Diabetes Cookbook For Canadians For Dummies

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Over 100 delicious, easy–to–prepare recipes that will help any food lover manage and live with diabetes Over two million Canadians have diabetes––with 10 percent living with type 1 diabetes, and the remaining type 2 diabetes.

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Learn to: • Manage your diabetes through nutrition • Plan healthful and delicious menus • Prepare quick and tasty dinners • Make delectable diabetes-friendly desserts Ian Blumer MD FRCPC Co-Author of Diabetes For Canadians For Dummies Cynthia Payne RD CDE

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Get More and Do More at Dummies.com ® Start with FREE Cheat Sheets Cheat Sheets include • Checklists • Charts • Common Instructions • And Other Good Stuff To access the Cheat Sheet created specifically for this book go to www.dummies.com/cheatsheet/diabetescookbookforcanadians Get Smart at Dummies.com Dummies.com makes your life easier with 1000s of answers on everything from removing wallpaper to using the latest version of Windows. Check out our • Videos • Illustrated Articles • Step-by-Step Instructions Want a weekly dose of Dummies Sign up for Newsletters on • Digital Photography • Microsoft Windows Office • Personal Finance Investing • Health Wellness • Computing iPods Cell Phones • eBay • Internet • Food Home Garden Find out “HOW” at Dummies.com

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Diabetes Cookbook For Canadians FOR DUMmIES ‰ by Ian Blumer MD FRCPC Cynthia Payne RD CDE Want to Cure Diabetes Click Here

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Diabetes Cookbook For Canadians For Dummies ® Published by John Wiley Sons Canada Ltd 6045 Freemont Boulevard Mississauga Ontario L5R 4J3 www.wiley.com Copyright © 2010 by John Wiley Sons Canada Ltd. Published by John Wiley Sons Canada. Ltd. Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide www.healthcanada.gc.ca/foodguide Health Canada 2007. Reproduced and adapted with the permission of the Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada 2010. All rights reserved. No part of this book including interior design cover design and icons may be repro- duced or transmitted in any form by any means electronic photocopying recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department John Wiley Sons Canada Ltd. 6045 Freemont Blvd. Mississauga ON L5R 4J3 or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions. For authorization to photocopy items for cor- porate personal or educational use please contact in writing The Canadian Copyright Licensing Agency Access Copyright. For more information visit www.accesscopyright.ca or call toll free 1-800-893-5777. Trademarks: Wiley the Wiley Publishing logo For Dummies the Dummies Man logo A Reference for the Rest of Us The Dummies Way Dummies Daily The Fun and Easy Way Dummies.com Making Everything Easier and related trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley Sons Inc. and/or its affiliates in the United States and other countries and may not be used without written permission. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing Inc. is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK ARE INTENDED TO FURTHER GENERAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH UNDERSTANDING AND DISCUSSION ONLY AND ARE NOT INTENDED AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON AS RECOMMENDING OR PROMOTING A SPECIFIC METHOD DIAGNOSIS OR TREATMENT BY PHYSICIANS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PATIENT. THE PUB- LISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A PAR- TICULAR PURPOSE. IN VIEW OF ONGOING RESEARCH EQUIPMENT MODIFICATIONS CHANGES IN GOVERNMENTAL REGULATIONS AND THE CONSTANT FLOW OF INFORMATION RELATING TO THE USE OF MEDICINES EQUIPMENT AND DEVICES THE READER IS URGED TO REVIEW AND EVALUATE THE INFORMATION PROVIDED IN THE PACKAGE INSERT OR INSTRUCTIONS FOR EACH MEDICINE EQUIPMENT OR DEVICE FOR AMONG OTHER THINGS ANY CHANGES IN THE INSTRUCTIONS OR INDICATION OF USAGE AND FOR ADDED WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS. READERS SHOULD CONSULT WITH A SPECIALIST WHERE APPROPRIATE. THE FACT THAT AN ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE IS REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK AS A CITATION AND/OR A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FURTHER INFORMA- TION DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE AUTHOR OR THE PUBLISHER ENDORSES THE INFORMATION THE ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE MAY PROVIDE OR RECOMMENDATIONS IT MAY MAKE. FURTHER READ- ERS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT INTERNET WEBSITES LISTED IN THIS WORK MAY HAVE CHANGED OR DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORK WAS WRITTEN AND WHEN IT IS READ. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY ANY PROMOTIONAL STATEMENTS FOR THIS WORK. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR THE AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES ARISING HEREFROM. For general information on John Wiley Sons Canada Ltd. including all books published by Wiley Publishing Inc. please call our distribution centre at 1-800-567-4797. For reseller information including discounts and premium sales please call our sales department at 416-646-7992. For press review copies author interviews or other publicity information please contact our publicity department Tel. 416-646-4582 Fax 416-236-4448. For technical support please visit www.wiley.com/techsupport. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication Data Blumer Ian Diabetes cookbook for Canadians for dummies / Ian Blumer Cynthia Payne. Also available in electronic formats. ISBN 978-0-470-16028-2 pbk. 1. Diabetes—Diet therapy—Recipes. I. Payne Cynthia II. Title. RC662.B59 2010 616.4’620654 C2010-903847-9 Printed in the United States 1 2 3 4 5 RRD 14 13 12 11 10

