out: get tested.

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85/870 Diagnosing Prediabetes: The Testing Process According to the American Diabetes As- sociation ADA there are certain groups of people who should be tested and subsequently screened for predia- betes on a regular basis. Without obesity screening should begin at age forty-five. Regardless of age testing should be considered in all adults who are overweight with a BMI of 25 or greater and have additional risk factors including: • Physical inactivity • First-degree relatives with diabetes • High-risk race or ethnicity African American Latino Native Americ- an Asian American Pacific Islander

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86/870 • Hypertension greater than 140/90 mmHg or on medication for hypertension • HDL cholesterol level of less than 35 mg/dl and/or triglyceride level of greater than 250 mg/dl • Women with polycystic ovary syndrome • History of cardiovascular disease According to the ADA there are cur- rently three different ways to be tested for prediabetes: a hemoglobin A1C test also sometimes called a glycosylated hemoglobin test a fasting plasma gluc- ose test FPG and an oral glucose tol- erance test OGTT. Your blood glucose levels measured after these tests de- termine whether you have normal gluc- ose metabolism prediabetes or dia- betes. If you’ve had these tests done in

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87/870 the past comparing results can give you hindsight. A fasting glucose test can sometimes be called something slightly different on a lab report for example it may also be called a “serum glucose” that then says “status: fasting” or something like that. If you’re not sure what you’re looking for ask your health care provider. 45 All three of these blood tests should be conducted in a health- care setting: your doctor may want to repeat the test on a second day to con- firm a diagnosis. Urine tests are not useful for screening as they would only tell if you had poorly controlled blood glucose levels because you were already diabetic. Let’s take a closer look at each test.

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88/870 Hemoglobin A1C Test Sugar is “sticky” and when it’s floating around in your blood a certain amount of it will stick to the A1C component of your hemoglobin which is a protein in your red blood cells. Having some gluc- ose stuck to your hemoglobin is normal and is dictated by how much glucose is circulating in your blood. The amount of glucose adhered to these cells is ex- pressed as a percentage with 5.6 per- cent or less of the surface area of the A1C cell being covered with glucose con- sidered normal. Hemoglobin cells live for approximately three months so the hemoglobin A1C test result is con- sidered a reflection of your average blood glucose levels over the previous two to three months. Because hemo- globin A1C doesn’t change on a day-to- day basis you don’t need to be fasting for this test. A level of 5.7 percent to 6.4

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89/870 percent is considered prediabetes. A hemoglobin A1C greater than or equal to 6.5 percent is considered diabetes. Fasting Plasma Glucose FPG Test This test requires you to fast overnight for at least eight to ten hours. Blood is drawn early the next day before you eat or drink anything. This is a test of how efficiently you’re able to clear glucose out of your blood after several hours of overnight fasting. To interpret the test results a normal fasting plasma glucose is less than 100 milligrams per deciliter mg/dl. A fasting plasma glucose of 100 to 125 mg/dl is considered predia- betes. A fasting plasma glucose level at or above 126 mg/dl is considered diabetes.

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90/870 Oral Glucose Tolerance Test OGTT This test is used less often and requires an overnight fast. Your blood glucose is checked in the morning after fasting after which you drink a concentrated glucose solution that contains 75 grams of glucose the equivalent of drinking 23 ounces of soda very quickly. Your blood glucose is then checked again two hours later. This is a test of how well your body is able to respond to a large dose of glucose after an overnight fast. For some people drinking the super- sweet glucose drink can be quite chal- lenging To interpret the OGTT results a normal blood glucose is 140 mg/dl two hours after the glucose drink. A res- ult of 140 to 199 mg/dl two hours after the drink is considered prediabetes. Equal to or greater than 200 mg/dl is considered diabetes.

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91/870 It is also possible that a physician may diagnose diabetes based on a ran- dom plasma glucose of equal to or greater than 200 mg/dl in a patient with classic symptoms of hyperglycemia such as increased thirst and frequent urination. The testing for prediabetes is simple and noninvasive and can be rolled into a routine physical. Now that you have a better understanding of what predia- betes is and how to be tested for it it’s time to move on to what’s going in your body when you have prediabetes and how your diet and lifestyle affects the condition in either a positive or negative way. Managing prediabetes requires you to understand insulin resistance and the next chapter provides a science les- son on that topic. Don’t worry if physiology wasn’t your favorite subject in school. You only need to understand

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92/870 enough to be able to visualize how what you eat and whether you exercise or not affects what’s going on in your blood and subsequently with your health.

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2 Insulin Resistance Explained To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here

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The key to reversing prediabetes is to truly understand what’s going on in your body and how what you do affects it. My goal is to help you do that as nat- urally as possible so that you’re only

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91/870 relying on medications to fill the gap between the progress you make with a healthy diet and activity and your goal. Many people with prediabetes don’t even know they have the condition and if they do they understand very little about what that means. People are gen- erally more familiar with diabetes usu- ally because of the experiences of friends or relatives who have the disease and are suffering its consequences. If you know you have prediabetes and have read up on it with the best inten- tions to make positive lifestyle changes you may be having trouble figuring out just how to do it. Many people struggle with getting started. What should they be paying attention to Is it the number of carbs on the food labels Or sugars Or calories Is it okay to lose weight by any means necessary How much exer- cise is enough to make it worth doing

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92/870 If you’re overweight or obese any- thing that will help you lose weight as long as your overall nutritional needs are being met is going to help reverse your prediabetes. Fine-tuning your diet to target the underlying insulin resist- ance can help with the weight-loss pro- cess in surprising ways. Insulin resist- ance can condition the body to have blood glucose fluctuations that affect food cravings and your energy level as well as how you feel both physically and emotionally. If starting to adopt more healthy diet and exercise habits can make it so you’re not moody and crav- ing carbs and sugars all the time you may start to believe that change is pos- sible Let’s dive in and try to simplify the science. Although a full consensus has yet to be reached as to why insulin resistance is so common today evolutionarily

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93/870 speaking this ability may have helped us store energy as body fat and pre- serve muscle which helped preserve strength for hunting. 1 What once may have been meant to offer a shorter-term survival advantage under the current conditions of our longer life spans in- creased obesity and sedentary lifestyle is now contributing to a host of modern-day health problems. But what exactly is going on in the bloodstream muscles brain and body fat among other places when you have insulin res- istance What can you do to normalize it The Hormone Insulin Insulin is a hormone produced in the beta cells of the pancreas. Like other hormones in the body insulin is

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94/870 released into the blood to travel around the body exerting its effect. Insulin’s major action is to dictate how the body utilizes energy. Glucose is the body’s main energy source and its presence in the blood stimulates insulin’s release in- to circulation. Insulin secretion is critic- al to maintaining a stable and steady supply of glucose to the cells. According to the American Diabetes Association the fasting blood glucose level should be below 100mg/dl. The normal range for a blood glucose level if you have not previously fasted for eight to ten hours depends on the time of day the blood was drawn. For nonpregnant adults the normal range for a nonfasting blood glucose taken one to two hours after a meal is less than 180 milligrams per deciliter mg/dl. A normal blood gluc- ose taken before a meal is 70 to 130 mg/ dl. 2

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95/870 If blood glucose levels drop too low this condition is called hypoglycemia. If someone is hypoglycemic they may start to feel a little fuzzy like they’re not thinking as clearly as usual moody and hungry—often for the carbo- hydrates the body uses to replenish its blood glucose supply some people with insulin resistance report feeling intense cravings for carbs or sugar. If hypogly- cemia progresses to dangerously low levels which is only likely to happen to a diabetic who has taken too much in- jected insulin unconsciousness can res- ult—possibly even death. In hypergly- cemia when the blood glucose level is high the body tries to produce as much insulin as it can in an effort to lower blood glucose levels. Over time this can be harder to accomplish if someone is insulin resistant and may eventually result in diabetes. The body knows that

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96/870 having excess glucose circulating around isn’t good and will attempt to rid itself of the glucose by urinating it out through the kidneys. This accounts for the frequent urination and sub- sequent thirst seen as a symptom of diabetes. At times when energy in the form of food exceeds what the body needs in- sulin will promote the storage of glucose into the liver and muscle as glycogen which are basically little “sugar cubes” of glucose stored as fuel for later use. When these reserves are filled addi- tional excess glucose is redirected to be stored as body fat—that important cal- orie reserve that was critical to human survival when food supplies were much more variable and often inadequate. In- sulin promotes the storage of glucose as fat and glycogen and interferes with the breakdown of body fat known as

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97/870 lipolysis. During conditions of drought or famine it was good if insulin worked hard to encourage the storage of calorie reserves as body fat and make sure any withdrawn calories were being put to good use before letting them go. But this once-protective mechanism is back- firing today making it tough to shed ex- cess body fat that can become a health liability. Because too much circulating insulin can make it hard to mobilize that dreaded belly fat learning how to de- crease insulin resistance is one of the most effective strategies for trimming your waistline. Like many hormones the critical role insulin plays as an en- ergy regulator is just one of its many jobs in the body. Insulin has many “tar- get tissues” or cells throughout the body that rely on it for many important func- tions. The liver muscles blood vessels

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98/870 pituitary gland and brain all interact with insulin to perform different chem- ical activities in the body. The Complex Actions of Insulin What follows is a very basic description of the very complex actions of insulin in the body. To facilitate the clearance of sugar out of the blood and into the cells where it can be used for fuel insulin acts like a key connecting with a special lock on the cells known as an insulin receptor. Every cell has anywhere from hundreds to thousands of insulin re- ceptors. Once the insulin locates an in- sulin receptor on the cell the insulin will connect and unlock the cell allow- ing glucose to travel out of the blood

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99/870 and into the cell to be used as fuel. This process is very complex and involves a series of events geared toward allowing the cell access to an energy source. Under normal circumstances the in- sulin receptors are sufficiently sensitive to the action of insulin to allow a cell to be opened using normal amounts of in- sulin. But some people don’t use insulin as effectively as they should—they are insulin resistant—which makes their cells less sensitive to the action of in- sulin. The insulin comes knocking on the cell door but the cell is holding the door shut and won’t let the insulin do its job. The pancreas will sense this is happening and respond to this resist- ance by secreting more insulin into the blood—the goal being to overwhelm the cell with enough additional insulin that it will force the glucose into the cell. The result is that glucose clears out of the

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100/870 blood and into the cell but at the ex- pense of making the pancreas work harder than it should have to. If this goes untreated by diet exercise and weight loss if needed over time in- sulin resistance can exhaust the pan- creas rendering it less able to produce insulin. This is no different than what would happen if you put your car up on blocks turned on the engine and walked away: the engine would eventu- ally burn out. When the pancreas no longer has the reserves to secrete extra insulin in response to insulin resistance glucose will stop fully clearing out of the blood which initially shows up as pre- diabetes. 3 You can’t rebuild the pancreas’s abil- ity to produce insulin once it’s petered out you can only learn how to work with it as a lifelong limitation. This means that once you have diabetes you

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101/870 cannot cure it—the condition can only be managed. But with prediabetes you still have more insulin-producing ability than you would have if you let it go until you were diabetic so the condition can potentially be reversed. It’s much easier to prevent diabetes from happening than to take care of it once it occurs. Once excess insulin is secreted into the blood it stands to negatively affect the many other functions of the body that are also influenced by insulin. In insulin resistance it’s muscle fat and liver cells that don’t respond properly to in- sulin mostly muscle cells which gobble up 30 percent of the calories we eat. 4 But some cells remain sensitive to in- sulin such as the ovaries which react to being deluged with insulin due to in- sulin resistance triggered by other tis- sues. Insulin is a hormone and this overexposure can cause imbalances in

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102/870 reproductive hormones leading to the fertility problems seen in women with PCOS. Genetic Predisposition and Incidence of Insulin Resistance As mentioned earlier it is believed that insulin resistance is a strongly inherited trait. If others in your family have pre- diabetes diabetes metabolic syndrome or PCOS your chances of having it too are increased. But inheriting insulin resistance is hardly black or white. There is great variability in how sensit- ively any one person processes insulin much of which would fall within the normal range. Not everyone with pre- diabetes goes on to develop diabetes

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103/870 but the risk of doing so is high. Muscle cells need a lot of glucose to sustain activity which was particularly import- ant when we expended a lot of energy hunting and gathering. But the central nervous system needs glucose too to the tune of about 400 to 600 glucose calories a day to fuel the brain spinal column and nervous system. 5 If under conditions of physiological stress the muscle’s cells gobbled up most of the incoming glucose in the form of dietary carbohydrates the nervous system wouldn’t get its fair share. Making the muscle cells somewhat resistant to in- sulin during these stressful times would help preserve some glucose in the blood for the brain and other nervous system tissues. But what once may have been an im- portant trait is not so helpful in a world where more people are overweight than

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104/870 not and life is sedentary. These risk factors have largely converted insulin resistance from a short-term survival strategy into a chronic condition. The bottom line is that insulin resistance has a long genetic history in humans and is strongly affected by diet weight activity and lifestyle. If you have a ge- netic predisposition to it the condition has a much greater chance of expressing itself if you’re overweight and sedent- ary. There are many people with insulin resistance prediabetes and diabetes who would not have these conditions if they were active and at a healthy weight. At the same time there are many healthy-weight active people who would be insulin resistant and possibly diabetic if they were overweight and sedentary. It’s hard to say exactly how many people in the United States have insulin

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105/870 resistance because the condition is fre- quently undiagnosed until it turns into prediabetes or diabetes. In chapter 1 we discussed how common prediabetes and diabetes are—79 million people with prediabetes and 25.8 million people with diabetes—so you can imagine how many are already experiencing insulin resistance that has not yet progressed to prediabetes. These numbers have stead- ily increased over the past few decades and will continue to do so if we don’t change the course of things. Determin- ing just how insulin resistant someone might be without having yet progressed to prediabetes is not a perfect science. According to one study looking at in- sulin sensitivity in healthy individuals by insulin resistance expert Dr. Gerald Reaven there was 600 percent variabil- ity in how sensitively study subjects utilized insulin ranging from the most

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106/870 insulin sensitive to the least. Reaven es- timates that about 25 percent of that variability is probably due to being overweight 25 percent related to fitness level and the remaining 50 percent pos- sibly genetic. 6 These findings suggest there is poten- tially a lot of room for positively influ- encing any genetic predisposition to diabetes with diet and lifestyle change. But research tells us that progression to diabetes among those with prediabetes is not inevitable. Studies have shown that people with prediabetes who lose at least 7 percent of their body weight and keep as much of this weight off as pos- sible and engage in moderate physical activity at least 150 minutes per week can prevent or delay diabetes—and in some people even return their blood glucose levels to normal. For a 250-- pound man this means maintaining a

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107/870 weight loss of 17.5 pounds for a 200-- pound woman this means 14 pounds. And the exercise recommended is just half an hour five days a week. Sounds possible right Without question in- tensive lifestyle interventions are the most effective way to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes. 7 Beyond the blood tests that diagnose prediabetes insulin resistance doesn’t have universal signs and symptoms. But in my experience many people with in- sulin resistance have similar com- plaints. These include the following: • Fluctuations in energy level throughout the day—some start off energetic but crash in the afternoon • Frequent hunger and after eating not feeling full for long • Binge eating at meals

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108/870 • Constant cravings for sweets and other refined carbohydrates like white bread crackers or pasta • Irritability and feeling shaky if they go too long without eating this is the central nervous system acting up which might not be long at all compared to people without insulin resistance • Severe intolerance to very low-cal- orie diets particularly those that severely limit carbohydrates Of course these signs and symptoms can occur and be unrelated to insulin resistance but in my practice these are commonly expressed complaints. What’s striking about some people with insulin resistance is a feeling that food has an unusual hold over them that they don’t think other people experience. They often describe a feeling of being

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109/870 “addicted” to refined carbohydrates and sweets. Improving Insulin Resistance Through Diet and Exercise To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here The simplest way to start visualizing how we should be eating and changing our lifestyle is to imagine that primitive caveperson. We’re not going back to be- ing hunters and gatherers but let’s look at how life was different then: the primary difference being the level of activity. Compared to the modern-day coach potato or cubicle dweller hunters and gatherers burned hundreds if not

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110/870 thousands more calories daily. Acquir- ing and preparing food required a lot more effort physically and once eaten

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111/870 the food itself demanded more effort from the digestive tract. Food was much more fibrous and needed a lot more chewing in the mouth and grinding up in the stomach to get it down to a liquid form for absorption. The act of eating was more rigorous for the body and dragged out the eating and digestion processes. Compare that to the effort needed to chug down a sugar-loaded soda It is therefore genetically and physiologically more “normal” for us to eat food that is as minimally processed as possible. We should also deliberately seek out every available opportunity to physically move the body throughout the day. Although some people develop diabetes without being overweight and sedentary for most of them the writing has been on the wall for some time that diabetes is in their future. Fortunately

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112/870 new research supports the idea that making even very modest changes in diet and lifestyle may be enough to help postpone or even sideline the disease. Several studies have shown that diet and lifestyle interventions can prevent or delay progression to diabetes two of the most widely noted being the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study and the Dia- betes Prevention Program. Both looked at diabetes prevention and cardiovascu- lar disease prevention as these two dis- eases are so closely linked. Let’s discuss the compelling findings of these two studies. Mind-Set Intervention: Don’t Let the Science Scare You For many people it makes a big difference to finally get what’s going on in their body

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113/870 with all this blood sugar stuff. It’s one thing to be told to “just lose weight” or “cut back on your carbohydrates” and another thing to really understand why these strategies can make a real difference. But it’s also easy to feel like you’re drowning in the scientific details if you have prediabetes. Focus on what you can do about it. Try to keep an open mind and have no rigid timelines within which you feel you have to accom- plish things. It probably took years to get where you are so your reality isn’t going to change overnight. Take baby steps when implementing healthy changes in your diet and lifestyle. When you first start making changes you may notice some improvements fairly quickly in your weight and how you feel—a little lighter on your feet a little more ener- getic maybe a little more mood-stable. What matters most is that you hang in there for the long haul even when the road gets bumpy. This is about the rest of your

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114/870 life not just a few months. You want the changes you make to be sustainable. Keep telling yourself you can do this Put sticky notes on your kitchen cabinets on the dashboard of your car or on your computer at work as reminders that it is possible. Now is the time to take action The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study The first major research study on life- style and diabetes prevention came out of Finland in 2001. In the Finnish Dia- betes Prevention Study researchers randomly assigned 522 middle-aged overweight subjects 172 men 350 wo- men mean age of fifty-five mean BMI of 31 with impaired glucose tolerance to either an intervention or control group. 8 The people in the control group

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115/870 were given some oral information about diet and exercise along with a two-page pamphlet to take home at the start of the study and again at annual visits but no specific programs were offered to them. This could be compared to what many people traditionally get in the doctor’s office who do not then move on to more ongoing individualized coun- seling with a registered dietitian. In contrast those in the intervention group received individual nutrition counseling aimed at reducing weight and total intake of fat and saturated fat and increasing intake of dietary fiber and physical activity which was spe- cifically tailored to them based on three-day food records they filled out four times a year. The goals of the in- tervention were for the participants to lose at least 5 percent of their starting body weight to reduce fat intake to 30

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116/870 percent of their total calories and satur- ated fat to less than 10 percent of total calories and to increase fiber intake to at least 15 grams per 1000 calories con- sumed. Fruits vegetables whole grains low-fat dairy lean meats tub margarine spreads and heart-healthy monounsat- urated fats were encouraged. Parti- cipants in this group also received indi- vidualized advice on both aerobic and strength activities with an overall activ- ity goal of exercising at a moderate pace for at least thirty minutes a day. The average follow-up for the study was 3.2 years per participant. The results were quite interesting. During the course of the study the in- cidence of diabetes was 58 percent lower in the intervention group than in the control group even though a large portion of the subjects didn’t meet their

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117/870 weight-loss or diet goals. Some findings: • Of the 522 participants 86 were diagnosed with diabetes during the study—27 in the intervention group and 59 in the control group. • The likelihood of developing dia- betes was directly related to how many lifestyle goals were met—those who made significant changes experienced the greatest reduction in risk whereas those who didn’t make any changes had a 35 percent chance of becoming dia- betic during the three years of the study which is generally what would be expected in these high- risk patients. • The average amount of weight lost wasn’t much but the odds of be- coming diabetic were substantially

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118/870 lower in those who lost the target 5 percent. For someone who started out weighing 220 pounds for ex- ample this meant losing only about 11 pounds. • Even in the subjects who didn’t lose any weight hitting a relatively con- servative target of more than four hours of exercise a week was tied to a significantly lower likelihood of developing diabetes. • The researchers feel it is likely that any kind of activity—whether sports gardening household tasks or work-related activity—was simil- arly beneficial for preventing diabetes. The study subjects in the intervention group had a lot of support—seven ses- sions with a nutritionist during the first year and once every three months

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119/870 thereafter. But they also had a relatively low dropout rate which the researchers suggest makes the case that people with prediabetes are motivated to avoid dia- betes and that pessimism about over- weight sedentary people’s ability to make change is unwarranted. The Diabetes Prevention Program DPP The other much larger study published in 2002 the Diabetes Prevention Pro- gram confirmed that intensive lifestyle change is the most potent way to avoid diabetes even when stacked up against diabetes-prevention medication. 9 In this study 3234 nondiabetic parti- cipants average age of fifty-one mean BMI of 34 were recruited through twenty-seven clinical centers around the United States. Forty-five percent of the

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120/870 participants were from minority groups at higher risk of developing diabetes in- cluding African Americans Native Alaskans American Indians Asian Americans Hispanics/Latinos and Pa- cific Islanders. Study participants were randomly divided into three different groups: 1. Standard lifestyle recommenda- tions plus the diabetes drug met- formin also known as Glucophage at a dose of 850 milligrams twice daily. 2. Standard lifestyle recommenda- tions plus a placebo or dummy pill twice daily. 3. Lifestyle intervention group that received intensive training in diet physical activity and behavior modification.

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121/870 The standard lifestyle recommenda- tions for the medication and placebo groups were provided as written in- formation plus an annual twenty- to thirty-minute individual session that emphasized the importance of a healthy lifestyle. Participants were encouraged to lose weight and increase their physic- al activity—sound like your last doctor’s appointment The goals of the intensive lifestyle intervention group were to lose at least 7 percent of their body weight through a healthy low-calorie low-fat diet and to exercise at a moderate in- tensity for at least 150 minutes a week or about thirty minutes five days a week. The participants were individu- ally educated on how to achieve these goals using a sixteen-lesson curriculum covering diet exercise and behavior modification during the first twenty- four weeks of the study. The curriculum

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122/870 was designed to be flexible individual- ized and culturally sensitive. Sub- sequent monthly individual or group sessions reinforced the information. The average follow-up was 2.8 years per participant. The results of the DPP study were surprising. The incidence of diabetes was 58 percent lower in the lifestyle in- tervention group same as the Finnish study and 31 percent lower in the met- formin group compared to the placebo group. Almost twice as many people in the lifestyle intervention group avoided developing type 2 diabetes during the time of the study than those who got standard education and took diabetes medication. Some interesting findings: • Over the three-year period it was estimated that 28.9 percent of the placebo group and 21.7 percent of the metformin group developed

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123/870 diabetes compared with only 14.4 percent of the intensive lifestyle in- tervention group. • The lifestyle intervention was highly effective in all groups regardless of sex race ethnicity or age support- ing its usefulness in all age ethnic and cultural groups. Researchers believe that weight loss—achieved through better eating habits and exercise—reduced the risk of dia- betes by improving the ability of the body to use insulin and process glucose. • Lifestyle changes worked particu- larly well for people age sixty and older reducing their risk of devel- oping diabetes by 71 percent.

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124/870 Long-Term Benefits: The Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study For intervention studies like the DPP the hope is that the intervention put in play during the research phase provides lasting benefits for its participants. To see if that was the case a follow-up study the DPP Outcomes Study DPPOS followed the participants over the five years after the intervention. 10 Had the gains participants made during the trial been maintained after the study ended By the end of five years re- searchers found that those with predia- betes who had their blood sugar return to normal during the DPP even if it was only for a short period of time were 56 percent less likely to develop type 2 dia- betes in the five years after the study compared with those who remained persistently prediabetic. And it didn’t

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125/870 even seem to matter how the lower blood sugar was achieved—whether through diet changes only weight loss only increased exercise or a combina- tion of these lifestyle changes. An additional follow-up study of the DPPOS after ten years found the life- style group’s chance of developing dia- betes was still reduced by 34 percent. 11 Besides diabetes prevention another major goal of the DPP was to see if car- diovascular risk factors could be posit- ively affected by the changes designed to prevent diabetes. A ten-year follow- up study of the DPPOS released in 2013 looked at whether there were long-term differences in cardiovascular risk factors and use of cholesterol and blood pressure–lowering medications in the DPP intervention group compared with the other groups those on met- formin or a placebo. 12 Major

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126/870 reductions were seen for blood pressure and unhealthy LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels along with significant increases in healthy HDL cholesterol levels in all three groups. When it came to medications however cholesterol and blood pressure medication use was lower in the lifestyle intervention group. What can we conclude from these findings Lif estyle intervention helped the study subjects achieve similar long- term improvements in their cardiovas- cular risk factors as the other groups with less need to rely on medications. Given that cholesterol-lowering medica- tions can have significant side effects and they’re not designed to be an al- ternative to diet and exercise anyway it’s nice to know the same diet and life- style strategies seem to be able to kill two birds with one stone.

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127/870 The Importance of Scientific Studies Research has repeatedly demonstrated that diabetes is a preventable disease. In a perfect world up to 89 percent of type 2 diabetes could be avoided by pay- ing more attention to how we eat and getting some regular exercise. And exer- cise doesn’t need to be any more ag- gressive than taking a walk. The sooner you get on the prevention bandwagon the better. If you’re overweight and sedentary or have family members with diabetes regardless of whether you have other risk factors diabetes may be in your future. You should take steps now to reduce your risk. If you do have additional risk factors—like PCOS or metabolic syndrome or you’ve already had an elevated blood glucose screen- ing—it’s definitely time to pay attention

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128/870 and shift into gear with an action plan. Remember diabetes can’t be cured but you may be able to prevent or delay its onset by getting serious about diet ex- ercise and behavioral strategies that will improve your physical and emo- tional health as well as your quality of life. The information presented in part 2 of this book will help you get there.

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Part 2 THE PREDIABETES DIET PLAN: PREVENTING DIABETES

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3 Managing Your Carbohydrate Intake to Reverse Prediabetes

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130/870 To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here Now that you have a better understand- ing of prediabetes and its causes—and why you should eat differently and exer- cise more to manage the condi- tion— let’s talk specifics about how to make that happen. While weight loss is the most potent way to try to reverse prediabetes if you’re overweight in this chapter we’ll look at how what you eat affects your insulin response. Your Diet and Insulin Resistance What you eat affects your insulin re- sponse and these effects will differ

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131/870 whether someone is insulin resistant or not. As we covered in chapter 2 insulin resistance is a complex condition asso- ciated with many different health

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132/870 problems including diabetes gestation- al diabetes metabolic syndrome poly- cystic ovary syndrome PCOS cardi- ovascular disease and several different types of cancer. But there’s good news: controlling insulin resistance lowers the risks of all these conditions. Before re- viewing what happens during “normal” insulin and blood sugar glucose meta- bolism the terms “blood sugar” and “glucose” are used interchangeably throughout this book here are some facts: • Glucose is the body’s primary source of fuel feeding all of the body’s cells including muscles and organs such as the liver and the brain as well as body fat. • There has to be some sugar in the blood at all times as it’s the fuel of the human body. A normal

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133/870 nonfasting blood sugar generally runs somewhere between 70 and 115 milligrams per deciliter mg/ dl. • The glucose that’s in our blood- stream is a combination of glucose released from glucose reserves in the liver called glycogen and gluc- ose released into the blood after the digestion of food mainly from diet- ary carbohydrates. • When you eat carbohydrates it takes about sixty to ninety minutes for the majority of the carbs to be digested down to their most basic units glucose and released into your bloodstream. • How rapidly those sugars arrive in your bloodstream depends on how easy the carbs you just ate are to di- gest. In general refining or

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134/870 processing a carbohydrate before it’s consumed is in a way like pre- digesting it: your body is going to have less work to do on the inside to finish up the digestion process and release the sugars into the blood. For example soda is already “liquid sugar” so it will be released into your blood as glucose faster than the sugars from a bowl of plain oatmeal which is eaten in a much more natural form. • The rate of carbohydrate diges- tion—and therefore the rate at which your blood glucose levels will rise after eating a carb—can be in- fluenced by the glycemic index GI or glycemic load GL of a food. These terms are discussed in great- er detail later in the book.

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135/870 • How much sugar will ultimately be released into your bloodstream is directly proportional to how much carbohydrate you ate or drank—that is a large portion of carbs will result in a greater rise in blood glucose than a smaller portion. Now that we’ve reviewed the basics of blood sugar let’s look at blood sugar processing. What happens during “nor- mal” insulin and blood sugar metabol- ism and how are things different if you’re insulin resistant Let’s break the process down into steps with Joan our imaginary non-insulin-resistant woman: 1. Joan hasn’t eaten in a while so she has a normal baseline amount of sugar circulating in her bloodstream.

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136/870 2. For lunch Joan eats a turkey sand- wich and an orange along with a glass of milk. The bread from the sandwich the milk and the orange all contain carbs. 3. Within about an hour of eating the majority of the carbs Joan ate for lunch have showed up as glucose in her blood. She now has her baseline blood sugars plus the sug- ars from the carbs she ate for lunch. 4. The excess sugars from the foods Joan just digested don’t want to linger in her bloodstream for long. They want to move out and enter her cells all around her body so the cells can be energized and her blood sugar can return to normal. 5. For the sugar to enter the cells the cells need to be unlocked with the

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137/870 help of insulin which is released by the pancreas an organ that sits be- hind the stomach close to where the sugars exit the intestine and enter the bloodstream. Besides be- ing involved in sugar metabolism the pancreas also secretes digestive enzymes into the intestine to help break down food into nutrients. Shortly after the glucose arrives in the bloodstream it circulates through the pancreas which meas- ures the blood glucose and releases enough insulin into the blood to clear the excess glucose from the blood. 6. Now Joan has insulin circulating in her bloodstream along with gluc- ose. Think of insulin as a bunch of little keys that rush around the body unlocking the cells so glucose can exit the bloodstream and enter

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138/870 the cells to be incinerated for energy. 7. In order for the insulin keys to un- lock the cells they must first con- nect with “key holes” on the cells called insulin receptors. Once the insulin and insulin receptors con- nect the cells open up and allow the sugar to enter. This whole process takes about two hours at which point Joan’s blood sug- ar should be back within a normal range. But how is this different for someone who has insulin resistance Let’s take a look at James our imagin- ary man with insulin resistance: 1. James just had lunch with Joan and ate the same thing a turkey sand- wich an orange and a glass of milk.

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139/870 2. Like Joan James’s pancreas got the message about sugar in the blood and released what it thought should be the amount of insulin needed to unlock the cells and clear the excess sugars out of the blood. In his case however the insulin has trouble unlocking the cells. 3. When the insulin from James’s pancreas approaches the cells to hook up with the insulin receptors the insulin and the receptors don’t connect as efficiently as they should. It’s like having a key that looks like the right key to a door but when you put it in the lock it won’t turn to unlock so the door remains locked. On a cellular level the receptor is resisting the action of the insulin hence the term in- sulin resistance. The pancreas senses that this is happening—the

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140/870 sugars just aren’t clearing out of the bloodstream as efficiently as they should—and it responds by secret- ing more insulin into the blood. The idea is to overwhelm the cells with extra insulin forcing them to accept the glucose. In the early stages the pancreas has plenty of reserve insulin-making ability so the sugars do eventually clear out of the blood. The problem is that over time this extra work can ex- haust the pancreas to the point where it’s no longer able to secrete enough extra insulin to overcome insulin resistance. Over time this process can eventually lead to diabetes in anyone with insulin resistance. The pancreas may eventually wear out from overuse. When glucose from carbs comes calling for insulin to

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141/870 help escort it out of the blood the pan- creas no longer has the ability to pro- duce enough insulin. The result is pre- diabetes and maybe eventually diabetes. The Prediabetes- Carbohydrate Connection In recent years those trying to lose weight or “get healthy” have been at risk for jumping on the low-carb bandwag- on. The problem with this approach is that it discounts a large body of re- search supporting the value of including unprocessed carbohydrates in one’s diet for prevention of heart disease dia- betes and cancer. Low-carb diets have not been proven to result in lasting weight loss. But that doesn’t mean there

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142/870 isn’t room for improvement in the way the average American consumes carbs. The reality is that most of us eat far too many calories considering our ever- dwindling levels of physical activity. Ac- cording to the most recent 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examin- ation Survey NHANES conducted by the CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics which describes trends in our daily food intake over the past three decades American women increased their daily calorie consumption between 1971 and 2010 from 1542 calories a day to 1778 calories. During the same peri- od the calorie intake for men increased from 2450 calories a day to 2512 calor- ies. 1 These differences may not sound like much but an extra 236 calories a day for women adds up to an extra 86140 calories a year—or potentially thirty-five

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143/870 pounds of weight gain. For men the ex- tra 63 calories a day accrues to 22630 extra calories a year—or about 6.5 pounds of weight gain. Women have ac- cumulated excess calories at a rate of al- most four times that of men And none of this takes into account how much less active we are now on average when compared with activity levels in 1971. Equally distressing from 1970 to 2005 our intake of added sugars has in- creased a whopping 19 percent which on its own increased the average Amer- ican’s calorie intake by 76 calories a day. According to food trend surveys from the US Department of Agriculture the per-person amount of added sugars and sweeteners in the American diet totaled 142 pounds a year in 2005 up from 119 pounds a year in 1970. The most strik- ing change between 1970 and 2005 is the availability of corn sweetener which

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144/870 increased by 387 percent driven mostly by high fructose corn sweetener HFCS the use of which increased in the food supply from 3 percent in the 1970s to a current 76 percent of all corn sweeteners. 2 The jury is still out as to whether there’s anything uniquely un- healthy about HFCSs but what isn’t de- batable is the damaging health effects of eating or drinking too much sugar. Excessive sugar intake is contributing to a worldwide epidemic of obesity and heart disease and is increasingly being tied to escalating rates of diabetes. Ac- cording to the American Heart Associ- ation in 2001 to 2004 the usual intake of added sugars for Americans was 22.2 teaspoons a day 333 calories’ worth which is more than triple the associ- ation’s recommendation of no more than 6 teaspoons of added sugar for wo- men about 100 calories’ worth and 9

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145/870 teaspoons for men about 150 calories’ worth. 3 Compare that to the average 17 teaspoons of sugar in a typical 20-ounce soda and it’s easy to see how sugar in- take in the United States has spun out of control. Fortunately research pub- lished recently in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition suggests we may be backing off on our sugar intake mostly by cutting back on soda but we still have a long way to go toward curb- ing our national sweet tooth. 4 Chasing Dietary Fads To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here

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146/870 America has a history full of dietary fads and extremes and the 1980s was the decade to demonize fat. Research at the time suggested that eating too much fat was raising people’s risk of heart dis- ease so scientists and health advocates

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147/870 began clamoring for us to cut back on dietary fat. Initially these recommenda- tions made sense. Too much unhealthy saturated and trans fat is tied to cardi- ovascular problems and fatty foods are high in calories with every gram eaten adding 9 calories as opposed to carbo- hydrates and proteins which deliver only 4 calories per gram. After a few years it started to become clear that try- ing to avoid fat may take a bite out of blood cholesterol levels studies began to show a decline in cholesterol levels from the early 1980s to 2002 although some of this was due in part to the in- creased use of cholesterol-lowering medications but the fat-free part wasn’t helping us with our ever-expand- ing waistlines. How could this be What we now understand more is that most carbs don’t contain much protein which helps slow the passage of food

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148/870 from your stomach into your intestines helping you feel fuller longer. Also many people were loading up on refined “white flour” carbs that digest quickly causing a rapid rise in blood glucose and triggering a hefty demand for in- sulin—and subsequently more hunger. Many also forgot that “fat-free” doesn’t mean “calorie-free.” Refined carbs don’t control hunger for long which caused many people to continually graze on high-carb low-protein foods throughout the day leading to an actual increase in their calorie intake. By the end of the fat-free trend it was evident that simply trimming fat wasn’t the answer. You also have to control cal- ories if you want to lose weight. Fur- thermore some fats are healthy for us— like the omega-3 fats found in fish walnuts and flaxseeds monounsatur- ated fats such as olive and canola oil

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149/870 and those found in nuts seeds and avo- cados and the polyunsaturated fats in seeds and vegetable oils. When used in moderation these fats also slow down digestion helping us feel more satisfied and allowing us to hold our hunger at bay for longer. The rich taste and creamy mouthfeel of these fats also en- hances our enjoyment of eating which may help many people feel less de- prived. The bottom line is that it really comes down to the principle of the Two Qs: quality and quantity. We could have saved our future selves from the low-carb fad of the 1990s and early 2000s by opting instead for whole grains like whole grain bread oatmeal quinoa and brown rice. It seems we’re always looking for that perfect diet that is high in one thing and low in something else. But the best dietary ap- proach is to focus on the middle ground.

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150/870 The prediabetes diet plan recommenda- tion is to eat a diet moderate in less- processed carbs that are spread out in smaller doses over meals and snacks and pair them with lean proteins and small amounts of healthful fats wherever possible to help each eating episode feel more filling. Understanding Carbohydrates When trying to figure out whether what you’re eating contains carbs or not the first question to ask is does the food come from a plant Fruits vegetables although starchy vegetables which we’ll discuss later are the only signific- ant sources and grains all contain car- bohydrates. Milk and yogurt also

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151/870 contain carbs in the form of lactose. Al- though cheese is made from milk most of the carbohydrate is consumed by the healthy bacteria used to make the cheese so cheese contains little to no carbohydrate. These are all what we call “good carbs” or carbohydrates that contribute a lot of healthy nutrients to the diet in addition to glucose for en- ergy. Then there are the “empty calorie” carbs so-called bad carbs that have little to offer nutritionally beyond gluc- ose calories—items like soda candy cakes cookies ice cream chips and other snack foods. These foods provide few vitamins and minerals no fiber of- ten contain large amounts of unhealthy trans or saturated fats and are the source of many excess calories. Studies show that Americans con- sume too much added sugar and pro- cessed carbs and not enough healthful

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152/870 unprocessed carbs that can do your body good. It’s not that there is no room for special treats. Even the USDA’s Choose My Plate recommendation al- lows for some “just for fun” calories once your other needs for healthful foods are met. The problem is that many Americans are filling up on pro- cessed sugars and refined carbs without getting enough of the good stuff first If you go out of your way to include fruits and vegetables at meals and snacks— even if they’re not your favorite foods so not everything you’re loading up on is calorie heavy—it’s possible to make room for a small daily serving of something to indulge your sweet tooth. Including Carbs in Your Diet The “good carbs” are critical as a source of easy-to-access energy so you

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153/870 shouldn’t eliminate them completely. Carbs are quickly converted to glucose which acts as a fuel source for every cell in the body. The key is to remember the Two Qs: Choose the best-quality carbs while watching the quantity. According to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans the percentage of calories that should come from carbohydrates proteins and fats is not one size fits all. It depends on your preferences overall health and activity level. One thing’s for sure though: you can’t live without carbs. What too often gets lost in the discussion about how much carbo- hydrate is healthy is the incredibly valu- able role carbohydrates play in keeping us adequately nourished and feeling en- ergetic—if you choose the right ones. Foods that contain carbs make many valuable contributions to the body. As mentioned the biggest consumers of

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154/870 glucose are our muscles and central nervous system the brain spinal cord and nerves. Brain cells need twice as much energy as the other cells in the body. The central nervous system needs about 400 to 600 calories’ worth of carbs a day for those tissues to be fully fueled accounting for the sensations of weakness moodiness trouble focusing and in some people actual shakiness when we go too long without eating. In many people these symptoms cause in- tense cravings for carbs because your body knows what will bring your blood glucose levels back into the range that’s right for you. For those with a particu- larly sweet tooth the call may be more specifically for something sugary. Why wouldn’t the body feel this way We have instincts just like animals and if our blood glucose levels are drifting down because of carb deprivation it

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155/870 makes perfect sense that the brain would stimulate you to seek them out. This also explains why some people simply cannot tolerate very low-carb di- ets such as the Atkins nutritional ap- proach. It physically makes them feel weak cranky and sick Starches also known as com- plex carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are classified as either starches sugars or dietary fiber fiber will be discussed later in this chapter. Starches are long chains of sugar units hooked together. Because starches are large molecules when they hit your tongue they don’t taste sweet. During digestion the sugar units are separated from one another by digestive enzymes and are ultimately re- leased into the bloodstream in their most basic form as simple sugars gluc- ose galactose and fructose with gluc- ose being the main form used for

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156/870 energy. Your best choices for starches are whole grains because they have not been processed to remove their dietary fiber and health-promoting phytonutrients disease-fighting chem- icals in plant foods that support im- mune function squelch inflammation and act as natural antioxidants. Refined carbs on the other hand—like white rice regular pasta processed cer- eals and other grains made with white flour—have been stripped of their fiber and phytonutrients. Although in the United States most refined carbs are fortified with some vitamins iron and other minerals you can’t add back the phytonutrients. They’re gone forever. Sugars. Unlike starches sugars are either single-unit molecules glucose fructose and galactose that can be ab- sorbed whole or two units hooked to- gether sucrose lactose and maltose

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157/870 that need to break down into single units for absorption. Some people lack enough of the enzyme lactase that breaks lactose down into glucose and galactose causing symptoms of lactose intolerance diarrhea bloating and gas. Sugars are small molecules so they can snuggle right into your taste buds and stimulate that sensation of “sweet.” Sugars can be either naturally occurring in fruit and dairy foods packaged along with other healthful nutrients or added during processing nutritionally devoid of anything but sugar calories. Starchy vegetables. Most veget- ables contain very little carbohydrate. They’re mostly water and some fiber. For this reason they make a great “filler food” that we won’t officially count as carb foods in our discussions about managing carb intake. There is a short list of starchy vegetables their starch

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158/870 content makes them look more like bread than broccoli under a micro- scope that we count as a starch choice at a meal. These include potatoes sweet potatoes yams winter squash corn peas beans and plantains. You want to treat starchy vegetables as a starch when meal planning. Don’t eliminate them from your diet though. Brightly colored sweet potatoes and winter squash are far more nutrient-dense than white potatoes because of their high carotenoid content a natural anti- oxidant phytonutrient and they have a lower glycemic index more on that later. French fries—sadly listed as the number-one consumed vegetable in the United States—should not be regularly counted as a starch. Rather these should go on the “occasional treat list” because they are often fried in un- healthy fats and loaded with calories.

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159/870 Recommendations from the Professionals Choosing moderate amounts of whole grains starchy vegetables and beans to provide the bulk of your carbohydrate intake will add a lot of fiber and other healthful nutrients to your diet. Focus- ing on carbs across the board as “bad” and cutting them out of your diet en- tirely isn’t a good idea. This will likely leave you feeling tired and deprived robbing you of many nutrients your body needs for good health and optimal function. The official word on how we should be managing our carb intake comes from government agencies like the US Department of Agriculture the Centers for Disease Control CDC the US Department of Health and Human Services HHS and the National Insti- tutes of Health NIH. The following re- commendations were gleaned from the

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160/870 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americ- ans: 5 The recommended dietary allow- ance RDA for carbohydrates which should be viewed as the bare minimum for good health and energy is 130 grams. An example of what 130 grams of carbs looks like is four servings of grains two servings of fruits two servings of dairy milk or yogurt and three servings nonstarchy vegetables notice the healthy carb-controlled meal plan taking shape. Also from the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans: Sugars can be naturally present in foods such as the fructose in fruit or the lactose in milk or added sugars like sugars and syrups added at the table or during pro- cessing or preparation such as high fructose corn syrup in sweetened bever- ages and baked products. The “sugar” content listed on a food label includes

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161/870 both naturally occurring and added sug- ars. To see how much of this sugar is likely to be added look at the ingredient list on the food label. The closer to the top that a form of sugar is listed the higher the content of added sugars. La- bels can be confusing. For example consider 100 percent orange juice. Even though all the carbs in the OJ are natur- ally occurring fructose from the or- anges to the uneducated consumer it looks like OJ is loaded with “sugar”—however the ingredient list will show only oranges and maybe wa- ter no added sugars. The body’s response to sugars is ba- sically the same whether they are natur- ally present or added to the food. Natur- al sugars from fruit fructose and dairy lactose have an advantage because they’re packaged along with other healthful nutrients whereas added

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162/870 sugars supply calories but few or no nu- trients. Eating a lot of added sugars from foods or beverages including that sugar-loaded morning coffee has been tied to weight gain and poor-quality di- ets. On a food label any of the following terms indicate an added sugar: Brown sugar Lactose Corn sweetener Maltose Corn syrup Malt syrup Dextrose Maple syrup Fructose Molasses Fruit juice concentrates Raw sugar Glucose Sucrose High fructose corn syrup Sugar Honey Syrup Invert sugar White sugar

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163/870 Here are some other helpful tips from the 2010 Dietary Guidelines: • Aim for at least 2½ cups of veget- ables per day to reduce your risk of many chronic diseases. • The majority of our fruit servings should come from whole fruit. One serving a day of 100 percent fruit juice 1 cup can add some import- ant vitamins and minerals to the diet but no fiber but drinking too much juice can contribute un- wanted weight gain. Dried fruit can be included as well but only about 2 tablespoons give you the same amount of carbs and calories as a whole piece of fruit. • Legumes—such as dry beans and peas—are especially rich in fiber and protein and should be con- sumed several times a week.