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About the Authors Ian Blumer MD FRCPC is a diabetes specialist in the Greater Toronto Area. He has a teaching appointment with the University of Toronto is the medical advisor to the adult program of the Charles H. Best Diabetes Centre in Whitby Ontario and is a member of the Clinical and Scientific Section of the Canadian Diabetes Association CDA where he currently serves as Chair of the Dissemination and Implementation Committee for the 2008 CDA Clinical Practice Guidelines. Dr. Blumer is the author of What Your Doctor Really Thinks Dundurn 1999 and the co-author of Diabetes for Canadians for Dummies now in its second edition Understanding Prescription Drugs For Canadians For Dummies co- written with Dr. Heather McDonald-Blumer and Celiac Disease For Dummies co-written with Dr. Sheila Crowe. He can be found on the Web at www.our diabetes.com. Dr. Blumer would love to get your comments about this book please email him at diabetesianblumer.com. Cynthia Payne RD CDE is a Registered Dietitian and Certified Diabetes Educator. She currently works in the Diabetes Education Clinic at Northumberland Hills Hospital in Cobourg Ontario. Additionally Cynthia has a private nutrition counselling practice at Pharmacy 101 in Cobourg and has worked at Alderville First Nations Health Centre providing nutrition counselling and workshops. Cynthia is a well known and sought-after public speaker to professional and lay audiences and a former nutrition columnist. She is a member of Dietitians of Canada the College of Dietitians of Ontario the Diabetes Educator section of the Canadian Diabetes Association the Kawartha Branch of Certified Diabetes Educators the Diabetes Obesity and Cardiovascular Network and the Consulting Dietitians of Ontario. Cynthia has two amazing children Kristen and Jeff who keep her busy. When she is not at the hockey arena Cynthia enjoys swimming canoeing kayaking walking skating and skiing.

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Dedication To Cure Diabetes Click Here Ian: This book is dedicated to Dr. Steven Edelman who with Sandra Bourdette founded Taking Control of Your Diabetes www.tcoyd.org an organization “guided by the belief that every person with diabetes has the right to live a healthy happy and productive life.” Steve’s commitment passion energy and selfless dedication always mixed with humour and a spirit of fun are inspirational. How great to be his friend how wonderful to be a part of his organization. Cynthia: This book is dedicated to people living with diabetes. My hope is that this book can make a difference in their lives by making meal time easier to plan and so much more enjoyable than they ever imagined. This is more than a cookbook my hope is for people to gain some ingredients for success in their management towards a healthy life with diabetes. Authors’ Acknowledgments Ian: I would like to thank Hannah Draper and Lisa Berland for their editorial expertise Pauline Ricablanca for her overseeing the book’s development and as always I am ever so grateful to have been able to once again work with the unflappable Robert Hickey. I cannot possibly express my level of gratitude and appreciation for the boundless efforts and expertise that my co-author Cynthia Payne has brought to this book. Working with Cynthia to create this book has been a true pleasure. Cynthia thank you so much Cynthia: I would like to thank my family and friends for being at my side and encouraging me through the process of this book’s conception development and birth. I need to thank my mother Bonnie Payne for helping me out with some of the cooking and recipe testing and for calming me down near deadline time. Thanks for always being there for me Mom. I would like to thank my children Kristen and Jeffrey for putting up with me as I worked weekends and evenings on this book. Kristen became the cleaning lady and Jeffrey the maintenance man and I could not have survived without their help and their willingness to eat what was put in front of them.

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Thank you to the many taste testers: my co-workers: Pam Bates RN CDE Doris Brunton Jennifer Case Melissa Geleynse RD Stephanie Ross RN CDE NP Angel Targon RN Debbie Bontje RN CDE Christine McCleary RD CDE and the other staff who just happened to be in the cafeteria or who were in their departments and were willing to sample a morsel when I passed through. Other friends were honest taste testers: Debbie Doug Ryan and Alexis Smith Betty Adams Gill Kassela Jolien Todd Linda Redner-Hunter Diane Dudnick Joanne Cherry-Lauzon Yvon Lauzon Dave Hammond Janet Harris RD CDE Marcey Wilson RD Don and Annette Ashfield Pete Marrocco Cathy McGinn Elaine and Dave Trahair and Jackie and Jim Hudson. Many special thanks to my parents my brothers and their families for letting me cook for them and being honest with the outcome: Bonnie and Ron Payne Stephen Cindy Corrina Kyle and Bradley Payne and Greg Roberta Nicole and Stephanie Payne. I appreciate the help of Christine McCleary RD CDE Pam Bates RN CDE Melissa Geleynse RD Janet Harris RD CDE Janice Stringham RD CDE and Grace Pineau RD CDE for their assistance in the information in some of the chapters — smart women I can not go any further without thanking Dr. Ian Blumer for giving me the opportunity to write this book with him and to learn from his patience encouragement brilliance and wisdom. Thanks to Marian Barltrop RN CDE for thinking of me when this opportunity arose. I met an amazing editor Robert Hickey who was so understanding knowledgeable and patient and who made this adventure very pleasant. I have much appreciation and thanks for my father Ron and my many patients who let me live diabetes through them teaching me so much.

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Publisher’s Acknowledgements We’re proud of this book please send us your comments at http://dummies.custhelp.com. For other comments please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 877-762-2974 outside the U.S. at 317-572-3993 or fax 317-572-4002. Some of the people who helped bring this book to market include the following: Acquisitions and Editorial Editor: Robert Hickey Production Editor: Pauline Ricablanca Editorial Assistant: Katie Wolsley Cartoons: Rich Tennant www.the5thwave.com Composition Project Coordinator U.S.: Lynsey Stanford Layout and Graphics: Wiley Indianapolis Composition Services Proofreader: Lisa Young Stiers Indexer: Christine Karpeles John Wiley Sons Canada Ltd Bill Zerter Chief Operating Officer Karen Bryan Vice-President Publishing Services Jennifer Smith Publisher Professional Trade Division Alison Maclean Managing Editor Publishing and Editorial for Consumer Dummies Diane Graves Steele Vice President and Publisher Consumer Dummies Kristin Ferguson-Wagstaffe Product Development Director Consumer Dummies Ensley Eikenburg Associate Publisher Travel Kelly Regan Editorial Director Travel Composition Services Debbie Stailey Director of Composition Services

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Contents at a Glance To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here Introduction ................................................................ 1 Part I: Diabetes and You .............................................. 7 Chapter 1: Diabetes 101: Discovering the Basics........................................................... 9 Chapter 2: You Are What You Eat.................................................................................. 27 Chapter 3: You Are How You Eat ................................................................................... 43 Chapter 4: Staying Healthy through Nutrition ............................................................. 57 Part II: Cooking and Meal-Planning Essentials............. 67 Chapter 5: Getting Equipped .......................................................................................... 69 Chapter 6: Successful Food Shopping ........................................................................... 73 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes ... 89 Chapter 7: Rise and Shine with Breakfast ..................................................................... 91 Chapter 8: Savory Soups ............................................................................................... 107 Chapter 9: Snazzy Salads .............................................................................................. 119 Chapter 10: Appealing Appetizers ............................................................................... 137 Chapter 11: Creative Carbohydrate Concoctions...................................................... 149 Chapter 12: Don’t Forget Your Veggies ...................................................................... 173 Chapter 13: Fishing for the Right Dish: Fish and Seafood Entrees .......................... 189 Chapter 14: Birds of a Feather: Poultry Dinners ........................................................ 203 Chapter 15: Mighty Meat............................................................................................... 219 Chapter 16: Vegetarian Variety .................................................................................... 235 Chapter 17: Delectable Endings ................................................................................... 247 Chapter 18: Kooking for Kids ....................................................................................... 269 Part IV: The Part of Tens .......................................... 283 Chapter 19: Ten Frequently Asked Questions............................................................ 285 Chapter 20: Ten Diabetes Nutrition Myths................................................................. 293 Chapter 21: Ten Tips for Healthy Eating..................................................................... 301 Part V: Appendixes .................................................. 309 Appendix A: Nutrition and Recipe Web Sites for People with Diabetes ................. 311 Appendix B: A Month of Menus ................................................................................... 317 Index ...................................................................... 345