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164/870 • Half or more of all your grains should come from whole grains such as whole grain cereal bread and crackers brown rice barley quinoa and whole wheat pasta. Nutrient-rich whole grains have been linked to lower rates of obesity heart disease and dia- betes and they are more filling than refined carbohydrates. • The percentage of your daily calor- ies that should come from carbs ranges from 45 to 65 percent de- pending on your individual health needs at the lower end in the case of those who are insulin resistant higher than this for endurance ath- letes. Added sugars should be limited. • Your daily dietary fiber intake for both men and women should be 14

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165/870 grams per every 1000 calories con- sumed or on average between 20 and 35 grams of fiber a day. Dietary surveys suggest most Americans eat only about half that or 14 grams a day. Ideally most of that fiber would come from naturally occurring fibers in whole grains fruits and vegetables as opposed to foods that have fibers added to them such as yogurt or white bread with added fiber which doesn’t count as a whole grain. There is ample reason to include some good-quality carbohydrate in your diet. Unless you drown them in butter or cheese sauce quality carbs provide fiber phytonutrients and satisfaction with your meal without loading you down with excess calories. But it’s worth repeating: it’s all about the

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166/870 quantity. There are no free rides when it comes to carbs or any other calorie- containing food for that matter. You can still gain weight by eating bran cereal brown rice or whole wheat pasta if you eat more than you need to balance your calorie intake and activity. The Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here During the low-carb diet craze many people became familiar with the term “glycemic index” GI. The glycemic in- dex is a numerical system that measures the rate at which carbs from food arrive

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167/870 in the bloodstream as glucose in the hours after they are eaten. The original research was conducted in the mid-1980s and was designed to help

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168/870 people with diabetes determine how dif- ferent foods might affect their blood sugar. To determine GI a 50-gram por- tion of a carb-containing food is fed to nondiabetic volunteers and their blood glucose levels are then checked at inter- vals over the following hours. All foods tested are compared to the response of a dose of pure oral glucose this is what you drink for a glucose tolerance test which has a rating of 100. The test food is rated based on the percentage it raises blood sugar compared to oral glucose for example unsweetened oat- meal raises blood sugar 55 percent as much as glucose so the GI is 55. A low GI food has a rating of 55 or less a medium GI food is rated 56 to 69 and a high GI food is rated 70 or higher. Several factors affect GI includ- ing how acidic the food is how much the food is processed or cooked

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169/870 whether it contains fiber or if it is eaten along with other foods. In general foods that raise blood glucose more rap- idly will have a higher GI rating. However portion size limits how much any food can raise blood sugar levels re- gardless of its GI. Some foods—like a big bagel or a cup of cooked white rice— can easily deliver a 50-gram dose of carbs. Other foods—like carrots for example which were routinely deemed “bad for you” during the low-carb days for having a high GI—are rarely eaten in 50-gram doses that would be about 1½ pounds of carrots or alone without other foods. A limitation of the GI sys- tem is that solely focusing on the ratings of different foods may distract from the fact that portion control is still ex- tremely important. To account for usual portions of carb- containing foods another system has

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170/870 been developed called the glycemic load GL which takes into account the GI and the amount of carbohydrate in a typical serving within which carrots rate very favorably. A low GL is less than 10 moderate is 11 to 19 and high is 20 or above. The simple interpreta- tion of GI/GL is that the closer the food is to the form it occurs in nature the lower the GI/GL and the more pro- cessed it is the higher the GI/GL. Pairing carbs with proteins and healthy fats keeping portion control in mind also tempers the effect on blood sugar of any carbohydrate. The glycemic index can be a useful system to use alongside a carb-controlled diet as a means of increasing your intake of foods that are healthier and more filling. But again using the GI or GL systems alone to determine what you should be eating is too simplistic

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171/870 because it doesn’t account for the amount of carbs or calories in a food. Just because a food has a low GI does not mean you can eat all you want. For more on the glycemic index and glycem- ic load of foods visit www.glycemicin- dex.com. Facts About Fiber Fiber is a type of carbohydrate that human beings can’t digest. As such we need to sift through dietary fiber during digestion to extract the digestible carbs from the food which increases the time it takes for them to show up as glucose in our blood. Re- search shows that dietary fiber may help improve blood glucose levels in those with diabetes. 6 Dietary fiber also increases the feeling of fullness after a meal. Dietary fibers are categorized as water soluble and water insoluble. Water-soluble fibers can

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172/870 help lower dangerous LDL-cholesterol levels and are found in oats peas beans apples citrus fruits carrots barley and psyllium. 7 Water-insoluble fibers are strong contributors to digestive health because they add bulk to the stool speeding up the passage of waste through your gut. Fruit and vegetables particularly the skins whole wheat and wheat bran products nuts and seeds are all good sources of in- soluble fiber. Many plant foods contain both soluble and insoluble fibers. When a grain is stripped of its fiber it’s also stripped of the “germ” which is where most of the vitamins minerals and phytonutri- ents are stored.

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173/870 The Skinny on Artificial Sweeteners As concern about excessive carb intake has increased an ever-expanding list of artificial sweeteners has infiltrated the food supply. Those currently available include aspartame NutraSweet Equal saccharin Sweet’N Low Sugar Twin sucralose Splenda acesulfame-K Sweet One Sunett and stevia Truvia Pure Via. Artificial sweeteners are reg- ulated by the Food and Drug Adminis- tration and are generally recognized as safe. One downside to artificially sweetened foods however is that they are generally highly processed and devoid of healthful nutrients. Given the lack of benefit to consuming them I’d play it safe and limit them to a serving or two a day in case scientists discover something harmful about them in the

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174/870 future. Why make a guinea pig out of yourself Two Approaches for Managing Carbs The prediabetes diet plan offers two ap- proaches for managing the amount of carbohydrate you’re eating: the balanced-plate approach and the carb- counting approach these are detailed in chapters 4 and 5. Which method you prefer depends on whether you’re more comfortable at least in the beginning with making more general changes or if you prefer a more controlled approach of working within a specific carb budget at each meal or snack. My personal preference is to start with broader changes knowing you can always

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175/870 tighten things up as time goes on and you become more confident in your ability to read labels and manage your portions. The balanced-plate approach works well for a lot of people just getting star- ted because they can focus on simple strategies that shift carb intake to a lower level made up of better-quality choices. For others who perhaps are more into numbers or who need some hard-core boundaries on carb intake to help with portion control there’s the carb-counting approach. Both methods can result in good control of carbo- hydrate and calorie intake. There is no right or wrong between the two. I em- brace a start-out-small approach that only needs to get as complicated as my clients want it to. Regardless of the method you choose spreading carbs out into smaller

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176/870 portions throughout the day is critical to the success of the prediabetes diet plan. When you eat carbs within an hour the majority have been digested and released as glucose into your blood. The goal of these carb-distributed plans is to maintain a sustained blood glucose level that fluxes within a steady range—not too high not too low—so your blood glucose levels are rolling like hills rather than widely varying in a mountains-and- valleys pattern. When you eat a moderate amount of carbs at once you get a more muted insulin re- lease that reduces the pancreas’s work- load and should help bring glucose levels back to baseline without over- shooting the mark and causing sensa- tions of low blood sugar and subsequent hunger. With a large load of carbs eaten at once you’ll respond with a more aggressive insulin surge which

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177/870 will lower your blood glucose levels— possibly too much—causing sen- sations of low blood sugar and sub- sequent cravings for carbs as a means of restocking blood glucose levels to a steady state. Taking all that into account it makes sense that if you eat a breakfast that’s lower in carbohydrate than it has been you may also like to have a fruit or some other small portion of carbohydrate with or without a small amount of pro- tein midmorning to keep yourself from becoming overhungry by lunch. Lunch and dinner are usually significantly farther apart so a planned protein and carb snack with something you bring to the office from home which is generally a healthier choice eaten midafternoon when you’re maybe a little hungry but not starving can go a long way toward preventing extreme hunger and

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178/870 subsequent overeating. If you don’t want to overeat you need to eat fre- quently enough to help keep your hun- ger in check. And that takes forethought and planning. As we move on to chapter 4 we’ll start with the balanced-plate ap- proach. Chapter 5 covers the carb- counting method. Whether you ever get to this more advanced number-crunch- ing part of the prediabetes diet plan is entirely your choice.

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4 Building a Balanced Plate: Carb-Distributed Diet Approach 1

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To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here The balanced-plate approach focuses on restructuring how different kinds of foods populate your plate based on their

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177/870 carbohydrate content. This method is similar to those of other organizations including the USDA’s ChooseMyPlate.gov which replaced the Food Pyramid with the plate approach the American Institute for Cancer Re- search’s New American Plate for cancer prevention and the Harvard School of Public Health’s Healthy Eating Plate— all of which are designed to pro- mote a healthier weight better heart health and a lower risk of diabetes and cancer. 1 There are multiple health bene- fits to be reaped from this approach. Contrary to the typical American diet— where half the plate is protein like meat or chicken or half the plate is starch from rice potato or pasta—with the balanced-plate approach half the plate is nonstarchy vegetables.

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178/870 The idea is to manage what’s on your plate so you’re visually satisfied and don’t feel deprived but the net effect of what happens in your bloodstream and metabolism is conducive to lowering your circulating insulin levels and trim- ming calories from your diet. Let’s break down the balanced-plate ap- proach into steps including what to eat and why.

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179/870 Balanced Plate: Step 1 Cover half your plate with nonstarchy veget- ables. What’s so great about this veggie-heavy approach First plate size matters. Studies show that bigger plates encour- age bigger portions. In the 1980s plates averaged ten inches in diameter but today plates average twelve inches across never mind the much larger square and rectangular platters that are so big some people report not being able to fit them into their cabinets Din- ner plates a century ago were the size of modern-day salad plates so try packing away your dinner plates and opt for salad plates as your standard dinner- ware. They may also serve as a reminder to start your meal with a filling salad loaded with low-calorie nutrient-rich vegetables. If you then eat your main

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180/870 meal off the same plate it will also save on after-dinner cleanup One of the main purposes of covering half your plate with vegetables is to help take up space in your stomach with foods that are low in carbohydrates and calories because they’re mostly water. Part of what contributes to the biologic- al process of feeling full is that as your stomach stretches out chemicals are re- leased into your system stimulating that feeling of fullness. If you don’t have any vegetables on your plate by default you’ll be relying on more calorie-dense foods—like meat chicken cheese bread pasta rice and potatoes—to do all the stretching. You want less room on your plate—and in your stom- ach— for carb- and calorie-rich food. Covering half your plate with vegetables is healthy for loads of reasons: not only will it help you lose weight and blunt

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181/870 your insulin response it will also lower your risk of heart disease cancer and many other chronic health problems. Vegetables can be cooked raw or served in a soup or salad. Eating more does require planning how and where you’re going to fit them in. Start your meal with a salad with low-fat dressing which may help fill you up and blunt your appetite and follow it up with one or two cooked vegetables. Broth-based vegetable soup makes for a good meal starter. Filling up on this mostly water food at the beginning of a meal may help reduce your intake of the more calorie-dense foods served later. Homemade soup is one of the easiest things to prepare in bulk even if you just make it up as you go along using a premade broth frozen vegetables and a can of kidney beans. When choosing ve- getables include a variety of colors.

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182/870 Besides diversifying your intake of vit- amins and minerals many of the health-promoting phytonutrients in plants are the same compounds that give a plant its pigment. Varying color varies phytonutrients so if you find you’re always eating green vegetables for example throw in some red yellow orange purple and white ones to mix up your phytonutrients. If you haven’t been a vegetable eater now is the time to start retrying all those vegetables you assume you don’t like to see if your taste has changed. Just because you didn’t like something earlier in life doesn’t mean you still won’t like it particularly if it’s prepared in a more contemporary way. Taste does change over time but you’ll never know if you don’t take a chance. Try different vegetables raw steamed roasted sautéed in olive oil and garlic tossed in

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183/870 lemon juice or balsamic vinegar mixed into a soup on top of a pizza or grilled on the barbecue. There are bound to be some vegetables you like if you keep an open mind. Don’t assume you’ll hate something before you try it. Take advantage of opportunities to try something new such as when eating at a friend’s house or dining out. Take a trip to a farm stand or produce market where sellers often share tips and re- cipes on how to prepare their foods. I’d never eaten brussels sprouts until sever- al years ago when I had some roasted while dining out. I couldn’t believe how delicious they were and we’ve been cooking them at home ever since. It’s not that I thought I wouldn’t like them I’d just never given them much thought.

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184/870 Balanced Plate: Step 2 Cover about 25 percent of your plate with lean protein including some plant sources. If there’s one thing we learned from the low-carb craze it’s that protein is important. It slows the rate at which food leaves your stomach lending a greater feeling of fullness to a meal. Think about it: How long does a salad with fat-free dressing last you before you feel hungry again What if you add some grilled chicken a hard-boiled egg or some beans or a bit of all three In- cluding protein on your plate definitely holds hunger at bay for longer. Because the same fats that are bad for your heart saturated and trans fats may worsen insulin resistance it’s important to pick lean sources of protein. These include the following:

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185/870 • Chicken or turkey breast not fried • Fish and seafood not fried • Lean meat anything with the words “loin” “round” or “flank” in the name or 90 percent lean or leaner • Tofu tempeh and other foods made with soy like veggie burgers tofu dogs and TVP textured veget- able protein • Beans such as kidney beans lentils chickpeas garbanzos white beans cannellini black beans and pinto beans Soy foods and beans also count as carbohydrates and they are good sources of dietary fiber which helps to blunt the postmeal glucose response. It makes sense however to keep an eye on the other sources of carbs in the meal one of the unique challenges for

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186/870 vegetarians. Beyond hunger and gluc- ose/insulin control protein is import- ant to the body for many reasons and is often neglected particularly by women trying to lose weight who may view pro- tein foods as “fattening.” Balanced Plate: Step 3 Cover the remaining 25 percent of your plate with a healthy starch choice such as a whole grain or starchy veget- able. During the low-carb years all types of carbs including fruit which most people intuitively know is good for you were deemed bad because “they contain too much sugar.” But eating specific foods doesn’t make you fat. Eat- ing too many calories and not burning them off is what causes weight gain over

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187/870 time. High-quality starch choices in- clude brown or wild rice whole wheat pasta quinoa or whole grain breads. Starchy vegetables include potatoes sweet potatoes yams winter squash peas corn and beans such as kidney or garbanzo beans. Allotting one-fourth of a medium-sized plate takes care of the quantity as long as you abstain from seconds If that portion size still seems vague take your knowledge a step fur- ther by learning how to count carbo- hydrates see chapter 5. Balanced Plate: Step 4 Include a dab of healthy fat to enhance the flavor and add some healthful nutrients. The balanced plate accounts for the carbo- hydrate protein and nonstarchy

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188/870 vegetable part of the meal. But what about the fat Including some fat en- hances the flavor and texture helps with absorption of fat-soluble nutrients vitamins A D E and K as well as many phytonutrients helps foods brown dur- ing cooking and generally makes food taste good The key is to mind the Two Qs quality and quantity. The fats of the heart-healthy Mediterranean diet like olive oil canola oil nuts seeds and avocados are good for you. But when it comes to calories fat is fat. Whether it’s heart-healthy olive oil or butter it’s still 120 calories per table- spoon. What is a reasonable amount of fat Try limiting it to two servings per meal. The following is a list of what counts as a serving of fat: • 1 teaspoon vegetable oil preferably olive canola or peanut butter or tub margarine trans fat–free only

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189/870 • 1 tablespoon light margarine trans fat–free only • 1 tablespoon seeds sesame pump- kin or flaxseeds • ounce nuts for specifics see the sidebar “Nuts: An Important Caveat” • 1 tablespoon pine nuts • 1½ teaspoons nut butter • 2 teaspoons tahini sesame paste • 2 teaspoons mayonnaise • 1 tablespoon reduced-fat mayonnaise • 1 tablespoon regular salad dressing • 2 tablespoons reduced-fat salad dressing • 8 olives • 2 tablespoons of avocado

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190/870 Remember the recommended two servings include both fats used in cook- ing and fats added to foods at the table. Nuts olives and avocado are great ad- ditions to a salad which likely also has dressing on but you need to watch the quantity. One advantage to cooking at home is that you can control the amount of fat you use. Mealtime Extras As you can see we haven’t accounted for fruit milk and yogurt on our bal- anced plate but you still need to pay at- tention to their carbohydrate content. The simple approach is to limit fruit in- take to one serving at a time and to choose either an eight-ounce glass of milk or soy beverage or a six- to eight- ounce yogurt at a meal or snack not

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191/870 both. It is possible to mix and match carbs so things aren’t this cut and dried but in my experience it works well to aim for two to three servings of whole fruit daily but spread out over the day so you’re eating only one at a time. A serving of fruit is roughly the size of a tennis ball. For exact portions of differ- ent fruits see the fruit list. That way your body has only one fruit’s worth of sugar to deal with in the hours after your meal or snack. It’s okay to stop right here with the balanced-plate approach and not move on to counting carbs. But if you’re ready to wade in for more specifics or feel you need them to manage your portions read on. Even if you decide not to count every gram of carbohydrate you eat the lists of carb-containing foods will help you figure out what foods you should be

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192/870 limiting portions of on your balanced plate. Mind-Set Intervention: Don’t Let Sabotaging Thoughts Sideline You Some of you may be skeptical that a diet that’s not highly structured can be effective. Over the years I’ve had countless requests from clients who feel they need to be told exactly what to eat every day or feel they’ll find a way to blow it and fail yet again. My response is this: “Have superstructured di- ets worked for you in the past Were you able to make changes you could live with long term” Usually the answer is no but if some aspects of your structured plan worked well in the past you should take those elements and incorporate them into the new habits you’ll need to make perman- ent change. But you need to let go of the idea of forever eating off a meal plan.

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193/870 Remember the 80/20 rule: if most of the time you’re eating pretty well and exer- cising there should be some wiggle room in your eating plan. There’s only so much food restricting you can do before you’ll be hungry all the time get frustrated and eventually quit.

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5 Carbohydrate Counting: Carb- Distributed Diet Approach 2 To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here

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How much carbohydrate should you eat to meet your body’s needs without over- restricting the healthy carbs that will do

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195/870 you good The best way to figure this out is to estimate your calorie needs and then assess how much of that should come from carbohydrate. With insulin resistance you’ll want around 45 per- cent of your total daily calories to come from carbs. None of this discussion is designed to make you obsessed with numbers but rather to give you an idea of what a reasonable amount of carbo- hydrate is for you and how to best con- sume that over the day. Crunching the Numbers There are simple ways to estimate your calories the most user friendly being re- sources available on the Internet. Many online calorie estimators exist that will ask your age weight height sex and activity level and then estimate your

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196/870 calorie needs for maintenance of your current weight or for weight loss if that’s your goal. For example visit the USDA’s ChooseMyPlate.gov and hit the tab for the SuperTracker where you can plan analyze and track your diet and physical activity. You can also look up individual foods to see or compare their nutritional value find recommenda- tions for what and how much you should eat compare your food choices to these recommendations and to your nutrient needs and assess personal physical activities and how to improve. 1 To get started you must first create a profile by entering your personal data age sex height weight and average activity level into the SuperTracker tool. Your profile will then outline a cal- orie level and food plan for maintaining your weight. If you’d like to lose weight visit the “My Weight Manager” page

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197/870 where you can enter in a goal weight and the program will recalculate your calorie level and meal plan for success. SuperTracker allows you to set up to five goals related to weight calories physical activity food groups and nu- trients—your progress toward these goals will be reported back to you as you log your food and activity into the web- site. It takes some time to learn how to use the program but once you’ve got it down it can be a very helpful tool. Online and smartphone applications abound in the arena of tracking calorie intake and physical activity. Popular websites and apps include MyFit- nessPal.com Lose It and the American Cancer Society’s Calorie Counter Calcu- lator to name just a few. 2 Given the in- dustry that’s rising up around managing the obesity epidemic new and always improving nutrition feedback and

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198/870 tracking programs are coming out fast and furious these days. See the Re- sources section at the back of the book for more on the many options available that can assist you with tracking your nutrition and weight-loss goals. If you prefer the old-fashioned longhand way of crunching out your cal- ories you can also use the Mifflin St. Je- or equation used by nutrition profes- sionals to estimate calorie needs in both healthy normal-weight and obese adults. 3 The equation estimates resting calorie needs on top of which you need to add average physical activity. You will definitely need a calculator. Here’s how it works: First calculate your basal metabolic rate BMR which tells you how many calories you burn at rest just keeping yourself alive basically the caloric cost of keeping your heart beating

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199/870 breathing digesting food maintaining your muscles and other organs and so on. Like most scientific equations the Mifflin St. Jeor uses metric measure- ments so you’ll need to calculate your weight in kilograms kg and your height in centimeters cm. Here’s how you do it: 1 kg 2.2 pounds so a 150-- pound person weighs 68 kg. Also 1 inch 2.54 cm so a 6-foot-tall person 72 inches is approximately 183 cm. It’s okay to round up or down to the nearest kilogram or centimeter. Now that you know your weight and height in metrics let’s crunch some numbers: For women: BMR 10 × weight in kg + 6.25 × height in cm – 5 × age – 161 For men: BMR 10 × weight in kg + 6.25 × height in cm – 5 × age + 5

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200/870 Once you’ve calculated your BMR you need to multiply that number by an “activity factor” which adds on addi- tional calories for activity: 4 • Sedentary meaning little to no physical activity 1.2 • Light activity up to three times a week BMR × 1.375 • Moderate activity three to five times a week BMR × 1.55 • Vigorous activity six to seven times a week BMR × 1.725 • Extreme activity such as intense sports training six to seven days a week BMR × 1.9 Let’s run through an example using a thirty-five-year-old woman who weighs 185 pounds and is 5 feet 7 inches tall: 10 × weight of 84 kg + 6.25 × height of 170 cm – 5 × 35 – 161

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201/870 1566 calories for BMR. Her current activity is light so we take her BMR of 1566 calories × 1.375 2153 calories. Remember this number is to maintain her current weight. But what if she wants to lose weight The conventional wisdom is that if you want to aim for about one pound of weight loss per week you should trim 500 calories from your diet based on the rough as- sumption that a pound of body fat is equal to about 3500 calories so eating 500 fewer calories for seven days theor- etically should result in a one-pound loss of body fat. But do understand that the mathematical estimates of how much weight you should lose aren’t per- fect. Not everyone will lose a pound per week if they eat 500 fewer calories per day. We each have our own unique ge- netics and physiology that can affect calorie balance. The best we can do is

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202/870 estimate calories needed for weight loss and fine-tune things as we go along. For many of us cutting 500 calories is too extreme though—our brains would definitely notice an absence of 500 calories possibly ramping up our preoccupation with food. A better al- ternative—and one that recognizes the mandatory contribution of regular physical activity to weight loss—is to trim about 200 to 250 calories from your diet and add in an equal amount of calories burned through physical activ- ity. If you’re really stressed about cut- ting calories and want to take things slower cut even fewer calories and get serious with the exercise. You’ll likely still lose a little weight but eventually you’ll hit a plateau where you stop los- ing. At this point you may be ready to trim more calories. Research suggests that you can reduce your food intake by

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203/870 about 20 percent and still fly below the radar of that primitive monitoring sys- tem in your brain that will ramp up your preoccupation with food if it thinks you’re eating too little. 5 Again it’s better to go slow and steady focusing on making permanent changes that can stick rather than cut- ting a lot of calories and losing weight fast only to regain it “with interest” when your ability to tolerate the drastic change burns out. No calorie calculator can take into account body composition. There will always be people who weigh more because they have more lean muscle which only very expensive high-tech body composition analysis machines will be able to figure out. Rest assured however that most of us do not fall into this category

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204/870 Calculating Carbs from Calories Once you’ve calculated your total calorie needs to figure out the calories that should come from carbohydrates and then the grams take your total calorie number and multiply it by 0.45 be- cause we’re aiming for 45 percent of your daily calories to come from carbs. Your registered dietitian may recom- mend a different percentage of calories from carbohydrate which you can easily adjust for by changing the multiplier. For example for 50 percent of calories from carb multiply your base calorie number by 0.50 instead of 0.45. This is a rough estimate of the number of calor- ies you should eat from carbohydrates per day. For example say your estim- ated needs are 2000 calories a day. Take 2000 × 0.45 900 carb calories.

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205/870 Food labels don’t list carb calories though they list grams. There are 4 cal- ories per gram of carbohydrate so if you take that 900 and divide it by 4 you’ll get your total grams of carbo- hydrate per day which in this example would be 225 grams. Remember that this amount of carbohydrate will be di- vided over three meals and at least one or two snacks. If you look at any food la- bel large enough to list the recommen- ded daily values from total fat satur- ated fat cholesterol sodium total car- bohydrate and dietary fiber they are based on a 2000-calorie diet. This is re- ferred to as the “footnote” of the Nutri- tion Facts label and appears at the bot- tom of the chart on the following page.

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206/870 Nutrition Facts Serving Size 1 slice Servings Per Con- tainer 20 Amount Per Serving Calories 90 Calories from Fat 15 Daily Value Total Fat 2g 3 Saturated Fat 0g 0 Trans Fat 0g Cholesterol 0mg 0 Sodium 130mg 5

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207/870 Total Carbo- hydrate 15g 5 Dietary Fiber 2g 8 Sugars 1g Protein 4g Vitamin A 0 Vitamin C 0 Calcium 4 Iron 4 Percent daily value reflects “as packaged” food. Percent daily values are based on a 2000 cal- orie diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs: Calories: 2000 2500

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208/870 Total Fat Less than Less 65g 80g Sat Fat Cholesterol than 20g 25g Less than 300mg 300mg Sodium Less than 2400mg 2400mg Total Carbohydrate 300g 375g Dietary Fiber 25g 30g Calories per gram: Fat 9 Carbohydrate 4 Protein 4

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209/870 The recommended daily value for car- bohydrate based on a 2000-calorie diet

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210/870 is 300 grams per day. My calculation for someone with insulin resistance recom- mends an allowance of about 225 grams of carb per day. This is 25 percent below the usual recommendation for carbs at this calorie level but it is not a “low- carb” diet. Compare this to the 25 grams of carbs a day that are recom- mended during the “induction” phase of the Atkins diet. Many lost weight on this diet in the short term but many repor- ted problems with weakness head- aches and serious irritability when they subjected their brain and nervous sys- tem to so little carbohydrate. Long term it’s neither healthy nor realistic to stick to consuming so little carbo- hydrate. How many people actually thought they could live out the rest of their lives without ever eating bread or pasta Also although the protein- and fat-dense foods touted in the Atkins

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211/870 plan were music to the ears of many in the words of one of my patients: “I nev- er thought I could get sick of the taste of bacon” Planning Meals and Snacks Within Your Carb Budget Once you have your carb budget figured out you need to determine how to best distribute them over the day. If like the example above you come up with 225 grams of carb it’s not going to help if you decide to divide them into two huge meals that are roughly 112 grams each. This large load of carbohydrate eaten at one sitting will result in a pretty large bolus of glucose released into your blood an hour later with a subsequent hefty release of insulin into your sys- tem. Assuming a healthier eating pat- tern of three meals a day a much more

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212/870 reasonable amount of carbohydrate to consume at one meal is in the range of 45 to 60 grams per meal for women and 60 to 75 grams per meal for men wo- men may also fall into this range if they’re tall or very active. Aiming for a carb range at meals and snacks is a good thing. It prevents you from obsessing about a specific number and allows for some flexibility. Given that carbohydrates yield 4 calories per gram 45 grams of carbohydrate is 180 calories 60 grams is 240 calories and 75 is 300 calories. So whether you should aim for 45 60 or 75 grams of carb largely depends on how much you’re trying to control your calories the calories from the protein and fat you’re eating count toward the total for your meal as well and how hungry you are at the moment.

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213/870 Where Those with Diabetes Have the Edge Someone who has diabetes can figure out how much carbohydrate they should be eating based on what their individual postmeal glucose response is. Both the American Diabetes Association and the American College of Endocrinology make recommendations for what blood glucose levels should be two hours after a meal and suggest that a reading of less than 180 mg/dl is good and less than 140 mg/dl is better. 6 How much carbo- hydrate someone with diabetes can get away with eating and still hit this goal can vary—maybe 45 grams maybe 60 grams maybe 75 or even higher. Those with diabetes can actually see what their body thinks of what they just ate. If it was too much carbohydrate their blood glucose will be too high after a meal. They can then adjust down their carb

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214/870 intake the next time they eat a similar meal—maybe switch to light bread move the fruit out of the meal and into a snack later on or eat a smaller portion of dessert. Let’s construct a daily meal plan based on our sample carb budget of 225 grams. Daily Meal Plan 1 Breakfast 60 grams Lunch 60 grams Dinner 60 grams Total 180 grams We’ve used up 180 grams of our 225-- gram budget at meals. That leaves 45 grams of carb left to distribute between meals and snacks. Here’s one way to do it:

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215/870 Daily Meal Plan 2 Breakfast 60 grams Midmorning snack 15 grams Lunch 60 grams Afternoon snack 30 grams Dinner 60 grams Total 225 grams Another way to spread the carbs out over the day could look like this: Daily Meal Plan 3 Breakfast 60 grams Midmorning snack 15 grams Lunch 60 grams Afternoon snack 15 grams

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216/870 Dinner 60 grams Evening snack 15 grams Total 225 grams How might this be different if you were aiming for a lower intake like 1600 calories Let’s crunch the num- bers: 1600 calories × 0.45 720 carbo- hydrate calories. Divide 720 by 4 calor- ies per gram for carbohydrates 180 grams total carbs for the day. With this lower calorie goal assume 45 grams of carbohydrate per meal: Daily Meal Plan 4 Breakfast 45 grams Lunch 45 grams Dinner 45 grams

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216/870 Total 135 grams This leaves us with 45 grams of carb to spread between meals as snacks: Daily Meal Plan 5 Breakfast 45 grams Midmorning snack 15 grams Lunch 45 grams Afternoon snack 30 grams Dinner 45 grams Total 180 grams Note: A 1400-calorie meal plan would look similar only the afternoon snack would be 15 grams of carbohydrate instead of 30 grams. Think of your carb budget per meal as money to spend—if you only have

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217/870 seventy-five dollars in your wallet you can’t buy a pair of shoes that cost one hundred dollars Of course we haven’t factored in the protein and fat calories yet and all calories count when it comes to losing weight. Once you start being mindful of eating according to a regular meal pattern prioritizing eating your next meal or snack before you’re starving—along with quelling your in- sulin response by curbing the amount of carbs you eat at a meal or snack—it will be easier not to eat too much food. You just won’t crave it as much. Using Carb Counting to Learn Healthy Portions

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218/870 To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here For some people simply eating off a smaller plate and following the

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218/870 balanced-plate approach is enough to help curb carb and calorie intake. For those who need a little more guidance to control their portion of starch—or feel completely clueless about the amount of carbohydrate in the foods they’re used to eating—carb counting helps set lim- its. For decades those with diabetes have been using the Diabetes Exchange Lists for Meal Planning published by the American Diabetes Association. 7 Here foods are grouped together into lists of similar foods—starches fruits milk/yogurt sweets/desserts veget- ables proteins and fats. Our focus is on the first four lists—starches fruits milk/yogurt and sweets/desserts—be- cause those are the ones that provide significant sources of carbs. Most vegetables contain very little carbohydrate per serving as they’re mostly water and fiber which is

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219/870 indigestible carbohydrate that doesn’t show up as sugar in your blood after di- gestion. The vegetable list contains veg- gies with so little carb per serving that I consider them a “free food.” The ADA exchange lists say that three servings of nonstarchy vegetables count as a carb choice but for our purposes they’re free in any amount. In all my years of nutri- tion counseling I’ve yet to see a client overdo it on salad and broccoli. Starchy vegetables potatoes corn and peas and a few other foods are listed in the starch list. Protein foods do not contain carbs and even though they require some insulin for processing the effect is not significant. Choices in this group are listed according to fat and calorie con- tent because of the need to follow a heart healthy diet and control calories and lean sources of protein are encour- aged. Fats are also listed according to

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220/870 how heart healthy they are. Saturated and trans fats are discouraged and monounsaturated and omega-3 fats en- couraged. Like protein foods even though these foods don’t require insulin for processing whether a fat is heart healthy or not all fats provide a lot of calories in a small serving so portion control is key. Within each list this system of track- ing carbs breaks foods down into por- tions that would provide a similar amount of carbohydrate using 15 grams of carbohydrate per portion as the standard reference. A budget of 45 to 75 grams of carb per meal and 15 to 30 grams of carb per snack includes all the carbohydrate foods added togeth- er— grains fruit starchy vegetables milk yogurt and sweets. Each carb- containing food is worth 15 grams and you decide how many of these choices

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221/870 you’re going to use at a meal or snack. You can decide which carbs you want to eat and estimate how much you can eat from each source i.e. each food list to keep within your carb budget for that meal or snack. The rest of the calories for your meals and snacks are filled in with nonstarchy vegetables lean pro- tein choices and moderate amounts of healthy fats. Chapter 6 delves much deeper into the specifics of the exchange lists. Mind-Set Intervention: Don’t Stress About the Numbers Some people get freaked out or over- whelmed by numbers. That’s why I always start with the balanced-plate approach and build on that if people appear ready for counting carbs. You can pick and choose whether or to what degree you want to

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222/870 count carbohydrate grams calories or any- thing else. Some people feel they need to count carb grams to get a grip on what a portion of carbohydrate really looks like. Others just like the sense of having a carb goal for a meal or snack so they can recog- nize a good carb snack choice from reading the label or to help them make sense of a combination food like pizza for example: one slice of a fourteen-inch hand-tossed Dominos pizza is 37 grams of carbohydrate. Hang up the perfectionism here and read on with an open mind.

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6 The Details of Counting Carbohydrates For many people the balanced-plate approach provides an easy-to-under- stand visual of what should be on their plate. Covering half your plate with nonstarchy vegetables is pretty

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224/870 straightforward. That means aiming to eat more vegetables than you probably have been eating. A portion of cooked protein that’s somewhere between the size of a deck of cards three ounces and a hockey puck four ounces— maybe a little more if you’re a man—is something we can relate to. The toughest foods to control portions of are often the starches grains and starchy vegetables like potatoes the very foods you want to be paying attention to here as well as the amount of fat we eat par- ticularly if you dine out a lot. Make sure you spread out the carbohydrate you get from fruit milk or yogurt and sweets and consider their nutritional contribu- tion to a total meal or snack. Just as counting calories and fat grams are strategies to help manage your diet carbohydrate counting is de- signed to help you get a grip on

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225/870 portions. The main difference is that with keeping track of fat grams or calor- ies we don’t think so much about how they are being distributed over the day instead we focus on the daily total. With carb counting however we’re try- ing to control the glucose/insulin re- sponse that occurs immediately after each meal and snack so it’s as much about the distribution as it is about the numbers. Back to the Numbers In chapter 5 we outlined how to calcu- late calories for the day and how to use that number to calculate your daily carb budget. Breaking that down into meals and snacks leaves most people with 45 to 75 grams of carbohydrate per meal and 15 to 30 grams per snack. All other

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226/870 foods being the same 45 grams per meal and 15 grams per snack will save you some calories over the plan of 60 to 75 grams of carb per meal and 30 grams per snack. For most people with predia- betes weight loss is a part of their plan. Losing weight is about eating fewer cal- ories and burning more through activ- ity. Eating fewer calories requires por- tion control which is much easier if you stay ahead of your hunger by eating a reasonably sized meal or snack every three to four hours. If we look back at the balanced-plate idea what you’re try- ing to do is control the amount of starch on that quarter of the plate while keep- ing an eye on how many other carb foods you’ll be eating with the meal. For decades many people with diabetes have been using the American Diabetes Association ADA Exchange Lists for Diabetes to get a grip on carb serving

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227/870 sizes. 1 With this system similar foods are grouped together: • Starches • Fruits • Milk and yogurt • Sweets desserts and other carbohydrates • Nonstarchy vegetables • Meat and meat substitutes • Fats The exchange lists break down foods into groups based on the three major nutrients: carbohydrates proteins meat and meat substitutes and fats. Each list contains foods grouped togeth- er based on similar nutrient content. They are called “exchange lists” because each food is listed according to the serving size that would provide roughly

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228/870 the same amount of carbohydrate pro- tein fat and calories in a portion. It may be easier to think of these servings as carbohydrate food choices aiming for a certain number per meal or snack. For carb-containing foods the serving sizes are determined by the amount of that food that contains 15 grams of car- bohydrate. You can “exchange” one serving of food within the same list for another and expect the same blood sug- ar rise and subsequent insulin re- sponse regardless of which food you choose. As part of the prediabetes diet plan the main focus of the exchange lists is primarily on the first three lists— the starches fruits and milk/ yogurt— because these are the signific- ant sources of carbs. The exchange lists also provide estimates on reasonably sized servings of sweets. Let’s take a look at each group.

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229/870 Eat Your Beans Under no circumstances should you use the fact that beans contain carbs as a reason not to eat them. They are one of the highest- fiber foods you can eat providing both soluble and insoluble fiber they are a great source of plant protein and they are a source of many other important nutrients such as iron B vitamins magnesium and potassium. Studies show that eating more plant protein may help with weight man- agement and lower your risk of many chronic diseases. 2 One cup of kidney beans has 37 grams of carbohydrate but 13 of those grams are fiber which is indigestible and slows down the release of glucose into your blood. So eat beans—every day if you can even if it’s only in small quantities thrown into a soup or tossed into a salad or as a couple of tablespoons of hummus.

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230/870 Starch. The starch list includes breads cereals rice pasta crackers starchy snack foods and other types of nontraditional whole grains such as quinoa barley couscous and bulgur. The starch list also includes starchy ve- getables vegetables whose sugar con- tent would look more like bread than broccoli under a microscope such as beans peas lentils corn potatoes sweet potatoes yams winter squash and plantains. Fruit. The fruit list includes fresh fruit canned fruit dried fruit and 100 percent fruit juice. Milk. The milk list includes milk and yogurt. One percent low-fat and non- fat choices are encouraged. Sweets desserts and other carbs. This list offers advice on how to work foods with added sugars into your plan by swapping out another carb

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231/870 source. Because sweets contain a large amount of carbohydrate in a small por- tion the suggested portion sizes—like a 1¼-inch-square brownie or a 2-inch- square piece of chocolate cake—are rad- ically small compared to what you might be used to but that’s all part of portion control. Nonstarchy vegetables. The non- starchy vegetables list includes most fresh frozen and canned vegetables as well as tomato and vegetable juices. These foods have so little carbohydrate per serving that I consider them a free food as opposed to the starchy veget- ables which do need to be counted to- ward your daily distributed carb budget. Meat and meat substitutes. This list includes animal sources of protein meat poultry seafood eggs and cheese as well as plant-based protein beans tofu tempeh soy nuts and

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232/870 edamame nut butters and other soy- based foods like veggie burgers soy dogs veggie nuggets and patties and soy “crumbles”. Choices are separated into lean medium-fat high-fat and plant- based choices. Animal sources of protein foods do not contain carbs but many plant-based protein sources do counting as both a protein and a carbohydrate. Plant-based proteins should be incorporated into your weekly meal plan. Just be sure to take into ac- count what other sources of carbs you may also be eating at that meal for ex- ample eat less rice to make room for beans which are a better source of car- bohydrate anyway because they’re loaded with fiber. Even though animal sources of protein require some insulin for processing the effect is not signific- ant. When paired with a carb protein helps complicate digestion slowing

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233/870 down the breakdown of carbs into gluc- ose thereby blunting your insulin re- sponse and leaving you with a more lasting feeling of fullness. Choices from animal sources in the protein group are listed according to fat and calorie con- tent because of the need to follow a heart-healthy diet and control calories. Lean sources of protein are encouraged. Fats. This list includes oils spreads nuts and nut butters seeds olives avo- cados salad dressings and mayonnaise. Choices are separated into heart- healthy monounsaturated polyunsatur- ated and omega-3 fats encouraged and unhealthy saturated and trans fats limit or avoid. Like protein foods even though fats don’t require insulin for processing they deliver a big calorie punch in a small serving so portion control is key.

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234/870 Alcohol. Alcohol is also addressed in the exchange lists. The ADA recom- mends limiting alcohol to one drink a day for women two drinks a day for men. Up to this amount may be associ- ated with some health benefits al- though because of the potential negat- ives associated with alcohol use in some people you should not start drinking al- cohol solely for the health benefits. Be sure to factor in the calories if you’re trying to lose weight. The following amounts constitute one drink: • 12 ounces of beer • 5 ounces of wine • 1½ ounces of distilled spirits 80 proof • 1 ounce of coffee liqueur A serving of beer is often clear be- cause of its 12-ounce bottling but many

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235/870 people can be heavy-handed when pouring wine and spirits. Test your hand with a liquid measuring cup so you know exactly how much you’re consuming. Free foods. The exchange lists in- clude a section on foods that when lim- ited to the listed portion will weigh you down with fewer than 20 calories and no more than 5 grams of carb per serving. This allows you to write off small portions of foods that contain sugar but simply don’t add up to much when eaten in small amounts—things like a single hard candy a tablespoon of ketchup ¼ cup of salsa or a couple of teaspoons of barbecue sauce.

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236/870 Setting the Foundation for Carb Counting Within each exchange list the system breaks foods down into portions that would provide a similar amount of car- bohydrate using 12 to 15 grams of carb per portion as the reference serving size. A serving of starch or fruit has 15 grams of carbohydrate and a serving of milk any kind or yogurt plain or arti- ficially sweetened called “light” on the label contains roughly 12 grams of car- bohydrate. Because the difference between 12 and 15 grams of carb is so small for simplicity’s sake let’s count a milk/yogurt serving as containing 15 grams of carbohydrate. Because the carb content of a serving of starch fruit or milk is basically the same you can interchange a starch a fruit or milk at a

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237/870 meal or snack and consider them all one 15-gram carb choice. Balance is important. To diversify your nutrients you want to be eating carbs from different groups every day. Getting used to thinking of carbs in 15-- gram choices fits into your budget of 45 grams three choices 60 grams four choices or 75 grams five choices of carb per meal and 15 grams one choice to 30 grams two choices of carb per snack. Remember: The cat- egory of 75 grams five choices per meal is generally reserved for those who are larger men or people who are really tall or active. Thinking about carbo- hydrate foods in 15-gram carb servings allows you to look at any food label and determine how many carb serving “equivalents” there are in a serving of any food. For example if a cereal label lists one serving as having 30 grams of

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238/870 carbohydrate in your head you’ll begin to recognize that as two carb choices. Fiber is indigestible carbohydrate so according to the American Diabetes As- sociation if the fiber content is 5 grams or more of either soluble or insoluble fiber you can subtract half that num- ber from the total carbs listed on the la- bel. 3 For example if a cereal has 30 grams of carb in a serving but 6 of it is fiber then you “count” the serving as having 27 grams of carb slightly less than two carb choices. Round up if that half number isn’t even—for example round 4.5 grams up to 5. Once you be- gin to view carbohydrates in 15-gram carb units you can then decide which carbs you want to eat at a meal or snack and estimate how much you can eat of each food to keep within your per meal or snack carb budget. Keep in mind the benefits of pairing carbohydrates with

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239/870 protein and a little bit of healthy fat if possible for example a few whole grain crackers with reduced-fat cheese to blunt the postmeal insulin response and help you stay feeling fuller longer. The 80/20 rule applies here as well: aim to pair your carbs with protein 80 percent of the time so that what happens the other 20 percent of the time doesn’t matter as much. By no means is carb counting meant to rationalize eating 60 grams of junk food carbs in place of food that does your body good. A 20-ounce soda has 65 grams of carbohydrate in it but don’t let such a processed nutrient-poor food gobble up so much of your daily carb budget If you’re going to budget in some sweets cut back a little on your healthy carbs to make room for a small amount of a special treat on occasion.

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240/870 Practicing Portions in an Ever-Expanding World To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here To use the exchange list system to ac- curately estimate the amount of carbo- hydrate and calories you’re eating knowledge of portion sizes is critical. Do you know what a cup of cereal or cup of cooked rice looks like Outfit your kitchen with a set of dry measuring cups a liquid measuring cup that holds up to 2 cups and a set of measuring spoons. Inexpensive plastic versions are sold in most supermarkets often in the baking goods section. Consider buying a

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241/870 food scale. Fancy more expensive scales can be found in cooking stores but a cheap 10 postage scale may work just as well.

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242/870 Why the need for measuring devices Because the exchange lists are portion specific and most of us are horrible judges of gauging portion sizes. All around us portion sizes have been ex- panding. Even if you’re over forty and remember when fast food burgers were the size of a kiddie meal or a soda bottle was eight ounces you may still be as prone as anyone to underestimating portion sizes. Don’t guess: measure it. In fact measure your foods a few times so that you can begin to accurately eye- ball serving sizes. Then occasionally go back and measure again to see if your portion sizes have grown known as “portion creep”—they often have.