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Recipes at a Glance To Cure Diabetes in 21 Days Click Here Breakfast T Mango Orange Banana Smoothie......................................................................... 93 T Shake Me Up Shake ................................................................................................. 94 T Banana Bread ........................................................................................................... 95 T Raspberry Muffins ................................................................................................... 96 T Baked Homemade Granola ..................................................................................... 97 T Baked Scone Aboriginal Bannock ....................................................................... 98 T Cranberry Walnut Muffins .................................................................................... 100 T Akoori Scrambled Eggs ......................................................................................... 102 T Oatmeal Pancakes.................................................................................................. 103 T Oatmeal Fruit Crepes............................................................................................. 104 T Cottage Cheese Pancakes ..................................................................................... 105 Soups Salads French Onion Soup...................................................................................................... 111 T Veggie Soup ............................................................................................................ 112 Adobo Soup with Bok Choy ....................................................................................... 113 Kale Soup Portuguese .............................................................................................. 114 Best Beef Soup ............................................................................................................. 115 T Broccoli Cheese Soup............................................................................................ 116 T Carrot Parsnip Soup .............................................................................................. 117 T Tomato Cucumber Salad....................................................................................... 123 Classic Caesar Salad.................................................................................................... 124 T Fruity Spinach Salad .............................................................................................. 125 T Marinated Mushrooms with Herbs...................................................................... 126 T Pecan Mango and Brie Salad .............................................................................. 127 T Chunky Apple Coleslaw......................................................................................... 128 T Beet and Feta Salad................................................................................................ 128 T Light Potato Salad .................................................................................................. 130 T Asian Noodle Salad ................................................................................................ 131

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T Mixed Bean Salad ................................................................................................... 132

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T Bulgur and Chickpea Salad with Lemon Dressing ............................................. 133 T Couscous Chickpea Salad ..................................................................................... 134 Walnut Pear and Chicken Salad ............................................................................... 135 Appetizers Shanghai Dumplings.................................................................................................... 139 Sushi.............................................................................................................................. 140 T Goat Cheese and Sun-Dried Tomato Mushroom Caps .................................... 142 T Feta Bruschetta..................................................................................................... 143 Dilly Shrimp Cucumber Bites..................................................................................... 144 The Devilish Egg .......................................................................................................... 145 T Toasted Walnut Hummus ..................................................................................... 146 T Black Bean Salsa..................................................................................................... 147 Potatoes Rice Pastas Beans T Greek Potatoes ....................................................................................................... 151 T Potato Latkes.......................................................................................................... 152 T Sweet Potato Fries ................................................................................................. 153 T Garlic Mashed Potatoes ........................................................................................ 154 T Vegetable Fried Rice .............................................................................................. 158 T Saffron Almond Rice .............................................................................................. 159 T Cheesy Noodles with Nuts.................................................................................... 161 T Pasta Primavera ..................................................................................................... 162 T Quinoa Risotto ....................................................................................................... 163 T Spinach Mushroom Lasagna ................................................................................ 164 Szechuan Noodles ....................................................................................................... 166 T Dal ............................................................................................................................ 168 T Mango Bean Mix ..................................................................................................... 169 T Chickpea Curry....................................................................................................... 171 T Curried Chickpeas in Tomato Cups..............................................................................172 Vegetable Side Dishes T Ethiopian Cabbage................................................................................................. 176 T Broccoli with Feta and Roasted Peppers............................................................ 177 T Stir-Fried Snow Peas .............................................................................................. 178 T Swiss Chard and Pine Nuts ................................................................................... 179