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243/870 Planning Your Plate The following provides a reference for the seven exchange lists: starches fruit milk sweets desserts and other carbs nonstarchy vegetables meat and meat substitutes and fats. Remember the first four groups are the ones you’re fo- cusing on to control your daily distrib- uted carb intake. The last three groups are there to help you make healthy choices and control your calorie and fat intake. These are the foods that help you walk away from a meal feeling full without ramping up your insulin response. Let the balanced-plate method guide you in planning the rest of the meal: load half your plate with nonstarchy ve- getables because they are very low in calories and carbs but still help contrib- ute to a feeling of fullness. The meat

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244/870 and meat substitutes list contains foods that should cover about 25 percent of your plate: you need protein for good health it helps you feel full after a meal and it doesn’t require a significant amount of insulin for processing be mindful of other carb choices at your meal if you opt for beans peas or hum- mus as a vegetarian protein source. Try to pick low-fat protein options most of the time because they’re much lower in calories. Make heart-healthy choices from the fats list and be aware of the recommended portion sizes. Avoid pouring olive oil freely from the bottle You may unknowingly add hundreds of calories to your meal. The Starch List Starches include cereals grains pasta breads crackers starchy vegetables

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245/870 and many snack foods like granola bars as well as cooked beans peas and lentils. In general one starch is equival- ent to the following: • ½ cup cooked cereal grain or starchy vegetable • cup cooked rice or pasta • 1 ounce 30 grams by weight bread product such as one regular-size slice of bread • ¾ to 1 ounce of most snack foods Things to consider: A choice on the starch list has 15 grams of carbohydrate 0 to 3 grams of protein 0 to 1 grams of fat and 80 calories. Choose low-fat starches as often as possible “low fat” means no more than 3 grams of fat per serving. When choosing dense starches like bagels and large bread rolls check how much they weigh. Each ounce by

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246/870 weight 30 grams is one starch choice. The metric weight of a serving appears in parentheses after the serving size. Many bagels are 4 ounces—or four starch choices An open handful is about 1 cup or 1 to 2 ounces of a snack food. For maximum health benefits eat three or more servings of whole grains each day. The Starch List FOOD SERVING SIZE BREAD Bagel large about 4 ounces ¼ bagel 1 ounce Biscuit 2½-inch diameter 1 Bread

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246/870 Reduced calorie 2 slices White whole grain pumper- nickel rye unfros- ted raisin Chapati small 1 slice 1 ounce 6-inch diameter 1 Cornbread 1¾- inch cube 1 1½ ounces English muffin ½ 1 ounce Hot dog or ham- burger bun ½ 1 ounce Naan bread 8-inch diameter ¼ piece Pancake 4-inch diameter 1 Pita 6-inch diameter ½ pita

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247/870 Roll small plain 1 1 ounce Stuffing bread cup higher-fat choice Taco shell 5-inch diameter Tortilla corn or flour 6-inch diameter Tortilla flour 2 higher-fat choice 1 10-inch diameter tortilla Waffle 4-inch square 1 opt for whole grain higher-fat choice CEREALS AND GRAINS Barley cooked cup Bran dry Oat ¼ cup

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248/870 Wheat ½ cup Bulgur cooked ½ cup Cereals Bran ½ cup Cooked oats oatmeal ½ cup Puffed 1½ cups Shredded wheat plain ½ cup Sugar coated ½ cup Unsweetened ready-to-eat ¾ cup Couscous cup Granola Low fat ¼ cup

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249/870 Regular ¼ cup higher-fat choice Grits cooked ½ cup Kasha ½ cup Millet cooked cup Muesli ¼ cup Pasta cooked cup Polenta cooked cup Quinoa cooked cup Rice white or brown cooked cup Tabouli prepared ½ cup Wheat germ dry 3 tablespoons Wild rice cooked ½ cup STARCHY VEGETABLES

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250/870 Cassava cup Corn ½ cup kernels or ½ large cob Hominy canned ¾ cup Mixed vegetables with corn peas or pasta 1 cup Parsnips ½ cup Peas green ½ cup Plantain ripe cup Potato Baked with skin ¼ large 3 ounces Boiled all kinds ½ cup or ½ medium French fried oven baked 1 cup 2 ounces

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251/870 Mashed with milk and fat ½ cup Pumpkin canned no sugar added 1 cup Spaghetti with pasta sauce ½ cup Squash winter acorn butternut 1 cup Succotash ½ cup Yam sweet potato plain ½ cup CRACKERS AND SNACKS Crackers Animal crackers 8 Graham crackers 3 2½-inch squares Matzo ¾ ounce

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252/870 Melba toast about 2-inch by 4-inch piece 4 pieces Oyster crackers 20 Round butter- type 6 Saltine-type 6 Sandwich-style cheese or peanut 3 butter filling Whole wheat crisp breads 2–5 ¾ ounce Whole wheat regular 2–5 ¾ ounce Popcorn 3 cups Pretzels ¾ ounce

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253/870 Rice cakes 4-inch diameter 2 Snack chips Fat-free or baked tortilla potato baked pita chips Regular tortilla 15–20 ¾ ounce potato 9–13 ¾ ounce BEANS PEAS AND LENTILS Note: The choices on this list count as one starch and one lean protein. Baked beans cup Beans cooked black pinto gar- banzo kidney lima navy white ½ cup

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254/870 Lentils cooked brown yellow green Peas cooked ½ cup black eyed split ½ cup Refried beans canned look for fat-free ½ cup The Fruit List Fruit can be fresh frozen canned or 100 percent fruit juice. The fruit on the bottom of a flavored yogurt cup does not count as a fruit A serving of fruit is as follows: • ½ cup canned fruit or fruit salad • to ½ cup unsweetened fruit juice • 1 small fruit 4 ounces • 2 tablespoons dried fruit

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255/870 Things to consider: A choice on the fruit list has 15 grams of carb 0 protein 0 fat and 60 calories. Limit fruit juice to one serving or less per day as juice has zero fiber and is not filling. Fresh fruit is preferable whenever possible. Aim for a minimum of two fruits daily but eat them at different times to spread out the fruit sugar throughout the day. Think of dried fruit as something you sprinkle on or mix into something else—it’s very easy to go overboard when eaten on its own. Avoid fruits that have been canned in heavy syrup. Look for canned fruits that say “extra light syrup” “no sugar added” or “juice packed.” The Fruit List FRUIT SERVING SIZE

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256/870 Apple unpeeled small 1 4 ounces Apples dried 4 rings Applesauce unsweetened ½ cup Apricots Canned ½ cup Dried 8 halves Fresh 4 whole Banana extra small 1 4 ounces Blackberries ¾ cup Blueberries ¾ cup Cantaloupe small melon or 2 cups cubed Cherries Sweet canned ½ cup

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257/870 Sweet fresh 12 Dates 3 Dried fruits blueber- ries cherries cranber- ries mixed fruit raisins Figs 2 tablespoons Dried 1½ 1½ large or 2 Fresh medium 3½ ounces Fruit cocktail ½ cup Grapefruit Large ½ 11 ounces Sections canned ¾ cup Grapes small 17 3 ounces

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258/870 Honeydew melon 1 slice or 1 cup cubed 10 ounces Kiwi 1 3½ ounces Mandarin oranges canned ¾ cup ½ fruit 5½ Mango small ounces or ½ cup Nectarine small 1 5 ounces Orange small 1 6 ounces ½ fruit or 1 Papaya Peaches cup cubed 8 ounces Canned ½ cup

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259/870 Fresh medium 1 6 ounces Pears Canned ½ cup Fresh large ½ 4 ounces Pineapple Canned ½ cup Fresh ¾ cup Plums Canned ½ cup Dried prunes 3 Small 2 5 ounces Raspberries 1 cup Strawberries 1¼ cups whole berries Tangerines small 2 8 ounces

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260/870 Watermelon JUICES 1 slice or 1¼ cups cubed 13½ ounces Apple juice/cider ½ cup Fruit juice blends 100 percent juice cup Grape juice cup Grapefruit juice ½ cup Orange juice ½ cup Pineapple juice ½ cup Prune juice cup The Milk List This list includes milk and yogurt cheese is on the protein list. In

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261/870 general a serving is 1 cup of milk 8 ounces of plain yogurt or 6 ounces of flavored yogurt. Things to consider: One milk serving is 12 grams of carbo- hydrate 8 grams of protein and 0 to 8 grams of fat. To keep things easy we’re going to round one milk serving up to 15 grams of carb to be consistent with our other two carb groups starches and fruits. Opt for 1 percent low-fat or nonfat milk 2 percent milk is only slightly lower in fat than whole milk. If 1 percent or nonfat milk seems too watered down for you try one of the en- hanced milks that add milk solids to provide a thicker mouthfeel. If your milk is flavored like vanilla soy or al- mond milk for example and is not arti- ficially sweetened it will use up another one of your carb choices at that meal remember to count the extra carbs. Yogurt if flavored should be artificially

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262/870 sweetened or it will also use up another one of your carb choices at that meal. Plain or flavored Greek yogurt is also a good choice as it tends to have less ad- ded sugar and two to three times the protein content of regular yogurt. The Milk List FOOD SERVING SIZE Chocolate milk sugar- free fat-free or 1 percent 1 cup Eggnog ½ cup Evaporated milk ½ cup Milk buttermilk goat’s milk 1 cup Fat-free or 1 percent low- fat milk 1 cup

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263/870 Rice milk fat-free or low- fat 1 cup Soy milk unflavored 1 cup Yogurt plain nonfat or 1 percent 8 ounces Yogurt flavored with arti- ficial sweetener 6 ounces The Sweets Desserts and Other Carbohydrates List You can substitute a choice from this list for other carbs from the starch fruit or milk lists even though these foods contain added sugars. Each carb choice here is 15 grams of carb. It’s crit- ically important to be portion con- scious however as the carbs from sweets add up quickly. Set a goal of lim- iting sweets to special occasions

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264/870 particularly if “just one” for you tends to lead to “many.” For physiological reas- ons the more you indulge in sweets the more you’ll want them. This list high- lights how many carb choices are gobbled up by a pretty small serving. A teaspoon of table sugar contains only 4 grams of carbohydrate and 16 calories so that amount added to your coffee may be something you can work in. For many the added sugars in processed foods are the biggest problem. The Sweets Desserts and Other Carbo- hydrates List FOOD SERVING SIZE CARB CHOICES BEVERAGES Energy drink 8 ounces 2 carbs

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265/870 Fruit drink or lemonade 8 ounces 2 carbs Hot chocol- ate regular or sugar-free 8 ounces 1 carb Sports drink 8 ounces 1 carb DESSERTS Brownie small Cake Angel food unfrosted 1¼-inch square 1 carb 1 slice 1 /12 of cake 2 carbs Frosted 2-inch square Unfrosted 2-inch square 2 carbs 1 carb

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266/870 Cookies

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267/870 Chocolate chip 2 2½ inches across 1 carb Gingersnap 3 cookies 1 carb Sandwich with creme filling 2 small 1 carb Sugar-free 3 small or 1 large 1 carb Vanilla wafer 5 cookies 1 carb Cupcakes frosted 1 small 2 carbs Fruit cobbler ½ cup 3 carbs 1 carb Gelatin regular ½ cup

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268/870 sugar-free gelatin is free

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267/870 Pie Fruit double crust Pumpkin or custard Pudding 1 slice 1 / 6 of 8-inch pie 1 slice 1 / 6 of 8-inch pie 3 carbs 1½ carbs Regular ½ cup 2 carbs Sugar-free ½ cup 1 carb CANDY SWEETS SWEETENERS Candy hard 3 pieces 1 carb Candy bar chocolate/ peanut 2 “fun-size” bars 1 ounce 1½ carbs

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268/870 Chocolate “kisses” 5 pieces 1 carb

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269/870 Fruit snacks chewy 1 roll 1 carb Fruit spread 100 percent fruit 1½ tablespoons 1 carb Honey 1 tablespoon 1 carb Jam or jelly 1 tablespoon 1 carb Sugar 1 tablespoon 1 carb Syrup chocolate 1 regular maple tablespoon 1 carb Syrup light 2 tablespoons 1 carb CONDIMENTS AND SAUCES

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269/870 sauce Cranberry sauce tablespoons ¼ cup 1 carb 1½ carbs 1 carb 1 carb Salad dressing fat- free low fat cream based 3 tablespoons Sweet-and- sour sauce 3 tablespoons DOUGHNUT PASTRIES Banana nut bread MUFFINS A 1-inch slice ND 2 carbs Doughnut Glazed 3¼ inches across 2 carbs Plain 1 medium 1½ carbs Barbecue 3 S

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270/870 Frozen pop Frozen yogurt fat- free and regular Fruit juice bars 100 percent fruit 1 ½ cup ½ carb 1 carb 1 bar 1 carb Ice cream Fat-free ½ cup 1½ carbs Light and no sugar added ½ cup 1 carb Muffin 4 ounces ¼ muffin 1 carb FROZEN DESSERTS juice

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271/870 Regular ½ cup Sherbet 1 carb high in fat and calories and sorbet ½ cup 2 carbs GRANOLA BARS MEAL REPLACEMENT BARS TRAIL MIX Granola bar regular or low fat Meal replace- 1 bar 1 ounce 1 bar 2 1½ carbs ment bar ounces 2 carbs Trail mix 1 ounce 1 carb

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272/870 The Nonstarchy Vegetables List These vegetables are so low in carbo- hydrate that I consider them “free.”

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273/870 Using the balanced-plate approach your goal is to cover half the plate with nonstarchy vegetables as they help fill you up without loading you down with carbs and calories. They also are among the most nutrient-rich foods out there. If eating this quantity of vegetables is new to you start by covering just a third of your plate and work your way up. A serving of nonstarchy vegetables is ½ cup of cooked vegetables or vegetable juice or 1 cup of raw vegetables. Things to consider: A serving of nonstarchy ve- getables contains only 5 grams of carb 2 grams of protein and 25 calories. Try to include at least ½ cup cooked or 1 cup raw vegetables with lunch and 1 cup cooked or 2 cups raw vegetables with dinner. Look for a variety of colors in the vegetables you’re eating. Varying the colors helps diversify the phytonu- trients in your diet. Watch how much

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274/870 fat you add to your vegetables. Every teaspoon of butter tub margarine or oil adds 40 calories. And remember corn peas potatoes sweet potatoes winter squash and beans are on the starch list. The Nonstarchy Vegetables List Artichoke Asparagus Baby corn Beans Bamboo shoots Beets Brussels green wax Italian Borscht hearty vegetable soup Bean sprouts Broccoli sprouts Cabbage Carrots

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275/870 lard kale mustard turnip Hearts of palm Jicama Lettuce all varieties Kohlrabi Leeks Mixed ve- getables Mung without corn peas or pasta bean sprouts Mushrooms Okra Onions Pea pods Peppers all varieties Radishes Rutabaga Cauliflower Celery Coleslaw no dressing Green Cucumber Eggplant Greens col- onions or scallions

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276/870 Sauerkraut Spinach Swiss chard Tomatoes Tomato/ve- getable juice Turnips Squash summer zucchini Tomato sauce crushed to- matoes no sugar added Water chestnuts The Meat and Meat Substitutes List The key to eating a little more protein without eating too much unhealthful saturated fat is to opt for lean sources of protein. Because protein is found in so many different foods in both animal and plant sources serving sizes vary. Things to consider: In general a protein

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277/870 choice has no carbs unless it’s a plant protein like beans or soy products or is served in a sweet marinade or sauce 7 grams of protein and 3 to 8 or more grams of fat. Calories per choice range from 45 to 100 calories or more per serving depending on fat content. For meat poultry or seafood a choice is 1 ounce cooked but you would portion out 3 to 6 ounces or so at a meal. The size of a deck of cards is about 3 ounces 4 ounces is about the size of a hockey puck. A snack may in- clude one to two protein choices 1 to 2 ounces of protein. Protein choices can be lean 0–3 grams of fat per ounce medium fat 4–7 grams of fat per ounce high fat more than 8 grams of fat per ounce or plant based the fat varies. Try to choose proteins with 5 grams of fat or fewer per ounce.

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278/870 The only protein foods that contain carbs are the plant-based proteins. If according to the food label the amount of plant protein you’re eating contains close to 15 grams of carb count it as a carb and a protein but give yourself a little wiggle room if you’re not diabetic. Choose poultry seafood or plant-based proteins whenever possible. If you eat red meat or pork choose lean select or choice cuts that have the word “loin” “round” or “flank” in the name or are90 percent lean or leaner. Bake roast broil grill poach steam or boil your meats instead of frying and trim off all visible fat. It’s okay to stir-fry your dinner protein as this method of cooking should only require about 2 ta- blespoons of oil for the whole recipe. The Meat and Meat Substitutes List

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278/870 FOOD SERVING SIZE LEAN MEATS AND MEAT SUBSTITUTES 45 calories per ounce Beef lean cuts trimmed of fat 1 ounce Cheese with 3 grams of fat per ounce 1 ounce Cottage cheese ¼ cup Egg substitutes ¼ cup Egg whites 2 Fish any kind not fried 1 ounce Game: buffalo venison and so on 1 ounce Lamb: chop leg or roast 1 ounce Oysters 6 medium

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279/870 Pork lean: Canadian ba- con rib or loin chop/ roast ham tenderloin 1 ounce Poultry without the skin 1 ounce Salmon canned 1 ounce Sardines canned 2 small Sausages with 3 grams of fat or less per ounce 1 ounce Shellfish: clams crab lobster scallops shrimp 1 ounce Tuna canned with water drained 1 ounce Veal: loin chop roast 1 ounce MEDIUM-FAT MEAT AND MEAT SUBSTITUTES 75 calories per ounce Beef: corned beef ground beef prime grades 1 ounce

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280/870 trimmed of fat prime rib short ribs Cheeses with 4 to 7 grams of fat per ounce 1 ounce Egg 1 Fish fried 1 ounce Lamb: ground rib roast 1 ounce Pork: cutlet shoulder roast 1 ounce Poultry: chicken with skin fried chicken ground turkey 1 ounce Ricotta cheese ¼ cup Sausage with 4 to 7 grams of fat per ounce 1 ounce Veal cutlet no breading 1 ounce

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281/870 HIGH-FAT MEAT AND MEAT SUBSTITUTES try to eat three or fewer servings per week these are 100 calories or more per ounce Bacon: pork turkey 2 slices Cheese: regular Americ- an blue Brie Cheddar hard goat Monterey Jack queso and Swiss Hot dog: beef pork or combination 10 per 1-- pound package Hot dog: turkey chicken 1 ounce 1 10 per 1-pound package 1 Pork: ground sausage spareribs 1 ounce Sandwich meats pro- cessed with 8 grams of 1 ounce

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282/870 fat or more: bologna hard salami pastrami Sausage with 8 grams of fat or more per ounce: bratwurst Carbrizo Itali- an knockwurst smoked summer 1 ounce PLANT-BASED PROTEINS these contain some carbohydrates but much of it is fiber calories vary Baked beans cup Beans cooked: black gar- banzo kidney lima navy pinto white “Beef” or “sausage” ½ cup crumbles soy based 2 ounces

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283/870 “Chicken” nuggets soy based 2 1½ ounces

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284/870 Edamame ½ cup Falafel spiced chickpeas and wheat patties 2-inch 3 diameter Hot dog soy based 1 Hummus cup Lentils cooked: brown green or yellow ½ cup Meatless burger soy based 3 ounces Meatless burger veget- able and starch based 1 Nut spreads: almond but- ter cashew butter peanut butter soy nut butter Peas cooked: black-eyed 1 tablespoon and split peas ½ cup

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284/870 Refried beans canned ½ cup “Sausage” patties soy based 1 Soy based “bacon” strips 3 Soy nuts unsalted ¾ ounce Tempeh ¼ cup Tofu: regular light 4 ounces ½ cup Nuts: An Important Caveat The American Diabetes Association counts nuts as fats in small portions see “The Fats List” in this chapter but counts 1 table- spoon of nut butter as a protein even though it contains only 3½ grams of pro- tein a standard protein choice has 7 grams of protein. Since nuts are about 700 to 800 calories per cup practicing portion control

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285/870 when noshing on nuts is critical. With snacks to reap the benefits without overdo- ing the calories count ½ ounce of nuts as a protein choice even though ½ ounce aver- ages only about 2 to 3 grams of protein. When ½ ounce of nuts is eaten with a carb like a fruit or handful of crackers as part of a snack both the protein and the fat lend a sense of fullness and satisfaction to the snack. For exactly what a half ounce of nuts looks like see the chart in chapter 7. The Fats List As discussed earlier fats can be either good for you in moderation or bad for you. Healthy fats are monounsaturated fats they help lower cholesterol and raise healthy HDL and polyunsatur- ated fats they help lower cholesterol. “Bad fats” are saturated fats they raise lousy LDL cholesterol and are solid at

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286/870 room temperature and trans fats they raise cholesterol levels and are mostly artificially produced as hydrogenated and partially hydrogenated fats. Things to consider: A fat choice is based on a serving that has 5 grams of total fat. Fats and oils are mixtures of several different types of fat. The pre- dominant fat dictates which list it’s in. The goal is to replace saturated fats with healthy fats not to add healthy fats without taking unhealthy fats away. All fats contain 9 calories per gram. Too many calories consumed that aren’t burned off will cause weight gain re- gardless of the source. Because the number of fat servings depends on the calories there’s no simple rule for the daily number of fat choices. For most people a reasonable amount is 1 to 2 servings per meal. When choosing a spread liquid vegetable oil should be

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287/870 the first ingredient in regular tub spread and the second ingredient after water in light spreads. All spreads should be trans fat–free. A tablespoon is about the size of your thumb and a teaspoon is about the size of your thumb tip. The Fats List FOOD SERVING SIZE MONOUNSATURATED FATS Avocado medium 2 tablespoons Nut butters: almond cashew peanut Nuts 1½ teaspoons Almonds 6 Brazil 2

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288/870 Cashews 6 Hazelnuts 5 Macadamia 3 Mixed 6 Peanuts 10 Pecans 4 halves Pistachios 16 Oil: canola olive peanut 1 teaspoon Olives Black 8 large Green 10 large POLYUNSATURATED FATS Margarine: lower fat trans fat–free 1 tablespoon

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289/870 Margarine: tub or stick trans fat–free 1 teaspoon Mayonnaise Reduced fat 1 tablespoon Regular 1 teaspoon Mayonnaise-style salad dressing Reduced fat 1 tablespoon Regular 2 teaspoons Nuts Pine nuts 1 tablespoon Walnuts 4 halves Oil: corn cottonseed flaxseed grape seed safflower soybean sunflower 1 teaspoon Plant stanol spreads Benecol

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290/870 Light 1 tablespoon Regular 2 teaspoons Salad dressing fat-free is on the Sweets list Reduced fat 2 tablespoons Regular 1 tablespoon Seeds Flaxseed whole 1 tablespoon Pumpkin sunflower 1 tablespoon Sesame seeds 1 tablespoon Tahini or sesame paste 2 teaspoons SATURATED FATS Bacon cooked regular or turkey 1 slice in larger

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291/870 Butter portion is a fatty meat Reduced fat 1 tablespoon Stick 1 teaspoon Whipped 2 teaspoons Coconut sweetened shredded Coconut milk 2 tablespoons Light cup Regular 1½ tablespoons Cream Half-and-half 2 tablespoons Heavy 1 tablespoon

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292/870 Light 1½ tablespoons Whipped 2 tablespoons Whipped pressurized ¼ cup Cream cheese Reduced fat 1½ tablespoons Regular 1 tablespoon Lard 1 teaspoon Oil: coconut palm palm kernel 1 teaspoon Salt pork ¼ ounce Shortening solid 1 teaspoon Sour cream

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293/870 Reduced fat or light 3 tablespoons Regular 2 tablespoons The Free Foods List These foods contain fewer than 20 cal- ories and 5 grams of carb in the serving size shown. Eaten in this amount these foods are considered “free.” In larger portions however they may start to add up to the point where you need to count them in your daily carb budget or factor in their calories. Other ingredi- ents not to worry about: flavoring ex- tracts garlic herbs spices nonstick cooking spray hot pepper sauce cook- ing wine and Worcestershire sauce. Be- ware seasonings that contain salt. Many people with prediabetes are at risk for

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294/870 or have high blood pressure which can be aggravated by eating too much sodium. The Free Foods List FOOD SERVING SIZE Barbecue sauce 2 teaspoons Candy hard regular or sugar-free 1 piece Cream cheese fat-free 1 tablespoon Creamers Nondairy liquid 1 tablespoon Nondairy powdered 2 teaspoons

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295/870 Gelatin sugar-free unlimited

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296/870 Gum preferably sugar- free unlimited Honey mustard 1 tablespoon Horseradish unlimited Jam or jelly light or no added sugar 2 teaspoons Ketchup 1 tablespoon Lemon juice unlimited Margarine spread Fat-free 1 tablespoon Reduced fat 1 teaspoon Miso 1½ teaspoons Mustard unlimited

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297/870 Parmesan cheese grated 1 tablespoon Pickles Dill 1½ medium Sweet bread-and- butter 2 slices Sweet gherkin ¾ ounce Relish 1 tablespoon Salad dressing Fat-free or low fat 1 tablespoon Fat-free Italian 2 tablespoons Salsa ¼ cup

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298/870 Sour cream fat-free or reduced fat Soy sauce light or regular 1 tablespoon 1 tablespoon Sweet-and-sour sauce 2 teaspoons Sweet chili sauce 2 teaspoons Syrup sugar-free 2 tablespoons Taco sauce 1 tablespoon Vinegar unlimited Whipped topping Light or fat-free 2 tablespoons Regular 1 tablespoon

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299/870 Yogurt any type 2 tablespoons DRINKS AND MIXES Carbonated water any moder- ate amount Club soda any moder- ate amount Cocoa powder unsweetened Coffee or tea un- sweetened or with sugar substitute 1 tablespoon any moder- ate amount Diet soft drinks any moder- ate amount Sugar-free drink mixes any moder- ate amount

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300/870 Tonic water diet any moder- ate amount

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301/870 Water flavored carbohydrate-free any moder- ate amount This chapter has identified all the car- bohydrate foods categorized and por- tioned out into amounts that will deliver about 15 grams of carbohydrate into your bloodstream as glucose. Also out- lined are foods that don’t contain signi- ficant amounts of carbohydrates. As long as you make healthy choices you can use these foods to fill up on without bumping up your blood sugar. Next in the prediabetes diet plan you’ll learn how to mix and match carbohydrates with other noncarbohydrate-containing foods so that at meal or snack time you can continue to eat the foods you love without making your blood glucose levels surge. That brings us to the most important—and for many people the most challenging—part of eating

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302/870 healthier: meal planning. It takes time and energy and often needs to be moved up your life list of important things to do. It is possible to be a me- diocre cook and still eat healthfully. All you need is a little patience a determin- ation to budget out the time needed to make it happen and a willingness to make some mistakes along the way. Meal Planning on a Carb-Distributed Diet To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here So far we have been focused on what carbohydrates are which foods contain them and how they affect your blood

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303/870 glucose and insulin response. Now it’s time to get down to where the rubber hits the road. How will meal planning help you manage your prediabetes

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304/870 When planning a prediabetes-friendly meal the first task is identifying which parts of the meal contain carbs there may be more than one. For example a dinner of chicken corn potato and milk contains three carbohydrate foods— corn potatoes both starchy ve- getables and milk. A fruit or sweet dessert eaten after the meal will add more carbs. Switching out the corn for asparagus carrots or a salad will trim some carbs leaving a few left in your budget for a small portion of dessert if you like. This is a pretty simple example because each of the foods on the dinner plate are separate and they are easy to recognize on their own. Things get more complicated when carbs are wrapped up in other foods in complex dishes that make them a combination of carbo- hydrates protein and fat. Carbs are

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305/870 harder to recognize in these combined foods. Carbs and Combination Foods Not all foods you eat are just a starch or a protein or a vegetable. Casseroles stews burritos and pizza are made up of several food choices wrapped around each other. It is difficult but possible to count carbs in these circumstances. Use your best guess and assume there’s probably a little more carbohydrate in the combination food than you think. The American Diabetes Association sells loads of meal-planning guides and cookbooks that break combination foods and recipes down into exchanges see the ADA’s website www.diabetes.org. If the combination food or recipe provides a nutrient breakdown—many of them do

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306/870 nowadays—you can do the math your- self and figure out how many 15-gram “choices” are in a serving. Let’s look at a few examples of com- bination foods as listed in ADA’s Choose Your Foods: Exchange Lists for Dia- betes. 4 This should give you an idea of how you can break down just about any combination food: • Burrito 5 ounces bean and beef three starches one lean meat and two fats • Cheese pizza one-quarter of a 12-inch pizza two starches and two medium-fat meats • Chicken noodle soup 1 cup one carbohydrate • Beef stew 1 cup one starch one medium-fat meat zero to three fats • Macaroni salad ½ cup two starches and three fats

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307/870 These exchange breakdowns are very specific but what if you’re standing in the aisle of the grocery store package in hand and you’d like to know how many carb choices are in a serving of a partic- ular food Simply look at the “Total Carbohydrate” line on the Nutrition Facts label and divide by 15 the num- ber of carb grams in one choice of a carb-containing food. For example: • A veggie burger made mostly of ve- getables and soy contains 13 grams of carbohydrate 4 of which is healthy indigestible dietary fiber so it counts as approximately one choice. Enjoy the veggie burger sur- rounded by a standard store- bought 150-calorie whole wheat hamburger bun at 26 grams of car- bohydrate containing another 4 grams of dietary fiber because it’s made with whole wheat and

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308/870 you’ve added roughly another two carb choices. Serve this with a salad and a carb-free beverage and you’re right on target for a three- carb-serving—or 45-gram carb— meal. • One-third of a ten-inch frozen cheese pizza contains 42 grams of carbohydrate. That’s roughly three choices. Add some veggies to the pizza before you pop it in the oven and serve with a large salad with reduced-fat dressing to help fill you up and you’ve got a carb-con- trolled meal. • You’re at a Subway sandwich shop and order a six-inch lower-fat tur- key sandwich. The nutrition in- formation provided by Subway says there are 46 grams of carbohydrate which means the six-inch sub is the

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309/870 equivalent of eating three slices of bread or three carb choices. Sounds like a good choice as long as you avoid eating many other carbs with your meal like chips and soda. Of course you still need to consider the total calories for the meal if you’re trying to lose weight. Now that we’ve in- troduced the idea of combining foods to make a meal let’s look at how to start making this happen when preparing meals at home. Planning Dinner Now that you have your lists of carb- containing foods and know your portion sizes you can start using your carb budget to control the amount of carbs you eat at a meal or snack. Remember

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310/870 the ultimate goal of the balanced plate and exchange list system is to help you better understand what a reasonable amount of carbohydrate intake is for someone with insulin resistance. But eating smaller portions of carbs and spreading them out over the day should also help you control your calories—as long as you don’t compensate by eating excessive amounts of protein foods or too much added fat. The balanced-plate carb-distributed approach is designed to provide that “balanced diet” that’s good for your health in many ways: you’ll get enough protein to meet your nutritional needs and fill you up you’ll have enough healthy fat to meet your needs for fat-soluble nutrients and to make your food taste good and you’ll get a lot of plant foods to increase your intake of fiber and health-promoting phytonutrients—these will also take up

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311/870 space on your plate and in your stomach so that it’s easier to avoid eating too many grains starches and other carbs. As tempting as it may be be careful not to over- restrict carbs either. You’ll then be practicing an un- sustainable behavior which may trigger reactive overeating later in the day due to low blood sugar. Start with a reasonably sized plate which in your kitchen may be a ten-inch salad plate. In this ex- ample we’ll use someone aiming for a goal of 45 grams of carbohydrate for dinner. Let’s begin with protein. For women serve a 3- to 4-ounce portion of protein to cover roughly 25 percent of the plate. Men or more physically active women may

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312/870 need more protein maybe 4 to 6 ounces. Remember all these sugges- tions are averages. To learn more spe- cifically what your allowance is con- sider meeting with a registered dietitian for an individualized consultation. Now cover half the plate with non- starchy vegetables. This can be a large portion of a cooked vegetable a large salad containing several different veget- ables or one portion of a cooked veget- able and a small salad. Next let’s calculate the carbohydrate piece starting with the starch. If you look back at the starch list one option is cup of cooked brown rice which is 15 grams of carbohydrate or one carb choice. Sounds tiny I know. But when you pack cooked rice into a measuring cup—which you need to do to actually see what cup cooked rice looks like—and then dump it on your plate it

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313/870 may seem bigger. You have at a minim- um 45 grams of carbohydrate to work with so depending on what other carbs you eat at that meal you may be able to eat two portions of rice cup—or 30 grams of carbs. For this example let’s assume you’re going with one serving of rice which populates the remaining quarter of the plate. Bread: Mind the Two Qs We all love bread in one form or another but it’s easy to eat too much. Choosing bread is a classic example of where the Two Qs can steer you in the right direction. It’s about the quality choosing whole grain breads rolls bagels English muffins and tortillas over white flour options and the quantity you have to include them in your carb budget. As a general rule I suggest avoiding bread with meals unless it is the

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314/870 carb as in a sandwich with lunch a whole wheat English muffin with breakfast or one slice toasted with reduced-fat cheese or a thin layer of peanut butter for a snack. What you want to avoid is already having a carb choice planned for the meal and then eating bread on top of that like that tempting never-ending bread basket in restaurants. One way to enjoy bread without guilt is to have it as the starch choice at dinner. In our house we love good-quality bread so occasionally we’ll have a hearty protein- dense salad and eat bread as the starch. It’s bread as the carb—no reason not to enjoy it. When reading bread labels look for three things: the first ingredient should in- clude the word “whole” as in whole wheat or whole oat the fiber should be 2 to 3 grams per slice and the calories should be in the 60- to 90-calorie range. Calories matter and a slice of bread should weigh roughly 1 ounce 30 grams by weight.

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315/870 Some breads list that prized 2 to 3 grams of fiber but at a cost of 110 to 150 calories per slice. You’ve now used up 15 grams of your 45-gram carb budget one of your three choices for the meal leaving you with 30 grams to “spend” during the rest of your meal if you have a 60-gram carb budget you can go for that two servings of brown rice and still be left with 30 grams of carbs. If you add an 8-ounce glass of 1 percent milk one carb choice and a cup of cubed cantaloupe one carb choice you’ve now hit your budget of roughly 45 grams of carbohydrate for the meal. If you’ve already eaten your recom- mended minimum of two fruits this day you may decide to spend 15 grams of

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313/870 carbohydrate on a dessert instead of a fruit maybe ½ cup of sugar-free ice cream. This is how you work in your special treats. You make room for them in your diet by making smart decisions throughout the day. Limit how often you decide to spend a chunk of your carb budget on foods without any nutri- tional value however. Much of the be- nefit from eating more healthfully is the positive feeling you get when you fill up on good-quality food which is unlikely to happen with too much processed food even if it doesn’t deliver a lot of carbs. Let’s look at some other examples of carb-controlled meals using 45 grams and 60 grams of carbs per meal as the goal. People who are allowed more carbs can add them accordingly.

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314/870 Carb-Controlled Meals 45-GRAM CARB BUDGET 3–4 ounces grilled chicken ½ cup mashed potato 1 choice 60-GRAM CARB BUDGET 3–4 ounces grilled chicken 1 cup mashed potato 2 choices 1 cup broccoli 1 cup broccoli Salad with 1–2 tablespoons low- fat dressing 8 ounces 1 percent milk 1 choice Salad with 1–2 tablespoons low- fat dressing 8 ounces skim milk 1 choice

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315/870 1 medium orange 1 choice 1¼ cups sliced strawberries 1 choice Either of these meals could be adjus- ted by using the exchange lists to make alternative choices. Here are some dif- ferent ideas: • In either of these meals the 3- to 4-ounce portion of chicken could be swapped out for a same-size portion of turkey fish lean meat tofu or other protein choice. • The starch choice can be swapped out for any other serving of starch from the starch list. Your trade-off could be brown rice couscous pasta preferably whole wheat or at least one of the pasta blends with added protein sweet potato

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316/870 winter squash corn peas—your choice. • The vegetables are nonstarchy so we don’t count their carbs toward our daily carb budget. Any veget- able or salad listed as nonstarchy in the exchange lists is considered a “freebie” unless it’s fried or loaded with butter cream or cheese sauce. • The carb content of milk doesn’t change with the fat content so either skim or 1 percent is a healthy choice. Two percent milk is very close to whole milk which is about 3.25 percent milk fat so those who like thicker milk should opt for one of the enhanced creamier-tasting low-fat or fat-free milks. • The fruit choice could be any of the fresh canned or dried options in the fruit list. Juice should be

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317/870 limited to around to ½ cup per day otherwise it’s best to opt for whole fruit choices. Juice is a lot easier to go overboard on. One medium-sized fresh fruit has the same calories as only about ½ cup of fruit juice which contains no fiber and doesn’t contribute to a feeling of fullness the way whole fruit does. • You could make the 60-gram carb meal a 75-gram carb meal by in- creasing the potatoes to 1½ cups or mixing 6 ounces of light yogurt in with your strawberries. Planning Lunch The meal may be different but the same rules apply. The examples below consist of one sandwich meal and one salad- based lunch.

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318/870 The 60-gram carb meal could be in- creased to 75 grams of carb by adding 8 ounces of 1 percent milk or a cup of broth-based soup. As with dinner you can mix it up by changing your choices. Here are some creative ideas: • The turkey for the sandwich could be replaced with tuna with low-fat mayonnaise ham lean roast beef canned chicken or hummus and avocado. • The chicken in the salad could be replaced with leftover salmon tuna boiled eggs grated reduced- fat cheese and beans. • The pita could be replaced with a slice or two of whole grain bread. Two slices of light wheat bread two slices of reduced-calorie bread is one choice could be used to make

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319/870 a whole sandwich for the 45-gram carb plan. • For the 60-gram plan half the pita could be replaced with 1 cup of broth-based soup which counts as one starch. • The lettuce and tomato on the sand- wich and the carrots on the side could be replaced with a salad. • Eight ounces of skim or 1 percent milk could substitute for the light yogurt. Lunch: Sandwich or Salad 45-GRAM CARB BUDGET 3 ounces turkey or 2 ounces turkey and 1 ounce cheese 60-GRAM CARB BUDGET 3 ounces grilled chicken

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320/870 Mustard or low-fat mayonnaise Half a 6-inch whole wheat pita 1 choice Lettuce and tomato Baby carrots dipped in low-fat dressing 12 cherries 1 choice 6 ounces light yogurt 1 choice Low-fat salad dressing 6-inch whole wheat pita 2 choices Lettuce tomato cucumber pep- pers onions Carrots mush- rooms and so on cantaloupe 1 choice 6 ounces light yogurt 1 choice

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321/870 Planning Breakfast Breakfasts are often carb heavy and fairly low in protein. Adding a protein source helps you feel fuller for longer maybe allowing you to make it to lunch without snacking. There are many ways to mix up breakfast. Here are some different ideas for keeping it interesting: • The ½ cup of oatmeal can be re- placed with ¾ cup of unsweetened dry cereal. • The ½ banana and ½ serving of milk can be replaced with a whole banana it’s fine to still put a dash of milk in your oatmeal. • One tablespoon of sugar brown sugar or honey is one carb choice so if you want to add a teaspoon or two of sweetener to your oatmeal

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322/870 just be sure to watch the carbs from other sources. • The ½ to 1 whole banana can be re- placed with 1 to 2 tablespoons of raisins or another dried fruit in your oatmeal or dry cereal. Add a tablespoon of chopped nuts to add a little more protein and fiber to your cereal. • The whole wheat English muffin can be replaced with two slices of whole grain toast a small approx- imately 150-calorie bagel two waffles or two small 4-inch-dia- meter pancakes. • Two egg whites or a ¼ cup of egg substitutes could substitute for the whole egg. • In a pinch a PBJ with 1 to 2 table- spoons of peanut butter a teaspoon or two of 100 percent fruit spread

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323/870 and two slices of whole wheat bread can be a pretty filling break- fast on the run. Breakfast Planning 45-GRAM CARB BUDGET ½ cup cooked oatmeal 1 choice 4 ounces 1 per- cent milk ½ /2 choice Half a banana ½ choice 8 ounces 1 per- cent milk 1 choice 60-GRAM CARB BUDGET 1 whole wheat Eng- lish muffin 2 choices 1 egg fried in non- stick spray Half a large grapefruit 1 choice 2 teaspoons tub spread for muffin

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324/870 Coffee or tea Coffee or tea Snacks That Satisfy When planning snacks pairing a carb with protein will make the snack more satisfying and slow the delivery of gluc- ose into your blood. Use the exchange lists to plan snacks the same way: one carb choice or two if your budget al- lows for 30 grams of carb at a snack and one protein serving. If you opt for leaner protein choices—or small por- tions of higher-fat choices—you’ll save some calories. Here are some examples of snacks that pair one carb choice with one lean protein: • 5 whole wheat crackers and 1 ounce reduced-fat cheese • 1 apple and 1 ounce reduced-fat cheese

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325/870 • Half of a 6-inch pita with 1 ounce of turkey with a touch of mustard or salsa for added flavor It’s possible to opt for a higher-fat snack but it’s important to really watch your portions to control calories: • 5 whole wheat crackers with 1 table- spoon peanut butter • 1 egg and 1 slice whole wheat toast with 1 teaspoon of tub spread Nuts contain a small amount of pro- tein when eaten in small amounts which is absolutely necessary if you don’t want nuts to be a major calorie contributor to your diet. Mindlessly noshing on ½ cup of peanuts will load you down with 425 calories and 36 grams of fat but a few nuts combined with a carb can make for a satisfying snack. Try these combos:

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326/870 • 17 grapes and 10 to 15 peanuts • ¾ cup unsweetened cereal or ¼ cup granola and 6 to 10 almonds • 6 ounces light yogurt and 1 table- spoon chopped walnuts More snack ideas are available in chapter 7. Counting Carbs Using Food Labels To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here Up to this point we’ve mostly been talk- ing about using the exchange lists to es- timate the carbohydrate content of foods. But you can also use the food la- bels that

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327/870 appear on the packaging see the example opposite. All the informa- tion is there: the serving size the grams of carbohydrate per serving and the

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328/870 grams of fiber if it’s 5 grams or more of fiber you can subtract half from the total carbs. If the grams of fiber aren’t an even number round up. The accur- acy of your carb count is only as good as you are at judging the portion size. Let’s look at an example of estimating an ap- propriate portion of cereal for someone aiming for two carb choices 30 grams of carb of cereal for breakfast: Fiber Flakes Serving size: ¾ cup Total carbohydrate: 23 grams Fiber: 5 grams Because the fiber is 5 grams or more you can subtract half the fiber from the carb total so there are roughly 20

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329/870 grams of absorbable carbohydrates in the ¾ cup serving 23 grams of total carbohydrate minus half the fiber roun- ded up to 3 grams. If you divide 20 into 30 you get 1.5 servings or slightly more than 1 cup of cereal 0.75 cup × 1.5 1.125 cups. If you have an aversion to doing math don’t sweat it. Estimate. Guess. At least you’re making an effort to think about the portion. Measure the portion out a few times so you become a pretty good estimator. You’ll need to learn this skill to do a quick check of whether a food in the grocery store is a good choice. If you add a glass of milk and a fruit to your portion of cereal two choices or 30 grams of carb you arrive at about 60 grams of carbohydrate for that meal. Aiming for 45 grams Stick with one serving of cereal or have half a fruit serving for example half a small banana instead of a whole one and half

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330/870 of a milk serving 4 ounces instead of 8 ounces. A warning about labels: Don’t expect the manufacturer’s portion size to be the same as the exchange list. Many store-bought breads for example weigh more than 1 ounce so they are more than 15 grams of carb per slice. Reality Check on Portion Sizes All the portions in these examples come from the American Diabetes Associ- ation’s exchange lists and are designed to help you see what reasonable portion really look like. When you compare them to what many of us are accus- tomed to eating it becomes clear how dramatically portion sizes have in- creased over the years—in some in- stances more than twice the size they used to be Having said that I don’t feel there is a significant difference between

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331/870 eating half an ounce or three-quarters of an ounce of crackers. Or between a 4-ounce or 5-ounce apple. Those aren’t the kinds of portion control errors we’re making that have made the United States one of the most overweight na- tions in the world. Our challenges are more on the scale of portions that are 50 to 100 percent bigger than they should be. We’re talking several hun- dred too many calories not just the few calories’ difference between six and eight crackers. As you lament portion sizes perhaps a bit smaller than what you’re used to keep in mind that depending on your carb budget you may be able to eat two servings two choices of one carb-con- taining food at a time. You may decide to spend two of your three or four carb choices at a meal on one thing like cup of brown rice or pasta instead of

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332/870 cup. You just need to make room for it within your per meal carb-distribution budget. It’s important to accept there’s a certain amount of discomfort that goes along with eating less mainly be- cause what we’re often presented with— particularly in restaurants and takeout containers—is excessive requir- ing us to resist some of the food we’re exposed to. It is possible to adjust to eating smaller portions over time. Many others have done it and so can you. Basic Principles Carb counting is one way to help you re- learn reasonable portion sizes of carb- containing foods. As you start to prac- tice eating more appropriate portions there are a few simple prediabetes diet

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333/870 plan rules you can apply to healthfully distribute your carbs over the day. Fruit. Whole fruits should be limited to one serving at a time using the fruit exchange list as a way to estimate a por- tion. Juice should be limited to no more than 4 to 6 ounces a day. To get your minimum of two fruits a day have one either with breakfast or a midmorning snack and one in the afternoon or evening. Milk or yogurt. Eat these one serving at a time. If you’re having milk with breakfast have yogurt as a snack in the afternoon. Grains and starchy vegetables. Limit these to two servings per meal or one serving per snack possibly more if you’re tall male or very physically act- ive. At least half of your grains should be whole grains.

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334/870 Sweets. Don’t just add them to your diet be sure to budget them in. Look at the food label on the packaging and see how many 15-gram carb units a portion of the food will gobble up. If a label isn’t available say you’re enjoying a home- baked treat assume that our usual in- stinct is to eat larger portions than we should so keep it small. A word to the wise: Think twice before keeping a stash of sweets in your house. Can you really limit it to just one small portion a day Maybe you know yourself very well and you can do this but most people find it hard to resist reaching into the cookie jar. It’s possible to budget a little something sweet into your day but usu- ally there are enough of these special treats floating around our food environ- ment without stocking your cupboards with things that will present a constant source of temptation

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7 Making It Happen: Meals and Snacks You’ve committed to managing your prediabetes by following the predia- betes diet plan. Whether you choose the balanced-plate approach or the more structured carb-counting approach

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335/870 your desired outcome is that most days you’ll eat pretty well. Now you need to set the stage for that to happen. If you want to eat well you have to have good food choices close at hand. You need to make time to prepare your meals and snacks and time to pack up your food if it’s leaving the house with you in the morning. To have good food choices available you need to carve out time each week to go to the grocery store I encourage you to share this responsibil- ity with a spouse or partner. To have the time to shop you need to plan for it as you would anything else you deem important. This “planning” part eludes many would-be healthier eaters. But if you’re trying to avoid diabetes you have to prioritize this as the most important thing in your life right now. If you don’t take time to think about your next meal before you’re starving

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336/870 the chances of grabbing something not so good is high. That doesn’t mean you have to cook elaborate meals from scratch every night. I’m all for shortcuts as long as they result in reasonable choices. But you do need to put at least some effort into planning and preparing meals. With fewer people cooking these days knowledge of how to plan and cook meals is falling by the wayside leaving increasing numbers of people eating out more and gaining weight. Let’s walk through the day—meal by meal—and review some simple sugges- tions to help make meal planning go a little smoother. Beg in with Breakfast Let’s start with some breakfast rules:

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337/870 1. The number-one rule if you want to control your insulin resistance and lose weight is that you have to eat breakfast. There is no way around it. 2. If the food or combination food is a healthy choice and stays within your carb budget for the meal it’s an option. Your breakfast could be as simple as peanut butter and fruit spread on whole wheat bread. You choose what works for the predia- betes diet plan and for you. 3. Make sure you budget ten to fifteen minutes into your morning either at home or at work to eat break- fast. Ideally you’ll be eating mind- fully without distractions but in the end what matters most is that you do eat breakfast.

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338/870 4. Accept that a breakfast you eat at home or bring to work is probably more healthy than the pastries or giant-sized muffins you’ll get at the coffee shop or be offered at a break- fast meeting. So what are the usual mistakes people make • Skipping breakfast—by far the most common mistake. Studies show that people who skip breakfast tend to eat more at night which can be a potential contributor to weight gain. • Thinking that coffee with cream and sugar or artificial sweetener is breakfast. It’s not It certainly doesn’t add the valuable nutrients your body needs to kick off your day and jump-start your metabolism.