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T Zesty Asparagus..................................................................................................... 180 T Asparagus Cheddar Quiche .................................................................................. 181 T Green Pea Cauliflower and Tomato Curry ........................................................ 182 T Grilled Vegetables.................................................................................................. 184 T Squash Apple Bake ................................................................................................ 185 T Orange-Glazed Carrots .......................................................................................... 186 T Balsamic Brussels Sprouts ................................................................................... 187 Fish and Seafood Entrées Salmon Loaf .................................................................................................................. 193 T Cucumber Sauce .................................................................................................... 194 Greek Fish..................................................................................................................... 195 Saffron Fish................................................................................................................... 196 Japanese Fish Cakes.................................................................................................... 197 Mediterranean-Style Tuna Casserole ........................................................................ 198 Crispy Coated Sole ...................................................................................................... 199 Seared Scallops............................................................................................................ 200 Chinese Jewelled Rice................................................................................................. 201 Chicken Entrées Apricot Brie Chicken ................................................................................................... 205 Butter Chicken ............................................................................................................. 206 Chicken in Dijon Sauce ............................................................................................... 207 African Curry................................................................................................................ 208 Tandoori Chicken ........................................................................................................ 209 Parmesan Chicken ....................................................................................................... 210 Bok Choy with Chicken............................................................................................... 211 Cinnamon Lime Chicken ............................................................................................. 212 Chicken with Cashews ................................................................................................ 213 Walnut Chicken............................................................................................................ 214 Curried Turkey in a Pita ............................................................................................. 215 Cheesy Turkey Bake.................................................................................................... 216 Turkey à la King ........................................................................................................... 217 Meat Entrées Shepherd’s Pie ............................................................................................................. 220 Hamburger Stroganoff ................................................................................................ 222 Stir-Fried Beef with Rice Noodles .............................................................................. 223 Groundnut Stew ........................................................................................................... 224

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Meatloaf with Mushroom Sauce ................................................................................ 225 Aboriginal Tacos with Fried Bannock....................................................................... 226 Spanish Pork Chops .................................................................................................... 228 Pork Chow Mein .......................................................................................................... 229 Glazed Asian Lamb ...................................................................................................... 230 Lamb with Chinese Oyster Sauce .............................................................................. 231 Venison Steak in Cranberry Sauce ............................................................................ 232 Vegetarian Entrées T Curry Tofu with Noodles....................................................................................... 238 T Barbecued Eggplant............................................................................................... 239 T Nutty Rice and Mushroom Stir-Fry ...................................................................... 240 T Three-Bean Chili..................................................................................................... 241 T Tofu Mushroom Caps ............................................................................................ 242 T Quesadillas ............................................................................................................. 243 T White Pizza ............................................................................................................. 244 T Chapati .................................................................................................................... 245 Desserts T Rhubarb Cake ......................................................................................................... 249 T Pumpkin Pie ............................................................................................................ 250 T Blueberry Pie .......................................................................................................... 251 T Chocolate Zucchini Muffins .................................................................................. 252 T Sour Cream Chocolate Chip Cake ........................................................................ 253 T Mini Cheesecakes................................................................................................... 254 T Carrot Cake ............................................................................................................. 255 T Fruit Trifle ............................................................................................................... 256 T Orange Frost ........................................................................................................... 257 Strawberry Dream ....................................................................................................... 258 T Aboriginal Wild Rice Pudding............................................................................... 259 T Luscious Lemon Pudding Cake ............................................................................ 260 T Baked Custard ........................................................................................................ 261 T Jam Jewel Cookies ................................................................................................. 262 T Chocolate Chip Cookies ........................................................................................ 263 T Rocky Road Balls ................................................................................................... 264

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T Flax Cookies............................................................................................................ 265 T Cocoa Oatmeal Cookies ........................................................................................ 266 T Snickers ................................................................................................................... 267 Recipes for Kids Pizza Faces ................................................................................................................... 271 Sloppy Joes .................................................................................................................. 272 Breaded Chicken Fingers............................................................................................ 272 T Macaroni and Cheese ............................................................................................ 274 T Baked Apple with Raspberries ............................................................................. 275 T Apple Crisp ............................................................................................................. 276 T Brownies ................................................................................................................. 277 T Happy Birthday Cake............................................................................................. 278 T Chocolate Mud Cakes ............................................................................................ 280 T Banana Chocolate Chip Muffins ........................................................................... 281 T Little Jam Cupcakes ............................................................................................... 282

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Table of Contents To Cure Diabetes Permanently Click Here Introduction ................................................................. 1 About This Book .............................................................................................. 1 Conventions Used in This Book..................................................................... 2 Foolish Assumptions....................................................................................... 3 How This Book Is Organized .......................................................................... 3 Part I: Diabetes and You........................................................................ 3 Part II: Cooking and Meal Planning Essentials ................................... 4 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes ......................... 4 Part IV: The Part of Tens....................................................................... 4 Part V: Appendixes ................................................................................ 4 Icons Used in This Book ................................................................................. 4 Where to Go from Here ................................................................................... 5 Part I: Diabetes and You ............................................... 7 Chapter 1: Diabetes 101: Discovering the Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Examining the Types of Diabetes ................................................................ 10 Type 1 diabetes .................................................................................... 11 Type 2 diabetes .................................................................................... 11 Gestational diabetes ............................................................................ 12 Investigating How Diabetes Is Diagnosed................................................... 13 Looking at Target Blood Glucose Levels .................................................... 13 Understanding How High and Low Blood Glucose Can Make You Feel.... 14 High blood glucose .............................................................................. 14 Low blood glucose ............................................................................... 16 Controlling Your Blood Glucose through Nutrition .................................. 17 Watching your carbohydrate intake ................................................. 18 Timing when you eat ........................................................................... 19 Getting nutritional assistance: How a dietitian can help ................ 19 Finding a registered dietitian ............................................................. 20 Exercise and Blood Glucose......................................................................... 21 Taking Oral Medications to Help Control Your Blood Glucose............... 22 Using Insulin to Help Control Your Blood Glucose ................................... 22 Looking at the types of insulin ........................................................... 23 Using insulin and nutrition together: A recipe for success ............ 23 Carbohydrate counting ....................................................................... 24

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xiv Diabetes Cookbook For Canadians For Dummies Chapter 2: You Are What You Eat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 What Is a “Diabetic Diet”............................................................................. 28 Exploring the Key Ingredients...................................................................... 29 Carbohydrates...................................................................................... 30 Protein ................................................................................................... 32 Fat .......................................................................................................... 33 Getting Enough Vitamins Minerals and Water......................................... 35 Munching on minerals......................................................................... 35 Vitality through vitamins .................................................................... 37 What about water............................................................................... 40 Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide ....................................................... 41 Chapter 3: You Are How You Eat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Keeping Portions under Control.................................................................. 43 Timing Is Everything ..................................................................................... 45 Balancing Out a Meal’s Ingredients ............................................................. 46 Eating Vegetarian........................................................................................... 46 Sorting Out Snacks ........................................................................................ 47 Artificial sweeteners ............................................................................ 49 Sugar alcohols ...................................................................................... 49 Alcohol ............................................................................................................ 50 Healthy Eating at Home ................................................................................ 51 Healthy Eating When You’re Away from Home ......................................... 52 Healthy eating in restaurants ............................................................. 52 Healthy eating at vending machines ................................................. 53 Healthy eating at the convenience store .......................................... 54 Healthy eating at friends’ homes ....................................................... 54 Healthy eating at parties and celebrations....................................... 55 Chapter 4: Staying Healthy through Nutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Weight-Loss Strategies.................................................................................. 57 Knowing if you’re overweight ............................................................ 58 Reviewing the benefits from weight loss if you’re overweight ...... 58 Being skeptical about fad diets .......................................................... 59 Checking out healthy weight-loss strategies.................................... 59 Modifying your behaviour .................................................................. 59 Considering volumetrics..................................................................... 60 Looking at ways your attempts at losing weight can be sabotaged ..................................................... 60 Diabetes and the Glycemic Index ................................................................ 62 Healthy Eating if You Have Gestational Diabetes ...................................... 63 The Lowdown on High Blood Pressure and Nutrition .............................. 63 Helping Control Your Lipids with Nutrition............................................... 65 Nutrition Strategies if You Have Kidney Failure ........................................ 65