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339/870 • Grabbing breakfast where you get your morning coffee unless that favorite morning spot is your own kitchen and you’re preparing your own breakfast. Even if you find what appears to be a healthy choice at the corner café the portion size is often enormous. If you have time to wait in line at a coffee shop you can probably find ten minutes to grab a quick bowl of cereal or a whole wheat English muffin with peanut butter at home before leav- ing the house. If you’re a regular breakfast skipper start by believing you have the power to change this habit. Of course you’re busy in the morning and it’s not easy to change morning routines. Be patient and give yourself a chance to establish a new habit. This one really matters. Start

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340/870 by budgeting in a few extra minutes in the morning. Keep it simple by grabbing a piece of fruit or a yogurt. Next you can work on making a more balanced choice. Carb-Friendly Breakfasts Assuming you’re working with a 45- to 75-gram carb budget for the breakfast meal and want to include a protein source you’ve got a lot of options. You may opt for a slightly smaller 30-gram carb breakfast maybe by replacing a carb-containing beverage for one that’s carb-free but you want to make sure you get in enough carbs at breakfast time to keep your blood glucose levels in a stable range until your midmorning snack or lunch. Don’t like traditional breakfast foods The chart that follows

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341/870 includes some unconventional options too. Healthy Breakfast Options BREAKFAST CHOICE CARBS GRAMS One whole wheat English 30 muffin 1 tablespoon peanut or other 0 nut butter 8 ounces 1 per- cent or skim 15 milk 45 grams total

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342/870 Two slices whole wheat toast 15 30 grams each ½ cup 1 percent or nonfat cot- 0 tage cheese 8 ounces 1 per- cent or skim 15 milk One-third 60 grams total cantaloupe 15

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343/870 One whole wheat English 30 muffin One egg or one serving egg sub- stitute com- bined with Eng- 0 lish muffin as an egg sandwich 1 tablespoon tub 45 grams total spread 0 8 ounces 1 per- cent or skim 15 milk

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344/870 2 whole wheat waffles 30 1 tablespoon peanut or other 0 nut butter One small banana 15 8 ounces 1 per- 60 grams total cent or skim 15 milk

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345/870 One six-inch whole wheat 15 tortilla One egg scrambled and cooked with nonstick spray 0 and a slice of reduced-fat cheese 45 grams total One pear 15 8 ounces 1 per- cent or skim 15 milk

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346/870 1 cup cooked old-fashioned or 30 steel-cut oatmeal 1 tablespoon chopped 0 walnuts 2 tablespoons dried cranber- 15 ries or raisins 45 grams total

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347/870 1 cup shredded wheat cereal 30 ¾ cup blueberries 15 1 tablespoon chopped nuts 0 8 ounces 1 per- 75 grams total cent or skim 15 milk 1 slice whole wheat toast with 15 tub spread

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348/870 6 ounces plain artificially 15 sweetened or Greek yogurt 2 tablespoons dried fruit 15 ¼ cup low-fat granola 15 1 tablespoon chopped nuts 0 Half cup canned 60 grams total pineapple in 15 water

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349/870 Two slices whole grain bread 30 Two slices reduced-fat cheese melted 0 on top of the bread 60 grams total One apple 15 8 ounces 1 per- cent milk 15

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350/870 One six-inch whole wheat 15 tortilla 2 ounces leftover chicken 0 17 grapes 40–42 grams roughly a fistful 6 ounces sugar- free hot chocolate 15 10–12 grams check the food label total

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351/870 Ten Ak-Mak stone ground sesame crackers Two Laughing Cow spreadable cheese wedges 4 ounces orange 402 servings per the food label 0 55 grams total juice 15 15–20 the number of 1 ounce 30 grams whole grain crackers crackers varies by type—check the food label 45–50 grams total cup hummus 15 One small orange 15

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352/870 One small bagel such as Origin- al Lender’s 30 frozen or bagel thin One slice turkey 0 One slice cheese 0 1 teaspoon light mayonnaise or 0 mustard Lettuce and 45 grams total tomato 0 8 ounces 1 per- cent or skim 15 milk Any of these breakfast suggestions could be trimmed by 15 grams of carb by transporting some of the breakfast

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353/870 carbs to a midmorning snack. Another option for those who prefer a smaller breakfast is to have half of your break- fast first thing in the morning and half as a midmorning snack. Or it could be two-thirds at breakfast and one-third midmorning. Experiment and see what works best for you. Midmorning Snack or Not If you’re aiming to control your insulin resistance is a midmorning snack ne- cessary That depends on how filling your breakfast was and how hungry you’ll be by lunchtime if you don’t snack. One way to enhance the odds of making it to lunch without needing a snack is to eat more protein. Adding

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354/870 eggs low-fat cottage cheese or Greek yogurt which is higher in protein than regular yogurt to your breakfast may help you feel fuller longer—and there- fore less in need of a snack before lunch. Studies have shown old-fashioned oat- meal not the flavored kind with tons of added sugar to be super-satisfying keeping hunger at bay for a longer peri- od of time. If you do feel you need a midmorning snack try limiting it to a piece of fruit if possible because breakfast and lunch are generally much closer together than lunch and dinner. Most people don’t eat enough fruit so checking off one fruit serving midmorning fulfills half of your two-a-day minimum requirement by lunch. Keeping this snack smaller will also help you save calories in the morn- ing that may be better spent on an after- noon snack when something more

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355/870 substantial may be needed to help con- trol your hunger before dinner. If you do need a little protein keep it small such as a tablespoon of nut butter on a few crackers or six to eight almonds with a fruit. Let’s Do Lunch To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here As for your midday meal the predia- betes diet plan has some important rules: 1. The number-one lunchtime rule: don’t skip it Skipping lunch can be a setup for reactive overeating that begins in front of the vending ma- chine at 4 p.m. and doesn’t stop un-

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356/870 til bedtime. As I’ve mentioned be- fore eating patterns matter. Even if lunch starts as a half-lunch grabbed at your desk before a meeting do

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357/870 it You can always finish it later and it’s better than waiting to eat anything until later when you’re starved and out of control. 2. Consider flipping lunch and dinner so lunch is the larger meal. It may help you control your hunger better for the rest of the day. According to a recent study published in the In- ternational Journal of Obesity eating your main meal earlier in the day may offer weight-loss advant- ages as well. In this study of more than four hundred people in Spain where lunch is the main meal of the day those who ate their main meal before 3 p.m. lost significantly more weight on a similar number of calories. 1 Until recent times lunch was “dinner” for many in this country as well—and people were a lot thinner

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358/870 3. Some people do better splitting lunch in two eating half at noon and the other half at 3 or 4 p.m. This basically means eating a meal or minimeal every four hours or so which may help you stay ahead of your hunger as the day rolls on. 4. Find a way to work both fruits and vegetables into your lunch. You’ll walk away feeling a lot fuller on fewer calories and won’t feel pres- sured to fit all your fruits and ve- getables for the day into dinner. 5. If you can’t pack a lunch from home check out all your employee cafeteria offerings to see if you can piece together a decent lunch à la carte. A nice salad-bar salad with a variety of colorful vegetables two to three options of added protein grilled chicken half a hard-boiled

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359/870 egg and a small sprinkling of grated or crumbled cheese works nicely and a tablespoon of raisins or dried cranberries topped with half a dressing ladle of low-cal dressing makes for a calorie-con- trolled but satisfying lunch. Or or- der the meat chicken or fish op- tion watch the creamy sauces with two side vegetables. In gener- al it’s preferable to avoid the grill area unless it’s to grab a piece of grilled chicken. 6. If you’re bringing lunch from home try to make it the night be- fore while you’re cleaning the kit- chen and not yet settled in for the night. Waiting until morning to make your lunch increases the odds you’ll get busy and forget.

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360/870 What are the usual mistakes people make with their midday meal You may see yourself making a few of these: • Skipping lunch altogether. Just don’t do it • Getting busy with work and eating lunch too late at which point you’ll probably be overhungry and at high risk for eating too much of the wrong thing when you finally get around to eating. • Eating too little to hold you over for a decent amount of time. A salad with too little protein fat-free dressing and pita bread will not fill the void in your stomach for long. • Going into business lunches starving and at high risk for grabbing a huge sandwich a bag of chips and a Frisbee-sized cookie—a carb-

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361/870 overload disaster for people with prediabetes. • Being unrealistic about the chal- lenges of eating healthfully in a res- taurant. Assume that if you eat out you’re probably going to be served at least 25 to 30 percent more food than you should be eating. Sand- wiches are often huge and served with fries and there’s often a lot more hidden fat in restaurant meals than you realize. This doesn’t mean you can’t enjoy the occasional dining-out lunch experi- ence but be a realist here. If you want to develop a healthy lifestyle you have to come up with alternat- ives to the regular eating out many of us have become so accustomed to.

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362/870 Lunch Menu Ideas As with breakfast under the predia- betes diet plan aim for a 45- to 75-gram carb budget for lunch. Because lunch and dinner are fairly far apart for most people including a 3- to 4-ounce por- tion of protein with lunch will slow di- gestion helping to steady your blood glucose levels and keep you feeling fuller longer. Think of vegetables first not last remember the balanced-plate approach. Vegetables can be raw in the form of a salad carrots or sliced pep- pers or celery or any other vegetable you like raw cooked as a broth-based vegetable soup or leftover reheated ve- getables from last night’s dinner. Fruit can be a piece of whole fruit a serving of fruit salad or a couple of tablespoons of dried fruit sprinkled into a salad. Watch those added fats—difficult to do if you’re eating out often. The usual

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363/870 offenders are mayonnaise 100 calories per tablespoon too much full-fat salad dressing can be 80 to 180 calories per 2-tablespoon serving too much cheese sandwiches grilled in too much butter cream soups and everybody’s favorite vice fries. Throughout the list of lunch options offered below I’ll point out free and combination foods from the exchange lists so you can see why some foods that have small amounts of carb are counted as free and other less obvious choices count either all or in part as a carb like broth-based soup for example. Non- starchy vegetables are considered free- bies so we count their carbs as zero. We’re working with estimates here. Don’t sweat the small stuff. Healthy Lunch Options

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363/870 LUNCH CHOICE CARBS GRAMS

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364/870 Two slices whole wheat bread 15 30 grams per slice Two slices turkey one 0 slice cheese 2 teaspoons low- fat may- onnaise or 1 0 tablespoon avocado Lettuce and 60 grams total tomato 0 8 ounces 1 percent or 15 skim milk

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365/870 17 grapes a handful 15 Half six- inch whole 15 wheat pita 2 ounces lean roast beef 0 one slice cheese 2 teaspoons barbecue 0 sauce Romaine lettuce sliced 0 red peppers 45 grams total Up to this amount is free on the exchange list. One pear 15 8 ounces skim or 1 percent 15 milk

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366/870 One slice whole wheat 15 bread 1 tablespoon peanut butter 0 1 teaspoon 100 percent 0 fruit spread 1 cup chicken noodle soup 15 1 cup baby carrots and 0 chopped celery 2 tablespoons low-fat dress- ing for 0 dipping 45 grams total 1 carb “combination food” Negli- gible amount of carbs.

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367/870 One apple 15

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368/870 Lettuce to- mato cucum- bers onions 0 peppers and so on 3 ounces grilled 0 chicken ½ cup kidney or garbanzo 15 beans 2 tablespoons low-fat 0 dressing Half six- inch whole 15 wheat pita One packet 45 grams total sugar-free 15

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369/870 instant hot chocolate One small hamburger or 0 cheeseburger patty One small bun 30 1 tablespoon ketchup 0 Side salad with low-fat 0 dressing 8 ounces skim or 1 percent 15 milk 45 grams total Up to this amount is free on the exchange list.

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370/870 Two slices whole grain 30 bread Two slices cheese melted on 0 top of the bread One slice to- mato on top 0 of cheese 1 cup baby 45 grams total carrots 0 ½ cup fruit cocktail in 15 juice or water Sugar-free beverage 0

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371/870 Half 12-inch thin crust 60 cheese pizza Side salad with low-fat 0 dressing 75 grams total One orange 15 Water or sugar-free 0 beverage

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372/870 2 cups bean soup lentil 30 pea black bean One small roll 15 Two small plums 15 8 ounces 1 percent milk 15 75 grams total Note: The bean soup also counts as protein.

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373/870 One small six-inch sub roll 3 ounces tur- key ham or roast beef Lettuce to- mato onions peppers pickles 1–2 teaspoons mustard or low-fat mayo 8 ounces skim or 1 percent milk 30–45 0 0 0 15 45–60 grams total

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374/870 ¾ cup 1 per- cent cottage cheese equals 3 0 ounces of protein 1 ounce 30 grams of 15 whole grain crackers 1 cup cubed 45 grams total cantaloupe 15 Two small 2¼-inch 15 chocolate chip cookies Water or sugar-free 0 beverage

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375/870 4 ounces chicken or 0 fish ½ cup cooked carrots 0 ½ cup cooked green beans 0 1 cup brown or white rice 45 6 ounces light yogurt 15 Water or 60 grams total sugar-free 0 beverage

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376/870 One six-inch whole wheat 15 tortilla ¼ cup tabouli negligible carbs ½ cup black beans 15 Roasted red pepper slices 0 cup shredded 60 grams total part-skim 0 cheese One apple 15 8 ounces skim or 1 percent 15 milk

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377/870 2 tablespoons peanut butter 0 1 ounce 30 grams whole 15 grain crackers 1 cup tomato soup 15 Carrot and celery sticks 0 8 ounces skim 45 grams total Note: The added sugar per serving in the peanut butter is negligible. or 1 percent 15 milk

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378/870 One medium baked potato 30 1 cup chili 30 ¼ cup shredded part-skim 0 cheese Side salad with low-fat 0 dressing Water or sugar-free 0 beverage 60 grams total

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379/870 3–4 ounces chicken or 0 shrimp 1 cup stir- fried 0 vegetables cup brown rice or white 30 rice One egg roll half if eaten with duck 30 sauce ½ cup pine- 75 grams total apple chunks 15 Reasonable Salads Salads are an awesome filler helping you feel like you’ve eaten a lot while

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380/870 actually consuming very few calories. But this assumes you stick with mostly vegetable-only ingredients. Fat-laden add-ons have the potential to really crank up the calories. Avoid altogether or use very little of the following: croutons bacon bits pasta salad potato salad large amounts of cheese and oil- based bean salad mixes. Healthy fat choices worthy of a small sprinkle on your salad roughly a teaspoon or two include nuts seeds olives and soy nuts. To ensure that your salad will really fill you up aim for at least five ingredients including at least four vegetables and a sprinkling of some sort of protein beans nuts eggs or reduced-fat cheese. Try adding a teaspoon or two of dried cranberries or raisins for added nutrients and texture. Aim for a rain- bow of color: deep green lettuce red to- matoes yellow peppers black olives

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381/870 orange carrots and light green cucumbers. Most important don’t drown your salad in dressing The universal portion is two tablespoons. Measure it out. Compare the calories—some full-fat varieties contain over 200 calories in two tablespoons whereas low-fat vari- eties can have far fewer calories. I’m a fan of smaller amounts of low-fat salad dressing versus larger amounts of fat- free as low-fat versions tend to taste better and the fat in the dressing helps us absorb many of the fat-soluble phytonutrients found in plant foods. Opt for heart-healthy olive oil or canola oil whenever possible which can count for your small amount of healthful fat included in your meal. Not a big fan of bottled dressings Make your own or use dry salad dressing packets that come with the glass bottle where you

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382/870 choose your source of vinegar and oil use a little of both olive and canola and the fat won’t solidify in the fridge. You simply follow the directions on the packets for “less oil” dressing. Midafternoon Snack Many people who struggle with portion control need something to fill the void during that long stretch between lunch and dinner particularly because dinner- time is a lot later than it used to be. In- corporating an afternoon snack into your carb-distributed diet plan helps keep hunger under control to help you avoid overeating at dinner. The key is to plan for a balanced part-carb part-pro- tein snack that includes a portion of carbohydrate to keep your blood gluc- ose levels from dipping and triggering

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383/870 carb cravings and a portion of lean pro- tein to steady glucose levels and help you feel full. Eating Nuts Without Going Nuts Despite their fat content in small amounts nuts can be an important part of a healthy diet. Yes they are 80 per- cent fat but they are also a good source of fiber plant protein healthful monounsaturated fat vitamins and minerals. With nuts portion control is key. Instead of mindlessly noshing on nuts in front of the TV try incorporat- ing a handful into foods: sprinkle them on cereals or salads mix them into a homemade trail mix or stir them into yogurt. To avoid calorie overload limit nuts to ½-ounce portions and pair them with a carb such as a fruit or light yogurt for a filling snack. Ever

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384/870 wondered what ½-ounce portions of your favorite nuts look like See the chart on this page to learn the appropri- ate serving size. Peanut butter and other nut butters can be healthy additions in the predia- betes diet plan as long as you’re mindful of portions. Nut butters average around 100 calories per tablespoon. If there was ever a food to measure this is it. Nut Portion Sizes and Calories NUTS CALORIES NUT PER ½ PER ½ OUNCE OUNCE Almonds 11 85 Brazil nuts 3–4 93 Cashews 9 81

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384/870 Hazelnuts Macadamia nuts 10 5–6 89 102 Peanuts 14 83 Pecans 10 100 Pine nuts 1½ tablespoo 72 s Pistachio nuts 23 81 Walnuts 7 halves 93 The Truth About Crackers Serving sizes on cracker boxes vary consid- erably depending on how many crackers weigh an ounce 30 grams the standard portion size for crackers and many other foods. Because crackers on their own aren’t

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385/870 very filling and eating them alone can eas- ily escalate into eating too many I recom- mend pairing a half a serving ½ ounce of crackers with a protein like reduced-fat cheese tuna mixed with light mayo 1 per- cent cottage cheese or a small amount of peanut butter bean dip or hummus. In general a ½-ounce serving of crackers is about 10 grams of carb which is close enough to the 15-gram carb portions to consider it a carb choice. See the shopping list for my recommended healthy cracker options. Snack Suggestions Being prepared—for almost every meal and snack—is an important part of es- tablishing healthy eating habits. To make this easier load up on snack baggies half-size storage bags small plastic containers for things like

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386/870 hummus peanut butter and low-fat salad dressings and an insulated lunch bag and ice pack to carry it all to work. Try these easy and delicious snack ideas or use them as a blueprint for a snack you’ll find satisfying: • ½ cup 1 percent cottage cheese and ½ cup canned fruit in water or juice • ½ cup cottage cheese flavored with herb seasoning and ½ ounce of crackers and/or vegetables • ½ cup tuna mixed with light mayo and ½ ounce of crackers • 1½ tablespoons peanut butter and ½ serving of crackers • 1½ tablespoons peanut butter on a sliced apple or small banana

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387/870 • 2 wedges Laughing Cow light spreadable cheese on ½ serving of crackers carrots and celery sticks • 1 ounce reduced-fat hard cheese like Cabot 50 percent reduced fat with ½ serving of crackers • 1 small whole wheat pita filled with 2 tablespoons hummus • Half of a ham-and-cheese sandwich with mustard on whole wheat bread or a small whole wheat pita • Half of an English muffin topped with grated part-skim mozzarella heated in the toaster oven • 1 slice of whole grain bread with 1 slice of reduced-fat cheese heated in the toaster oven • 6 ounces light yogurt and ½ serving of nuts

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388/870 • 1 light or plain yogurt mixed with 2 tablespoons low-fat granola • ½ serving of nuts and one fruit • 1–2 slices of turkey rolled into a small tortilla or stuffed into a small pita with lettuce tomato avocado or sliced red peppers • 1 hard-boiled egg and 1 slice whole wheat toast • 6 ounces nonfat or low-fat Greek yogurt • ½ cup high-fiber cereal with 4 ounces skim or 1 percent milk • 1 reduced-fat cheddar stick or string cheese with ½ serving of crackers or a fruit • ¾ cup homemade trail mix made with 2 cups high-fiber cereal cup chopped nuts and cup dried fruit makes about 3½ serv ings

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389/870 • 1 hard granola bar coated with 2 teaspoons peanut butter A warning: Be careful with cereal bars and chewy granola bars as they’re often low in protein and high in sugar check the nutrition facts on the pack- aging— you’d be surprised how much added sugar is in these “healthy” snack foods. Also keep in mind that calorie- controlled pre-portioned snack packs only save you calories if you eat just one. These packs may be a better option for an occasional after-meal treat be sure to factor the carbs into your carb- distributed plan.

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390/870 Dinner’s Ready To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here As you prepare for your final meal of the day embrace these prediabetes diet plan rules: 1. The number-one rule: don’t eat it too late This tends to encourage reactive overeating at night which can also kill your appetite for breakfast. A 2013 study from the International Journal of Obesity suggests that people who avoid excessive late-day eating may be more successful with weight loss. 2 2. Establish the habit of preparing balanced-plate dinners most nights

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391/870 as one of your most important be- havioral tasks. Even if you’re not yet convinced you need to do this for yourself if you have children model healthy eating for them. Children learn what they live.

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392/870 Unhealthy behaviors—like eating out all the time and not eating until you’re starving—is a recipe for overeating and becoming overweight. 3. Cook in bulk so your efforts extend beyond one meal. If you’re going to make chicken or pork chops make enough for three meals. Some people are afraid to do this because they worry they’ll just eat more. Try storing the extra portions before dinner to make this less likely. Make enough brown rice at the be- ginning of the week so you’ll have extra to reheat in the microwave. Stock your refrigerator with frozen vegetables so you’ll always have something if you run out of fresh veggies. Make chili soups stews and other meals you can prepare in a big batch and freeze in single-

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393/870 serving portions. All you have to do is thaw reheat and serve with a salad. 4. Preserve your favorite go- to re- cipes. If cookbooks intimidate you buy a photo album and preserve behind plastic your favorite recipes from magazines friends and on- line recipe sites. This gives you something to flip through the next time you need reminding of what you might like for dinner 5. Don’t let vegetables be an after- thought. Although it’s natural to plan your meal around the protein part remember that half your plate should be vegetables. Having them in your house in fresh frozen or canned form is key to making them a priority.

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394/870 6. Consider a trial of home-delivered groceries. Shopping often enough can be a challenge and home deliv- ery of fresh fruits and vegetables and other staples is a great option for busy people. 7. Take a cooking class to gain confid- ence in your culinary skills. In- vestigate options at a local adult education center or culinary school. What are the usual mistakes people make about dinner • Eating too late or eating too little over the day. Both are classic setups for overeating at night. • Not carving out time to shop during the week so there’s nothing to make for dinner. • Couples too easily defaulting to “let’s just eat out.” It’s tough to be

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395/870 the one leading the charge to eat more meals at home but readiness to change doesn’t always occur sim- ultaneously for people in a relation- ship. Be optimistic that if you lead your partner will eventually fol- low—or at least be supportive. The Dinner Menu Once you have an understanding of the carb-counting concept there’s a lot of flexibility with what you can eat for din- ner. It’s all about portions. Let’s go back to the balanced-plate idea. Populate a quarter of your plate with protein. If you eat off a ten-inch plate or smaller a quarter of the plate should equal a roughly 3- to 4-ounce cooked portion of meat poultry or sea- food. If your calorie needs are higher if you’re male or extremely physically

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396/870 active for instance you may be able to eat up to 6 ounces of protein. To control calories limit foods that are fried or in a cream or butter sauce to occasional use only. It’s fine to pan-fry in a small amount of oil 2 tablespoons oil used in a recipe that serves four is only 1½ tea- spoons of oil per person or look for “light” versions of traditionally fatty re- cipes in cooking magazines or recipe websites. You may figure out how to make a lower-fat version of your favor- ite dish In general opt for grilled baked steamed poached or stewed meat poultry or seafood recipes. Lean sources of protein include any kind of seafood white meat poultry without the skin and lean cuts of meat with the words “loin” “round” “flank” “select” “choice” or “90 percent lean” or leaner in the name.

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397/870 Consider using a slow-cooker. Preparing dinner can be as simple as layering chicken over a bed of cut veget- ables adding some chicken broth and seasoning with your favorite herbs and spices. There are loads of slow-cooker recipes on the Internet. Be wary of high- fat ingredients. Spice up your life. One challenge for the novice cook is figuring out how to add flavor to recipes without adding too much fat. Fortunately as American cuisine has gotten more multicultural we’ve become exposed to a greater vari- ety of seasonings. Beyond such tradi- tional herbs and spices as basil oregano dill thyme rosemary and tar- ragon there are countless delicious herb and spice blends like Italian and poultry seasonings Asian spice mixes and spicy Southwestern and Indian blends for those who like to add a little

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398/870 kick to their food. If you need some in- spiration one great resource is Penzey’s Spices www.penzeys.com a mostly mail-order business that sells high- quality spices and provides hundreds of recipes on their website and in their free catalog. Start simple by rubbing a new spice onto your chicken breast be- fore baking. You may be a more creative cook before you know it Experiment with starch choices. Covering a quarter to a third if needed of your plate with a starch choice will help you avoid that deprived feeling but it will also be a reasonable enough portion to avoid spiking your demand for insulin. Higher-fiber grains are brown rice quinoa whole wheat pasta and whole grain bread. If you don’t like brown rice try cooking it in broth to add flavor or opt for basmati white rice which has a lower glycemic

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399/870 index than long grains. Colorful starchy vegetables—like sweet potatoes yams winter squash corn peas and dried beans—are super-healthy stand-ins providing both the carbs we crave and an assortment of healthy nutrients. You can take nonstarchy vegetables and make a gratin using reduced-fat cheese where the bread crumb top crust is the starch but the bulk of the recipe is low carb. There’s also the amazingly tasty mashed cauliflower that many substi- tuted for mashed potatoes in the low- carb diet days. Many versions of this mashed cauliflower recipe exist on the Internet but be wary of those with too much added fat. Go vegetarian and combine the protein and starch parts of your plate. Rice and beans. Tofu rice and stir-fried vegetables. Vegetarian chili and brown rice. A veggie burger on a

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400/870 whole grain bun. An egg veggie sausage patty and whole wheat English muffin sandwich. They’re all plant protein and starch combos. You are adding some carbs in the form of plant protein but beans tofu veggie burgers and other meat substitutes also contain fiber which helps mute their glycemic effect. There are many delicious and filling op- tions in this category. Salad for Supper For many people a salad consists of ice- berg lettuce and salad dressing. What you want from a salad are phytonutri- ents—plant chemicals that circulate around the body promoting good health—of which pale iceberg lettuce has few. You want your salad to be col- orful: dark leafy lettuce romaine green leaf red leaf Boston lettuce spinach or

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401/870 baby spinach green red orange or yel- low peppers tomatoes banana jalapeño or red roasted peppers avo- cado artichokes carrots cucumbers beets olives broccoli and cauliflower. The list goes on and on. Protein can add flavor and texture to your salad and is absolutely necessary if you want it to be a filling meal. Try the following: • Grilled chicken • Canned chicken or tuna • Leftover meat poultry or seafood • Beans kidney garbanzo black pinto—rinsed canned beans are fine • Tofu cubes soy nuts edamame • Reduced-fat shredded cheese • Eggs and egg whites

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402/870 • Small amounts of strong-tasting cheese like feta blue and gorgonzola A sprinkling of healthy fat in the salad adds flavor and helps you absorb the many fat-soluble phytonutrients in plant foods. These are some great alternatives: • Nuts and seeds • Avocado • Olives and olive or canola oil • Reduced-fat salad dressing oil and vinegar or a very small amount of full-fat dressing well tossed throughout the salad Fresh or dried fruit can add flavor and texture in salads. These fruits make for some sweet additions: • Dried cranberries or raisins

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403/870 • Mandarin oranges • Chunked pineapple • Cut-up apples or pears You can almost feel how filling a salad with all of these ingredients would be. Pair it with a whole grain roll or pita and a glass of 1 percent or skim milk and you have an incredibly nutritious filling balanced-plate dinner. Balanced-Plate Dinner Ideas Remember nonstarchy vegetables count as zero carbs. With our goal of eating at least two fruits a day note that some of the dinner options include fruit. Others include the occasional dessert although try not to have dessert every night to save calories. With all meal options and certainly at dinnertime limit fat used in cooking to 2

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404/870 tablespoons in a pan and added fat at the table to 2 teaspoons using Smart Balance Olivio or other trans fat–free tub spread. Try these dinners as is or use them as a blueprint to mix and match your favorite foods now that you have a sense of the carb-counting principles. Balanced-Plate Dinner Ideas DINNER CHOICE CARBS GRAMS

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405/870 3–6 ounces cooked fish 0 poultry or lean meat 1 cup cooked 45 sweet potato 30 1 cup steamed asparagus 0 Side spinach salad with al- monds and man- 0 darin oranges 8 ounces skim or 1 percent milk 15 2 teaspoons grams total Note: It’s okay to ex- empt the orange wedges from the carb count. heart-healthy 0 spread

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406/870 3–6 ounces grilled or stir- 0 fried shrimp 1 cup brown or basmati rice 45 1 cup steamed green beans with 0 sesame seeds 8 ounces skim or 75 grams total 1 percent milk 15 12 cherries 15 2 teaspoons heart-healthy 0 spread

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407/870 3–4 ounces chicken 0 cacciatore Tomatoes onions peppers 0 in the sauce 1 cup whole wheat pasta 45 Salad with greens tomatoes cucumbers 0 olives and carrots 1–2 tablespoons 45 grams total Note: Be sure to measure the whole wheat pasta—it’s easy to go overboard low-fat dressing 0 Water or sugar- free beverage 0

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408/870 3–4 ounces sir- loin steak or pork 0 loin chop Half large baked potato 30 ½ cup steamed broccoli 0 ½ cup steamed carrots 0 2 teaspoons heart-healthy 0 spread Water or sugar- 45 grams total Note: Be sure to measure the yogurt free beverage 0 ½ cup low-fat frozen yogurt 15

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409/870 1 cup kidney or black beans 30 cup brown or basmati rice 30 1 cup sautéed brussels sprouts 0 Water or sugar- free beverage 0 Sugar-free gelatin or frozen dessert 0 60 grams total

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410/870 2 cups salad greens 0 Tomatoes pep- pers beets olives onions carrots ar- 0 tichokes and quarter avocado 3 ounces grilled or canned 0 chicken ½ cup garbanzo 60 grams total beans chickpeas 15 2 tablespoons dried cranberries 15 1 tablespoon sun- flower seeds 0 1 tablespoon low- fat salad dressing 0

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411/870 Half naan bread or one six-inch 30 whole wheat pita 2 teaspoons heart-healthy 0 spread Water or sugar- free beverage 0

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412/870 Two slices whole grain bread 30 Two slices turkey ham or lean 0 roast beef 1 teaspoon light mayonnaise 0 1 teaspoon honey mustard 0 1 cup tomato soup 15 Salad with greens grape to- matoes cucum- 60 grams total Free food because of the small portion. bers peppers 0 and onions or other vegetables on hand

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413/870 2 tablespoons low-fat salad 0 dressing 5 chocolate “kisses” 15 Water or sugar- free beverage 0 2 cups of beef stew made with lean beef carrots 30 potatoes and other vegetables 1 cup steamed 45 grams total broccoli 0 8 ounces skim or 1 percent milk 15

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414/870 Half 12-inch pizza cheese or 60 veggie Large salad with at least five veg- gies and ½ cup 15 kidney or garb- anzo beans 2 tablespoons low-fat salad 0 dressing Sugar-free ice 75 grams total pop 0 Water or sugar- free beverage 0

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415/870 Three or four 1-ounce meat- balls made with 0 90 percent lean ground beef 1 cup whole wheat pasta 45 Tomato sauce 0 1 cup steamed broccoli and 0 cauliflower 8 ounces skim or 60 grams total Measure the pasta. Use no- added-sug- ar or low- sugar to- mato sauce. 1 percent milk 15

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416/870 1½ cups chili with ground tur- 30 key and beans cup brown rice 15 2 tablespoons grated Parmesan 0 cheese 1 cup steamed 60 grams total green beans 0 8 ounces skim or 1 percent milk 15 Sugar-free ice pop 0

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417/870 Two 6-inch whole wheat 30 tortillas 3–6 ounces 90 percent lean ground beef or 0 turkey breast seasoned ½ cup kidney or other beans 15 ½ cup part-skim grated Mexican 0 cheese mix Shredded lettuce diced tomatoes 0 slices of avocado 60 grams total Free in this amount. ¼ cup salsa 0 1 tablespoon taco sauce 0

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418/870 1 cup cantaloupe cubes 15 Water or sugar- free beverage 0 Eating More Plant Foods To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here Whether your goal is to reverse predia- betes lose weight or lower your risk for heart disease and cancer or all of the above an important part of every health-promoting diet is to eat a more plant-based diet. Here are some helpful tips to work more fruits and vegetables into your meals and snacks.

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419/870 Keep an open mind. Fruits and ve- getables you may not have liked earlier in life may be more appealing now. Go ahead try something new

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420/870 Make time to shop. Having fresh produce in your home—and stored where you can see it—serves as a re- minder to eat more. Studies show people eat more fruit if it’s left out in sight so keep fruit in a bowl on the kit- chen table or counter. Store vegetables on the eye-level refrigerator shelves where they’re visible as opposed to shoved down below in the crisper where you may forget about them. Do some quick prep. When you get home from the market immediately cut up fruits into fruit salad or chop fresh vegetables and store them in a reseal- able bag so all you have to do is pull them out wash and cook. Consider veggies throughout the day. Think of them as something to eat at lunch and snack time as well as at dinner.

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421/870 Squeeze some in by lunchtime. Try to fit in at least two servings of fruits and vegetables by lunch. This tim- ing increases the odds that you’ll get in the recommended minimum of five to seven servings of fruits and vegetables by the end of the day. In general a serving is ½ cup cooked or 1 cup raw or a piece of fruit about the size of a tennis ball. Here are some meal-specific ideas for adding more plants to your plate. Breakfast. Add fresh fruit to your breakfast. Try a sliced banana or berries in your cereal or oatmeal or some mel- on or an orange alongside your toast or eggs. Blend up a fruit smoothie with frozen fruit and plain yogurt. Add sautéed vegetables—like onions

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422/870 peppers or broccoli—to scrambled eggs or an omelet. Snacks. Have some fruit as a mid- morning snack. Leave an apple banana or pear on your desk at work so you re- member you have it. Snack on yogurt with berries or dried fruit mixed in sliced fruit dipped in peanut butter or baby carrots dipped in hummus. Lunch and dinner. Throw extra frozen vegetables into soups stews and casseroles. Add rinsed canned beans to salads and canned soups for added pro- tein and fiber. When dining out choose bean soups and veggie wraps light on the dressing. Remember that salad bars offer good opportunities to sample new vegetables. Throw last night’s cold leftover vegetables into a salad for lunch. Add frozen vegetables broccoli cauliflower carrots to tomato sauces to help fill you up without needing an

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423/870 extra serving of pasta. Stuff a baked potato with canned diced tomatoes peppers onions steamed broccoli and reduced-fat grated cheese. Load wrap sandwiches with greens red peppers and grated carrots.

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Part 3 REVERSING PREDIABETES THROUGH WEIGHT LOSS A HEART-HEALTHY DIET AND EXERCISE

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8 The Prediabetes- Obesity Connection Obesity is a major risk factor for predia- betes and type 2 diabetes. While in the past we largely thought of excess body fat as simply stored calories we now know that fat cells release fatty acids

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424/870 hormones inflammatory chemicals and other substances that can aggravate insulin resistance. As such weight loss should be a first-line focus for anyone with prediabetes who is overweight or obese. The good news is that studies in- dicate even modest weight loss has been shown to improve insulin resistance. Trimming calories and excess dietary fat getting some regular physical activ- ity and ongoing follow-up with a re- gistered dietitian or other supportive health care professional is the ideal combination for achieving the 7 percent weight loss research suggests may help prevent or control type 2 diabetes. 1 A single ideal dietary plan for weight loss for someone with prediabetes has not been determined most likely because no one approach is going to work for all people. We all have different genetics backgrounds preferences and

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425/870 priorities. But studies have found that both low-carb and low-fat calorie-con- trolled diets as well as Mediterranean- type diets can be effective at promoting weight loss in the short term. Maintain- ing weight loss long term is what really matters for managing and perhaps even reversing prediabetes and regardless of dietary approach increased physical activity and behavior modification are critical for helping to keep those lost pounds off. 2 Research recently published in the Journal of the American Medical Asso- ciation suggests that a diet with a low glycemic load about 40 percent of cal- ories from carbohydrate 35 percent from fat and 25 percent from protein may provide an advantage for maintain- ing weight loss particularly for people who are known to be insulin resistant. A 2012 study from Boston’s Children’s

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426/870 Hospital found that a diet moderate in carbohydrates that emphasized foods with a low glycemic load may promote more weight and body-fat loss than a low-fat diet in those with insulin resist- ance as determined by high levels of in- sulin in the blood thirty minutes after an oral glucose tolerance test. 3 This study is far from conclusive but does of- fer insight into the probable need to pay attention to carbs when trying to lose weight with insulin resistance. Getting Real: Evaluating Your Weight Although more weight loss is better los- ing just 7 percent of your current body weight may be enough to prevent or control type 2 diabetes. For a

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427/870 250-pound person this means losing as little as 18 pounds may be enough to re- verse prediabetes. Just 7 percent. That’s pretty astounding. I’m reinforcing this point for two reasons: 1. Many people skim over statistics because it’s not their thing and as a result they don’t truly understand what they mean. 2. Even if your body mass index BMI more on this shortly is still quite a bit above the “desirable” range I want to make it exceed- ingly clear: you can lose a very reasonable amount of weight and get significant health results. Let’s look at another example. A 230-pound woman who is five feet six inches tall has a BMI of 37. If she loses just 16 pounds she’ll have lost 7 percent of her starting body weight bringing

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428/870 her to 214. According to the BMI charts she now has a BMI of 34.5. This still puts her in the obese category those with BMIs of 30 or greater but that’s down from her initial BMI of 37 when she weighed 230. She is still overweight but she’ll reap meaningful health bene- fits from losing this modest amount of weight. It’s very important to appreciate this benefit. The pressure of feeling the need to reduce your weight to where your BMI is “normal” or below 25 which in our example would require the 230- pound woman to get down to 150 pounds can be enough to discour- age many people from even trying. The tough sell here is that in our soci- ety we’re conditioned to feel like we’re supposed to go from overweight to slim when we “diet.” Many people rate their success based on how they look versus how much healthier they are after

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429/870 weight loss. It’s not that we don’t appre- ciate the health benefits of weight loss it’s just generally not the main attrac- tion. Given the challenges involved in losing weight we need to expand our definition of success so we can appreci- ate the benefits of losing an amount of weight that’s reasonable for many people to achieve. This is particularly important for preventing diabetes. By all means think big. But don’t lose sight of the value of small successes. BMI Explained When figuring out your health goals start by evaluating your weight. The body mass index was created as a new way of assessing a healthy weight see the chart opposite from the National In- stitutes of Health. The BMI is calcu- lated using a person’s height and weight

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430/870 and is considered a reliable indicator of body fatness. BMI does not measure body fat directly but research has shown that BMI correlates to direct measures of body fat such as underwa- ter weighing which is considered the gold standard for measuring body com- position. BMI is used to determine at what weight you may begin to experi- ence an increase in health problems. The number is calculated using a com- plex calculation weight in kilograms di- vided by height in meters squared but anyone with Internet access can bypass the math by using an online BMI calcu- lator. These are two sources: • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention www.cdc.gov/healthy- weight/assessing/bmi/ • Department of Health and Human Services and the National Institutes

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431/870 of Health www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ guidelines/obesity/BMI/bmic- alc.htm Body Mass Index and Weight Status BMI WEIGHT STATUS Less than 18.5 Underweight 18.5–24.9 Normal 25–29.9 Overweight 30 and above Obese

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432/870 Interpreting Your BMI BMI interpretations are designed for people over age twenty. Because BMI is calculated using weight that includes both lean and fat mass a small percent- age of people may appear overweight because they have excess muscle as might be the case with a competitive athlete. That would account for some people drifting into the overweight

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433/870 range. Most people with a BMI above 30 however have excess body fat. Another limitation of BMI is that it’s only one indicator of overall health—others being diet activity level and family and personal health history. Once you know your BMI you can de- termine whether you’re already at a healthy weight or are considered under- weight overweight or obese. The BMI ranges are based on the re- lationship between body weight and dis- ease and death. Overweight and obese individuals are at increased risk for many health problems including the following: • Hypertension • High LDL cholesterol low HDL cholesterol high levels of trigly- cerides in the blood • Type 2 diabetes

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434/870 • Heart disease • Stroke • Gallbladder problems • Arthritis • Sleep apnea and respiratory problems • Some cancers endometrial breast colon possibly others Feeling overwhelmed and even a little defeated Please don’t. Let me repeat: just because you can’t imagine getting your BMI down to the below-25 range doesn’t mean weight loss isn’t worth it. Losing just enough to reverse predia- betes is extremely valuable. Ask anyone with diabetes whether they’d rather in- vest their time working on diet and life- style change to avoid getting diabetes versus learning how to balance diet activity and medications to control

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435/870 their diabetes once they have it. The majority of people would wish they hadn’t waited to make changes. Work on it now or work on it later—in both situations diet and activity habits have to change. Failed Weight-Loss Approaches Before we look at diet and lifestyle habits tied to lasting weight loss let’s review why historically many of our weight-loss approaches haven’t worked. There have been countless “diets” to choose from over the years most in- volving a sudden dramatic change in what you eat. Some diets have recom- mended avoiding entire food groups fats carbs white flour gluten

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436/870 whereas others have offered packaged foods so you don’t have to think much about meal planning. Many plans have called for severe calorie restriction maybe as low as 1000 calories. Others go even lower usually as part of a med- ically supervised diet that relies on protein-packed milk shakes. Regardless of the approach what most of these fad diets have in common is radical dietary change with the unspoken promise that if you just stick to the rules you will lose weight. For many of us this translates into “If I just behave and stop acting so weak around food I’ll be able to lose weight.” The problem with that thinking is that most diets are doomed to fail because they threaten your body’s internal in- stincts geared toward self-preservation. They don’t focus enough on exercise and providing skills to make permanent

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437/870 change. Any dietary changes that cut your calories back will result in weight loss. We may know that what we’re do- ing to lose weight can’t possibly be maintained for the long haul or shouldn’t be because it’s not healthy but somehow we hold out hope that this new diet will be the one that doesn’t res- ult in our regaining the lost weight of- ten more than we lost in the first place. But think about it: If at the end of an overrestrictive diet you drift back to the diet and lifestyle habits that got you into trouble in the first place why wouldn’t you get the same result For these and many other reasons we’ve got to stop thinking about “diet- ing” and start framing weight loss as something that happens when we adopt healthier habits permanently. I know very unsexy but it’s true. The things that you can do to reverse your

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438/870 prediabetes and in general help you feel physically and mentally better every day are the same things that should result in weight loss if practiced consist- ently. And it is never a bad thing to think about managing your blood sugar versus losing pounds. I’ve had many cli- ents who after achieving a better un- derstanding of what it takes to control insulin resistance have lost weight for the first time in a long time all while avoiding the psychological baggage that goes along with “dieting.” Mind-Set Intervention: Weight Loss Is Possible Weight-loss dieting tends to bring out the worst in us psychologically speaking. When contemplating yet another weight-loss at- tempt many of us spiral through thoughts

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439/870 like these: I’ve tried this so many times be- fore and failed so why bother again My body is just incapable of weight loss. I’m hopelessly addicted to food. I have no self- control. I’m so uncoordinated and exercise is so uncomfortable. Focusing on painful past experiences is natural but as much as possible try to think of it in this way: you can either stick with your current habits and risk becoming diabetic or start today deconstructing your old unhealthy habits and replace them with healthier ones. The beauty of the prediabetes diet plan is that it can help you lose weight by giving you a new focus. It’s not really about weight loss—it’s about your health. Instead of “don’t eat this don’t do that” you’re chan- ging behaviors to help improve your insulin resistance. You still end up trimming calor- ies by eating smaller amounts more fre- quently watching your portions and being more active on a daily basis but the focus is on the immediate response of controlling

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440/870 blood glucose and insulin levels. This is very different from the typical “dieting” ap- proach of psyching yourself up for a process that will painfully rob you of many of the foods you love. Science and Successful Losers To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here In 1994 Dr. Rena Wing of Brown University and Dr. James Hill of the University of Colorado founded the Na- tional Weight Control Registry NWCR which has been tracking the behaviors of more than ten thousand

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441/870 people who have lost significant amounts of weight and successfully kept it off. Registry participants have main- tained a weight loss of at least thirty

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442/870 pounds for at least one year. 4 Many weight-loss programs are able to con- sistently produce weight losses of 7 to 10 percent of initial body weight at the end of six to twelve months but many of those people regain the weight within a relatively short period of time. Why is it so difficult to lose weight and keep it off Although we don’t have all the an- swers to this question some factors we know play a role include physiological psychological and behavioral changes that can be tough to sustain. Physiolo- gical changes that occur during weight loss such as a decline in the body’s metabolic rate and changes in thyroid and hunger hormone activity can make it tougher to feel satisfied and therefore easier to eat too much. Psychological and behavioral changes—boredom with food choices decreased motivation over

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443/870 time after the thrill of losing the weight is gone—can also be tough to sustain. What is clear is that losing weight and keeping it off requires permanent sus- tainable changes as well as ongoing sup- port from friends family health care providers and group programs. Let’s look at some data from the National Weight Control Registry. The NWCR re- cruits participants who are at least eighteen years old. Eighty percent of re- gistry members are women 20 percent are men. Members provide information yearly via questionnaires on eating habits activity patterns and weight- control strategies. Demographically NWCR participants have a lot in com- mon. They are 95 percent Caucasian 82 percent college educated and 64 per- cent married. Efforts are under way to diversify the gender ethnic and so- cioeconomic status of the group. The

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444/870 average woman is forty-five years old and currently weighs 145 pounds while the average man is forty-nine years old and currently weighs 190 pounds. Here’s the inspiring part: Before starting to lose weight the average BMI of NWCR participants was well into the obese range a BMI greater than 30. Upon entry into the registry the aver- age member had lost sixty-six pounds the range is thirty to three hundred pounds lost and kept it off for an aver- age of 5.5 years. About 45 percent of participants lost weight on their own 55 percent participated in group pro- grams or individual counseling with a therapist or dietitian. Helpful Weight-Loss Strategies The vast majority of NWCR participants 89 percent used both diet and physical

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445/870 activity to lose weight. Just 10 percent changed only their diet and 1 percent changed only their level of activity. As for dietary changes the three most common weight-loss techniques were the following: • Limiting intake of foods associated with weight gain like sweets and fatty foods including desserts • Decreasing portion sizes of all foods • Counting calories about 50 percent count calories or fat grams For physical activity 92 percent of NWCR participants exercised at home with walking and aerobic dancing more common in women and competitive sports and weightlifting more common in men. A large chunk about 40 per- cent had an exercise “buddy” and about 31 percent exercised as part of a

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446/870 group. Equally impressive are the parti- cipants’ reported quality-of-life scores: • Almost all participants 95.3 per- cent reported improvements in their quality of life both physical and psychological • Almost all 92.4 percent experi- enced improved energy and mobil- ity making physical activity more possible • Mood improved as well with 91.4 percent of participants reporting decreases in symptoms of depression This last point is particularly import- ant. Studies show that weight regain is significantly more common in people who feel more depressed and therefore prone to uncontrolled eating often in response to stress.