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Table of Contents xv Part II: Cooking and Meal-Planning Essentials ............. 67 Chapter 5: Getting Equipped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Covering Basic Cooking Equipment ............................................................ 69 Pots pans and plates ......................................................................... 69 Handy tools........................................................................................... 70 Other useful equipment ...................................................................... 71 Speaking the Cooking Lingo ......................................................................... 71 Chapter 6: Successful Food Shopping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Saving Money on Staples .............................................................................. 73 Buying fruits and vegetables .............................................................. 74 Moo–ving to the dairy section ........................................................... 74 Picking poultry ..................................................................................... 74 Seeking alternate sources of protein................................................. 75 Going fishing ......................................................................................... 75 Smart Shopping.............................................................................................. 75 Plan your week’s menu ahead of time............................................... 76 Make a list ............................................................................................. 76 Estimate your food needs ................................................................... 77 Be a grocery-store guru....................................................................... 77 Buy in bulk ............................................................................................ 78 Peruse the perishables........................................................................ 79 Menu Planning ............................................................................................... 79 Pantry Non-perishable Essentials: What to Have on Hand ................... 80 Frozen and canned fruits and vegetables ......................................... 80 Grains .................................................................................................... 81 Other nutrients..................................................................................... 81 Baking and cooking ingredients ......................................................... 81 Reading Labels and Knowing How to Use Them ....................................... 82 The list of ingredients ......................................................................... 82 The Nutrition Facts table .................................................................... 83 Nutrition and health claims ................................................................ 86 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes .... 89 Chapter 7: Rise and Shine with Breakfast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Quick Healthy Breakfast Ideas .................................................................... 92 Fruit First ........................................................................................................ 93 Baked Delights ............................................................................................... 94 Griddle Goodies ........................................................................................... 101

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xvi Diabetes Cookbook For Canadians For Dummies Chapter 8: Savory Soups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Making Soups from Leftovers .................................................................... 107 Making a basic broth ......................................................................... 108 Making soup with your homemade broth ...................................... 109 Considering Commercially Prepared Soups ............................................ 109 Broth-Based Soups ...................................................................................... 110 Creamy Soups .............................................................................................. 116 Chapter 9: Snazzy Salads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Waking Up Tired Tossed Salads ................................................................ 119 Getting the lowdown on lettuce ....................................................... 120 Adding life to salad ............................................................................ 121 Giving salads zip with a homemade vinaigrette ............................ 122 Starter Salads ............................................................................................... 123 Side Salads.................................................................................................... 127 Main Salads................................................................................................... 132 Chapter 10: Appealing Appetizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Just in the Nick of Time: Fast Easy Appetizers ....................................... 138 Elegant Starters............................................................................................ 138 Party Pleasers .............................................................................................. 143 Store-Bought Dips........................................................................................ 148 Chapter 11: Creative Carbohydrate Concoctions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Potato Please.............................................................................................. 150 Rice Is Right.................................................................................................. 155 Exploring the different types of rice................................................ 155 Cooking rice right .............................................................................. 156 Storing rice ......................................................................................... 157 Reheating rice..................................................................................... 158 Plenty of Pasta ............................................................................................. 160 Cooking pasta to perfection ............................................................. 160 Knowing how much pasta to prepare ............................................. 160 Bountiful Beans............................................................................................ 167 Chapter 12: Don’t Forget Your Veggies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Be Veggie Savvy ........................................................................................... 173 Buying locally in season................................................................... 174 Maintaining your veggies’ nutrients ................................................ 175 Anytime Veggies .......................................................................................... 176 Springtime Veggies ...................................................................................... 180 Fall Harvest Vegetables .............................................................................. 183

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Table of Contents Chapter 13: Fishing for the Right Dish: Fish and Seafood Entrees . . . 189 Selecting and Cooking Fish......................................................................... 190 Choosing fish ...................................................................................... 190 Cooking fish ........................................................................................ 191 Tasty Fish Dinners....................................................................................... 192 Seafood Suppers .......................................................................................... 200 Chapter 14: Birds of a Feather: Poultry Dinners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Handling Cooking and Cleaning Up Poultry ........................................... 203 Checking Out Chicken................................................................................. 204 It’s Okay to Have a Turkey ......................................................................... 215 Chapter 15: Mighty Meat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Beef It Up...................................................................................................... 219 Pork on Your Fork ....................................................................................... 227 Mary Had a Little Lamb — So Can You..................................................... 230 Going Wild .................................................................................................... 232 Chapter 16: Vegetarian Variety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Benefits to Eating the Vegetarian Way...................................................... 235 Meatless Marvels ......................................................................................... 237 Chapter 17: Delectable Endings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Diabetes Desserts and You ...................................................................... 247 Using Sugar Substitutes .............................................................................. 248 Baking Up a Storm: Pies and Cakes ........................................................... 248 Pudding on the Ritz ..................................................................................... 257 Bite-Sized Fun: Cookies ............................................................................... 262 Chapter 18: Kooking for Kids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Kids in the Kitchen ...................................................................................... 269 Super Suppers .............................................................................................. 271 Desserts Kids Dig......................................................................................... 275 Part IV: The Part of Tens ........................................... 283 Chapter 19: Ten Frequently Asked Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 Why Can’t I Skip Meals to Lose Weight ................................................... 285 If I Don’t Eat Carbs My Sugars Will Be Low Right ................................ 286 I’m Not Hungry for Breakfast — Do I Need It ......................................... 287 xvii