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447/870 Maintenance Strategies When it comes to weight-loss mainten- ance there were many common strategies among the losers. In terms of what they ate though not perfect suc- cessful losers seem a bit better than the average American at eating according to health experts’ recommendations. 5 As with many statistics these are averages so for example there would definitely be a range of intakes of carbohydrates protein and fat in their diets. Here are some strategies of successful losers. They’re constantly vigilant about what they eat. Calorie intake is maintained at a fairly low level—on av- erage about 1400 calories. The NWCR founders speculate these low numbers may reflect the fact that many of the participants reported they were still try- ing to lose weight. Also studies show that people particularly those who are

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448/870 overweight are notorious for underre- porting food intake so a reported intake of 1400 calories may actually be higher. They watch their fat intake. Aver- age fat intake for the successful losers is reported at about 24 percent of total calories definitely a low-fat diet or about 45 grams of fat a day. More re- cent participants reported a fat intake of about 29 percent likely reflecting the recent popularity of low-carb diets. They’re mindful of carb and pro- tein intake as well. Carb intake has declined over the past few years for NWCR participants but still averages about 53 percent of daily calories or 182 grams of carb a day. Protein intake is about 19 percent of calories on aver- age for these folks or about 64 grams per day. They make it a point to eat their veggies. Registry participants eat an

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449/870 average of four servings a day and they eat more fiber from fruits vegetables and beans than from grains. They don’t forget to eat break- fast. Breakfast is a must among 78 per- cent of NWCR participants which sup- ports reams of research tying breakfast intake with weight loss and less eating at night. They eat more meals at home than out. Most participants reported preparing meals at home eating outside the home only three times a week—and they rarely ate fast food. Eating patterns matter. The aver- age NWCR member eats about five times a day suggesting they make ef- forts to stay ahead of their hunger to avoid overeating. They also work hard to maintain their calorie-control efforts on both weekdays and weekends as well

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450/870 as around the holidays which can be times of overindulgence for many of us. They monitor their weight on a regular basis. More than 75 percent of registry participants weigh themselves more than once a week. They say that monitoring their weight helps guide their diet and physical activity choices which allows them to get right on any regain when it’s only a pound or two. Exercise plays a major role. About 76 percent of them reported walking 20 percent lift weights and 20 percent cycle for an average of about sixty minutes a day. These are moderate-intensity activities. According to government guidelines sixty minutes of moderate activity a day can be re- placed with thirty minutes of intense activity a day like running or high-in- tensity aerobics. Time spent on physic- al activity comes at the expense of

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451/870 “screen time.” The average registry member watches only six to ten hours of TV compared with twenty-eight hours per week for the average American. What’s clear from member feedback is that they spend a substantial amount of time and energy on these strategies and they strive to be as consistent as possible. When NWCR members do be- gin to regain weight it’s most likely to happen in the early stages of mainten- ance and is most often associated with drifting from these proven strategies. On the positive side participants report that it gets easier to maintain weight loss over time. Once they’ve maintained a weight loss for two to five years their chances of long-term success increase greatly.

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452/870 The Outlook of Successful Losers Losing weight and keeping it off is chal- lenging but not impossible. Weight loss positively affects every physical and emotional quality-of-life indicator. It re- quires support from others—be it fam- ily friends health care providers or support groups—and research suggests that face-to-face support is best. Others may find what they need from an online source like a weight-loss website a smartphone app or an online chat room see the Resources section at the back of the book for some suggestions. Main- taining weight loss can be even more challenging as it requires some swim- ming upstream against social norms. Eating out too often can make it hard to control your calorie intake. Too much time spent on the computer or watching TV can monopolize time that could oth- erwise be spent being physically active.

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453/870 The ultimate ambition of the National Weight Control Registry is to teach as- piring “losers” skills that may help them succeed long term. The NWCR founders’ STOP Regain study recruited people who had lost at least 10 percent of their body weight over the previous two years and taught them the habits of the NWCR participants in weekly meet- ings for one month followed by monthly meetings for eighteen months. The results were compelling: compared to a group who had no intervention the STOP Regain program participants re- gained significantly less weight. 6 Other research has looked at the emo- tional aspects at play in those who’ve achieved lasting weight loss. Registered dietitian Anne M. Fletcher author of Thin for Life: Ten Keys to Success from People Who Have Lost Weight and Kept It Off which captures the

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454/870 strategies of more than two hundred adults who have maintained weight loss says: “These ‘masters’ of former weight problems recognize that there’s no such thing as perfection when it comes to weight control. When they ‘slip’—for instance eat in a way they hadn’t intended or miss a day of exer- cise—they don’t berate themselves. In- stead they prevent such lapses from becoming full-blown relapses by keep- ing it in perspective and picking up right where they left off.” “Masters” of weight control seem to be resilient and able to learn from past experiences. Fletcher found it’s not un- common for those who ultimately suc- ceed to have lost weight and regained it numerous times in the past. “Rather than let these attempts serve as cruel re- minders of failure” Fletcher advises “it’s more useful to view past dieting

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455/870 efforts as learning opportunities to identify what did and didn’t work for you in the past.” She suggests making two lists: one of strategies that worked for you in past dieting attempts for ex- ample getting up to eat breakfast or walking the dog after work and anoth- er of strategies that did not work such as eating grapefruit with every meal or getting up to go swimming at 5 a.m.. Then employ only those strategies that truly worked in the past. You’ve got to make sustainable change. Comparing Recommendations: Prediabetes Diet Plan and NWCR Although the prediabetes diet plan re- quires some fine-tuning to manage in- sulin resistance the focus of part 4 of this book if you compare the plan to the NWCR’s recommendations you’ll

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456/870 notice from the chart opposite that there’s quite a bit of overlap. As you can see there isn’t one diet and lifestyle strategy for managing prediabetes and another one for weight loss. They both accomplish the same thing If weight loss isn’t your goal—not all people with prediabetes are overweight—you may need to increase lean protein and healthy fat intake to help fill the void left by trimming carbohydrate calories. Or you may need to add an extra snack. In any case the goal of the prediabetes diet plan is to kill multiple birds with one stone manage insulin resistance reduce the risk for diabetes and heart disease lose weight if necessary without compromising the overall qual- ity of the diet.

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457/870 Comparing Recommendations: The Prediabetes Diet Plan and NWCR Strategies PREDIABETES DIET PLAN Spread carbs out over three meals and one to three snacks per day. NWCR RECOMMENDATIONS AND STRATEGIES Eat an average of four to five times per day. PREDIABETES DIET PLAN Cover half your plate with vegetables. NWCR RECOMMENDATIONS AND STRATEGIES

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458/870 Eat four or more servings of vegetables daily. PREDIABETES DIET PLAN Start the day with a protein-containing breakfast. NWCR RECOMMENDATIONS AND STRATEGIES Eat breakfast daily. PREDIABETES DIET PLAN Eat proactively to stay ahead of hunger. NWCR RECOMMENDATIONS AND STRATEGIES Be continuously vigilant about portions and control portion sizes.

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459/870 PREDIABETES DIET PLAN Budget out time each week to shop and plan meals to control choices. NWCR RECOMMENDATIONS AND STRATEGIES Prepare most of your own meals. PREDIABETES DIET PLAN Budget out time for daily activity to help manage your insulin resistance. NWCR RECOMMENDATIONS AND STRATEGIES Be moderately active for sixty minutes daily. PREDIABETES DIET PLAN

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460/870 Eat carbohydrates in moderation don’t overrestrict. NWCR RECOMMENDATIONS AND STRATEGIES Eat carbohydrates in moderation don’t overrestrict. PREDIABETES DIET PLAN Limit your fat intake to help control calories. NWCR RECOMMENDATIONS AND STRATEGIES Follow a low-fat diet. PREDIABETES DIET PLAN

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461/870 Eat protein in moderation—enough to help you feel full but not so much that you’re getting too many calories. NWCR RECOMMENDATIONS AND STRATEGIES Eat protein in moderation. PREDIABETES DIET PLAN Control your food environment to limit temptations. NWCR RECOMMENDATIONS AND STRATEGIES Limit eating out to three times weekly. PREDIABETES DIET PLAN Focus on the positive learn and move on from lapses.

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462/870 NWCR RECOMMENDATIONS AND STRATEGIES Lapses are opportunities to learn not evidence of weakness or failure.

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463/870 Protein and the Prediabetes Diet Plan Whereas the NWCR folks average about 19 percent of their daily calories from protein on the prediabetes diet plan you may need to eat a little more. Ac- cording to the Dietary Guidelines for

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464/870 Americans protein intake can health- fully provide anywhere from 10 to 35 percent of calories. The prediabetes diet meal plans offered in the back of the book suggest protein amounts within this healthy range. Choose lean options

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465/870 so your protein foods don’t come pack- aged with a lot of fat. When it comes to weight loss re- search is mixed on whether eating more or less of any one nutrient carbo- hydrate protein or fat is more effect- ive than any other. For example one study from the Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston of more than eight hundred people trying to lose weight tested four different diets. Each provided a different amount of calories from carbohydrate protein and fat. The fat ranged from 20 to 40 percent of daily calories protein from 15 to 25 per- cent of daily calories and carbohydrate from 35 to 65 percent of daily calories. All groups were offered individual and group support for two years. The res- ults All groups lost about the same amount of weight and experienced im- provements in their blood lipid and

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466/870 insulin levels. Not surprisingly attend- ing the group sessions was strongly as- sociated with weight-loss success. 7 The take-home message is that cut- ting calories is what counts most and there are many ways to accomplish that. What’s unique about managing predia- betes however is we often have a two- pronged goal: weight loss and managing insulin response. Losing weight helps improve insulin resistance but man- aging the insulin response can also make weight loss easier because having excess amounts of circulating insulin can make people hungry. Eating less carbohydrate in one sitting particularly when it’s paired with protein and a little healthy fat will mute the body’s post- meal demand for insulin. The goal of the prediabetes diet plan is to include enough protein in your day to help make eating less carbohydrate easier.

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467/870 From a physiological standpoint there are several reasons why eating a bit more protein may help with weight loss: • Protein increases fullness to a great- er extent than carbohydrate so in- cluding protein may make it easier to eat fewer calories at a meal or snack. • Higher-protein diets are associated with increased thermogenesis meaning your body burns more calories processing it which in turn promotes a sense of fullness. • In some people eating more protein may help them retain more muscle while they’re losing weight. 8 Research backs up a protein-heavy approach. One study of women from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Cham- paign compared a higher-carb diet with

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468/870 68 grams of protein a day with a higher-protein diet with 125 grams of protein a day. After ten weeks the wo- men lost about the same amount of weight but the women in the higher- protein group lost significantly more body fat. The women with the higher- carb intake had higher insulin re- sponses to meals and more postmeal hypoglycemia which causes hunger whereas the women in the higher-pro- tein group reported a greater sense of fullness after meals and significant re- ductions in unhealthy blood triglyceride levels. 9 Please note that this doesn’t support the use of a very low-carb very high-protein diet for weight loss. We’re talking balance here—trimming out most processed carbs in favor of whole grains beans fruits and vegetables and replacing some of those calories

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469/870 with a bit more protein emphasizing lower-fat sources. Ten Strategies for Weight Loss and Lifestyle Change Beyond the recommendations of mem- bers of the National Weight Control Re- gistry I’ve found these ten strategies to be helpful for those trying to lose weight and make important lifestyle changes. The powerful strategies here are based more on behavior than food. Check off a few that might be helpful for you and start implementing them today.

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470/870 Strategy 1: Learn How Your Body Works Losing weight is difficult indeed. It’s not that the body won’t give up fat it just doesn’t like sudden drastic cuts in cal- orie intake that may suggest an impend- ing food shortage. The trick is to weed out a few calories here and there—by trimming portions reducing fat intake perhaps as simple as eating out less opting for calorie-free beverages and so forth—while still eating regularly throughout the day. Start by eating a satisfying breakfast followed by a filling lunch that includes protein and plant foods a satisfying carbohydrate-protein snack when your hunger starts to kick in right about midafternoon and a din- ner early enough in the evening that you’re not ravenous when you sit down. Think of rating your hunger on a scale of 1 to 10—1 being “not hungry” and 10

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471/870 being “starved.” To avoid overeating eat your next meal when your hunger is a 5 or 6—about halfway to “starved.” If you wait until it’s an 8 or a 10 you’ll most likely to overreact and overeat when you finally get around to it. Also while you’re eating pay attention to when you’re no longer hungry then try to stop eating. For example if you only need half a granola bar to hold your hunger until the next meal save the other half for your next snack. The lesson here is to start thinking of eating as a positive thing. Going out of your way to eat may actually help you lose weight by helping your body feel it’s okay to burn calories and help you stay ahead of your hunger. Digesting and processing food uses up about 10 percent of all the calories the body burns so pump up your metabolic rate with breakfast then continue to throw

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472/870 wood on the fire of your metabolism throughout the day by eating every four or five hours or so. Strategy 2: Adjust Your Attitude You’re not a failure—and you won’t fail in managing your prediabetes and los- ing weight if you follow these strategies. According to NWCR founder Dr. Rena Wing “successful losers” are encour- aged to view lapses as opportunities to learn not as evidence of weakness or failure. I can’t emphasize enough the importance of this. People who lose weight and keep it off accept there will be bumps in the road and try to develop strategies to manage them. One behavi- or pattern noted in those who lose weight and regain it is when they find themselves in a situation that veers them off track from their plan like

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473/870 overeating with friends indulging dur- ing a vacation having a baby grieving after someone dies—any life event that makes it hard to keep strictly to a pro- gram they berate themselves with negative self-talk about weaknesses and past failures and ultimately give up. A more realistic reaction to bumps in the road is to analyze the situation to see how it could have been handled dif- ferently. Could the lapse have been pre- vented or lessened in any way Success- ful losers reflect on what happened and why determine whether the lapse was avoidable and whether there’s a strategy that could help them deal with that situation should it arise again. Strategy 3: Keep a Food Journal Studies have proven that food journal- ing helps keep people accountable for

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474/870 what they’re eating. Buy a small colorful notebook that will get your attention. Some people prefer to log their food on- line or use a smartphone app see the Resources section in the back of the book. Throughout the day you’ll re- cord the time food or beverage con- sumed the amount and anything else that might be helpful. Recording may make you think twice before you dive into that extra portion. You may be sur- prised about what you learn through keeping a food journal. It can help you identify problem areas and zone in on solutions. Keeping a food journal is also a way to keep your diet and behavior change goals in front of you. Every time you pull out your notebook or smart- phone app it’s a reminder of what you’re trying to accomplish.

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475/870 Lapses Happen Now Move On I call this the old cowboy strategy: Pick yourself up dust yourself off and get back in the saddle. No one eats perfectly all the time and it’s not necessary. Life isn’t al- ways predictable. You’ll be thrown off track at times so you’ve got to develop coping strategies. Here are a few curve balls life can throw at you along with strategies to help deal with them: • Did you overeat at a restaurant Maybe you were overhungry when you got there. Next time have a midafternoon carb-protein snack and perhaps a fruit on the way to the restaurant. This might make it easier to order the healthier option. Also be careful who you dine with eating out with overeat- ers may make it feel okay to step out of your healthy habits.

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476/870 • Grabbed take-out on the way home Maybe it was because you skipped your weekly trip to the supermarket. Sched- ule time to shop on the weekends so your cupboards aren’t empty during the week. • Skipped your trip to the gym because you forgot your workout clothes Try packing a backup gym bag with an old pair of sneakers shorts and a T-shirt that you’ll leave in your trunk for just this type of situation. • Snacking from the work vending ma- chine Remind yourself to pack a snack from home the night before along with a healthy lunch. • Skipped breakfast because you were running late Did you then overindulge at lunch Set your clock a few minutes earlier so you have more time for a sol- id breakfast. Eating this meal or not sets the tone for the day: you’re either

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477/870 eating proactively to stay ahead of your hunger or reactively in response to be- ing overhungry. • You’re heading home for dinner and you haven’t eaten any fruits or veget- ables all day Make a quick detour to the market on the way home to pick up some fresh or frozen vegetables or as- semble a take-home salad from the market. Be sure to pack fruits and veg- gies with your lunch and snacks for the next day. And store them where you can see them on the kitchen counter in a fruit bowl and so on. • Did you mindlessly eat too many cook- ies in front of the TV after dinner Be realistic with yourself and keep im- pulse snacks out of the house. It’s just easier that way. Instead try a sugar- free gelatin a cup of herbal tea or a piece of gum while you work on

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478/870 deconditioning yourself from eating in front of the TV. The bottom line is that you can deal with just about anything. Don’t blow a lapse out of proportion We all have imperfect meals or days or even weeks. What matters is that you learn from the experience and move on. Human beings are flawed. Don’t set the bar too high. Strategy 4: Avoid Overeating at Night It’s long been known that night-shift workers and those with “night eating syndrome” an eating disorder where people sometimes in their sleep rise and eat at night are prone to being overweight. After talking to thousands of people about weight loss over the

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479/870 years I’m convinced that food distribu- tion over the day matters. For people who are overweight a similar pattern frequently emerges where food intake escalates as the day goes on. They may or may not eat breakfast or lunch then find themselves starving by late after- noon and respond to it by diving into the vending machine or business meet- ing leftovers. They then go home and eat a large dinner and often snack again later in the evening perhaps in front of the TV as they “unwind” from the busy day. In essence they’re eating less dur- ing the active time of the day and more in the evening when the body is prepar- ing for sleep. A recent study from Spain supports the potential benefits of eating more calories earlier in the day. 10 In Spain the largest meal of the day tends to be midday. Despite consuming the same number of calories those who ate

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480/870 their main meal before 3 p.m. lost more weight over a twenty-week period. The good news is people who tend to eat more in the evening often immedi- ately start to lose weight once they switch to three meals and a snack or two over the day. Simply distributing their food more throughout the day seems to stimulate the body to let go of some reserves and helps them curb their food intake by staying ahead of their hunger. Strategy 5: Budget Time for Self-Care We’re genetically hard- wired to be opportun- istic eaters and in modern society we’re overexposed to food. For many of us our

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481/870 daily schedule already feels congested and making time to eat healthier and exercise feels like one more demand. But it’s important to intentionally resist the temptation to eat whenever we’re exposed to food and intentionally insert time for physical activity. If we designed a pie chart of all the things that demand our attention it would likely include family friends work hobbies pets and other things that are important to us. To live a healthy life in today’s culture you need to carve out time to devote to self- care: buying healthy food preparing and eating it budgeting in time for physical activity getting at least seven hours of sleep the minimum amount researchers believe we need for good health and managing stress much of which might be taken care of by the ad- dition of regular exercise.

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482/870 Making time for self-care isn’t easy but few things in life are more import- ant than taking steps to protect your health. If you want a healthy lunch pack it yourself and bring it to work. It’s up to you to manage your food environ- ment. Be proactive and populate your food world—your home office and car— with things you want to be eating. Keep out those things you know you should limit. If fruits vegetables whole grains low-fat dairy and lean proteins are closest at hand that’s what you’re most likely to eat. For those of you living with a partner it’s time for a little healthy selfishness The other people in your house may not be ready to make change but that doesn’t mean you need to make your job harder by catering to different tastes. Healthy eating trumps junk food. Anything you do to improve the food

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483/870 environment at home almost always trickles down to others living there which is especially important if you have children. Now may be a good time for a serious talk about who will do what to help nurture healthier eating habits in your home. If you and your partner are both busy and working the odds of success for everyone will be much lower if all the responsibilities re- lated to meal planning shopping and cooking fall on one person. If one of you is a better cook maybe the other can find some healthier recipes and help out with shopping. Teamwork and support between couples and among family members is critical to success.

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484/870 Strategy 6: Manage Your Hunger to Control Portions Most of us overeat because we wait until we’re overhungry before we eat. By that point all our caveman instincts are go- ing to trigger us to eat fast and way too much. It’s easier to take more conscious decisions about what you eat—and how much—when your hunger level is a 5 or 6 not a 10. In essence establish a pat- tern of proactive eating to prevent re- active overeating. To help us avoid over- eating we rely far too often on will- power and good intentions both of which are genetically in short supply and neither of which is potent enough to help resist overeating when we’re starving and exposed to too much food. Try adding a “hunger” column to your food journal where you record your hunger on this 1-to-10 scale. It may re- mind you to eat when you’re at a 5 or 6.

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485/870 Strategy 7: Make Losing Weight a Priority Most of us can always find time to surf the Internet or watch TV. Maybe your new priority should be to postpone these activities until after you’ve taken a walk. Time to purchase and prepare food exercise sleep—even relaxation time— should be prioritized and budgeted into your day like all the other things you feel are important. This usu- ally requires pushing back on all the people and things that make demands on your time which can be especially difficult to do if you’re the primary care- giver in the household. This is a critic- ally important proactive step—the time to do these things won’t fall in your lap. Look at your schedule carefully and find the time to take care of yourself. Don’t wait until your health problems have

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486/870 affected your quality of life before you get serious about this. Strategy 8: Manage Your Expectations No doubt making healthy changes in your diet and losing weight is difficult especially if you have years of dieting under your belt and have experienced weight-loss regain. Shaking off the neg- ative thinking and overly ambitious ex- pectations can be tough but it’s so im- portant. To help you steer around some of the sticking points of the past take these tips to heart: • You can’t change the past—you can only learn from it. • Change is tough. Go easy on your- self. So what if it takes longer Wading into the things you find challenging a little at a time may

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487/870 feel less threatening and is prob- ably more sustainable for you than jumping right into the deep end • Focus on getting through a single day. Setting a short-term goal and meeting it is a lot more empower- ing than focusing on a long-term goal that you don’t even know is doable yet. • Pay attention to what your body is telling you. Appreciate the numer- ous forms of positive feedback you get from eating better and exer- cising that have nothing to do with the number on the scale. Noticing all the little ways your body feels better is potent ammunition to- ward keeping you on track. • If you bring high-risk foods into your house in all likelihood you’ll

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488/870 eat them. Very few people can eat just one potato chip • If you don’t have a decent plan in place for when you get hungry there is a very good chance you will not make the best choices. It’s al- ways better to eat proactively with foods you’ve prepared than react- ively because you’re overhungry. • Focus on what you can eat not just on what you think you can’t • “Healthy eating” is more than simply avoiding junk food. If you add enough foods that are nutri- tious and filling into your day there will be less room for the stuff that’s not good for you. Ultimately what helps any one indi- vidual lose weight is coming up with his or her own portfolio of things that work.

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489/870 Start by taking stock of your past exper- iences including what has worked be- fore maybe shopping more consist- ently exercising in the morning not keeping ice cream in the house and discard the things that didn’t work crash dieting diet pills excessive exer- cise. Review the strategies of the NWCR successful losers and start test- driving them to see what might work for you. Ascribe to the 80/20 rule: What you do 80 percent of the time repres- ents your habits the things you auto- matically default to when it comes to diet and exercise. Those are the habits you want to affirm. What happens the rest of the time represents days that aren’t going “as usual.” They don’t carry anywhere near as much weight as your daily routines.

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490/870 Strategy 9: Don’t Go It Alone Seek out support for your goals. A spouse partner family member friend or exercise buddy can be an invaluable asset. If you’re a group person join Weight Watchers for local meetings or online membership or TOPS Take Off Pounds Sensibly www.tops.org. As a nutritionist I’m not a big fan of pro- grams that require you to buy meal re- placements although that might be an option at the outset for some—as long as you understand the challenges of transitioning out of meal replacement drinks or bars to real food. Many people benefit from the personal coaching provided by registered dietitians find one in your area on the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics’ website www.eatright.org. By all means if you need a therapist to help you shake free

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491/870 of emotional challenges that may hold you up do it. Because weight loss is so challenging readiness is key. Even now you may not be ready to jump into a weight-loss plan but reading this book may move you a little farther along toward making positive healthy changes. Renowned University of Rhode Island psychologist James Prochaska author of Changing for Good outlines five stages that people who are able to drop bad habits tend to progress through. These are known as the “transtheoretical model stages of change”: 11 • Precontemplation—change isn’t on your radar • Contemplation—you’re thinking about it and researching options • Preparation—setting the stage for change

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492/870 • Action—you’re doing it • Maintenance—you’re working to make change stick If you’re not feeling ready to take charge of your health manage your pre- diabetes and lose weight try to figure out what you need to do to establish that readiness. You can’t just rely on willpower and good intentions to help you reverse your prediabetes. As I often tell my clients in order for the very small amount of willpower and good in- tentions we naturally possess to be at all helpful when it comes to dealing with food you need to develop a plan. A plan will help to avoid constantly dwelling in a chaotic food environment.

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493/870 Strategy 10: Be Patient The final strategy is perhaps the most important for long-term sustainability. Fad dieting is all about quick results but it takes time for your body to get used to eating less food and for you to start experiencing the positive effects of increased physical activity. It takes de- termination and repetition to make shopping and planning meals a priority. These habits will eventually become second nature. Having faith that all your up-front work will eventually pay off is critical to staying focused and achieving long-term success.

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9 Reducing Your Risk of Cardiovascular Disease To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here

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Because diabetes and cardiovascular disease are so closely linked reducing your risk of diabetes can also lower your

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492/870 risk of having a heart attack or stroke. Consider these facts about heart dis- ease stroke and high blood pressure from the American Diabetes Associ- ation: In 2004 “heart disease” was noted on 68 percent of diabetes-related death certificates among people age sixty-five or older. In 2004 “stroke” was noted on 16 percent of diabetes-related death certificates among people age sixty-five or older. Adults with diabetes have heart disease death rates about two to four times higher than adults without diabetes. The risk for stroke is two to four times higher among people with diabetes. During the period 2005 to 2008 of adults twenty years or older with self-reported diabetes 67 percent had blood pressure greater than or equal to 140/90 mmHg or used pre- scription medications for hypertension. 1 These are staggering statistics.

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493/870 The prediabetes diet plan is designed to help you manage insulin resistance but the multipronged approach of con- trolling portions of carbs watching fat intake and eating healthier fats choosing lean sources of protein in- creasing activity and eating more fruits vegetables and whole grains is one of the most potent things you can do to also control your blood cholesterol levels manage your blood pressure and lose weight. Along with diabetes these conditions gobble up billions of health care dollars annually imposing an un- sustainable burden on the US health care system and negatively affecting quality of life for millions of Americans.

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494/870 The Menace of Metabolic Syndrome It is estimated that more than fifty mil- lion American men and women ap- proaching a fifth of the entire popula- tion have metabolic syndrome another condition driven by insulin resistance that is characterized by a collection of cardiovascular risk factors. According to the American Heart Association meta- bolic syndrome occurs when a person has three or more of these cardiovascu- lar risk factors: • Abdominal obesity excessive belly fat • Abnormal blood fat and cholesterol levels high triglycerides low HDL cholesterol and high LDL choles- terol which encourage plaque buildup in artery walls

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495/870 • High blood pressure • Insulin resistance • Prothrombotic state or a tendency for the blood to clot more easily • Proinflammatory state often dia- gnosed with a C-reactive protein test a marker for inflammation in the blood Although the primary goal of the pre- diabetes diet plan is to reduce insulin resistance and circulating levels of in- sulin many of the risk factors for meta- bolic syndrome and heart disease could be positively affected by following the plan. Controlling insulin resistance with diet and exercise helps reduce belly fat. Avoiding saturated and trans fats and limiting intake of sweets helps improve triglyceride and cholesterol levels and enhance insulin sensitivity. Losing

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496/870 weight exercising and adding fruits vegetables whole grains and small amounts of nuts to the diet can help lower blood pressure and reduce in- flammation. 2 Increasing your intake of heart-healthy omega-3 fats can help thin the blood and reduce inflammation. Numbers for a Healthy Heart If you’ve found yourself checking off any of these criteria it’s important to know what your goal numbers for a healthy heart should be. While metabol- ic syndrome may require three or more criteria to make the diagnosis if you suffer from even one of these criteria controlling these numbers is an

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497/870 important part of protecting your cardi- ovascular system. Let’s take a look at the numbers. For total cholesterol: • Under 200 milligrams/deciliter mg/dl is desirable • 200–239 mg/dl is borderline high risk • 240 mg/dl or higher is high risk For HDL the “good” cholesterol: • A level of 60 or higher offers some protection against heart disease For LDL the “bad” cholesterol: • Optimal is less than 100 mg/dl • Near or above optimal is 100–129 mg/dl • Borderline high is 130–159 mg/dl

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498/870 • High is 160–189 mg/dl • Very high is 190 mg/dl or above For triglycerides the fat in your blood: • Optimal is less than 100 mg/dl • Normal is less than 150 mg/dl • Borderline high is 150–199 mg/dl • High is 200–499 mg/dl • Very high is 500 mg/dl 3 For blood pressure guidelines from the American Heart Association: • Normal is less than 120 systolic less than 80 diastolic • Prehypertension is 120–139 systol- ic 80–89 diastolic • Hypertension is 140 or higher systolic 90 or higher diastolic 4

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499/870 For fasting blood glucose taken after at least an eight-hour fast guidelines from the American Dia- betes Association: • Normal fasting blood glucose should be below 100 mg/dl • Prediabetes is a fasting blood gluc- ose level between 100 and 125 mg/ dl • Diabetes is a fasting blood glucose level of 126 mg/dl or above 5 DASH and the Prediabetes Diet Plan After reading part 2 of this book you’re familiar with key tenets of the predia- betes diet plan: the importance of avoiding trans fats limiting saturated fat ideally less than 7 percent of your

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500/870 daily calories or 16 grams a day for the average 2000-calorie diet and shifting to a more plant-based diet. Research suggests the most comprehensive and effective dietary approach to lowering your cardiovascular risk is to follow the DASH diet. DASH stands for “dietary approaches to stop hypertension” but it actually encompasses all the recom- mendations for a heart-healthy diet. 6 It’s a comprehensive eating plan based on research funded by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. The institute found that taking on the DASH diet can reduce blood pressure in as little as two weeks. It incorporates a variety of dietary influences known to lower blood pressure: the diet is low in total fat saturated fat and cholesterol and emphasizes fruits vegetables and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products. It also includes whole grains

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501/870 fish poultry and small portions of nuts seeds and legumes. The DASH diet combination is rich in potassium magnesium calcium lean protein and fiber—all dietary elements known to keep blood pressure down. Most people are aware that sodium can also affect blood pressure. DASH re- commends limiting sodium both added at the table and in foods to no more than 2300 milligrams per day the equivalent of 1 teaspoon preferably even lower if possible to around 1500 milligrams per day. DASH is high-carb plan about 55 percent of your daily cal- ories which is a little higher than re- commended in the prediabetes plan I recommend somewhere around 45 per- cent of daily calories from carbs but with a little attention to carb portions the two plans can easily interface.

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502/870 The DASH Diet 1600 calories FOOD GROUP SERVINGS PER DAY Grains 6 servings Vegetables 3 to 4 servings Fruits 4 servings Fat-free or 1 percent milk or 2 to 3 servings milk products Lean meats poultry and fish Nuts seeds 3 to 6 ounces and legumes 3 servings a week Fats and oils 2 servings Sweets and ad- ded sugars 0 higher-calorie levels allow no more than 5 servings per week

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503/870 Looking at these DASH recommenda- tions you may be eating a little more lean protein perhaps 6 to 8 ounces a day or a little more if you are male or very physically active and a little less carbohydrate but that’s okay. I’d sug- gest trimming the grain portions first and really emphasizing whole grains to get the benefit of the minerals and phytonutrients. Regarding prediabetes you have the added concern of man- aging insulin resistance which isn’t good for your heart so merging the best of both plans is the wisest approach. And don’t forget exercise It’s one of the strongest lifestyle strategies there is for controlling both blood pressure and in- sulin resistance.

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10 Exercise: Time to Take It Seriously To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here Whether you love it hate it or fall somewhere in between physical activity

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is an important part of a healthy life- style. This is particularly important if you have prediabetes because of the

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505/870 critical role exercise plays in weight management insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. Research demon- strates that exercise is necessary for weight loss and particularly for weight- loss maintenance. Exercise acts as nature’s insulin sensitizer by increasing the activity of glucose transporter 4 GLUT 4 a protein that shuttles gluc- ose out of the blood and into muscle and fat cells. 1 Exercise raises heart- healthy HDL cholesterol and lowers un- healthy LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Exercise mobilizes belly fat lowering the risk of diabetes and heart disease. 2 Regular exercise also lowers the risk of a number of cancers Alzheimer’s disease depression and anxiety. It also improves mood and helps people remain physically inde- pendent throughout their lives. 3

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506/870 Potent Medicine for Prediabetes Many studies confirm that exercise im- proves insulin sensitivity in people with prediabetes whether or not they lose weight along the way. In fact in those with prediabetes eating right and exer- cise may lower the risk of developing diabetes by an average of 50 percent 4 That is an enormous advantage regular exercisers have over more sedentary people. One recent study tried combin- ing exercise with the diabetes drug met- formin to see if this combination would even further improve insulin sensitivity and in theory help avoid or slow the progression to type 2 diabetes beyond either exercise or metformin alone. Sub- jects in the exercise groups exercised three times a week for sixty to seventy- five minutes over a twelve-week period

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507/870 with two of the three sessions including strengthening exercise. Interestingly researchers found an improvement in insulin sensitivity in all groups exer- cising only metformin only and com- bination of metformin and exercise that wasn’t significantly different providing some positive evidence for those people interested in avoiding dia- betes without using medications. 5 The catch is you have to continue ex- ercising to reap the benefits of exercise. One study of thirty-two women with polycystic ovary syndrome PCOS who are known to be at high risk for predia- betes had them exercising regularly for three months then half of the group continued to work out while the other half stopped exercising for another twelve weeks. Both groups showed im- provement in their body mass index BMI insulin resistance cholesterol

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508/870 levels and measures of fitness after the first twelve weeks but after twenty-four weeks the exercising group continued to improve in all of those measures while those who stopped exercising showed worsening of these parameters. 6 The National Weight Control Registry parti- cipants exercise about sixty minutes a day to maintain their weight loss. Independent of weight loss however exercise improves cardiovascular fit- ness lowers blood pressure trims belly fat and improves mood. 7 Experts Weigh In on Activity Despite the many benefits of exercise surveys over the past decade show that Americans haven’t gotten much better

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509/870 at getting off the couch. The American College of Sports Medicine ACSM has long been sounding the alarm about the hazards of a sedentary lifestyle and in 2007 the ACSM issued some very reas- onable recommendations for activity to improve health and quality of life. These guidelines are as follows: moderately in- tense cardio thirty minutes a day five days a week or vigorously intense car- dio twenty minutes a day three days a week and eight to ten strength-train- ing exercises with eight to twelve repe- titions of each exercise twice a week. The thirty-minute recommendation is to maintain health and lower the risk of disease but to lose weight and keep it off ACSM notes exercisers need sixty to ninety minutes of physical activity at least five days a week. 8 In 2008 the US Department of Health and Human Services HHS also got

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510/870 more aggressive with its exercise recom- mendations issuing the first ever Phys- ical Activity Guidelines for Americans which outlined exactly how much activ- ity and what kinds are needed to help Americans control their weight and re- duce their risk of some of the country’s major health threats. 9 Thousands of studies have affirmed the benefits of physical activity for people of all ages and abilities with very little risk. Re- commendations were made for three age groups: children and adolescents adults including pregnant women and those with disabilities and older adults. Daily life activity varies widely among individuals so the recommenda- tions focus on activities that when ad- ded to light day-to-day activities im- prove health. Examples of health-en- hancing activities are brisk walking jog- ging swimming dancing lifting

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511/870 weights and yoga. To help people rate their personal activity level an advisory committee identified four levels: • Inactive no activity beyond baseline daily activities • Low beyond baseline but fewer than 150 minutes per week • Medium 150–300 minutes per week • High more than 300 minutes per week Research suggests that the sweet spot for receiving consistent benefits from activity is an accumulated minimum of 150 minutes per week of moderate-in- tensity aerobic activities such as walk- ing briskly water aerobics ballroom and line dancing biking on level ground or with few hills canoeing general gardening raking trimming shrubs

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512/870 sports where you catch and throw baseball softball volleyball and ten- nis doubles. Or you can step it up and get the same benefits from seventy-five minutes per week of vigorous-intensity activity like aerobic dance includes re- creational dancing biking faster than ten miles an hour heavy gardening digging hoeing hiking uphill jump- ing rope martial arts karate sports with a lot of running basketball hockey soccer swimming fast or swimming laps tennis singles and race walking jogging or running. Exercise more than this and it’s a bo- nus as health continues to improve as activity increases. If the thought of exer- cising makes you groan keep in mind that as little as ten minutes of activity counts toward improving your health. These guidelines also encourage muscle-strengthening activities two or

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513/870 more days a week to increase and pre- serve bone and muscle strength. Strengthening activities include weight training resistance bands weight-bear- ing calisthenics and heavy gardening. Beyond its stress management and flex- ibility benefits forms of yoga that are weight-bearing are also considered strengthening exercise. For many people losing weight and keeping it off will require 300 minutes or more of moderate activity per week that’s 60 minutes a day five days a week or 150 minutes of vigorous activity. Most people also need to make a conscious effort to eat less when they start exer- cising since there’s a natural tendency to eat more because either you’re more hungry or you think you’ve “earned” an extra treat because you’ve worked out.

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514/870 Accruing Your Minutes Now that you know your numbers how can you piece together enough exercise Check out these ways to rack up the re- commended amount of activity. For 150 minutes a week of mod- erate activity: • Thirty minutes of brisk walking moderate intensity five days a week resistance bands strength- ening two days a week • Twenty-five minutes of jogging vig- orous intensity three days a week weightlifting two days a week • Thirty minutes of stationary bike or elliptical two days a week sixty minutes of dancing one evening thirty minutes of lawn mowing one afternoon heavy gardening strengthening on two days

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515/870 • Forty-five minutes of tennis doubles moderate intensity on two days thirty minutes of brisk walking on two days weight machines strengthening two days a week For 75 minutes a week of vigor- ous activity: • Thirty minutes of aerobic dancing two days a week fifteen minutes swimming laps one day weightlift- ing two days a week • Thirty minutes of fast bicycling two days a week fifteen minutes of jog- ging one day weight machines two days a week For 300 minutes a week of mod- erate activity: • Forty-five minutes of brisk walking daily resistance bands two days a week

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516/870 • Sixty minutes of doubles tennis two days a week sixty minutes of brisk walking three days a week weight machines on two days • Forty-five minutes of stationary cycling two days a week forty-five minutes of water aerobics on one day thirty minutes of outdoor cyc- ling two days a week sixty minutes of general gardening on one day thirty minutes of brisk walking two days a week resistance bands two days a week For 150 minutes a week of vigor- ous activity: • Sixty minutes of aerobic dancing two days a week thirty minutes of singles tennis one day a week weight machines on two days

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517/870 • Forty-five minutes of jogging two days a week sixty minutes of hik- ing one day a week weight-bearing calisthenics two days a week Determining Your Exercise Intensity How hard should you push yourself and how do you determine the exercise intensity The HHS guidelines offer these helpful hints: When exercising moderately you should be able to talk but not sing. During vigorous activity you shouldn’t be able to say more than a few words before breathing heavily. You can trade off minutes by substituting one minute of vigorous activity for two minutes of moderate activity. For ex- ample fifteen minutes of jogging and fifteen minutes of brisk walking is equal

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518/870 to forty-five minutes of brisk walking alone. Other Benefits of Exercise The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans cite many additional benefits of exercise beyond improving your health. Quality-of-life reasons to in- crease your activity include lower rates of depression more fun in your life en- joyment of the outdoors and improved body image. The guidelines also con- clude that for the vast majority of people the benefits of exercise far out- weigh any risk—particularly if activities are varied to avoid overuse injuries—but people with concerns should check with their doctor first. If your budget allows consider sign- ing on with a personal trainer. People tend to make greater gains working with

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519/870 a trainer and may be more likely to stick with their programs. Finding an exer- cise buddy—maybe a spouse coworker friend or family member—also in- creases your odds of setting an exercise plan and sticking with it.

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Part 4 FINE-TUNING THE PREDIABETES DIET PLAN

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11 Sensible Supplementation To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here Like most nutritionists I prefer a food- first approach to meeting nutrient needs. Research has demonstrated that popping a few vitamin pills won’t com-

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pensate for a lousy diet but there is some sensible supplementation that most people might benefit from

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522/870 whether or not they have prediabetes. When I consider which supplements make sense for people with prediabetes or insulin resistance I draw on what is known about genetics and how historic- ally humans have eaten. For example we were genetically designed to run around naked being exposed to the sun for much of the day giving us ample op- portunity for skin and sun exposure to synthesize “the sunshine vitamin”—vit- amin D. Most of us could use more of it today. And in order to accumulate enough carbohydrates proteins and fats and therefore calories to survive humans had to hunt and gather many different foods each with their own unique balance of vitamins minerals phytonutrients and omega-3 fats. As a result the caveman’s diet may have been a lot more nutritionally diverse than the average American’s diet today.

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523/870 People can be more selective today and some people end up eating many of the same foods most days. Dietary supple- ments can help pick up the slack for what we should be getting but often aren’t getting enough of. There are some interesting suggestions of dietary supplements and herbs to help manage insulin resistance with varying degrees of scientific backing. Because the goal of this book is to provide advice on the most studied aspects of diet and life- style in managing prediabetes and pre- venting diabetes I won’t delve into herbs and alternative therapies here. I have enough respect for the potentially medicinal effects of herbs to avoid dab- bling in a field that is not my area of expertise.

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524/870 The Basic Multivitamin A basic multivitamin provides around 100 percent of the daily values DV the amounts recommended per day for a variety of vitamins and minerals. Most multis contain around 100 percent sometimes a bit more for the vitamins but smaller amounts of the minerals. Some minerals are bulky so you wouldn’t be able to fit a day’s worth in a pill without making it prohibitively huge. Multis often contain only about 160 milligrams or so of calcium for ex- ample though women’s multis may provideup to 500 milligrams of supple- mental calcium. For some minerals there is no established recommended dietary allowance so no percent DV will appear. The main argument in favor of taking a multivitamin/multimineral

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525/870 supplement is that most people don’t eat perfect diets every day so it gives you a little added assurance. Very few people get enough vitamin D so some basic supplementation is warranted. metformin a medication commonly used to treat prediabetes and diabetes can interfere with vitamin B 12 absorp- tion over time so a little extra is a good idea. If you think your diet is pretty well balanced by all means skip the multi and just take vitamin D and a B 12 sup- plement if you’re on metformin. Like al- most all dietary supplements multivit- amin/multimineral supplements should be taken with food to help with absorp- tion and avoid risk of stomach upset.

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526/870 Magnesium and Insulin Resistance Multis may include some magnesium although generally only about 25 per- cent of the DV. Magnesium plays a role in blood sugar regulation crucial to the function of insulin and studies have found that higher dietary magnesium intake is associated with lower fasting insulin concentrations and a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes. 1 The recommended dietary allowance for magnesium is 420 milligrams for men and 320 milligrams for women over age thirty. 2 Magnesium status tends to re- flect the overall quality of the diet so your best bet is to eat more high-mag- nesium foods. These include whole grain breads and cereals brown rice wheat germ nuts beans spinach ar- tichokes and avocados. If you decide to supplement however keep your dose

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527/870 well below the safe upper limit of 350 milligrams per day. The recommended daily allowances above for men and wo- men are based on intake of magnesium from food and don’t present a problem because your body eliminates what it doesn’t need. Too much magnesium taken all at once in pill form can cause diarrhea and abdominal pain. 3 Vitamin D and Prediabetes Research suggests that many Americans may have inadequate blood levels of vit- amin D defined as less than 30 nano- grams per milliliter. 4 According to re- search published in Nutrition Journal low levels of vitamin D are believed to be associated with higher rates of illness

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528/870 and death from a host of health prob- lems including bone disease diabetes cardiovascular disease cancer autoim- mune diseases mood disorders and possibly other conditions. 5 Vitamin D deficiency is common because we’re ge- netically designed to synthesize vitamin D from sun exposure rather than eat- ing it. Food sources of vitamin D in- clude fish oysters cheese and egg yolks as well as fortified foods such as milk and some juices and yogurts. The reality is however you’d have to eat a lot of these foods to get even the current re- commendation of 600 IUs per day 800 IUs for those over age seventy. Some vitamin D experts have deemed even these levels too low. Many experts re- commend 800 to 1000 IUs of vitamin D per day for everyone who isn’t regu- larly exposed to the sun. 6

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529/870 Vitamin D deficiency has been pro- posed by some to be a risk factor in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes by affecting either in- sulin sensitivity or pancreatic cell func- tion or both. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes seems to be higher in those who are vitamin D deficient. 7 Beyond diabetes prevention there are loads of reasons to avoid deficiency so it’s reas- onable to aim for a total vitamin D in- take of 800 to 1000 IUs from all sup- plement sources calcium often contains vitamin D as well. Vitamin D 3 or cholecalciferol may offer a leg up in re- pleting vitamin D levels so look for this form in over-the-counter supplements. After two or three months you can have your vitamin D level checked to see if this dose is adequate. The test is called 25-hydroxyvitamin D and as men- tioned earlier the desirable blood level

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530/870 is 30 ng/ml or higher. Many people have very low vitamin D levels below 20 ng/ml which will need to be re- placed with a large amount of vitamin D up front—often a prescription dose of 50000 IUs of vitamin D 2 once a week for eight weeks—to initially ramp up vit- amin D levels. After this time people may be able to settle into a maintenance dose of 1000 to 2000 IUs of vitamin D 3 per day. Omega-3 Fats: Eat More Fish or Supplement To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here In recent years the scientific evidence supporting the importance of omega-3

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531/870 fats to overall health has skyrocketed. The science for loading up on omega-3s is strongest for managing a number of

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532/870 cardiovascular risk factors. Omega-3s have been found to lower blood trigly- ceride levels and blood pressure and may slow the accumulation of cholester- ol plaques in the arteries—all of which may reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke. Research has been mixed and is ongoing but suggests that omega-3s may be helpful in improving insulin res- istance by countering the inflammation associated with IR and possibly helping to slow the progression of prediabetes to diabetes in other ways. 8 The three major types of omega-3 fatty acids are DHA docosahexaenoic acid EPA eicosapentaenoic acid and ALA alpha-linolenic acid. ALA is found in seeds canola flaxseed and soybean oils green leafy vegetables nuts and beans. DHA and EPA are found in fatty fish like salmon macker- el herring lake trout sardines and

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533/870 tuna as well as in fish oil supplements. To cover your bases aim to include both fish and plant sources of omega-3s in your diet. DHA and EPA are the long- chain omega-3s found in fish and fish oil and are considered more physiolo- gically active in the body. ALA is a short-chain omega-3 which needs to be converted to either DHA or EPA to be used most efficiently. Unfortunately the body converts very little ALA to EPA or DHA but ALA has unique benefits of its own so it’s best to consume both. If you opt for supplements choose a brand that provides at least 600 to 700 milligrams or more of total omega-3s DHA and EPA per dose.

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534/870 Other Supplements for Prediabetes Some supplements are marketed to people with prediabetes including those that target insulin resistance. By no means should you feel compelled to take these but you may read about them and want to know the state of the science. Chromium picolinate. Chromium is a trace mineral needed in small amounts that plays a role in glucose regulation by sensitizing cells to the ac- tion of insulin and possibly increasing cell insulin receptor number and activ- ity. Some evidence shows that taking chromium picolinate supplements the most common oral form may help lower fasting blood glucose insulin and hemoglobin A1C levels and increase in- sulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes. Not all research supports

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535/870 these benefits however. Food sources of chromium include onions tomatoes oysters whole grains bran cereals and potatoes. 9 Brewer’s yeast is also a good dietary source of chromium although not an easy supplement for some people to stomach. It is estimated that women need about 20 to 25 micrograms of chromi- um per day and men 30 to 35 micro- grams per day depending on age. 10 Al- though there is no safe upper limit set for chromium supplements the Nation- al Academy of Sciences has established a “safe and adequate daily dietary in- take” range for chromium of 50 to 200 micrograms per day so if you decide to give it a try you may want to limit it to no more than 200 micrograms. 11 As chromium could affect your insulin metabolism talk to your doctor first be- fore taking it with metformin or any

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536/870 other diabetes medicine. For those on thyroid medication chromium picolin- ate may bind with levothyroxine Syn- throid so be sure to take the medica- tion and the supplement at least three to four hours apart. Because of lack of safety data chromium supplements should be avoided by pregnant women or those who could become pregnant. Cinnamon. This widely used spice may help lower blood glucose levels. Re- search has been mixed and inconclus- ive and it could be that very high doses or specific cinnamon extracts may be needed to produce any benefit. 12 Until more is known about this spice and glucose levels enjoy cinnamon for its great taste and continue to focus on diet exercise and your new healthy lifestyle.

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537/870 Choosing a Quality Supplement Unlike pharmaceutical drugs where production is overseen by the US Food and Drug Administration quality stand- ards for production of dietary supple- ments in this country are largely volun- tary. Under the law dietary supplement manufacturers are supposed to make sure their products are safe before they go to market and that the claims on their labels are accurate and truthful. Supplements are not reviewed by the government before they’re sold however and there have been instances where the government has stepped in and removed harmful products from the market. Here are a few things to con- sider when selecting a supplement: • Is it made by a large dietary supple- ment or pharmaceutical company

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538/870 Large companies are more likely to have stringent internal production standards. • Does it have a “USP Verified” mark on the label The USP Dietary Sup- plement Verification Program is a voluntary testing and auditing pro- gram that verifies the quality pur- ity and potency of dietary supplements. • Make note of the serving size on the label so you know how many pills you’ll have to take to get the dose of nutrients listed on the label. Above all know what you’re taking and why I’m amazed at the number of clients I see who have no idea why they’re taking a certain supplement. It’s a good idea to periodically review your supplements with a health professional

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539/870 because sometimes recommendations change.

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12 Mastering the Market: An Aisle-by-Aisle Shopping Guide Wouldn’t you like to sit down most nights to a meal that tastes good and is good for you If so you need to take

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540/870 control of your food environment. Pop- ulate your home and workplace with things you should be eating and make it difficult to access foods you may have trouble limiting. It’s not about totally depriving yourself of foods you love. If you want an ice cream go out and get a child-sized cone—you just don’t need a half gallon in your freezer tempting you every night. Want to save calories—and money Pack a lunch from home and make it the night before so you don’t run out of time to make it in the morn- ing. Too tempted when you walk into the grocery store Consider an online grocery shopping service like Peapod Wal-Mart or Netgrocer.com. Taking control of your food environ- ment requires planning a big part of which starts in the grocery store. Let’s take a look at how to make good choices in the market.

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541/870 Reading Food Labels The shopping lists in this chapter are organized by food category and begin with a brief description of what to look for on the label. Brand-name foods that meet the criteria are listed but it’s im- portant to be able to navigate a food la- bel yourself in case you find something that looks appealing and you want to know if it’s a good choice. Pay attention to several key things on the Nutrition Facts label.

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542/870 Nutrition Facts Serving Size 1 slice Servings Per Contain- er 20 Amount Per Serving Calories 90 Calories from Fat 15 Daily Value Total Fat 2g 3 Saturated Fat 0g 0 Trans Fat 0g Cholesterol 0mg 0 Sodium 130mg 5 Total Carbo- hydrate 15g 5 Dietary Fiber 2g 8 Sugars 1g

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543/870 Protein 4g Vitamin A 0 Vitamin C 0 Calcium 4 Iron 4 Percent daily value reflects “as packaged” food. Percent daily values are based on a 2000 calorie diet. Your daily val- ues may be higher or lower depend- ing on your calorie needs: Calories:2000 2500 Total Fat Less than Sat Fat Less than 65g 80g 20g 25g

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544/870 Cholesterol Less than Sodium Less than 300mg 300mg 2400mg 2400mg Total Carbohydrate 300g 375g Dietary Fiber 25g 30g Calories per CarbohydrateProtein gram: Fat 9 4 4 Serving size. The most important element on the food label is the serving size because everything else you sub- sequently read is based on that portion. If the label portion is ½ cup and your portion is 1 cup you need to double everything on the label. That’s twice as many calories fat grams and carbs.

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545/870 Calories and calories from fat. This information is helpful if you’re

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546/870 trying to determine the percentage of calories from fat. For example if your goal is to get 30 percent of your total calories from fat and the fat calories on the label are a third or less of the total calories then the food item may be a good choice getting roughly 30 percent or less of its calories from fat. Total fat. This number helps you de- termine if the food is “low fat”—which means 3 grams of fat or less per serving. Not all foods need to fit this definition but it gives you a reference point: something with 5 grams of fat per serving is pretty close to low fat 8 grams per serving is getting up there and 16 grams of fat in one hot dog is a lot Saturated fat and trans fats. These should be limited as much as pos- sible in your diet so ideally these two numbers should be zero. “Low

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547/870 saturated” means no more than 1 gram of saturated fat per serving so aim for that with as many food choices as pos- sible. Any amount of trans fat is con- sidered unhealthy so stick to that goal of zero. If a nutrient is present in less than 0.5 grams per serving the manu- facturer is allowed to round down to zero on the label. This means there could be a hair less than 0.5 gram of trans fat per serving that could add up if you eat two or three servings. To play it safe avoid foods with “shortening” “hy- drogenated” or “partially hydrogen- ated” fat listed as an ingredient—these are the main sources of trans fats in the diet. Cholesterol. “Low cholesterol” means no more than 20 milligrams per serving and should be limited to 300 milligrams per day.

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548/870 Sodium. “Low sodium” means less than 140 milligrams per serving and should be limited to 2400 milligrams per day 2300 milligrams if you’re fol- lowing the DASH diet. Total carbohydrates. These are of key interest for anyone managing pre- diabetes. As you now know a carbo- hydrate choice is a portion that contains 15 grams of carb so the total carb num- ber should be divided by 15 to see roughly how many carb choices are in a serving of the food. In the example label on the preceding page the 15 grams of carb per serving of this food is one carb choice. If the total carbs were 40 grams it would be roughly two-and-a-half servings. Estimating is good enough. Dietary fiber. This is another very important number for the prediabetes diet plan. The more you eat the better. A “high-fiber” food means there are 5

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549/870 grams or more per serving. A food that is considered a “good source” of fiber has 2.5 grams to 4.9 grams per serving. Remember with any food that contains 5 grams of fiber or more per serving the American Diabetes Association says you are allowed to subtract half the grams of fiber from the total carbs in your carb count. I’m assuming that if you’re read- ing this book you are not diabetic so it’s okay to subtract any fiber grams from the total carbohydrate number. The incentive for choosing higher-fiber foods is that you get to subtract more carb grams Sugar. There is currently no official definition for “low sugar” because food labels don’t differentiate between natur- al sugars fructose from fruit and lactose from milk and added sweeten- ers. “Reduced sugar” means 25 percent less sugar than the original food item

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550/870 which doesn’t necessarily mean much if the original is loaded with sugar. A reas- onable number to aim for is around 8 grams of sugar or less per serving. Protein. The presence of protein in a carb-containing food helps you feel fuller longer and slows the digestion of carbs to blood glucose. Percent daily value. This is the amount of a nutrient that will be satis- fied by eating a serving of the food. The percentages are based on the levels of nutrients recommended as part of a healthy 2000-calorie diet as listed at the bottom of the Nutrition Facts label. For example a serving of our sample food uses up 5 percent of the saturated fat allowance for the day listed at the bottom of the label as 20 grams. These percentages are also provided for some vitamins and minerals. It’s worth noting that the calcium percentage is based on

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551/870 the DV of 1000 milligrams so if you re- place the percentage sign with a “0” that’s your milligrams. In our example the 4 percent DV of calcium represents 40 milligrams of calcium. 1 Shopping for Plant Foods To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here When buying produce stock up on both fresh and frozen vegetables so you have a backup plan when you’ve run out of fresh veggies. I’m a huge fan of steam- ready microwavable vegetables that are steamed right in the bag like microwave popcorn. According to the food com- panies all the plastics used are FDA-ap-

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552/870 proved as microwave safe. For those who prefer to avoid cooking in plastic steam fresh or frozen veggies in an

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553/870 inexpensive stainless-steel steamer or microwave in a glass dish. Frozen fruits are also nice to have on hand to mix with yogurt thaw slightly first or blend into a smoothie. A critical component of the predia- betes diet plan is to eat more plant foods. Stretch beyond your old standbys when shopping and resolve to include more color in your diet: • Blue/purple. Blueberries black- berries eggplant figs plums prunes purple cabbage and purple grapes. • Green. Artichokes arugula as- paragus avocado bok choy broc- coli broccoli rabe brussels sprouts cabbage celery cucumbers endive greens green apples green beans green grapes green olives green peppers honeydew melon kiwi

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554/870 limes lettuce okra peas snow peas spinach and zucchini. • Orange/yellow. Apricots winter squash cantaloupe carrots grapefruit yellow beets lemons mangoes nectarines oranges papaya peaches yellow pears pineapples pumpkin sweet potato tangerines yams corn and sum- mer squash. • Red. Red apples beets cherries cranberries pink grapefruit pomegranates raspberries red grapes red peppers radishes radicchio red onions strawberries tomatoes and watermelon. • White/gold. Cauliflower garlic jicama mushrooms onions parsnips potatoes shallots turnips and bosc pears.

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555/870 Starter Shopping List Now that you know how to read labels let’s create a shopping list to help guide you through the aisles at the supermar- ket. This list is by no means all-inclus- ive. Criteria are provided at the top of each category that you can apply to any- thing of interest. Examples of foods that meet the criteria are here to get you started. So start experimenting and see what you can add to—or should subtract from—your kitchen. Poultry. Note that “cold cuts” are elsewhere later in the list. • Fresh chicken breast: buy in bulk when on sale and freeze individual portions in freezer bags • Frozen chicken breast: available in large zip-lock bags as breast or tenders or individually frozen in plastic

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556/870 • Chicken legs and thighs: buy fresh or frozen without the skin to trim fat calories • Precooked chicken pieces: beware the sodium in flavored varieties • Canned chicken: use for sandwiches and salads • Limit chicken wings chicken nug- gets and any other breaded chick- en product to only occasional use because of high fat and salt content • Fresh or frozen turkey breast • Ground turkey: buy only 90 percent lean or leaner Seafood. Buy fresh frozen or canned depending on use. • Any kind of fish shrimp and other shellfish that’s not fried • Canned tuna salmon or shrimp

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557/870 • Salmon lox • Smoked salmon Meat. Look for the words “loin” “round” “flank” “chuck” or “90 percent lean” or leaner limit yourself to no more than 18 ounces of animal protein a week. 2 • Beef: eye of the round top round steak top round roast sirloin steak top loin steak tenderloin steak flank steak and chuck arm pot roast • Veal: cutlet blade or arm steak rib roast and rib or loin chop • Pork: tenderloin top loin roast top loin chop center loin chop sirloin roast loin rib chop and shoulder blade steak • Lamb: leg loin chop and arm chop

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558/870 Miscellaneous protein. These are great protein choices for anyone—not just vegetarians. • Eggs and egg substitutes • Soy foods: tofu tempeh edamame and TVP textured vegetable protein • Beans chickpeas kidney beans and so on and peas • Veggie burgers • Hummus • Quinoa Fats and oils. Focus on heart- healthy fats but remember that all fats are equal in calories no matter how heart healthy they are. • Olive canola or peanut oil • Tub spreads: trans fat–free such as Olivio Smart Balance Brummel

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559/870 Brown Promise many “light” spreads • Light mayonnaise • Low-fat salad dressings these gen- erally taste better than fat-free but watch portions • Olives • Avocado and guacamole • Nuts seeds and nut butters there is no need to buy reduced-fat pea- nut butter—the real thing has the same calories and tastes much bet- ter although do watch your portions Cereals. Look for cereals with at least 3 grams preferably 5 grams or more of fiber and no more than 8 grams of sugar per serving. If your fa- vorite cereal is higher in sugar try

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560/870 mixing ¼ cup of it with ¾ cup low- sugar high-fiber flakes. • General Mills cereals: Fiber One Total Whole Grain Wheaties Wheat and Multibran Chex Multi- grain Cheerios other flavored ver- sions of Cheerios including Honey Nut Apple and Berry have only 2 grams of fiber per serving • Kellogg’s cereals: Complete Oat Bran and Wheat Bran Flakes Kel- logg’s All Bran Kellogg’s Special K Protein Plus • Post cereals: Shredded Wheat Shredded Wheat and Bran Bran Flakes 100 percent Bran Post Grape Nut Flakes • Quaker cereals: Corn Bran Oatmeal • Barbara’s cereals: Original Puffins Cinnamon Puffins not Peanut

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561/870 Butter Puffs Shredded Wheat Multigrain Shredded Spoonfuls • Health Valley or Nature’s Path cer- eals: Any of their whole grain flakes • Kashi cereals: GoLean Heart to Heart 7 Whole Grain Flakes Au- tumn Wheat Mini Wheats any oth- ers with at least 3 grams of fiber and roughly 3 grams of fat and 8 grams of sugar or less per serving • Cascadian Farm cereals: Multigrain Squares Purely O’s any others with at least 3 grams of fiber and roughly 3 grams of fat and 8 grams of sugar or less per serving • Trader Joe’s and Whole Foods stores carry many varieties of cer- eal that meet these criteria read the labels.

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562/870 Crackers. Look for low-fat crackers no more than 3 grams of fat 2 grams of fiber or more and no trans fats. • Kashi TLC Honey Sesame Natural Ranch and Original 7 Grain • Wheat Thins: Reduced Fat Fiber Selects • Triscuits: Reduced Fat Thin Crisps and Minis • Ak-Mak 100 Whole Wheat • Wasa Multigrain • Kavli Crispbread • Graham crackers any brand Bread products. Breads bagels English muffins and other bread products should have the word “whole” in the first ingredient as in “whole wheat” “whole grain” and “whole oat” and contain at least 2 to 3 grams of fiber

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563/870 per slice. Choose those with calories as close as possible to 70 to 90 calories per slice. • Freihofer’s Stone Ground 100 Whole Wheat • Wonder Stone Ground 100 Whole Wheat • Weight Watchers 100 Whole Wheat Bread and English Muffins • Arnold Health-full 10 Grain 100 Whole Wheat or Multigrain Sand- wich Thins 100 Whole Wheat Sandwich Rolls • Pepperidge Farm Carb Style 100 Whole Wheat 7 Grain Light Style Extra Fiber Soft Wheat and 100 Whole Wheat Cinnamon Raisin • Bagels: Whole grain mini bagels Thomas’s 100 Whole Wheat Ba- gel Thins or English Muffins

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564/870 Cold cuts. Look for low-fat varieties 3 grams of fat per serving some are available in low-sodium versions. • Sliced ham • Sliced turkey • Sliced chicken • Lean roast beef Cheeses. Look for cheeses with 5 grams of fat or less per ounce or slice. These will be made with fat-free low- fat or part-skim milk. Some cheeses be- low have slightly more fat but are still good choices if eaten in moderation. • String cheese: part-skim mozzarella • Laughing Cow Light Creamy Swiss Original • Jarlsberg light • Sargento reduced-fat deli-style thin • Kraft 2 percent milk Deli Deluxe

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565/870 • Cabot 50 percent reduced-fat cheddar • Cracker Barrel 2 percent milk 6 grams of fat • Laughing Cow Mini Babybel Mild • Sargento reduced-fat sharp cheddar sticks • American: Smart Beat Kraft-free singles Borden fat-free singles Kraft 2 milk singles Land-O- Lake reduced-fat or low-fat • Alpine Lace reduced-fat cheese • Feta: President fat-free feta Stella feta Athenos reduced-fat feta Yogurts. Unless it’s plain un- flavored yogurt may contain large amounts of added sugar unless marked “light” which means it’s been artificially sweetened. Look for those with 20 grams of total carbs or less per 6 ounces

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566/870 usually the case with Greek yogurts. Greek yogurts have two to three times the protein of regular yogurts. • Stonyfield Farm: plain or flavored • Dannon Light Fit or fat-free plain yogurt • Yoplait Light • Greek style: Chobani nonfat Greek yogurt Fage nonfat Greek yogurt Dannon Light Fit Greek Yogurt Activia Greek 4-ounce yogurts • Other 1 percent or nonfat Greek yogurts Milk. Milk should be skim or 1 per- cent milkfat. • Garelick Over-the-Moon: 1 percent fat or fat-free both have the taste of whole milk

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567/870 • Simply Smart: nonfat milk with the taste of 2 percent milk • Silk unflavored or light soy milk • Silk soy milk enhanced with 35 percent recommended daily value for calcium • 8th Continent soy milk • Almond milk check flavored variet- ies for added sugars very low in protein with the exception of So Delicious Almond Plus which has 5 grams of protein per 8 ounces Beverages. All beverages should be calorie-free or have no more than 40 calories per 8 ounces. • Water • Diet V-8 Splash • Light Ocean Spray cranberry juice and blends

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568/870 • Minute Maid Light juice beverages • Vitamin Water Zero • Sobe Life Waters • Diet iced teas • Fruit2O • Crystal Light • All diet sodas and seltzer waters Frozen foods. Some frozen foods may be low in calories and fat but many are still very high in sodium. Look for frozen dinners with 45 to 60 grams of carb at least 14 to 20 grams of protein no more than 8 to 10 grams of fat and no more than 500 milligrams of sodi- um. Add extra fresh or frozen veget- ables and fruits to boost the plant con- tent of the meal. • Frozen meals: Natural food stores or sections in the supermarket

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569/870 usually offer healthier frozen din- ners Amy’s Organic Bistro and Kashi are some good brands. • Vegetarian alternatives: Gardenbur- gers meatless soy-based Boca products meatless soy-based in- cluding burgers chicken patties meatless chili breakfast patties Morning Star Farms veggie products including “sausage” links and patties soy “crumbles” for recipes Snack foods. Look for low-fat op- tions meaning 3 grams of fat or less per serving with zero trans fats. Many snack foods are carbs that should be paired with protein for a more filling snack. • Pretzels: any brands except for those flavored with fat • Popcorn: light and low-fat varieties

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570/870 • Potato and tortilla chips: baked and “crisps” varieties • Breadsticks • Corn or rice cakes: plain or flavored • Crunchy granola bars or chewy vari- eties with at least 3 grams of fiber and less than 150 calories per bar • Pudding: low-fat and sugar-free varieties • Cookies: limit to one serving of trans fat–free cookies to control calories. Remember to factor in the carbs. If you can’t limit them don’t buy them • Low-fat frozen desserts: preferably sugar-free. Limit to one serving to control calories. Remember to factor in the carbs. Skinny Cow ice cream sandwiches Welch’s No Sugar Added Fruit Juice Bars

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571/870 Edy’s Carb Smart Fudge Bars Klondike Slim Bear Bars no sugar added

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13 Considerations When Dining Out It may be healthier to plan and prepare a homemade meal every night but in today’s on-the-go society that’s not al- ways possible. Eating out can be a chal- lenge: we are hardwired to overeat in

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571/870 the presence of large portions—particu- larly when the food is infused with fat salt and sugar. Part of the reason it’s so hard to resist overeating when dining out is that many of us still experience that “yippee” feeling we may have de- veloped back when we were kids and eating out was a special treat. If you rarely dine out what you order doesn’t matter as much. The occasional splurge will easily be offset by your eating well most days remember the 80/20 rule. But Americans have become accus- tomed to eating out more often and restaurants have sought to cater to every taste and price point. Some res- taurants make it easier than others for you to make decent choices but often the portions are too big even if the choice is healthy. Fast-food restaurants make it nearly impossible to make a de- cent choice unless you order a kid’s

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572/870 meal which technically should be enough for the average adult as well. Chain restaurants such as TGI Fridays Applebee’s Chili’s and the Cheesecake Factory may offer a “weight watchers” item but the rest of the menu is loaded with highly processed tough-to-resist foods that are high in fat salt and sugar delivered in enormous portions con- taining twice as many calories as you think. A smarter bet is to dine at smaller restaurants where the food is prepared on-site and you can get an idea of what’s actually in your dish. No matter where you’re eating out the restaurant- sized portion is probably at least 30 to 50 percent larger than what you should be having unless you’re a marathon runner. The amount of fat salt and sugar in the meal is also probably a lot higher than you think. If you’re really

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573/870 determined to eat a healthy meal re- quest substitutions an extra vegetable instead of french fries for example and modifications sauce on the side less butter. With the rising rates of food al- lergies in this country and our increas- ing focus on health many restaurants are used to being asked what’s in their food and if something can be served dif- ferently. No matter what you order por- tion control is key. Use these strategies to deal with the often difficult reality of dining out: • Split a large entrée with someone and pair it with a side salad. • Ask the server to pack half your en- trée in a take-home container be- fore you’re served. • Look for “lighter-fare” items on the menu that are smaller portions or

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574/870 made with lower-calorie ingredients. • Avoid all-you-can-eat buffets Few of us can resist the temptation to overeat in this setting. Navigating the Menu To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here Learning how to spot healthier options on the menu is critical particularly if you travel for work and eat out a lot. Try using the website www.healthydin- ingfinder.com before a trip: simply plug in the zip code you’re traveling to and see what restaurants offer healthy choices in the area. Search results in-

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575/870 clude the nutritional breakdown for the items offered. If you’re not sure how a certain dish is prepared be sure to ask your server. Knowledge is power when making smarter healthier choices in

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576/870 restaurants. Certain words or phrases on the menu imply some cooking meth- ods that are healthier than others. Use these guidelines for ordering. Meat and poultry. When ordering meat and poultry avoid items that are “fried” “crispy” “pan-fried” “sautéed” “stuffed” or prepared “parmigiana- style.” These methods are generally high in fat and calories. Instead look for these words on the menu that suggest a lighter style of cooking: “steamed” “broiled” “baked” “grilled” “poached” and “roasted.” Fatty cuts of meat in- clude rib eye porterhouse and T-bone. Leaner cuts are London broil filet mignon round or flank steak sirloin tip and tenderloin. Request that visible fat be removed from meat and skin be removed from poultry before it’s served. Request that gravies sauces and dress- ings be served on the side and don’t

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577/870 use it all. This way you can control how much you eat or skip it completely. Vegetables. High-fat vegetable dishes to avoid are anything described on the menu as “fried” “scalloped” “au gratin” served in a cream or cheese sauce or tempura-style fried veget- ables. Remembering the balanced- plate approach choose entrées with a lot of vegetables. Cover half your plate with vegetables by trading in the starch choice for a second vegetable. You can then savor a roll with a pat of butter as your starch. Look for plain vegetable choices described as “steamed” “grilled” or “roasted.” Request a lemon wedge or vinegar to add flavor. Starchy sides. High-fat starchy side dishes may be described as “fried” “scalloped” “au gratin” or served in a cream or cheese sauce. Although they might be tough to find in some

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578/870 restaurants when possible order whole grains such as brown or wild rice whole wheat tortillas and whole wheat pasta. Higher-fat starch choices include rice pilaf stuffed or twice-baked potatoes and vegetable or potato casseroles. A reasonable portion of plain rice or half a baked potato are better options. A tea- spoon of butter melted over the top adds 40 calories and two tablespoons of sour cream add 50 calories. Salad. To avoid overeating on the main entrée enjoy a premeal salad with low-fat dressing a low-fat vinaigrette rather than a creamy dressing is best. To conserve calories ask for dressing on the side and dip your fork into it before grabbing a bite of salad. But be smart about your choices and pay attention to the ingredients. Salad bar add-ons like mayonnaise-based pasta and potato salads oil-based marinated vegetable or

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579/870 bean salads cheeses croutons and ba- con bits can undo the health value of any salad by really ramping up the cal- ories. Because it’s drenched with dress- ing Caesar salad is usually loaded with fat and calories. If you must have it or- der dressing on the side and use spar- ingly. A Greek salad that’s overflowing with feta cheese and olives will also be loaded with fat and calories. Ask for half the cheese limit yourself to a few olives and use a low-fat dressing. Pizza. Avoid “deep dish” “stuffed crust” “extra cheese” and all other manner of hyperfattening pizza includ- ing pepperoni and sausage which should be limited to the occasional splurge. The calories are usually bey- ond comprehension. If you must order it eat it plain cheese only or with ve- getable toppings like spinach mush- rooms broccoli and roasted peppers.

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580/870 Portion control is key. It will be easier to limit yourself to a slice or two if you also order a large salad with low-fat dressing to help fill you up. Pasta. Choose tomato-based marin- ara or primavera sauces rather than cream-based sauces. Tomato sauce de- livers a fraction of the calories of cream sauce and actually counts as a vegetable serving Be brave and ask for half the plate to be covered with the vegetable of the day. Halving your plate of pasta will halve your carbs for the meal. Try cov- ering the veggies with tomato sauce to trick your brain into thinking you’ve had a full plate of pasta. Soups. Broth-based soups are low in calories and make a great premeal filler or can be part of a calorie-controlled en- trée when paired with a salad. Creamed soups bisques and chowders are much

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581/870 higher in calories. Limit them to special occasions. Seafood. Fish and seafood dishes are great for you if you order them baked broiled poached steamed grilled or lightly sautéed. Although it is delicious deep-frying seafood adds unhealthy sat- urated fats and can more than double the calories. Try to resist the side order of fries remember: sweet potato fries are still fried. Instead ask for an extra vegetable. Vegetarian entrées. These can be great choices if they’re not loaded with butter cheese and fried vegetables. They’re more likely to include whole grains beans and other high-fiber foods. Be adventurous and try tofu. It takes on the flavor of whatever it’s cooked in so you might be pleasantly surprised Remain mindful of portions.

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582/870 Burgers. Order the smallest burger on the menu or try a turkey or veggie burger watch the cheese and mayo eat only half the bun and ask for a salad to replace the giant side of fries. A typical fast-food hamburger about the size of what you’d find in a child’s meal is about 300 calories 10 to 15 grams of fat and 35 grams of carbohydrate. From there the sky’s the limit as to what else might be loaded on the burger. Mexican food. Ask your server not to bring fried tortilla chips to the table. Look for whole wheat tortillas beans and grilled entrées on the menu. Steer clear of deep-fried entrées like chimichangas and dishes with tons of cheese and sour cream. If you order a taco salad don’t eat the fried shell.

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583/870 Speak Up and Ask the Staff Don’t be shy about talking to the wait staff restaurant manager or chef for advice on which menu items best meet your needs and preferences. If you don’t know how something is prepared ask. Request that your entrée be prepared with less fat or salt. Make substitutions to lower the carb or cal- orie content of the meal. Restaurants are part of the hospitality industry—they want you to come back so most will go above and beyond to please. Other helpful hints: Limit yourself to one piece of bread or skip it altogether. Avoid fatty breads like croissants sweet rolls and gooey pastries. Experiment with ethnic fare which often uses unique spices and fresh herb blends to season foods rely- ing less on salt and fat. The same principles apply however: if you don’t know what’s in it ask. Always be on the lookout for fried and other high-fat foods curb your carb

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584/870 intake and search the menu for extra vegetables. Dessert. Try your best to look bey- ond the chocolate cake and ice cream sundaes—the amount of carbohydrate they add to your meal can send your in- sulin levels sky-high. If you decide to go for it ask someone to split the treat with you or—even better—suggest a dessert that the whole table can share. Beverages. Beverages can add an in- sane number of calories to a meal if you’re not careful. Choose water diet soda seltzer water with lemon or lime low-fat milk tea or coffee in place of soda or other sweetened drinks. If con- sumed at all limit alcohol-containing drinks to one per day for women two for men.

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Part 5 PREVENTING DIABETES WITHA HEALTHY MIND-SET

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14 Managing Emotions for Success To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here

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Without question being diagnosed with prediabetes is stressful and some re- search has tried to tie psychological stress to increased risk of diabetes. A complicating factor is that those who

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586/870 lead stressful lives often have difficulty practicing positive health behaviors which in turn raises risk. Rather than adding fear of stress worsening your prediabetes to your list of things to worry about work on replacing the neg- ative feelings about all the things you should be doing but aren’t with steps you can take to feel more in control of your schedule habits and health. Changing lifestyle behaviors is ex- tremely challenging: it requires decon- structing unhealthy habits and repla- cing them with healthier ones that stick. But the changes don’t need to happen all at once. In the insightful words of my professional mentor Dr. Margo Woods a nutrition professor and researcher at the world-renowned Tufts University School of Nutrition in Boston: “Re- search shows dietary change is a three- step process that people need to move

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587/870 through but often quit when they’re only halfway there” As we explored in part 1 of this book those steps look roughly like this: Step one is to cut out the junk food. Step two is to start exper- imenting with healthier foods. Step three is to practice the new habits consistently. To avoid feeling overwhelmed start with one food and one exercise goal. Pick things that are realistic so you start racking up positive achievements that will empower you to continue. Maybe start by cooking a large meal on Sunday so you have healthy leftovers for a couple of nights this week. Or set a goal to walk twenty minutes—just open the door walk out ten minutes then turn around and walk back. Tell yourself you can do this. It’s okay to work toward goals in your own way and at your own pace. Replace the old voices in your

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588/870 head that may be telling you that you can’t with new positive messages that you can. If making changes in the food realm paralyzes you start with increas- ing your activity. Exercise helps ease stress anxiety and depression in a number of incredibly powerful ways. It does all of the following: • Increases production of feel-good neurotransmitters and endorphins responsible for that “runner’s high” people talk about. • Blunts the release of immune sys- tem chemicals that can aggravate depression. • Increases body temperature which can have a calming effect. • Provides a socially appropriate means of working off negative energy.

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589/870 • Removes chemical by-products of the body’s fight-or-flight stress re- sponse by simulating the activity that is fed by this reaction thereby helping the body recover faster from this instinctive stress response. • Helps increase self-confidence in what you think your body is cap- able of—strength and cardio fitness feel terrific • Gets you in touch with your muscles from the neck down many of which may not have been used in years. This may improve self-esteem and how you feel about your appearance. • Distracts you from what’s troubling you potentially short-circuiting a cycle of negative thoughts.

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590/870 • Provides structure to your day which may help you stay on track with eating as well. • May improve your self-confidence so that you can tackle the chal- lenges of healthy eating as well People who feel stressed or depressed may also feel socially isolated and exer- cise gets you out in the world. Group ex- ercise offers many benefits beyond physical. If you go to a gym or exercise class at the same time often enough you may start to connect with others who have similar goals. Even better for accountability is finding a supportive exercise buddy. Also for many people not exercising is a source of stress be- cause you know you should but aren’t. Getting up and moving can relieve the anxiety that you’re not taking care of yourself.

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591/870 De-Stressing Indulgences Beyond establishing a regular exercise routine take advantage of other ther- apies available in today’s wellness in- dustry. Massage therapy qigong acu- puncture Reiki aromatherapy medita- tion prayer art music and dance can help you feel relaxed and give you a chance to appreciate what it means to feel good. This is what we mean by the “mind-body connection.” Include some of these indulgences in your physical and emotional health improvement plan.

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592/870 Developing an “I Can Change” Mind-Set When it comes to changing routine be- haviors slow and steady really does win the race. Behavior change is a process not an event. Rather than picking a day to jump in and try to change everything at once in the long term it’s more ef- fective—and less stressful—to take on a new behavior or two and practice them for a while until they become familiar and more routine. You can then take on another healthy habit working down your list of behaviors you’d like to change over time. If you’re persistent enough these new routines will eventu- ally become just the way you do things. For many people the first step in changing behavior is to work on halting negative self-talk. People really are cap- able of change. In the case of weight

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593/870 loss you can see this in the findings of the National Weight Control Registry a database of more than ten thousand people who have lost an average of sixty-six pounds and kept it off for an average of 5.5 years. Remember the wise words of Dr. Margo Woods: “Diet- ary change is a three-step process that people need to move through.” Let’s take a look at these three steps in great- er detail. Step 1. Purge the refined foods from your diet and kitchen cabinets. These are foods that are filling you up and racking up the calories but aren’t mak- ing any positive nutritional contribu- tions to your diet. These foods include sweets sugary beverages salty snacks fatty or fried foods fast foods and white-flour refined carbs. It’s not that you have to avoid these foods altogeth- er they just need to be moved to your

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594/870 “eat less often” or “special occasions” list and not making them too easily available is a good first start. Step 2. Start overhauling the nutri- tional quality of one meal or snack at a time. Substitute a nonfat Greek yogurt or some hummus and carrots for that afternoon vending-machine snack. Re- place that candy bar with a fruit salad. Switch out the full-fat salad dressing from the office cafeteria with some reduced-fat dressing that you bring from home. If you keep at these one-at- a-time changes the overall quality of your diet will start to look different and you will eventually arrive at step 3. Step 3. Start to eat a consistently healthier diet. For the prediabetes diet plan this means three meals a day plus one or two snacks as needed to manage hunger of whole unrefined foods— whole grain breads cereals and

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595/870 crackers whole fruits lots of veget- ables low- or reduced-fat dairy and reasonably sized portions generally 3 to 6 ounces of seafood poultry or lean meat maybe including a vegetarian meal once or twice a week. It’s still okay to incorporate a small portion of something sweet or some other special treat here and there. You just need to keep a realistic eye on how many calor- ies these treats are contributing to your diet and how many healthier foods they may be nudging out. Unfortunately in today’s quick-fix so- ciety many people start to lose their fo- cus at step 2. We’re impatient because we aren’t losing enough weight or see- ing a fast enough improvement in our blood sugars or we’re simply not used to this gradual approach. But hitting step 3 is where the re- wards start kicking in—where you

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596/870 actually start to look and feel differently in your body. There will be struggles and lapses but hang in there Without a doubt eating healthier in our junk food– infused culture requires getting used to a little discomfort because it re- quires restraint. But if you’ve tried to change your diet and lifestyle habits many times before without lasting suc- cess and now your health is at stake do you really have a choice What is there to lose by spending the next few months trying to settle in with some new habits instead of steadily increasing your blood sugar gaining more weight or feeling progressively uncomfortable—and unhappy Mind-Set Intervention: Change Is Always Emotional

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597/870 Changing your eating and exercise habits is not just about knowing what you need to do. It’s about learning new habits and strategies that help you evolve to a healthier place. No matter how smart or accom- plished you are in other aspects of your life this can be hard. Making diet and lifestyle changes is largely an emotional process. It’s important to shake off your past experi- ences and expectations of weight loss and accept that it comes from making perman- ent change—not from temporarily following an overestrictive diet plan. One obstacle to successful weight loss is unrealistic expectations about how fast you should expect to lose weight particularly if you lost a lot of weight quickly during a past weight-loss attempt. Immersing yourself in the latest popular diet program with the hope that if you just stick to the rules no matter how restrictive they will eventually become second nature is a failing plan. The weight you might have lost using those

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598/870 methods was just sitting on the sidelines waiting for you to drift back to the lifestyle habits that didn’t serve you well before the diet. Slower weight loss may be more likely to be permanent because it tends to reflect that you’re making gradual cumulative changes. You are transitioning from an old set of unhealthy habits to some healthier new ones. But you don’t have to be perfect I’m a big believer in the 80/20 rule: I care about what my patients do 80 percent of the time as that tends to reflect their routines and habits. It also leaves room for some special treats and the occasional “out- of-the-ordinary” food experience. Success comes from repetition and being willing to try again even when all you seem to notice are your mistakes.

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599/870 Rally the Troops: Know When to Ask for Help To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here If your readiness to take charge of your prediabetes is there identify the sup- ports you need and don’t be afraid to ask for help. I once read somewhere that stress is not an outside force you find threatening but your response to it. Finding a way to change how you re- spond to stress is an important part of feeling more in control of your life. By all means seek out support—from a re- gistered dietitian a doctor a certified diabetes educator a weight-loss support group or an online chat room. Support is vital for helping you get back in the saddle when you fall off and are temp-

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600/870 ted to stay lying in the dirt. Don’t be afraid to admit you might need psycho- logical therapy to deal with your food or “resistance-to-change” issues. These are

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601/870 common and therapy can be life chan- ging. Many of our most self-destructive thought processes have been reinforced for years and we may benefit from the help of a professional to untangle and rewire these messages.

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15 Devising Your Own Prediabetes Diet Plan Managing and perhaps reversing your prediabetes through diet and lifestyle change is absolutely possible. The Pre- diabetes Diet Plan has clarified what prediabetes is how it affects your

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602/870 health and how it can be treated to re- duce your risk of developing full-blown diabetes. Most important receiving a diagnosis of prediabetes presents an op- portunity to finally work on changing habits and routines that are threatening your health and quality of life. This book makes the case for why what you do with food activity and lifestyle choices makes a difference. Remember: • The food choices you make can either aggravate your insulin resist- ance or improve it. • Physical activity is “natural medi- cine” for insulin resistance and is essential for weight loss and stress management. • Sensible dietary supplementation can optimize the nutrient profile of your diet for better health but

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603/870 supplementation is not a substitute for healthy eating. • Tending to your emotional needs is essential to overall health and can make picking a plan and sticking with it more achievable. Much of what people read about diet and nutrition is confusing. They want to eat better but don’t really know how to do it—and this can become yet one more obstacle. Following the predia- betes diet plan makes it easier to imple- ment healthy changes. Another obstacle is the commonly held belief that eating well is an all-or-nothing prospect: if you can’t change radically all at once the traditional approach to weight loss why bother changing at all But re- search shows this is not how people change their habits long term. Slow and steady change suggests you’re doing the

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604/870 hard work of looking at your diet and lifestyle habits one at a time and experi- menting with ways you can change them permanently. Being realistic about how long it will take to change those habits is import- ant. You didn’t develop your current habits overnight and it will take time to establish new ones. Crash diets make false promises about overnight painless transformation but anyone who has tried one of those methods can tell you that they rarely work long term. Eventu- ally you get sick of the shakes or bars or overly restrictive meal plans and end up in a place where you have two choices: 1 do nothing and continue on a path of discontent and concern about your health or 2 start chipping away at it in a positive direction. Your path may be tediously slow addressing one habit meal or task at a time. Or maybe you’ve

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605/870 decided “This is it I’m ready” and you move along at a steady determined pace. However you choose to go about it you may find it helpful to recall the ten strategies for weight loss and life- style change outlined in detail in chapter 8 and listed again here in brief. Mind-Set Intervention: It’s Okay to Start Small Counting carbs considering exchange lists tightening up portions—there is a lot to take in once you’ve committed to managing your prediabetes through a healthy diet. But that’s why you have options. In the be- ginning you might just start eating off a smaller plate aiming for the balanced-plate approach without counting carbs. Just trad- ing off that extra portion of rice for a serving of vegetables and throwing the rest of your energy at increasing your activity

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606/870 may be as far as you go in the first few weeks. If you find you need some help with carb portions however carb counting is likely to be beneficial. But you don’t need to jump right in. Test the waters by paying some extra attention to your eating pattern. Make an effort to eat your next meal or snack before you’re starving. Then start adding more vegetables to your dinner plate. Lasting behavior change comes from trekking your own path at your own pace. Even with slow progress within a year’s time you’ll likely be slimmer and healthi- er—and less likely to have progressed to- ward diabetes than you are today. Strategy 1: Learn how your body works. Being strongly attracted to food and squirreling away excess cal- ories is natural for our primitive genetic design making it easy to overeat and gain weight. Work with your genes

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607/870 rather than against them by prioritizing eating before you’re starved and cover half your plate with whole fruits and ve- getables that will fill you up without loading you down with excess calories. Strategy 2: Adjust your atti- tude. One of the hardest things to do is believe that you are capable of making change. Historically diets have been about being either 100 percent “in” or “out” without room for lapses along the way. Accept that this isn’t realistic and know that lapses are opportunities to learn not evidence of weakness or failure. Strategy 3: Keep a food journ- al. Keeping a journal—whether pen-to- paper or an online website or app—is one of the most helpful things you can do to keep track of what’s really hap- pening with your food choices and en- hance your accountability. Don’t think

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608/870 of it as something that’s not worth do- ing if you can’t commit to it every day. Do what you can and see what happens. Strategy 4: Avoid overeating at night. Recent research supports what many nutritionists have known for a long time—eating too much at night may make it easier to gain weight. At a minimum start out with a healthy breakfast and avoid eating too little dur- ing the busy part of the day. It’s a classic setup for hunger—and portions—to spin out of control from mid- to late after- noon on. Strategy 5: Budget time for self-care. Diet and lifestyle change takes time and energy as well as some swimming upstream against societal norms. Try to accept that despite the sacrifices in the end it will be worth it. Making changes that lead to a better

slide 652:

609/870 quality of life is an incredible gift to give yourself and your family. Strategy 6: Manage your hun- ger to control portions. Relying on willpower and good intentions to help you avoid overeating when you’re over- hungry is likely to fail. Work toward be- ing a proactive eater by eating your next meal or snack before you’re starved. It may help you make healthier choices and slow you down a little. Strategy 7: Make losing weight a priority. We can always find “screen- time” to watch TV or search the Inter- net. Work toward budgeting in some “me time” to tend to your personal health needs like food shopping cook- ing and exercise. Strategy 8: Manage your ex- pectations. It can be incredibly tough to avoid lapsing into our usual thinking patterns about weight loss and diet

slide 653:

610/870 change. Hopefully the different angle presented by The Prediabetes Diet Plan—which encourages a positive ap- proach to managing insulin resistance instead of “dieting”—will provide a unique perspective that helps you avoid the usual emotional potholes and un- realistic expectations. Strategy 9: Don’t go it alone. No one is an island. Seek out sup- port— from a family member friend coworker counselor or group. It’s been proven to enhance success and makes the road to change seem less lonely and more fun Strategy 10: Be patient. We’re an impatient population and with diet and behavior change we’re no different. Try to accept that it probably took years to get where you are and that tossing out unhealthful habits and replacing them with better ones takes time.

slide 654:

611/870 Perfection Is the Enemy of “Good Enough” To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here Clearly change isn’t easy and there are challenges along the way. Some may re- late to your living situation—maybe you’re ready to start eating healthier but your partner isn’t. Or after working a long day possibly topped off with a long commute it’s hard for you to prior- itize meal planning or exercise. For many of us the obstacles are emotional. You may have a decades-old habit of overeating in response to stress or dis- appointment or feel like you’ve failed at trying to lose weight and eat more healthfully so many times that you’re

slide 655:

612/870 terrified to try again. Or maybe you’re just not ready. But remember the old adage that “perfection is the enemy of good enough.” Just because you don’t have readiness to make major moves to

slide 656:

613/870 live a healthier life doesn’t mean setting a goal or two isn’t worth it. I hope read- ing this book will move you a little closer to readiness—and that is progress. There will always be uncertainties in managing prediabetes but making any move no matter how small toward leading a healthier life will empower you to feel like you’re not just waiting for doctors to make you feel better. You’re pitching it taking charge and hedging your bets that trying something new is better than doing nothing at all. Everyone’s journey with prediabetes is unique and there are many paths. Your journey will happen at the pace that is right for you. It is my hope that the pre- diabetes diet plan will help you see that small changes over time can make a big difference to your health and quality of life. Why not start today

slide 657:

Appendix 1: Sample Meal Plans The meal plans provided here are de- signed to provide a framework for a new way of eating and help you develop a sense of how much carbohydrate you should try to limit yourself to per meal based on your estimated calorie needs. There are three days of meal plans for four different calorie levels: 1500 1700 2000 and 2300 calories. Because we use the American Diabetes Association’s Exchange Lists as the foundation for our discussion on carbohydrate count- ing for the nutrient analysis these meal

slide 658:

614/870 plans list the “grams of carbohydrate” exactly as they appear in the American Diabetes Association Exchange Lists for Diabetes. This includes counting the carbohydrates in nonstarchy vegetables and considers a serving of milk or un- sweetened yogurt to contain 12 grams of carbohydrate whereas for our purposes we round the carbohydrate content to 15 grams to keep things simple. In our prediabetes diet plan we are using the Exchange Lists as a tool to help people who are not diabetic develop a sense of carbohydrate servings which allows us some flexibility in utilizing the lists so we consider carbs from nonstarchy ve- getables “free” and round milk and yogurt carbs to 15 grams per serving. If you are diabetic you should seek out the advice of a registered dietitian to de- termine how to best manage your car- bohydrate intake to control your blood

slide 659:

615/870 glucose and work with your medications. To clarify what we are “counting” for the prediabetes diet plan the far right column lists the number of carb choices which includes carb choices from starches including starchy vegetables fruit milk/yogurt and sweets though we are allowing up to a teaspoon of ad- ded sugar to be “free” and excludes nonstarchy vegetables. Under the grams of carbohydrate column each meal lists the carbs for each food in the meal and then the total carbs for each meal using the Exchange Lists carbohydrate num- bers. Because in this column we are counting all the carbs as presented in the Exchange Lists you will notice these numbers do not add up to exactly between 45 and 75 grams but they’re in the range sometimes a little higher or lower. This is fine as we’re looking to

slide 660:

616/870 estimate the amount of carbohydrate eaten per meal without becoming over- whelmed with the details. To make these plans work for you if you note a food choice that isn’t your preference for example a vegetable or protein choice you don’t eat simply refer to the exchange lists and replace it with a food you like. Even though pro- teins and fats don’t contain carbo- hydrates unless they’re part of a com- bination food that does it’s still im- portant to watch your portions if you’re also trying to control your calorie intake. 1500-CALORIE MENUS DAY ONE Meal: Breakfast

slide 661:

617/870 OLD-FASHIONED OATS COOK IN WATER Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 5 Grams of Fat: 3 Grams of Fiber: 5 TOTAL CALORIES: 150 of Carb “Choices”: 2 BROWN SUGAR Serving Size: 1 teaspoon Grams of Carbohydrate: 5 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 16 of Carb “Choices”: - RAISINS Serving Size: 2 tablespoons

slide 662:

618/870 Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 SKIM MILK Serving Size: 8 fluid ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 12 Grams of Protein: 8 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 90 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR BREAKFAST 62 g carb 13 g Protein 3 g Fat 6 g Fiber

slide 663:

619/870 316 Calories 4 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Morning snack APPLE Serving Size: 1 small Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR MORNING SNACK 15 g carb 3 g Fiber 60 Calories 1 of Carb “Choices”

slide 664:

620/870 Meal: Lunch SALAD GREENS Serving Size: 2 cups Grams of Carbohydrate: 10 Grams of Protein: 4 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 5 TOTAL CALORIES: 50 of Carb “Choices”: - SLICED TOMATOES Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 2.5 Grams of Protein: 1 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 12 of Carb “Choices”: -

slide 665:

621/870 SLICED CARROTS Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 2.5 Grams of Protein: 1 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 12 of Carb “Choices”: - FETA CHEESE Serving Size: 1 ounce Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 7 Grams of Fat: 5 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 75 of Carb “Choices”: - GRILLED CHICKEN BREAST SKINLESS Serving Size: 3 ounces

slide 666:

622/870 Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 21 Grams of Fat: 3 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 105 of Carb “Choices”: - SUNFLOWER SEEDS Serving Size: 2 tablespoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 4 Grams of Protein: 3 Grams of Fat: 8 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 90 of Carb “Choices”: - SALAD DRESSING Serving Size: 2 tablespoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 10

slide 667:

623/870 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 90 of Carb “Choices”: - WALNUTS SHELLED HALVED Serving Size: 12 halves Grams of Carbohydrate: 4 Grams of Protein: 4 Grams of Fat: 16 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 160 of Carb “Choices”: - WHOLE GRAIN DINNER ROLL Serving Size: 1 small Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 3 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 80 of Carb “Choices”: 1

slide 668:

624/870 TOTAL FOR LUNCH 38 G CARB 44 g Protein 42 g Fat 12 g Fiber 674 Calories 1 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Afternoon snack NONFAT GREEK YOGURT VANILLA Serving Size: 6 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 13 Grams of Protein: 16 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 120 of Carb “Choices”: 1 RASPBERRIES

slide 669:

625/870 Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR AFTERNOON SNACK 28 g carb 16 g Protein 3 g Fiber 180 Calories 2 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Dinner WHOLE WHEAT PASTA COOKED Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 30

slide 670:

626/870 Grams of Protein: 6 Grams of Fat: 1 Grams of Fiber: 4 TOTAL CALORIES: 160 of Carb “Choices”: 2 TOMATO SAUCE Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 10 Grams of Protein: 4 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 4 TOTAL CALORIES: 50 of Carb “Choices”: - MEATBALL Serving Size: 1 ounce Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 7 Grams of Fat: 5 Grams of Fiber: 0

slide 671:

627/870 TOTAL CALORIES: 75 of Carb “Choices”: - PARMESAN CHEESE Serving Size: 2 teaspoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 1 Grams of Fat: 2 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 20 of Carb “Choices”: - CAULIFLOWER Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 10 Grams of Protein: 4 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 5 TOTAL CALORIES: 50 of Carb “Choices”: -

slide 672:

628/870 TOTAL FOR DINNER 50 G CARB 22 g Protein 8 g Fat 13 g Fiber 355 Calories 2 of Carb “Choices” TOTALS 198 g Carb 95 g Protein 53 g Fat 37 g Fiber 1585 Calories 10 of Carb “Choices” 49 Carb 24 Protein 30 Fat

slide 673:

629/870 This small amount of sugar is coun- ted as free.

slide 674:

630/870 1500-CALORIE MENUS DAY TWO Meal: Breakfast SHREDDED WHEAT CEREAL Serving Size: 1 cup 2 biscuits Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 5 Grams of Fat: 1 Grams of Fiber: 6 TOTAL CALORIES: 160 of Carb “Choices”: 2 SKIM MLK Serving Size: 8 fluid ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 12 Grams of Protein: 8 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 0

slide 675:

631/870 TOTAL CALORIES: 90 of Carb “Choices”: 1 BLUEBERRIES FRESH OR FROZEN Serving Size: ¾ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 ALMONDS UNSALTED ROASTED Serving Size: 6 almonds Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 2 Grams of Fat: 5 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 45 of Carb “Choices”: -

slide 676:

632/870 TOTAL FOR BREAKFAST 57 G CARB 15 g Protein 6 g Fat 10 g Fiber 355 Calories 4 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Morning snack ORANGE Serving Size: 1 small Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 g Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR MORNING SNACK

slide 677:

633/870 15 G CARB 3 g Fiber 60 Calories 1 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Lunch 100 WHOLE WHEAT BREAD Serving Size: 2 slices Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 8 Grams of Fat: 2 Grams of Fiber: 4 TOTAL CALORIES: 100 of Carb “Choices”: 2 TURKEY BREAST SLICED Serving Size: 2 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 14

slide 678:

634/870 Grams of Fat: 2 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 70 of Carb “Choices”: - AMERICAN CHEESE Serving Size: 1-ounce slice Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 7 Grams of Fat: 8 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 100 of Carb “Choices”: - ROASTED RED PEPPER HUMMUS Serving Size: 2 tablespoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 3 Grams of Protein: 1 Grams of Fat: 6 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 70

slide 679:

635/870 of Carb “Choices”: - SLICED TOMATO Serving Size: 3 ½-inch thick Grams of Carbohydrate: 3 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 15 of Carb “Choices”: - SALAD GREENS Serving Size: ¼ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 2.5 Grams of Protein: 1 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 12 of Carb “Choices”: -

slide 680:

636/870 APPLE Serving Size: 1 small Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR LUNCH 54 G CARB 31 g Protein 18 g Fat 10 g Fiber 427 Calories 3 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Afternoon snack STRING CHEESE

slide 681:

637/870 Serving Size: 1-ounce stick Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 8 Grams of Fat: 5 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 80 of Carb “Choices”: - WHOLE WHEAT CRACKERS Serving Size: 5 Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 3 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 80 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR AFTERNOON SNACK 15 G CARB 11 g Protein 5 g Fat

slide 682:

638/870 2 g Fiber 160 Calories 1 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Dinner PORK TENDERLOIN GARLIC HERB Serving Size: 3 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 21 Grams of Fat: 9 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 165 of Carb “Choices”: - OLIVE OIL Serving Size: 1 tablespoon Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 0

slide 683:

639/870 Grams of Fat: 14 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 120 of Carb “Choices”: - BAKED POTATO Serving Size: 1 med. 5 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 3 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 130 of Carb “Choices”: 2 BUTTER/MARGARINE SPREAD Serving Size: 1 teaspoon Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 5 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 45

slide 684:

640/870 of Carb “Choices”: - BROCCOLI STEAMED Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 10 Grams of Protein: 4 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 6 TOTAL CALORIES: 50 of Carb “Choices”: - TOTAL FOR DINNER 40 G CARB 28 g Protein 28 g Fat 9 g Fiber 510 Calories 2 of Carb “Choices” TOTALS

slide 685:

641/870 181 g Carb 85 g Protein 57 g Fat 34 g Fiber 1512 Calories 11 of Carb “Choices” 48 Carb 22 Protein 34 Fat

slide 686:

642/870 1500-CALORIE MENUS DAY THREE Meal: Breakfast 100 WHOLE WHEAT TOAST Serving Size: 1 slice Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 4 Grams of Fat: 1 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 50 of Carb “Choices”: 1 BUTTER/MARGARINE SPREAD Serving Size: 1 teaspoon Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 5 Grams of Fiber: 0

slide 687:

643/870 TOTAL CALORIES: 45 of Carb “Choices”: - EGGS COOKED WITHOUT FAT Serving Size: 2 large Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 14 Grams of Fat: 10 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 150 of Carb “Choices”: - NONFAT GREEK YOGURT Serving Size: 6 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 12 Grams of Protein: 16 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 120 of Carb “Choices”: 1

slide 688:

644/870 STRAWBERRIES WHOLE FRESH Serving Size: 1¼ cups Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR BREAKFAST 42 g Carb 34 g Protein 16 g Fat 5 g Fiber 425 Calories 3 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Morning snack GRAPES

slide 689:

645/870 Serving Size: 17 grapes Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR MORNING SNACK 15 g Carb 2 g Fiber 60 Calories 1 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Lunch THIN-CRUST CHEESE PIZZA Serving Size: ¼ of 12-inch pie Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 20

slide 690:

646/870 Grams of Fat: 15 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 355 of Carb “Choices”: 2 TOPPINGS: MEASURED RAW Grams of Carbohydrate: 5 Grams of Protein: 2 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 25 of Carb “Choices”: - SLICED ORANGE BELL PEPPER Serving Size: ¼ cup of Carb “Choices”: - SLICED RED ONION Serving Size: ¼ cup of Carb “Choices”: -

slide 691:

647/870 SPINACH Serving Size: ¼ cup of Carb “Choices”: - SLICED RED BELL PEPPER SERVING SIZE: ¼ CUP of Carb “Choices”: - MINI TANGERINES FRESH Serving Size: 2 Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR LUNCH 50 g Carb 22 g Protein

slide 692:

648/870 15 g Fat 5 g Fiber 440 Calories 3 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Afternoon snack CARROT STICKS Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 5 Grams of Protein: 2 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 25 of Carb “Choices”: 0 HUMMUS Serving Size: ¼ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 8 Grams of Protein: 4

slide 693:

649/870 Grams of Fat: 6 Grams of Fiber: 4 TOTAL CALORIES: 90 of Carb “Choices”: TOTAL FOR AFTERNOON SNACK 13 g Carb 6 g Protein 6 g Fat 6 g Fiber 115 Calories 1 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Dinner Lentil soup Serving Size: 1½ cups Grams of Carbohydrate: 45 Grams of Protein: 13.5 Grams of Fat: 3

slide 694:

650/870 Grams of Fiber: 7.5 TOTAL CALORIES: 240 of Carb “Choices”: 2 Whole grain dinner roll Serving Size: 1 small Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 3 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 80 of Carb “Choices”: 1 Parmesan cheese Serving Size: 4 teaspoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 2 Grams of Fat: 4 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 40 of Carb “Choices”: -

slide 695:

651/870 TOTAL FOR DINNER 60 g Carb 18.5 g Protein 7 g Fat 9.5 g Fiber 360 Calories 3 of Carb “Choices” TOTALS 180 g Carb 80.5 g Protein 44 g Fat 27.5 g Fiber 1400 Calories 11 of Carb “Choices” 51 Carb 23 Protein 28 Fat

slide 696:

652/870 1700-CALORIE MENUS DAY ONE Meal: Breakfast 100 WHOLE WHEAT TOAST Serving Size: 2 slices Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 8 Grams of Fat: 2 Grams of Fiber: 4 TOTAL CALORIES: 100 of Carb “Choices”: 2 BUTTER/MARGARINE SPREAD Serving Size: 1 teaspoon Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 5 Grams of Fiber: 0

slide 697:

653/870 TOTAL CALORIES: 45 of Carb “Choices”: - EGG COOKED WITHOUT FAT Serving Size: 2 large Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 14 Grams of Fat: 10 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 150 of Carb “Choices”: - 1 MILK Serving Size: 8 fluid ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 12 Grams of Protein: 8 Grams of Fat: 2.5 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 130 of Carb “Choices”: 1

slide 698:

654/870 CANTALOUPE CUBED Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR BREAKFAST 57 g Carb 30 g Protein 19.5 g Fat 6 g Fiber 485 Calories 4 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Morning snack RASPBERRIES FRESH OR FROZEN

slide 699:

655/870 Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR MORNING SNACK 15 g Carb 2 g Fiber 60 Calories 1 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Lunch CHICKEN NOODLE SOUP LOW SODIUM Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 15

slide 700:

656/870 Grams of Protein: 6 Grams of Fat: 2 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 90 of Carb “Choices”: 1 SALAD GREENS Serving Size: 2 cups Grams of Carbohydrate: 10 Grams of Protein: 4 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 5 TOTAL CALORIES: 50 of Carb “Choices”: - SLICED TOMATOES Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 2.5 Grams of Protein: 1 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 1

slide 701:

657/870 TOTAL CALORIES: 12 of Carb “Choices”: - SLICED CARROTS Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 2.5 Grams of Protein: 1 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 12 of Carb “Choices”: - SALAD DRESSING Serving Size: 2 tablespoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 10 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 90 of Carb “Choices”: -

slide 702:

658/870 100 WHOLE WHEAT BREAD Serving Size: 1 slice Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 4 Grams of Fat: 1 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 50 of Carb “Choices”: 1 CHEDDAR CHEESE OR OTHER SIMILAR TYPE Serving Size: 1 ounce Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 7 Grams of Fat: 8 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 100 of Carb “Choices”: - TOTAL FOR LUNCH 45 g Carb

slide 703:

659/870 23 g Protein 21 g Fat 10 g Fiber 404 Calories 2 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Afternoon snack NONFAT GREEK YOGURT PLAIN Serving Size: 6 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 12 Grams of Protein: 16 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 120 of Carb “Choices”: 1 BLUEBERRIES FRESH OR FROZEN Serving Size: ¾ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 15

slide 704:

660/870 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR AFTERNOON SNACK 27 g Carb 16 g Protein 2 g Fiber 180 Calories 2 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Dinner BAKED POTATO Serving Size: 1 med. 5 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 3 Grams of Fat: 0

slide 705:

661/870 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 130 of Carb “Choices”: 2 CHEDDAR CHEESE SHREDDED Serving Size: 1 ounce Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 7 Grams of Fat: 8 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 100 of Carb “Choices”: - GRILLED CHICKEN WITH HERBS Serving Size: 3 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 21 Grams of Fat: 9 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 165 of Carb “Choices”: -

slide 706:

662/870 STEAMED CARROTS Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 10 Grams of Protein: 4 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 6 TOTAL CALORIES: 50 of Carb “Choices”: - GREEN GRAPES Serving Size: 17 grapes Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR DINNER 55 g Carb 35 g Protein

slide 707:

663/870 17 g Fat 11 g Fiber 505 Calories 3 of Carb “Choices” TOTALS 199 g Carb 104 g Protein 57.5 g Fat 31 g Fiber 1634 Calories 12 of Carb “Choices” 48 Carb 25 Protein 32 Fat

slide 708:

664/870 1700-CALORIE MENUS DAY TWO Meal: Breakfast OLD-FASHIONED OATS COOK IN WATER Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 5 Grams of Fat: 3 Grams of Fiber: 5 TOTAL CALORIES: 150 of Carb “Choices”: 2 BANANA MASHED IN OATMEAL Serving Size: 1 small Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0

slide 709:

665/870 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 WALNUTS SHELLED HALVED Serving Size: 12 halves Grams of Carbohydrate: 4 Grams of Protein: 4 Grams of Fat: 16 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 160 of Carb “Choices”: - SKIM MILK Serving Size: 8 fluid ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 12 Grams of Protein: 8 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 90 of Carb “Choices”: 1

slide 710:

666/870 TOTAL FOR BREAKFAST 61 g Carb 17 g Protein 19 g Fat 10 g Fiber 460 Calories 4 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Morning snack PINEAPPLE CUBED Serving Size: ¾ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR MORNING SNACK

slide 711:

667/870 15 g Carb 2 g Fiber 60 Calories 1 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Lunch PITA BREAD POCKET WHOLE WHEAT Serving Size: 6-inch piece Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 6 Grams of Fat: 2 Grams of Fiber: 5 TOTAL CALORIES: 170 of Carb “Choices”: 2 HUMMUS Serving Size: 2 tablespoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 4

slide 712:

668/870 Grams of Protein: 2 Grams of Fat: 3 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 45 of Carb “Choices”: - ROASTED TURKEY BREAST Serving Size: 2 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 14 Grams of Fat: 1 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 75 of Carb “Choices”: - LETTUCE Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 3 Grams of Protein: 1 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2

slide 713:

669/870 TOTAL CALORIES: 13 of Carb “Choices”: - SLICED TOMATO Serving Size: 3 ½-inch thick Grams of Carbohydrate: 3 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 15 of Carb “Choices”: - APPLE Serving Size: 1 small Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1

slide 714:

670/870 TOTAL FOR LUNCH 55 g Carb 23 g Protein 6 g Fat 12 g Fiber 378 Calories 3 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Afternoon snack LOW-FAT CHEDDAR CHEESE Serving Size: 2 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 14 Grams of Fat: 4 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 100 of Carb “Choices”: - WHOLE WHEAT CRACKERS

slide 715:

671/870 Serving Size: 5 Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 3 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 80 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR AFTERNOON SNACK 15 g Carb 17 g Protein 4 g Fat 2 g Fiber 180 Calories 1 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Dinner SALMON Serving Size: 4 ounces

slide 716:

672/870 Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 28 Grams of Fat: 12 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 220 of Carb “Choices”: - OLIVE OIL Serving Size: 2 teaspoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 7 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: - ROASTED CARROTS Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 5 Grams of Protein: 2 Grams of Fat: 0

slide 717:

673/870 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 25 of Carb “Choices”: - STEAMED BROCCOLI Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 5 Grams of Protein: 2 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 25 of Carb “Choices”: - CHEDDAR CHEESE Serving Size: 1 ounce Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 7 Grams of Fat: 8 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 100 of Carb “Choices”: -

slide 718:

674/870 BROWN RICE Serving Size: cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 6 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 4 TOTAL CALORIES: 160 of Carb “Choices”: 2 TOTAL FOR DINNER 40 g Carb 45 g Protein 27 g Fat 10 g Fiber 590 Calories 2 of Carb “Choices” TOTALS 186 g Carb 102 g Protein 56 g Fat

slide 719:

675/870 36 g Fiber 1668 Calories 11 of Carb “Choices” 45 Carb 24 Protein 30 Fat

slide 720:

676/870 1700-CALORIE MENUS DAY THREE Meal: Breakfast BRAN FLAKES Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 4 Grams of Fat: 1 Grams of Fiber: 7 TOTAL CALORIES: 160 of Carb “Choices”: 2 RAISINS Serving Size: 2 tablespoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 1

slide 721:

677/870 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 1 MILK Serving Size: 8 fluid ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 12 Grams of Protein: 8 Grams of Fat: 2.5 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 130 of Carb “Choices”: 1 ALMONDS UNSALTED ROASTED Serving Size: 12 almonds Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 4 Grams of Fat: 10 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 90 of Carb “Choices”: -

slide 722:

678/870 TOTAL FOR BREAKFAST 57 g Carb 16 g Protein 13.5 g Fat 10 g Fiber 440 Calories 4 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Morning snack STRAWBERRIES WHOLE FRESH Serving Size: 1¼ cups Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR MORNING SNACK

slide 723:

679/870 15 g Carb 0 g Protein 0 g Fat 3 g Fiber 60 Calories 1 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Lunch 100 WHOLE WHEAT BREAD Serving Size: 2 slices Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 8 Grams of Fat: 2 Grams of Fiber: 4 TOTAL CALORIES: 100 of Carb “Choices”: 2 TUNA CANNED IN WATER Serving Size: 3 ounces

slide 724:

680/870 Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 21 Grams of Fat: 2 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 105 of Carb “Choices”: - OLIVE OIL MAYONNAISE Serving Size: 2 tablespoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 1 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 10 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 100 of Carb “Choices”: - LETTUCE Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 3 Grams of Protein: 1 Grams of Fat: 0

slide 725:

681/870 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 13 of Carb “Choices”: - SLICED TOMATO Serving Size: 3 ½-inch thick Grams of Carbohydrate: 3 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 15 of Carb “Choices”: - APPLE Serving Size: 1 small Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1

slide 726:

682/870 TOTAL FOR LUNCH 51 g Carb 30 g Protein 19 g Fat 10 g Fiber 428 Calories 3 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Afternoon snack NONFAT GREEK YOGURT FRUIT FLAVORED Serving Size: 6 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 20 Grams of Protein: 14 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 140 of Carb “Choices”: 1

slide 727:

683/870 TOTAL FOR AFTERNOON SNACK 20 g Carb 14 g Protein 140 Calories about 1 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Dinner TURKEY BEAN CHILI Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 25 Grams of Protein: 16 Grams of Fat: 3 Grams of Fiber: 6 TOTAL CALORIES: 193 of Carb “Choices”: 2 BROWN RICE Serving Size: cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 30

slide 728:

684/870 Grams of Protein: 6 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 4 TOTAL CALORIES: 160 of Carb “Choices”: 2 PEPPER JACK CHEESE Serving Size: 2 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 10 Grams of Fat: 16 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 216 of Carb “Choices”: - SALAD GREENS Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 5 Grams of Protein: 2 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2

slide 729:

685/870 TOTAL CALORIES: 25 of Carb “Choices”: - SLICED TOMATOES Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 2.5 Grams of Protein: 1 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 12 of Carb “Choices”: - SLICED CARROTS Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 2.5 Grams of Protein: 1 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 12 of Carb “Choices”: -

slide 730:

686/870 SALAD DRESSING Serving Size: 2 tablespoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 10 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 90 of Carb “Choices”: - TOTAL FOR DINNER 65 g Carb 36 g Protein 29 g Fat 14 g Fiber 708 Calories 4 of Carb “Choices” TOTALS 208 g Carb 96 g Protein 61.5 g Fat

slide 731:

687/870 37 g Fiber 1776 Calories 13 of Carb “Choices” 47 Carb 22 Protein 31 Fat

slide 732:

688/870 2000-CALORIE MENUS DAY ONE Meal: Breakfast WHOLE WHEAT ENGLISH MUFFIN Serving Size: 1 whole Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 5 Grams of Fat: 1 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 130 of Carb “Choices”: 2 PEANUT BUTTER Serving Size: 2 tablespoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 8 Grams of Protein: 7 Grams of Fat: 16 Grams of Fiber: 2

slide 733:

689/870 TOTAL CALORIES: 190 of Carb “Choices”: - EGGS SCRAMBLED Serving Size: 2 Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 14 Grams of Fat: 10 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 150 of Carb “Choices”: - BANANA Serving Size: 1 small Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1

slide 734:

690/870 TOTAL FOR BREAKFAST 53 g Carb 26 g Protein 27 g Fat 8 g Fiber 530 Calories 3 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Morning snack CHERRIES FRESH Serving Size: 24 Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 5 TOTAL CALORIES: 120 of Carb “Choices”: 2 TOTAL FOR MORNING SNACK

slide 735:

691/870 30 g Carb 5 g Fiber 120 Calories 2 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Lunch GRILLED CHEESE SANDWICH: 100 WHOLE WHEAT BREAD Serving Size: 2 slices Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 8 Grams of Fat: 2 Grams of Fiber: 4 TOTAL CALORIES: 100 of Carb “Choices”: 2 AMERICAN CHEESE 2 MILK FAT Serving Size: 2 slices Grams of Carbohydrate: 4

slide 736:

692/870 Grams of Protein: 8 Grams of Fat: 5 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 100 of Carb “Choices”: - SALAD GREENS Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 5 Grams of Protein: 2 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 25 of Carb “Choices”: - SLICED TOMATOES Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 2.5 Grams of Protein: 1 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 1

slide 737:

693/870 TOTAL CALORIES: 12.5 of Carb “Choices”: - SLICED CARROTS Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 2.5 Grams of Protein: 1 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 12.5 of Carb “Choices”: - BEANS GARBANZO Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 21 Grams of Protein: 8 Grams of Fat: 1 Grams of Fiber: 8 TOTAL CALORIES: 115 of Carb “Choices”: 1

slide 738:

694/870 SALAD DRESSING Serving Size: 2 tablespoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 10 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 90 of Carb “Choices”: - TOTAL FOR LUNCH 65 g Carb 28 g Protein 18 g Fat 16 g Fiber 455 Calories 3 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Afternoon snack

slide 739:

695/870 NONFAT GREEK YOGURT FRUIT FLAVORED Serving Size: 6 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 20 Grams of Protein: 14 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 140 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR AFTERNOON SNACK 20 g Carb 14 g Protein 140 Calories 1 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Dinner BAKED SWORDFISH LEMON HERB SEASONING

slide 740:

696/870 Serving Size: 4 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 30 Grams of Fat: 6 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 175 of Carb “Choices”: - BREAD CRUMBS Serving Size: ¼ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 20 Grams of Protein: 3 Grams of Fat: 1 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 100 of Carb “Choices”: about 1 OLIVE OIL Serving Size: 2 teaspoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 0

slide 741:

697/870 Grams of Fat: 7 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: - BAKED SWEET POTATO Serving Size: 1 medium Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 2 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 4 TOTAL CALORIES: 120 of Carb “Choices”: 2 OLIVE OIL/BUTTER SPREAD Serving Size: 1 tablespoon Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 7 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 60

slide 742:

698/870 of Carb “Choices”: - STEAMED ASPARAGUS Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 10 Grams of Protein: 4 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 50 of Carb “Choices”: - TOTAL FOR DINNER 60 g Carb 39 g Protein 21 g Fat 8 g Fiber 565 Calories 3 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Evening snack

slide 743:

699/870 ALMONDS UNSALTED ROASTED Serving Size: 6 almonds Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 2 Grams of Fat: 5 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 45 of Carb “Choices”: - GRAPES Serving Size: 17 grapes Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR Evening snack 15 g Carb 2 g Protein

slide 744:

700/870 5 g Fat 3 g Fiber 105 Calories 1 of Carb “Choices” TOTALS 243 g Carb 109 g Protein 71 g Fat 40 g Fiber 1915 Calories 13 of Carb “Choices” TOTALS 50 Carb 23 Protein 33 Fat

slide 745:

701/870 2000-CALORIE MENUS DAY TWO Meal: Breakfast WHOLE WHEAT WAFFLES Serving Size: 2 Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 5 Grams of Fat: 6 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 170 of Carb “Choices”: 2 PEANUT BUTTER Serving Size: 2 tablespoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 8 Grams of Protein: 7 Grams of Fat: 16 Grams of Fiber: 2

slide 746:

702/870 TOTAL CALORIES: 190 of Carb “Choices”: - BANANA SLICED TOP OF WAFFLES Serving Size: 1 small Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 1 MILK Serving Size: 8 fluid ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 12 Grams of Protein: 8 Grams of Fat: 2.5 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 130 of Carb “Choices”: 1

slide 747:

703/870 TOTAL FOR BREAKFAST 65 g Carb 20 g Protein 24.5 g Fat 8 g Fiber 550 Calories 4 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Morning snack RASPBERRIES Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 BLUEBERRIES

slide 748:

704/870 Serving Size: ¾ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR MORNING SNACK 30 g Carb 6 g Fiber 120 Calories 2 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Lunch SHRIMP Serving Size: 3 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 21

slide 749:

705/870 Grams of Fat: 2 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 105 of Carb “Choices”: - STIR-FRIED VEGETABLES Serving Size: 1 cup cooked Grams of Carbohydrate: 10 Grams of Protein: 4 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 50 of Carb “Choices”: - OLIVE OIL Serving Size: 2 teaspoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 7 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 60

slide 750:

706/870 of Carb “Choices”: - TERIYAKI SAUCE REDUCED SODIUM Serving Size: 2 tablespoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 6 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 1 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 30 of Carb “Choices”: - BROWN RICE Serving Size: cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 6 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 5 TOTAL CALORIES: 160 of Carb “Choices”: 2

slide 751:

707/870 ORANGE Serving Size: 1 small Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR LUNCH 61 g Carb 31 g Protein 10 g Fat 10 g Fiber 465 Calories 3 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Afternoon snack WHOLE WHEAT CRACKERS

slide 752:

708/870 Serving Size: 5 Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 3 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 80 of Carb “Choices”: 1 CHEDDAR CHEESE Serving Size: 1 ounce Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 7 Grams of Fat: 9 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 115 of Carb “Choices”: - TOTAL FOR AFTERNOON SNACK 15 g Carb 10 g Protein 9 g Fat

slide 753:

709/870 2 g Fiber 195 Calories 1 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Dinner WHOLE WHEAT PASTA COOKED Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 45 Grams of Protein: 8 Grams of Fat: 1 Grams of Fiber: 4 TOTAL CALORIES: 200 of Carb “Choices”: 3 TOMATO SAUCE NO SUGAR ADDED Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 5 Grams of Protein: 4

slide 754:

710/870 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 4 TOTAL CALORIES: 25 of Carb “Choices”: - MEATBALLS Serving Size: 3 one ounce each Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 21 Grams of Fat: 15 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 225 of Carb “Choices”: - PARMESAN CHEESE Serving Size: 2 teaspoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 1 Grams of Fat: 2 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 20

slide 755:

711/870 of Carb “Choices”: - STEAMED BROCCOLI Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 10 Grams of Protein: 4 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 50 of Carb “Choices”: - TOTAL FOR DINNER 60 g Carb 36 g Protein 18 g Fat 11 g Fiber 520 Calories 3 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Evening snack

slide 756:

712/870 PLUMS Serving Size: 2 small Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 4 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 MIXED NUTS ROASTED NO SALT ADDED Serving Size: 2 tablespoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 4 Grams of Protein: 3 Grams of Fat: 10 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 110 of Carb “Choices”: - TOTAL FOR EVENING SNACK 19 g Carb

slide 757:

713/870 3 g Protein 10 g Fat 6 g Fiber 170 Calories 1 of Carb “Choices” TOTALS 250 g Carb 100 g Protein 71.5 g Fat 43 g Fiber 2020 Calories 14 of Carb “Choices” 49 Carb 20 Protein 32 Fat

slide 758:

714/870 2000-CALORIE MENUS DAY THREE Meal: Breakfast SHREDDED WHEAT CEREAL Serving Size: 1 cup 2 biscuits Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 5 Grams of Fat: 1 Grams of Fiber: 6 TOTAL CALORIES: 160 of Carb “Choices”: 2 1 MILK Serving Size: 8 fluid ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 12 Grams of Protein: 8 Grams of Fat: 2.5 Grams of Fiber: 0

slide 759:

715/870 TOTAL CALORIES: 130 of Carb “Choices”: 1 BLUEBERRIES FRESH OR FROZEN Serving Size: ¾ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 EGG HARD-BOILED Serving Size: 1 large Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 7 Grams of Fat: 5 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 75 of Carb “Choices”: 0

slide 760:

716/870 TOTAL FOR BREAKFAST 57 g Carb 20 g Protein 8.5 g Fat 9 g Fiber 425 Calories 4 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Morning snack APPLE Serving Size: 1 small Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 PEANUT BUTTER

slide 761:

717/870 Serving Size: 2 tablespoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 8 Grams of Protein: 7 Grams of Fat: 16 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 190 of Carb “Choices”: - TOTAL FOR MORNING SNACK 23 g Carb 7 g Protein 16 g Fat 4 g Fiber 60 Calories 1 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Lunch PITA BREAD POCKET WHOLE WHEAT

slide 762:

718/870 Serving Size: 6-inch piece Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 6 Grams of Fat: 2 Grams of Fiber: 5 TOTAL CALORIES: 170 of Carb “Choices”: 2 HUMMUS Serving Size: 2 tablespoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 4 Grams of Protein: 2 Grams of Fat: 3 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 45 of Carb “Choices”: - ROASTED TURKEY BREAST Serving Size: 2 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 14

slide 763:

719/870 Grams of Fat: 1 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 75 of Carb “Choices”: - CHEDDAR CHEESE Serving Size: 1 ounce Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 7 Grams of Fat: 9 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 115 of Carb “Choices”: - LETTUCE Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 3 Grams of Protein: 1 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 13

slide 764:

720/870 of Carb “Choices”: - SLICED TOMATO Serving Size: 3 ½-inch thick Grams of Carbohydrate: 3 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 15 of Carb “Choices”: - APRICOT Serving Size: 1 small Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1

slide 765:

721/870 TOTAL FOR LUNCH 60 g Carb 30 g Protein 15 g Fat 12 g Fiber 493 Calories 3 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Afternoon snack NONFAT GREEK YOGURT PLAIN Serving Size: 6 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 13 Grams of Protein: 16 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 120 of Carb “Choices”: 1 BLACKBERRIES

slide 766:

722/870 Serving Size: ¾ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR AFTERNOON SNACK 28 g Carb 16 g Protein 3 g Fiber 180 Calories 2 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Dinner SIRLOIN STEAK GRILLED Serving Size: 4 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 0

slide 767:

723/870 Grams of Protein: 21 Grams of Fat: 9 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 165 of Carb “Choices”: - BAKED POTATO Serving Size: 1 med. 5 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 3 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 130 of Carb “Choices”: 2 OLIVE OIL/BUTTER SPREAD Serving Size: 1 tablespoon Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 7 Grams of Fiber: 0

slide 768:

724/870 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: - ROASTED BRUSSELS SPROUTS Serving Size: 1 cup cooked Grams of Carbohydrate: 10 Grams of Protein: 4 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 55 of Carb “Choices”: - ROASTED CARROTS Serving Size: 1 cup cooked Grams of Carbohydrate: 10 Grams of Protein: 4 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 55 of Carb “Choices”: -

slide 769:

725/870 OLIVE OIL Serving Size: 2 teaspoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 7 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: - TOTAL FOR DINNER 50 g Carb 32 g Protein 23 g Fat 9 g Fiber 525 Calories 2 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Evening snack POPCORN AIR POPPED

slide 770:

726/870 Serving Size: 3 cups Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 2 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 45 of Carb “Choices”: 1 BUTTER/MARGARINE SPREAD Serving Size: 2 teaspoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 10 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 90 of Carb “Choices”: - SUGAR Serving Size: 1 teaspoon Grams of Carbohydrate: 4 Grams of Protein: 0

slide 771:

727/870 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 16 of Carb “Choices”: - CINNAMON Serving Size: dash Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 0 of Carb “Choices”: - TOTAL FOR EVENING SNACK 19 g Carb 2 g Protein 5 g Fat 2 g Fiber 106 Calories 1 of Carb “Choices”

slide 772:

728/870 TOTALS 237 g Carb 107 g Protein 72.5 g Fat 39 g Fiber 2024 Calories 13 of Carb “Choices” 47 Carb 21 Protein 32 Fat

slide 773:

729/870 2300-CALORIE MENUS DAY ONE Meal: Breakfast MULTIGRAIN BAGEL Serving Size: ½ bagel Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 6 Grams of Fat: 3 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 165 of Carb “Choices”: 2 ALMOND BUTTER Serving Size: ½ 1 tablespoon Grams of Carbohydrate: 3 Grams of Protein: 2 Grams of Fat: 10 Grams of Fiber: 1

slide 774:

730/870 TOTAL CALORIES: 100 of Carb “Choices”: - STRAWBERRIES WHOLE Serving Size: ½ 1¼ cups Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 NONFAT GREEK YOGURT PLAIN Serving Size: 6 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 13 Grams of Protein: 16 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 120 of Carb “Choices”: 1

slide 775:

731/870 EGGS HARD BOILED Serving Size: 2 Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 12 Grams of Fat: 10 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 150 of Carb “Choices”: - TOTAL FOR BREAKFAST 61 g Carb 36 g Protein 23 g Fat 7 g Fiber 595 Calories 4 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Morning snack TANGERINES SMALL

slide 776:

732/870 Serving Size: 2 Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR MORNING SNACK 15 g carb 3 g Fiber 60 Calories 1 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Lunch WHOLE WHEAT TORTILLA WRAP Serving Size: 2 6-inch wraps Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 4

slide 777:

733/870 Grams of Fat: 2 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 160 of Carb “Choices”: 2 TUNA CANNED IN WATER Serving Size: 5 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 35 Grams of Fat: 3 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 175 of Carb “Choices”: - MAYONNAISE Serving Size: 2 tablespoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 1 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 10 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 100

slide 778:

734/870 of Carb “Choices”: - LETTUCE Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 3 Grams of Protein: 1 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 13 of Carb “Choices”: - SLICED TOMATO Serving Size: 3 ½-inch thick Grams of Carbohydrate: 3 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 15 of Carb “Choices”: -

slide 779:

735/870 AVOCADO SLICED Serving Size: cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 4 Grams of Protein: 1 Grams of Fat: 7 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 80 of Carb “Choices”: - GRAPES Serving Size: 17 grapes Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR LUNCH 56 g Carb 41 g Protein

slide 780:

736/870 22 g Fat 11 g Fiber 603 Calories 3 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Afternoon snack LOW-FAT COTTAGE CHEESE HERB FLAVORED Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 6 Grams of Protein: 28 Grams of Fat: 2 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 160 of Carb “Choices”: - MULTIGRAIN CRACKERS Serving Size: 10 Grams of Carbohydrate: 30

slide 781:

737/870 Grams of Protein: 6 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 4 TOTAL CALORIES: 160 of Carb “Choices”: 2 TOTAL FOR AFTERNOON SNACK 36 g Carb 34 g Protein 2 g Fat 4 g Fiber 320 Calories 2 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Dinner PORK TENDERLOIN ROASTED SEASONED WITH GARLIC ROSEMARY THYME Serving Size: 4 ounces

slide 782:

738/870 Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 28 Grams of Fat: 12 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 220 of Carb “Choices”: - ROASTED PEAR Serving Size: ½ large Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 ROASTED POTATOES Serving Size: 2 3 ounces each Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 6 Grams of Fat: 0

slide 783:

739/870 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 160 of Carb “Choices”: 2 OLIVE OIL Serving Size: 1 tablespoon Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 14 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 120 of Carb “Choices”: - STEAMED ASPARAGUS Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 10 Grams of Protein: 4 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 50 of Carb “Choices”: -

slide 784:

740/870 TOTAL FOR DINNER 55 g Carb 38 g Protein 26 g Fat 9 g Fiber 610 Calories 3 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Evening snack BLUEBERRIES FRESH OR FROZEN Serving Size: ¾ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 GRANOLA

slide 785:

741/870 Serving Size: ¼ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 3 Grams of Fat: 5 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 125 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR EVENING SNACK 30 g Carb 3 g Protein 5 g Fat 5 g Fiber 185 Calories 2 of Carb “Choices” TOTALS 253 g Carb 152 g Protein 78 g Fat 39 g Fiber

slide 786:

742/870 2373 Calories 15 44 26 30

slide 787:

743/870 2300-CALORIE MENUS DAY TWO Meal: Breakfast BRAN FLAKES Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 4 Grams of Fat: 1 Grams of Fiber: 7 TOTAL CALORIES: 160 of Carb “Choices”: 2 ALMOND BUTTER Serving Size: 2 tablespoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0

slide 788:

744/870 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 1 MILK Serving Size: 8 fluid ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 12 Grams of Protein: 8 Grams of Fat: 2.5 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 130 of Carb “Choices”: 1 CANADIAN BACON Serving Size: 2 slices Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 12 Grams of Fat: 4 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 90 of Carb “Choices”: -

slide 789:

745/870 EGG SCRAMBLED Serving Size: 1 large Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 6 Grams of Fat: 5 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 75 of Carb “Choices”: - TOTAL FOR BREAKFAST 57 g Carb 30 g Protein 12.5 g Fat 8 g Fiber 515 Calories 4 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Morning snack GRAPEFRUIT

slide 790:

746/870 Serving Size: 1 large Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 120 of Carb “Choices”: 2 TOTAL FOR MORNING SNACK 30 g Carb 3 g Fiber 120 Calories 2 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Lunch CHICKEN NOODLE SOUP Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 8

slide 791:

747/870 Grams of Fat: 3 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 120 of Carb “Choices”: 1 GRILLED CHEESE TOMATO SANDWICH 100 WHOLE WHEAT BREAD Serving Size: 2 slices Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 8 Grams of Fat: 2 Grams of Fiber: 4 TOTAL CALORIES: 100 of Carb “Choices”: 2 SLICED TOMATO Serving Size: 3 ½-inch thick Grams of Carbohydrate: 3

slide 792:

748/870 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 15 of Carb “Choices”: - 2 AMERICAN CHEESE Serving Size: 2 slices Grams of Carbohydrate: 4 Grams of Protein: 8 Grams of Fat: 5 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 100 of Carb “Choices”: - FRUIT SALAD Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3

slide 793:

749/870 TOTAL CALORIES: 120 of Carb “Choices”: - TOTAL FOR LUNCH 82 g Carb 24 g Protein 10 g Fat 10 g Fiber 455 Calories 3 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Afternoon snack 100 WHOLE WHEAT BREAD Serving Size: 1 slice Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 3 Grams of Fat: 1 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 80

slide 794:

750/870 of Carb “Choices”: 1 PEANUT BUTTER Serving Size: 2 tablespoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 8 Grams of Protein: 7 Grams of Fat: 16 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 190 of Carb “Choices”: - BANANA Serving Size: 1 small Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1

slide 795:

751/870 TOTAL FOR AFTERNOON SNACK 38 g Carb 10 g Protein 17 g Fat 8 g Fiber 330 Calories 2 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Dinner GROUND TURKEY Serving Size: 4 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 28 Grams of Fat: 3 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 140 of Carb “Choices”: -

slide 796:

752/870 TACO SEASONING REDUCED SODIUM Serving Size: 1 tablespoon Grams of Carbohydrate: 5 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 20 of Carb “Choices”: - CORN TORTILLA Serving Size: 3 6" across Grams of Carbohydrate: 45 Grams of Protein: 9 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 6 TOTAL CALORIES: 320 of Carb “Choices”: 3 SALSA Serving Size: ¼ cup

slide 797:

753/870 Grams of Carbohydrate: 5 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 20 of Carb “Choices”: - LETTUCE Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 2.5 Grams of Protein: 1 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 1.5 TOTAL CALORIES: 12.5 of Carb “Choices”: - TOMATO DICED Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 2.5 Grams of Protein: 1 Grams of Fat: 0

slide 798:

754/870 Grams of Fiber: 1.5 TOTAL CALORIES: 12.5 of Carb “Choices”: - CHEDDAR CHEESE SHREDDED Serving Size: 1 ounce Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 7 Grams of Fat: 8 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 100 of Carb “Choices”: - REFRIED BEANS Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 7 Grams of Fat: 2 Grams of Fiber: 7 TOTAL CALORIES: 120 of Carb “Choices”: 1

slide 799:

755/870 TOTAL FOR DINNER 75 g Carb 53 g Protein 13 g Fat 17 g Fiber 745 Calories 4 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Evening snack POPCORN AIR POPPED Serving Size: 3 cups Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 4 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 4 TOTAL CALORIES: 90 of Carb “Choices”: 1 BUTTER/MARGARINE SPREAD

slide 800:

756/870 Serving Size: 2 teaspoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 10 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 90 of Carb “Choices”: - TOTAL FOR EVENING SNACK 15 g Carb 4 g Protein 10 g Fat 4 g Fiber 180 Calories 1 of Carb “Choices” TOTALS 297 g Carb 121 g Protein 62.5 g Fat 50 g Fiber

slide 801:

757/870 2345 Calories 16 51 22 25

slide 802:

758/870 2300-CALORIE MENUS DAY THREE Meal: Breakfast SMOOTHIE: SOY MILK UNFLAVORED Serving Size: 8 fluid ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 8 Grams of Protein: 6 Grams of Fat: 4 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 90 of Carb “Choices”: ½ BLUEBERRIES FROZEN Serving Size: ¾

slide 803:

759/870 Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 NONFAT GREEK YOGURT PLAIN Serving Size: 6 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 13 Grams of Protein: 16 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 120 of Carb “Choices”: 1 BANANA Serving Size: 1 small Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0

slide 804:

760/870 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 MANGO CUBES Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 GROUND FLAXSEED MEAL Serving Size: 2 tablespoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 4 Grams of Protein: 3 Grams of Fat: 6 Grams of Fiber: 4 TOTAL CALORIES: 80 of Carb “Choices”: -

slide 805:

761/870 TOTAL FOR BREAKFAST 70 g Carb 25 g Protein 10 g Fat 14 g Fiber 470 Calories 4.5 Meal: Morning snack Apple Serving Size: 1 small Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR MORNING SNACK

slide 806:

762/870 15 g Carb 3 g Fiber 60 Calories 1 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Lunch THIN-CRUST CHEESE PIZZA Serving Size: ¼ of 12-inch pie Grams of Carbohydrate: 30 Grams of Protein: 10 Grams of Fat: 7.5 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 178 of Carb “Choices”: 1 BEANS Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 8

slide 807:

763/870 Grams of Fat: 1 Grams of Fiber: 8 TOTAL CALORIES: 115 of Carb “Choices”: 1 SALAD GREENS Serving Size: 2 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 10 Grams of Protein: 4 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 5 TOTAL CALORIES: 50 of Carb “Choices”: 1 SLICED TOMATOES Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 2.5 Grams of Protein: 1 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 12

slide 808:

764/870 of Carb “Choices”: - DRIED CRANBERRIES Serving Size: 1 tablespoon Grams of Carbohydrate: 7 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: - TOTAL CALORIES: 30 of Carb “Choices”: ½ SUNFLOWER SEEDS Serving Size: 4 tablespoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 8 Grams of Protein: 6 Grams of Fat: 16 Grams of Fiber: 2 TOTAL CALORIES: 180 of Carb “Choices”: -

slide 809:

765/870 SLICED CARROTS Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 2.5 Grams of Protein: 1 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 1 TOTAL CALORIES: 12 of Carb “Choices”: - SALAD DRESSING Serving Size: 2 tablespoons Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 10 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 90 of Carb “Choices”: - TOTAL FOR LUNCH 75 g Carb 30 g Protein

slide 810:

766/870 34.5 g Fat 18 g Fiber 697 Calories 3.5 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Afternoon snack STRING CHEESE Serving Size: 2 one-ounce sticks Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 16 Grams of Fat: 10 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 160 of Carb “Choices”: - TANGERINE Serving Size: 2 small Grams of Carbohydrate: 15 Grams of Protein: 0

slide 811:

767/870 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 60 of Carb “Choices”: 1 TOTAL FOR AFTERNOON SNACK 15 g Carb 16 g Protein 10 g Fat 3 g Fiber 220 Calories 1 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Dinner SALMON HERB SEASONING Serving Size: 4 ounces Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 28 Grams of Fat: 12

slide 812:

768/870 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 220 of Carb “Choices”: - OLIVE OIL Serving Size: 1 tablespoon Grams of Carbohydrate: 0 Grams of Protein: 0 Grams of Fat: 12 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 120 of Carb “Choices”: - ROASTED CARROTS Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 5 Grams of Protein: 2 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 25 of Carb “Choices”: -

slide 813:

769/870 ROASTED BRUSSELS SPROUTS Serving Size: ½ cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 5 Grams of Protein: 2 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 3 TOTAL CALORIES: 25 of Carb “Choices”: - BROWN RICE Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 45 Grams of Protein: 6 Grams of Fat: 2 Grams of Fiber: 4 TOTAL CALORIES: 215 of Carb “Choices”: 3 TOTAL FOR DINNER 55 g Carb 38 g Protein

slide 814:

770/870 26 g Fat 10 g Fiber 605 Calories 3 of Carb “Choices” Meal: Evening snack LOW-FAT COTTAGE CHEESE HERB FLAVORED Serving Size: 1 cup Grams of Carbohydrate: 6 Grams of Protein: 28 Grams of Fat: 2 Grams of Fiber: 0 TOTAL CALORIES: 160 of Carb “Choices”: - MULTIGRAIN CRACKERS Serving Size: 10 Grams of Carbohydrate: 30

slide 815:

771/870 Grams of Protein: 6 Grams of Fat: 0 Grams of Fiber: 4 TOTAL CALORIES: 160 of Carb “Choices”: 2 TOTAL FOR EVENING SNACK 36 g Carb 34 g Protein 2 g Fat 4 g Fiber 320 Calories 2 of Carb “Choices” TOTALS 265 g Carb 143 g Protein 82.5 g Fat 52 g Fiber 2372 Calories 15

slide 816:

772/870 45 24 31

slide 817:

Appendix 2: Food Journal Keeping a food journal is a scientifically proven way to stay attuned to how you’re eating and help you stick with your goals. Try making a commitment to track the times you eat or drink what you had how much the grams of carb per portion and how hungry you were on a scale of 1 to 10 1 being “not hungry” 10 being “starved”. Remem- ber eating when your hunger is a 5 or 6 increases the odds of being able to con- trol your portions.

slide 818:

774/870

slide 819:

Resources Diabetes and Prediabetes Complete Guide to Carb Counting: How to Take the Mystery Out of Carb Counting and Improve Your Blood Glucose Control by Hope S. Warshaw and Karmeen Kulkarni Alexandria VA: American Diabetes Association 2011 Diabetes Weight Loss Week by Week: A Safe Effective Method for Losing Weight and Improving Your Health by Jill Weisenberger Alexandria VA: American Diabetes Association 2012

slide 820:

776/870 Eat What You Love Love What You Eat with Diabetes: A Mindful Eating Pro- gram for Thriving with Prediabetes or Diabetes by Megrette Fletcher and Michelle May Oakland CA: New Harbinger Publications 2012 The Everything Guide to Managing and Reversing Pre-diabetes by Gretchen Scalpi Avon MA: Adams Me- dia 2010 “Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load for 100+ Foods” www.health.harvard.edu/newsweek/ Glycem- ic_in- dex_and_glycem- ic_load_for_100_foods.htm Provides information about how foods affect blood sugar and insulin. The

slide 821:

777/870 lower a food’s glycemic index or glycem- ic load the less it affects blood sugar and insulin levels. Dining Out Eat Out Healthy by Joanne “Dr. Jo” Lichten Fort Lauderdale FL: Nutrifit Publishing 2012 What to Eat When You’re Eating Out: What to Eat in America’s Most Popular Chain Restaurants by Hope Warshaw Alexandria VA: Small Steps Press American Diabetes Association 2009 Mindful Eating Intuitive Eating: A Revolutionary Pro- gram That Works 3rd edition by Evelyn Tribole and Elyse Resch New York: St. Martin’s Griffin 2012

slide 822:

778/870 Center for Mindful Eating www.tcme.org A forum for people interested in devel- oping deepening and understanding the value and importance of mindful eating. General Nutrition and Healthy Eating Cholesterol Down: 10 Simple Steps to Lower Your cholesterol in 4 Weeks—Without Prescription Drugs by Janet Brill New York: Crown/Three Rivers Press 2006 The DASH Diet Action Plan: Proven to Boost Weight Loss and Improve Health by Marla Heller New York: Grand Central Life Style 2011

slide 823:

779/870 101 Foods That Could Save Your Life by David W. Grotto New York: Bantam 2010 Center for Science in the Public Interest www.cspinet.org Award-winning website of the Nutrition Action Healthletter a terrific resource for keeping up on what is happening in the field of nutrition and health. ChooseMyPlate US Department of Agriculture www.ChooseMyPlate.gov Offers numerous free tools to help you plan analyze and track your diet and physical activity. Cooking Light www.cookinglight.com

slide 824:

780/870 The website of the highly respected Cooking Light magazine provides thou- sands of free recipes tested by profes- sionals and registered dietitians to meet stringent nutritional requirements and high flavor standards. Eating Well www.eatingwell.com The website of Eating Well magazine provides thousands of beautifully presented and healthful recipes. Eat Right: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics www.eatright.org This public information center provides extensive food and nutrition resources for consumers.

slide 825:

781/870 Epicurious www.epicurious.com/recipesmenus/ healthy/recipes The healthy recipes section of Epicuri- ous.com—a website dedicated to re- cipes cooking drinking entertaining and restaurants—offers some great choices. Fruits Veggies: More Matters www.fruitsandveggiesmorematters.org Great resource for learning how to in- corporate more fruits and vegetables in- to your diet. Full of practical tips. World’s Healthiest Foods www.whfoods.com This foodie website offers extensive in- formation on the benefits of eating healthy foods along with a compre- hensive database describing the

slide 826:

782/870 nutritional benefits of hundreds of foods and how to select store and pre- pare them. Also provides scientific study citations to support information. Tools for Tracking Food Activity and Goals Calorie King www.calorieking.com Comprehensive website with a food database containing nutritional inform- ation for most American generic and brand-name foods. Endomondo www.endomondo.com Track your workouts and set up exercise challenges with other connected friends. Apps available for Apple Android and Blackberry smartphones.

slide 827:

783/870 Fooducate: Eat a Bit Better www.fooducate.com Offers a smartphone app for scanning food bar codes that rates foods and in- dicates healthier alternatives. Good Measures www.goodmeasures.com Good Measures is a web and smartphone-based nutrition system that allows users to track food and physical activity and receive real-time feedback on how to best meet their nu- trition and health goals. Lose It www.loseit.com Apple and Android smartphone app that tracks calories and exercise allow- ing users to set up individualized weight-loss plans.

slide 828:

784/870 My Fitness Pal www.myfitnesspal.com Website and app for Apple and Android smartphones for tracking food and activity. Members can connect with each other to form a “fitness community.” Nutrition Facts and Calorie Counter www.nutritiondata.com Provides complete nutrition informa- tion for foods and helps you select foods that best match your dietary needs. Of- fers a smartphone app as well. Reference Websites Consumer Lab www.consumerlab.com A terrific resource for deciding on qual- ity dietary supplement and herbal

slide 829:

785/870 products. The Consumer Lab tests and reviews a variety of supplements re- ports findings on content and quality and then rates them as approved or dis- approved for use. Small annual fee required. Glycemic Index and International GI Database www.glycemicindex.com The official website of the glycemic in- dex and GI database which is based in the Human Nutrition Unit School of Molecular Biosciences at the University of Sydney.

slide 830:

Notes Introduction 1. National Diabetes Education Pro- gram “The Link Between Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease” February 2007 online at ht- tp://ndep.nih.gov/media/ CVD_FactSheet.pdf. 2. F. B. Hu J. E. Manson M. J. Stampfer G. Colditz S. Liu C. G. Solomon and W. C. Willett “Diet Lifestyle and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Women” New England Journal of Medicine 345

slide 831:

787/870 no. 11 2001: 790–97 online at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 11556298dopt. This is also known as the Harvard Nurse’s Health study. 3. Standards of Medical Care in Dia- betes–2013 American Diabetes As- sociation http://care.diabetes- journals.org/content/36/Supple- ment_1/S11.full. Chapter 1 1. “National Diabetes Prevention Pro- gram Summary” Centers for Disease Control 2012 online at www.cdc.gov/diabetes/prevention/ newsroom/overview.htm. 2. David M. Nathan Mayer B. David- son Ralph A. DeFronzo Robert J. Heine Robert R. Henry Richard

slide 832:

788/870 Pratley and Bernard Zinman “Im- paired Fasting Glucose and Im- paired Glucose Tolerance Implica- tions for Care” Diabetes Care 30 no. 3 March 2007: 753–59 online at ht- tp://m.care.diabetesjournals.org/ content/30/3/753.full. 3. “Diabetes Statistics” data from the 2011 National Diabetes Fact Sheet released January 26 2011 online at www.diabetes.org/diabetes- basics/diabetes-statistics. 4. “Number in Millions of Civilian Noninstitutionalized Persons with Diagnosed Diabetes United States 1980–2011.” Centers for Disease Control online at www.cdc.gov/ diabetes/Statistics/prev/national/ figpersons.htm.

slide 833:

789/870 5. “Prediabetes Among People Aged 20 Years or Older United States 2010” data from the 2011 National Diabetes Fact Sheet online at www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/es- timates11.htm7. 6. “Nutrition and the Health of Young People” Centers for Disease Con- trol online at www.cdc.gov/ HealthyYouth/Nutrition/pdf/ facts.pdf. 7. William H. Herman “The Econom- ic Costs of Diabetes” Diabetes Care 36 no. 4 April 2013: 1033–46. 8. “National Defense Budget Estim- ates for FY 2012” Office of the Undersecretary of Defense March 2011 online at ht- tp://comptroller.defense.gov/def- budget/fy2012/ FY12_Green_Book.pdf.

slide 834:

790/870 9. “Number of Americans with Dia- betes Projected to Double or Triple by 2050” press release October 22 2010 online at www.cdc.gov/ media/pressrel/2010/ r101022.html. 10. “Genetics and Diabetes: What’s Your Risk” Joslin Diabetes Center online at www.joslin.org/info/ge- netics_and_diabetes.html. 11. Gerald Reaven “Insulin Resistance: A Chicken That Has Come to Roost” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 892 Novem- ber 1999: 45–57. 12. “Simple Steps to Preventing Dia- betes” Harvard School of Public Health online at www.hsph.har- vard.edu/nutritionsource/diabetes- prevention/preventing-diabetes- full-story/index.html.

slide 835:

791/870 13. F. B. Hu J. E. Manson M. J. Stampfer G. Colditz S. Liu C. G. Solomon and W. C. Willett “Diet Lifestyle and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Women” New England Journal of Medicine 345 no. 11 2001: 790–97 online at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 11556298dopt. 14. D. Mozaffarian “Lifestyle Risk Factors and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus in Older Adults: The Car- diovascular Health Study” Archives of Internal Medicine 169 no. 8 2009: 798–807. 15. “Diabetes Overview” US Depart- ment of Health and Human Ser- vices National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases NIDDK online at

slide 836:

792/870 http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/ pubs/overview. 16. Mitchell A. Lazar “How Obesity Causes Cancer: Not a Tall Tale” online at www.med.upenn.edu/laz- arlab/Pubs_pdf/laz- ar20science_2005.pdf. 17. G. Hu “Physical Activity Body Mass Index and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Patients with Normal or Impaired Glucose Regulation” Archives of Internal Medicine 164 April 26 2004: 892–6. 18. C. Y. Jeon “Physical Activity of Moderate Intensity and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes” Diabetes Care 30 no. 3 March 2007: 744–52. 19. Ibid. 20. Hsin-Chieh Yeh “Smoking Smoking Cessation and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus” Annals

slide 837:

793/870 of Internal Medicine 152 no. 1 January 2010:10–17. 21. L. A. Bazzano “Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes by Diet and Lifestyle Modification” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 24 no. 5 2005: 310–19. 22. Ibid. 23. www.diabetes.org/food-and-fit- ness/food/what-can-I-eat-carbo- hydrates.html. 24. “What Is the Effect of Saturated Fat Intake on Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Disease or Type 2 Diabetes” USDA Nutrition Evid- ence Library online at www.nutri- tionevidencelibrary.com/evid- ence.cfmevid- ence_summary_id250189. 25. Haitao Wen Denis Gris Yu Lei Sushmita Jha Lu Zhang Max Tze-

slide 838:

794/870 Han Huang Willie June Brickey and Jenny P-Y Ting “Fatty Acid– Induced NLRP3-ASC Inflam- masome Activation Interferes with Insulin Signaling” Nature Immun- ology online at www.nature.com/ ni/journal/v12/n5/full/ ni.2022.html. 26. V. S. Malik “Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis” Diabetes Care 33 no. 11 November 2010: 2477–83. 27. Lawrence de Koning Vasanti S. Malik Eric B. Rimm Walter C. Willett and Frank B. Hu “Sugar- Sweetened and Artificially Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men” American Journal of Clinic- al Nutrition 93 no. 6 June 2011:

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795/870 1321–27 online at www.ajcn.org/ content/93/6/1321.full.pdf+html. 28. Ibid. 29. Charles M. Alexander Pamela B. Landsman Steven M. Teutsch and Steven M. Haffner “NCEP-Defined Metabolic Syndrome Diabetes and Prevalence of Coronary Heart Disease Among NHANES III Parti- cipants Age 50 Years and Older” Diabetes 52 no. 5 May 2003: 1210–14 online at ht- tp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/ content/52/5/1210.full. 30. “About Metabolic Syndrome” American Heart Association online at www.heart.org/HEARTORG/ Conditions/More/ MetabolicSyndrome/About- Metabolic-Syn- drome_UCM_301920_Article.jsp.

slide 840:

796/870 31. Third Report of the National cho- lesterol Education Program NCEP online at www.nhlbi.nih.gov/cgibin/ searchqcache:M6yAVuqva- j0J:www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/ cholesterol/atp3full.pd- f+waist+hip+ratio+metabolic+syn- drome+siteNHLBI_Publiccli- entNHLBI_Public_fron- tendproxystylesheetNHLBI_Public_f tendout- putxml_no_dtdoeISO-8859-1ieI cessp. 32. Scott M. Grundy “Does a Diagnos- is of Metabolic Syndrome Have Value in Clinical Practice” Americ- an Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83 no. 6 June 2006: 1248–51 online at www.ajcn.org/content/ 83/6/1248.full.

slide 841:

797/870 33. S. Mottillo “The Metabolic Syn- drome and Cardiovascular Risk: A Systemic Review and Meta-analys- is” Journal of the American Col- lege of Cardiology 56 no. 14 September 2010: 1113–32 online at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 20863953. 34. “Who Is at Risk for Metabolic Syn- drome” National Heart Lung and Blood Institute online at www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health- topics/topics/ms/atrisk.html. 35. “What About Diabetes in Asian Americans Am I at Risk” Joslin Diabetes Center online at ht- tp://aadi.joslin.org/content/ diabetes-asians-asian-americans. 36. Chee-Eng Tan Stefan Ma Daniel Wai Suok-Kai Chew and E.-Shy- ong Tai “Can We Apply the

slide 842:

798/870 National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel Definition of the Metabolic Syn- drome to Asians” Diabetes Care 27 no. 5 May 2004: 1182–86 on- line at ht- tp://care.diabetesjournals.org/con- tent/27/5/1182.full.pdf+html. 37. “Why Do People of Asian Decent Get Diabetes” Joslin Diabetes Center online at ht- tp://aadi.joslin.org/content/asian/ why-are-asians-higher-risk- diabetes. 38. “Does PCOS Put Women at Risk for Other Health Problems” US Dept. of Health and Human Ser- vices Office on Women’s Health data from Polycystic Ovary Syn- drome Fact Sheet online at www.womenshealth.gov/

slide 843:

799/870 publications/our-publications/fact- sheet/polycystic-ovary-syn- drome.cfmj. 39. Helen Mason “Polycystic Ovary Syndrome PCOS Trilogy: A Translation and Clinical Review” Clinical Endocrinology 69 no. 6 2008: 831–44. 40. S. Grundy “Prediabetes Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 59 no. 7 2012: 635–43 and S. Milman J. Crandall et al. “Mechanisms of Vascular Complications in Predia- betes” Medical Clinics of North America 95 no. 2 March 2011: 309–25 vii. 41. S. Oriz-Filho et al. “Prediabetes Brain Aging and Cognition” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta

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800/870 1792 no. 5 May 2009: 432–43 online at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/19135149. 42. B. Arcidiacono “Insulin Resistance and Cancer Risk: An Overview of the Pathogenetic Mechanisms” Ex- perimental Diabetes Research Vol. 2012: 1–12 online at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/art- icles/PMC3372318. 43. E. Giovannucci “Diabetes and Cancer: A Consensus Report” Dia- betes Care 33 no. 7 July 2010: 1674–85. 44. Dariush Mozaffarian Aruna Kam- ineni Mercedes Carnethon Luc Djoussé Kenneth J. Mukamal and David Siscovick “Lifestyle Risk Factors and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus in Older Adults: The Car- diovascular Health Study”

slide 845:

801/870 Archives of Internal Medicine 169 no. 8 2009: 798–807 online at http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/ art- icle.as- pxvolume169is- sue8page798ref-ioi80218-2 and “Lifestyle Factors Related to Risk of Diabetes Among Older Adults” Medical News Today April 29 2009 online at www.medicalnewstoday.com/re- leases/148008.php. 45. “Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus Management: Standards of Medical Care” American Diabetes Associ- ation 2013 online at ht- tp://care.diabetesjournals.org/con- tent/36/Supplement_1/S11.full.

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802/870 Chapter 2 1. Gerald Reaven “Insulin Resistance: A Chicken That Has Come to Roost” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 892 Novem- ber 1999: 45–57. 2. “Living with Diabetes: What Is a Normal Non-fasting Blood Sugar Level” American Diabetes Associ- ation online at www.diabetes.org/ living-with-diabetes/treatment- and-care/ask-the-expert/ask-the- pharmacist/archives/what-is-a- normal-non-fasting.html. 3. “Insulin Resistance and Predia- betes” National Diabetes Informa- tion Clearing House online at ht- tp://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/DM/ pubs/insulinresistance. 4. Ibid.

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803/870 5. Eric Westman “Is Dietary Carbo- hydrate Essential for Human Health” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 75 no. 5 May 2002: 951–53. 6. Gerald Reaven “The Metabolic Syndrome: Is a Diagnosis Neces- sary” American Journal of Clinic- al Nutrition 84 no. 5 November 2006: 1237–47. 7. W. C. Knowler “Reduction in the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes with Lifestyle Intervention or Metform- in” New England Journal of Medi- cine 346 no. 6 February 7 2002: 393–403. 8. The findings of the Finnish Dia- betes Prevention Study are pub- lished in J. Tuomilehto “Preven- tion of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Changes in Lifestyle Among

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804/870 Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance” New England Journal of Medicine 344 no. 18 May 3 2001: 1343–50. 9. The findings of the Diabetes Pre- vention Program are published in W. Knowler et al. “Reduction in the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes with Lifestyle Intervention or Met- formin” New England Journal of Medicine 346 no. 6 February 7 2002: 393–403. 10. L. Perrault “Effect of Regression from Prediabetes to Normal Gluc- ose Regulation on Long-Term Re- duction in Diabetes Risk: Results from the Diabetes Prevention Pro- gram Outcomes Study” Lancet 379 no. 9833 June 16 2012: 2243–51.

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805/870 11. Diabetes Prevention Program Re- search Group “Ten-Year Follow- Up of Diabetes Incidence and Weight Loss in the Diabetes Pre- vention Program Outcomes Study” Lancet 374 no. 9702 November 14 2009: 1677–86. 12. T. J. Orchard “Long-Term Effects of the Diabetes Prevention Pro- gram Interventions on Cardiovas- cular Risk Factors: A Report from the DPP Outcomes Study” Diabetic Medicine 30 no. 1 January 2013: 46–55. Chapter 3 1. “What We Eat in America: NHANES 2009-2010 National Health and Examination Survey” National Center for Health

slide 850:

806/870 Statistics Centers for Disease Control. 2. Hodan Farah Wells and Jean C. Buzby “Dietary Assessment of Ma- jor Trends in US Food Consump- tion 1970–2005” US Department of Agriculture online at www.ers.usda.gov/media/210681/ eib33_1_.pdf. 3. R. Johnson “Dietary Sugar Intake and Cardiovascular Health: A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association” Cir- culation 120 2009: 1011–20. 4. J. Welsh Andrea J. Sharma Lisa Grellinger and Miriam B. Vos “Consumption of Added Sugars Is Decreasing in the United States” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 94 no. 3 September 2011: 726–34 online at

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807/870 http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/ 94/3/726.abstract. 5. “Dietary Guidelines for Americ- ans” 2010 US Department of Agri- culture US Department of Health and Human Services online at www.cnpp.usda.gov/publications/ dietaryguidelines/2010/policydoc/ policydoc.pdf. 6. R. Post “Dietary Fiber for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mel- litus: A Meta-analysis” Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 25 no. 1 January– February 2012: 16–23. 7. E. Theuwissen and R. P. Mensink “Water Soluble Dietary Fibers and Cardiovascular Disease” Physiology and Behavior 94 no. 2 May 2008: 285–92 online at

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808/870 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 18302966. Chapter 4 1. “The New American Plate” Americ- an Institute for Cancer Research online at www.aicr.org/new- american-plate and “Healthy Eat- ing Plate” Harvard School of Public Health online at www.hsph.harvard.edu/ nutritionsource/healthy-eating- plate. Chapter 5 1. “SuperTracker” US Department of Agriculture online at ht- tps://www.choosemyplate.gov/ SuperTracker.

slide 853:

809/870 2. “Calorie Counter Calculator” American Cancer Society online at www.cancer.org/healthy/toolsand- calculators/calculators/app/ calorie-counter-calculator. 3. “Adult Weight Management Determination of Resting Metabol- ic Rate” Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Library online at www.adaevid- encelibrary.com/tem- plate.cfmtemplateguide_sum- marykey621 and Mark D. Muffin Sachiko T. St. Jeor et al. “A New Predictive Equation for Resting Energy Expenditure in Healthy Individuals” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51 no. 2 February 1990: 241–47 on- line at www.ajcn.org/content/51/2/ 241.long and J. R. Dobratz S. D. Sibley T. R. Beckman B. J.

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810/870 Valentine T. A. Kellogg S. Ikra- muddin and C. P. Earthman “Pre- dicting Energy Expenditure in Ex- tremely Obese Women” Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 31 no. 3 May–June 2007: 217–27 online at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 17463148. 4. “Human Energy Requirements: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation Rome” Octo- ber 17–24 2001 online at ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/007/ y5686e/y5686e00.pdf. 5. Brian Wansink Mindless Eating: Why We Eat More Than We Think New York: Bantam 2007. 6. Richard J. Schrot “Targeting Plasma Glucose: Preprandial Versus Postprandial” Clinical

slide 855:

811/870 Diabetes 22 no. 4 October 2004: 169–72 online at ht- tp://clinical.diabetesjournals.org/ content/22/4/169.full.pdf+html. 7. “Choose Your Foods: Exchange Lists for Diabetes” American Dia- betes Association online at www.shopdiabetes.org/ 176-Choose-Your-Foods-Exchange- Lists-for-Diabetes-Singles.aspx. Chapter 6 1. “Choose Your Foods: Exchange Lists for Diabetes” American Dia- betes Association online at www.shopdiabetes.org/ 176-Choose-Your-Foods-Exchange- Lists-for-Diabetes-Singles.aspx. 2. B. Farmer B. T. Larson V. L. Ful- goni 3rd A. J. Rainville and G. U.

slide 856:

812/870 Liepa “A Vegetarian Dietary Pat- tern as a Nutrient-Dense Approach to Weight Management: An Analys- is of the National Health and Nutri- tion Examination Survey 1999–2004” Journal of the Amer- ican Dietetic Association 111 no. 6 June 2011: 819–27 online at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 21616194. 3. “Carbohydrates” American Dia- betes Association online at www.diabetes.org/food-and-fit- ness/food/what-can-i-eat/carbo- hydrates.html. 4. “Choose Your Foods: Exchange Lists for Diabetes” American Dia- betes Association and American Di- etetic Association online at ht- tp://www.shopdiabetes.org/

slide 857:

813/870 176-Choose-Your-Foods-Exchange- Lists-for-Diabetes-Singles.aspx. Chapter 7 1. M. Garaulet P. Gómez-Abellán J. J. Alburquerque-Béjar Y. C. Lee J. M. Ordovás and F. A. Scheer “Timing of Food Intake Predicts Weight Loss Effectiveness” Inter- national Journal of Obesity Lon- don January 29 2013 online at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmedterminternationa20- journal20of20obesity20s- cheer. 2. Ibid.

slide 858:

814/870 Chapter 8 1. “Nutrition Recommendations and Interventions for Diabetes: A Posi- tion Statement of the American Diabetes Association” Diabetes Care online at http://care.dia- betesjournals.org/content/31/Sup- plement_1/S61.long. 2. “Diabetes Mellitus in Adults: Standards of Medical Care 2012” American Diabetes Association on- line at ht- tp://care.diabetesjournals.org/con- tent/35/Supplement_1/S11.extract. 3. Cara B. Ebbeling Michael M. Lei- dig Henry A. Feldman Margaret M. Lovesky and David S. Ludwig “Effects of a Low-Glycemic Load vs. Low-Fat Diet in Obese Young Adults: A Randomized Trial” Journal of the American Medical

slide 859:

815/870 Association 297 no. 19 2007: 2092–102 online at ht- tp://jama.jamanetwork.com/art- icle.aspxarticleid207088. 4. L. G. Ogden et al. “Cluster Analysis of the National Weight Control Re- gistry to Identify Distinct Sub- groups Maintaining Successful Weight Loss” Obesity April 3 2012 doi: 10.1038/oby.2012.79. 5. S. Phelan “Are the Eating and Ex- ercise Habits of Successful Weight Losers Changing” Obesity 14 2006: 710–16. 6. Rena R. Wing Deborah F. Tate Amy A. Gorin Hollie A. Raynor and Joseph L. Fava “A Self-Regu- lation Program for Maintenance of Weight Loss” New England Journal of Medicine 355 2006:

slide 860:

816/870 1563–71 online at www.nejm.org/ doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa061883. 7. F. M. Sacks “Comparison of Weight-Loss Diets with Different Compositions of Fat Protein and Carbohydrates” New England Journal of Medicine 360 no. 9 February 2009: 859–73. 8. D. Paddon-Jones “Protein Weight Management and Satiety” Amer- ican Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87 May 2008: 1558S–1561S. 9. D. K. Layman “A Reduced Ratio of Dietary Carbohydrate to Protein Improves Body Composition and Blood Lipid Profiles During Weight Loss in Adult Women” Journal of Nutrition 133 February 2003: 411–17. 10. M. Garaulet “Timing of Food In- take Predicts Weight Loss

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817/870 Effectiveness” International Journal of Obesity 37 April 2013: 604–611 online at www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v37/ n4/full/ijo2012229a.html. 11. James Prochaska Changing for Good New York: William Morrow 2007 and “Detailed Overview of the Transtheoretical Model” Can- cer Prevention Research Center online at www.uri.edu/research/ cprc/TTM/detailedoverview.htm. Chapter 9 1. Data from the 2011 National Dia- betes Fact Sheet released January 26 2011 American Diabetes Asso- ciation online at www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/ diabetes-statistics.

slide 862:

818/870 2. “About Metabolic Syndrome” American Heart Association online at www.heart.org/HEARTORG/ Conditions/More/ MetabolicSyndrome/About- Metabolic-Syn- drome_UCM_301920_Article.jsp. 3. “What Your cholesterol Levels Mean” American Heart Associ- ation online at www.heart.org/ HEARTORG/Conditions/choles- terol/Aboutcholesterol/What- Your-cholesterol-Levels- Mean_UCM_305562_Article.jsp. 4. “Understanding Blood Pressure Readings” American Heart Associ- ation online at www.heart.org/ HEARTORG/Conditions/ HighBloodPressure/ AboutHighBloodPressure/ Understanding-Blood-Pressure-

slide 863:

819/870 Read- ings_UCM_301764_Article.jsp. 5. “Prediabetes Facts” American Dia- betes Association online at www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/ prevention/pre-diabetes/pre- diabetes-faqs.html. 6. “Your Guide to Lowering Your Blood Pressure with DASH” Na- tional Heart Lung and Blood In- stitute online at www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/ heart/hbp/dash/new_dash.pdf. Chapter 10 1. V. A. Hughes “Exercise Increases Muscle GLUT-4 Levels and Insulin Action in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance” American

slide 864:

820/870 Journal of Physiology 264 no. 6 part 1 June 1993: E855–62. 2. S. A. Dugan et al. “Physical Activ- ity and Reduced Intra-Abdominal Fat in Midlife African American and White Women” Obesity 18 no. 6 June 2010: 1260–65. 3. “Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General” CDC online at www.cdc.gov/ NCCDPHP/SGR/summ.htm. 4. J. Tuomilehto “Nonpharmacologic Therapy and Exercise in the Pre- vention of Type 2 Diabetes” Dia- betes Care 32 suppl. 2 November 2009: S 189–93. 5. Stephen K. Malin Robert Gerber Stuart R. Chipkin and Barry Braun “Independent and Com- bined Effects of Exercise Training and Metformin on Insulin

slide 865:

821/870 Sensitivity in Individuals with Pre- diabetes” Diabetes Care 35 no. 1 January 2012: 131–36 online at http://care.diabetesjournals.org/ content/35/1/131.long. 6. F. Orio “Metabolic and Cardiopul- monary Effect of Detraining After a Structured Exercise Training Pro- gramme in Young PCOS Women” Clinical Endocrinology 68 2008: 976–81. 7. N. King “Beneficial Effects of Exer- cise: Shifting the Focus from Body Weight to Other Markers of Health” British Journal of Sports Medicine September 29 2009 on- line at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/termBeneficial+Effect- s+Of+of+Exercise3A+Shift- ing+The+the+Focus+From+- from+Body+Weight+To+to+Other+Mar

slide 866:

822/870 8. “Physical Activity and Public Health: Updated Recommendation for Adults from Guidelines” Amer- ican College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association Circulation 116 2007: 1081–93 online at ht- tp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/ 116/9/1081.full.pdf. 9. “Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans” US Department of Health and Human Services online at www.health.gov/paguidelines. Chapter 11 1 Jia-Yi Dong “Magnesium Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Meta- analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies” Diabetes Care 34 no. 9 September 2011: 2116–22 online

slide 867:

823/870 at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/art- icles/PMC3161260. 2. “Institute of Medicine Dietary Re- ference Intakes DRIs” Food and Nutrition Board Institute of Medi- cine National Academies online at http://iom.edu/Activities/Nutri- tion/SummaryDRIs//media/ Files/Activity20Files/Nutrition/ DRIs/RDA20and20AIs_Vitam- in20and20Elements.pdf. 3. “Dietary Fact Sheet: Magnesium” National Institutes of Health on- line at http://ods.od.nih.gov/ factsheets/Magnesium- HealthProfessional. 4. A. A. Ginde “Demographic Differ- ences and Trends of Vitamin D In- sufficiency in the US Population 1988–2004” Archives of Internal

slide 868:

824/870 Medicine 169 no. 6 March 23 2009: 626–32. 5. R. Zhang “Vitamin D in Health and Disease: Current Perspectives” Nutrition Journal 9 December 8 2010: 65 online at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/art- icles/PMC3019131. 6. M. F. Holick “Vitamin D: A D- Lightful Health Perspective” Nutrition Review 66 no. 10 suppl 2 October 2008: S182–94 on- line at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmedtermVitam- in20D3A20a20D-Light- ful20he- lath20perspective20holick. 7. Chih-Chien Sung Min-Tser Liao Kuo-Cheng Lu and Chia-Chao Wu “Role of Vitamin D in Insulin Resistance” Journal of

slide 869:

825/870 Biomedicine and Biotechnology 2012 online only at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/art- icles/PMC3440067. 8. Nishan S. Kalupahana Kate J. Claycombe and Naima Moustaid- Moussa “n-3 Fatty Acids Allevi- ate Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance: Mechanist- ic Insights” Advances in Nutrition 2 no. 4 July 2011: 304–16 online at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/art- icles/PMC3125680. 9. “Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database: Scientific Gold Standard for Evidence-Based Clinical In- formation on Natural Medicines” October 2012 www.naturaldata- base.com. 10. “Dietary Reference Intakes DRIs” Food and Nutrition Board

slide 870:

826/870 Institute of Medicine National Academies online at ht- tp://iom.edu/Activities/Nutrition/ SummaryDRIs//media/Files/ Activity20Files/Nutrition/DRIs/ RDA20and20AIs_Vitam- in20and20Elements.pdf. 11. “Chromium Toxicity: What Is Chro- mium” Agency for Toxic Sub- stances and Disease Registry ATSDR US Department of Health and Human Services online at www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/ csem.aspcsem10po4. 12. M. J. Leach and S. Kumar “Cinna- mon for Diabetes Mellitus” Co- chrane Database of Systematic Reviews September 12 2012 on- line at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/22972104 and T. Lu H. Sheng J. Wu Y. Cheng J. Zhu and

slide 871:

827/870 Y. Chen “Cinnamon Extract Im- proves Fasting Blood Glucose and Glycosylated Hemoglobin Level in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Dia- betes” Nutrition Research 32 no. 6 June 2012: 408–12. Chapter 12 1. “How to Understand and Use the Nutrition Facts Label” Food and Drug Administration online at www.fda.gov/food/ingredient- spackaginglabeling/labelingnutri- tion/ucm274593.htm m. 2. “Food Nutrition Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective—Animal Foods” American Institute for Cancer Research online at www.di- etandcancerreport.org/

slide 872:

828/870 expert_report/recommendations/ recommenda- tion_animal_foods.php.

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About the Author Hillary Wright is a registered and li- censed dietitian with more than two decades of experience counseling clients on diet and lifestyle change. She holds a bachelor’s degree in human nutrition from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and a master’s of education in health education from Boston University. Hillary is the director of nutrition counseling for the Domar Center for Mind/Body Health in Waltham Mas- sachusetts where she specializes in dia- betes prevention and women’s health is- sues. She is the author of The PCOS Diet

slide 874:

Plan: A Natural Approach to Health for Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. She is also a nutrition writer speaker and consultant to industry and health- related organizations including the nu- trition logging system GoodMeas- ures.com and has been quoted widely in national media. She holds a part-time position as a nutritionist for the Dana Farber CancerInstitute in Boston coun- seling patients during cancer treatment as well as cancer survivors through the Adult Survivorship Clinic. Visit www.prediabetesdietbook.com. 830/870

slide 875:

Index Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Acesulfame-K ACSM American College of Sports Medicine ADA. See American Diabetes Association ALA alpha-linolenic acid Alcohol 6.1 13.1 Almond milk Alpha-linolenic acid ALA American Cancer Society American College of Endocrinology

slide 876:

832/870 American College of Sports Medicine ACSM American Diabetes Association ADA blood glucose guidelines from 5.1 9.1 exchange lists 5.1 6.1 6.2 app1.1 fiber recommendation by 1.1 6.1 prediabetes screening and American Heart Association 1.1 3.1 9.1 9.2 American Institute for Cancer Research Anxiety 10.1 14.1 Artificial sweeteners Aspartame Atkins diet 3.1 5.1 Attitude adjusting 8.1 15.1 Bagels 6.1 12.1 Balanced-plate approach

slide 877:

833/870 benefits of dairy products in for dinner 7.1 7.2 fats in focus of fruits in methods similar to protein in simplicity of starches in vegetables in Basal metabolic rate BMR Beans 3.1 6.1 6.2 6.3 Beef on meat and meat substitutes list at restaurants shopping for sliced

slide 878:

834/870 Beverages on the free foods exchange list at restaurants shopping for sugar-sweetened on the sweets exchange list Blood glucose levels cinnamon and factors affecting fasting 1.1 9.1 high 1.1 2.1 insulin resistance and low nonfasting postmeal Blood pressure 9.1 9.2 9.3 BMI body mass index BMR basal metabolic rate

slide 879:

835/870 Bread products cravings for labels for portion control and shopping for on the starch exchange list Breakfast adding plant foods to carb counting and in the prediabetes diet plan Burgers Calories average daily consumption of from carbohydrates estimating from fat on food labels

slide 880:

836/870 Candy Carbohydrate counting basic principles for calculating carb budget for for combination foods diabetes and exchange lists and food labels and meal planning and 5.1 6.1 portion control and 5.1 6.1 See also Exchange lists Carbohydrates calories from cravings for diets low in 3.1 3.2 3.3 5.1 digestion rate of distributing throughout day “empty calorie”

slide 881:

837/870 glycemic index and glycemic load “good” 3.1 3.2 prediabetes and recommendations for refined total on food labels weight loss and 8.1 8.2 See also Carbohydrate counting Cardiovascular disease diabetes and 1.1 9.1 insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome and reducing risk of Cardiovascular Health Study Centers for Disease Control CDC 1.1 3.1 3.2 Cereals 6.1 12.1 Changes

slide 882:

838/870 dietary emotions and mind-set for small 2.1 15.1 stages of strategies for 8.1 15.1 Cheese 6.1 12.1 Chicken on meat and meat substitutes list at restaurants shopping for sliced Children diabetes in 1.1 1.2 Cholesterol 9.1 10.1 12.1 ChooseMyPlate.gov 3.1 4.1 5.1 Chromium picolinate Cigarette smoking Cinnamon

slide 883:

839/870 Cold cuts Combination foods Condiments 6.1 6.2 Cookies 6.1 13.1 Crackers cravings for serving size for shopping for on the starch exchange list Cravings DASH diet Depression 10.1 10.2 14.1 Desserts exchange list for 6.1 6.2 restaurants shopping for DHA docosahexaenoic acid

slide 884:

840/870 Diabetes carbohydrate counting and cardiovascular disease and as cause of death causes of 1.1 1.2 in children 1.1 1.2 complications from itr.1 1.1 1.2 diagnosing 1.1 1.2 early-onset economic impact of ethnicity and gender and genetic predisposition to obesity and 1.1 8.1 prevalence of 1.1 1.2 1.3 2.1 preventing itr.1 1.1 2.1 2.2 quality of life and risk factors for

slide 885:

841/870 symptoms of type 1 vs. type 2 Diabetes Prevention Program DPP Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study DPPOS Diets Atkins 3.1 5.1 DASH failure of highly structured low-carb 3.1 3.2 3.3 5.1 low-fat See also Prediabetes diet plan Weight loss Dining out Dinner adding plant foods to carb counting and

slide 886:

842/870 in the prediabetes diet plan Docosahexaenoic acid DHA Doughnuts DPP Diabetes Prevention Program DPPOS Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study Eggs Eicosapentaenoic acid EPA 80/20 rule 4.1 6.1 8.1 14.1 Emotions managing 8.1 14.1 English muffins 6.1 12.1 EPA eicosapentaenoic acid Exchange lists from the American Diabetes Associ- ation 5.1 6.1 6.2 app1.1 carb counting and for fats 6.1 6.2

slide 887:

843/870 for free foods 6.1 6.2 for fruits 6.1 6.2 for meat and meat substitutes for milk 6.1 6.2 for nonstarchy vegetables 6.1 6.2 portion control and for starches for sweets desserts and other carbs 6.1 6.2 Exercise benefits of 10.1 10.2 14.1 diabetes and guidelines for intensity of 10.1 10.2 personal trainers and time for weight loss and 8.1 10.1

slide 888:

844/870 Expectations managing 8.1 14.1 15.1 Fast food 13.1 13.2 Fasting plasma glucose FPG test 1.1 9.1 Fats in the balanced-plate approach calories from diets low in exchange list for 6.1 6.2 healthy vs. bad 3.1 6.1 monounsaturated 6.1 6.2 polyunsaturated 6.1 6.2 saturated 1.1 6.1 6.2 12.1 shopping for total on food labels trans 1.1 3.1 12.1 weight loss and

slide 889:

845/870 FDA Food and Drug Administration 11.1 12.1 Fiber in beans benefits of carbohydrate counting and daily intake of 1.1 3.1 definition of diabetes and on food labels sources of Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study Fish on meat and meat substitutes list 6.1 6.2 omega-3 fats in at restaurants shopping for

slide 890:

846/870 Fletcher Anne M. Food and Drug Administration FDA 11.1 12.1 Food journal keeping 8.1 15.1 app2.1 Food labels carb counting and reading FPG fasting plasma glucose test 1.1 9.1 Free foods exchange list for 6.1 6.2 nonstarchy vegetables as 5.1 6.1 6.2 French fries Frozen foods Fruits in the balanced-plate approach eating more exchange list for 6.1 6.2

slide 891:

847/870 in the prediabetes diet plan shopping for Glucose. See also Blood glucose levels GLUT 4 glucose transporter 4 Glycemic index GI Glycemic load GL Glycogen Grains in the prediabetes diet plan on the starch exchange list whole Granola bars 6.1 13.1 Ham Harvard Nurses’ Health Study Harvard School of Public Health HDL cholesterol 9.1 10.1

slide 892:

848/870 Health and Human Services HHS Healthy Eating Plate Heart disease. See Cardiovascular disease Help asking for 8.1 14.1 15.1 Hemoglobin A1C test High fructose corn sweetener HFCS Hill James Hunger managing 8.1 15.1 scale for 8.1 8.2 app2.1 Hydrogenated fats. See Trans fats Hyperglycemia 1.1 1.2 2.1 Hypertension 9.1 9.2 Hypoglycemia IGF-I insulin-like growth factor I Inflammation

slide 893:

849/870 Insulin blood glucose levels and 2.1 3.1 complex actions of glucose storage and receptors See also Insulin resistance Insulin resistance blood glucose levels and dangers of 1.1 3.1 definition of diet and 2.1 3.1 effects of evolution and 2.1 2.2 exercise and genetic predisposition to magnesium and metabolic syndrome and PCOS and

slide 894:

850/870 signs of spectrum of Lactose intolerance Lamb on meat and meat substitutes list at restaurants shopping for Lapses dealing with 8.1 8.2 LDL cholesterol 9.1 10.1 Lentils 6.1 6.2 Lipolysis Lunch adding plant foods to carb counting and in the prediabetes diet plan Magnesium Meal planning carbohydrate counting and 5.1 6.1

slide 895:

851/870 sample Meat exchange list for 6.1 6.2 at restaurants shopping for Metabolic syndrome 1.1 1.2 9.1 Metformin 10.1 11.1 Mexican food Mifflin St. Jeor equation Milk in the balanced-plate approach exchange list for 6.1 6.2 in the prediabetes diet plan shopping for Mind-body connection Muffins Multivitamins

slide 896:

852/870 National Health and Nutrition Examin- ation Survey NHANES National Heart Lung and Blood Institute National Institutes of Health NIH 3.1 8.1 National Weight Control Registry NWCR 8.1 10.1 14.1 New American Plate NHANES National Health and Nutri- tion Examination Survey Night overeating at 7.1 8.1 15.1 NIH National Institutes of Health 3.1 8.1 Nut butters as plant-based protein 6.1 6.2 portion control and shopping for Nutrition Facts label

slide 897:

853/870 Nuts on the fats exchange list 6.1 6.2 portion control and 6.1 7.1 shopping for NWCR National Weight Control Re- gistry 8.1 10.1 14.1 Obesity BMI and diabetes and metabolic syndrome and PCOS and as risk factor 8.1 8.2 Oils on the fats exchange list shopping for Omega-3 fats Oral glucose tolerance test OGTT

slide 898:

854/870 Overeating hunger management and 8.1 15.1 at night 7.1 8.1 15.1 Partner talking with Pasta cravings for at restaurants on the starch exchange list Pastries Patience importance of 8.1 15.1 PCOS polycystic ovary syndrome itr.1 1.1 2.1 10.1 Peanut butter 6.1 7.1 12.1 Peas 3.1 6.1 6.2 6.3 Percent daily value on food labels Perfectionism 5.1 15.1 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americ- ans 10.1 10.2

slide 899:

855/870 Pizza 5.1 6.1 13.1 Plant foods eating more as protein sources 6.1 6.2 shopping for Plate size Polycystic ovary syndrome PCOS itr.1 1.1 2.1 10.1 Popcorn 6.1 12.1 Pork on meat and meat substitutes list 6.1 6.2 at restaurants shopping for Portion control carb counting and 5.1 6.1 errors in exchange lists and

slide 900:

856/870 food labels and hunger management and 8.1 15.1 at restaurants weight loss and Potato chips Poultry on meat and meat substitutes list 6.1 6.2 at restaurants shopping for Prediabetes carbohydrates and causes of definition of diagnosing exercise and obesity and prevalence of 1.1 2.1

slide 901:

857/870 progression to diabetes from 1.1 1.2 2.1 reversing 1.1 2.1 2.2 risk factors for supplements for vitamin D and Prediabetes diet plan breakfast in DASH and devising your own dinner in free foods in key tenets of lunch in managing carbs in 3.1 6.1 midafternoon snack in midmorning snack in NWCR recommendations vs.

slide 902:

858/870 plant foods in primary goal of protein and sample meal plans for See also Balanced-plate approach Carbohydrate counting Prehypertension Pretzels 6.1 12.1 Prochaska James Protein in the balanced-plate approach exchange list for 6.1 6.2 on food labels lean sources of prediabetes diet plan and shopping for weight loss and 8.1 8.2

slide 903:

859/870 Puddings 6.1 13.1 Reaven Gerald Restaurants Rice cakes 6.1 12.1 Saccharin Salads for dinner dressing on for lunch at restaurants Saturated fats 1.1 6.1 6.2 12.1 Seafood on meat and meat substitutes list 6.1 6.2 at restaurants shopping for

slide 904:

860/870 Seeds 6.1 12.1 Self-care 8.1 15.1 Serving sizes on food labels See also Portion control Shopping food labels and planning for for plant foods starter list for Shrimp 6.1 12.1 Slow-cookers Smoking Snacks adding plant foods to carb counting and 5.1 6.1 ideas for midafternoon midmorning

slide 905:

861/870 shopping for Sodium 9.1 12.1 Soups Soy milk 6.1 12.1 Spices Starches in the balanced-plate approach definition of digestion of exchange list for 6.1 6.2 experimenting with in the prediabetes diet plan at restaurants in vegetables 3.1 6.1 Stevia STOP Regain program Stress 14.1 14.2 Strokes 1.1 9.1

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862/870 Sucralose Sugars added 3.1 3.2 6.1 average daily consumption of definition of on food labels reduced Supplements Support asking for 8.1 14.1 15.1 Sweeteners artificial Sweets exchange list for 6.1 6.2 in the prediabetes diet plan Tofu TOPS Take Off Pounds Sensibly Tortilla chips 12.1 13.1 Trainers personal

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863/870 Trans fats 1.1 3.1 12.1 Triglycerides 9.1 10.1 Turkey on meat and meat substitutes list at restaurants shopping for sliced US Department of Agriculture USDA 1.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 4.1 5.1 USP Diet Supplement Verification Program Veal on meat and meat substitutes list at restaurants shopping for Vegetables in the balanced-plate approach

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864/870 eating more exchange lists for 6.1 6.2 6.3 nonstarchy 6.1 6.2 at restaurants shopping for starchy 3.1 6.1 Vegetarian entrées ideas for at restaurants shopping for 12.1 12.2 Vitamins B12 D 11.1 11.2 11.3 supplements Weight evaluating monitoring

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865/870 See also Obesity Weight loss Weight loss amount of 8.1 8.2 attitude toward 8.1 8.2 benefits of itr.1 2.1 8.1 8.2 carbohydrates and 8.1 8.2 exercise and 8.1 8.2 10.1 failed approaches to 8.1 8.2 fats and 8.1 8.2 group programs for maintaining 8.1 8.2 8.3 pace of portion control and as a priority 8.1 8.2 15.1 protein and 8.1 8.2 readiness for regaining 8.1 8.2 strategies for 8.1 8.2 15.1

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866/870 Weight Watchers Wing Rena Woods Margo 14.1 14.2 Yogurt 6.1 6.2 12.1

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Also by Hillary Wright

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868/870 The PCOS Diet Plan A Natural Ap- proach to Health for Women with Poly- cystic Ovary Syndrome 18.99 paperback Canada: 20.99

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869/870 ISBN: 978-1-58761-023-3 eBook ISBN: 978-1-58761-364-7 Available from Ten Speed Press wherever books are sold. www.tenspeed.com

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Created by PDF to ePub

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