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xviii Diabetes Cookbook For Canadians For Dummies Do I Really Need Snacks ............................................................................ 287 Should I Use Sugar Substitutes ................................................................ 288 Should I Check My Blood Sugar After Meals .......................................... 289 Does It Matter When I Take My Mealtime Insulin .................................. 290 Will I Always Need to Take Pills for My Type 2 Diabetes .................. 291 Is Fruit Juice Good or Bad......................................................................... 291 Can I Eat Birthday Cake............................................................................. 292 Chapter 20: Ten Diabetes Nutrition Myths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 I Know What to Eat No Point Seeing a Dietitian...................................... 293 Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements Are of Proven Benefit if You Have Diabetes .................................................................. 294 If My Blood Sugar Goes up Overnight It’s Because of What I Ate ......... 294 Soaking Rice or Lentils Will Help Prevent These Foods from Raising My Sugar Level....................................................... 295 I Can’t Eat My Homeland Food Now That I Have Diabetes..................... 295 Spices Make Blood Sugar Levels Go Up.................................................... 296 All White Food Is Bad and Should Be Avoided ........................................ 296 Eating Too Much Sugar Causes Type 2 Diabetes .................................... 297 Changing the Way I Eat Is Pointless — if I’m going to Get Diabetes I Can’t Do Anything to Prevent It ................................... 297 If I’m Sick I Have to Force Myself to Eat Normally................................... 298 Chapter 21: Ten Tips for Healthy Eating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 Eat Three Meals per Day............................................................................. 301 Limit the Time between Meals to Less Than Six Hours.......................... 302 Keep Your Sweets as Treasured Treats.................................................... 302 Choose Low-Fat Foods ................................................................................ 303 Choose Whole Grains and High-Fibre Foods............................................ 303 Eat Vegetables and Fruit at Most Meals ................................................... 304 Load Up with Calcium and Vitamin D ....................................................... 305 Calcium and you ................................................................................ 305 Vitamin D and you ............................................................................. 306 Considering Multivitamins — Do You Need Them................................ 306 Drink Water .................................................................................................. 307 Enjoy Variety — All Foods Can Fit............................................................ 307

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Table of Contents Part V: Appendixes ................................................... 309 Appendix A: Nutrition and Recipe Web Sites for People with Diabetes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 General Diabetes Web Sites ....................................................................... 311 The Canadian Diabetes Association CDA .................................... 311 The American Diabetes Association ............................................... 311 Ian Blumer’s Practical Guide to Diabetes ....................................... 312 Online Diabetes Resources by Rick Mendosa ................................ 312 Children with Diabetes...................................................................... 312 General Nutrition Web Sites....................................................................... 312 Dietitians of Canada........................................................................... 312 Healthy Eating is in Store for You.................................................... 313 Health Canada .................................................................................... 313 Kraft Canada ....................................................................................... 313 EatRight Ontario................................................................................ 314 CalorieKing Food Database .............................................................. 314 Diabetes Nutrition-focused Web Sites ...................................................... 314 Diabetic Gourmet Magazine ............................................................. 314 The Diabetes Network ....................................................................... 314 Reality Bites ........................................................................................ 315 dLife ..................................................................................................... 315 Appendix B: A Month of Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 Small Meal Plan ............................................................................................ 317 Large Meal Plan............................................................................................ 329 Index ....................................................................... 345 xix

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I Introduction f you’re living with diabetes either because you have diabetes or you have a loved one with diabetes you likely already know that one of the most important tools to help you keep your diabetes under control is to eat healthfully. Hopefully you also know that healthy eating with diabetes doesn’t mean you have to sacrifice taste variety or the simple sheer pleasure of eating well. We believe passionately that there is no such thing as a “diabetic diet.” A so- called diabetic diet is simply a nutritious healthy eating program that balances the appropriate amounts of the key nutrients and supplies the right amount of calories for your needs. The recipes in Diabetes Cookbook For Canadians For Dummies are suitable for anyone who wants to eat healthfully whether or not you have diabetes. The recipes are also suitable for low-fat diets and lower sodium diets as well. On these pages you will discover a huge variety of recipes that will not only satisfy your hunger but will do so in a nourishing way. Breakfasts lunches dinners snacks party foods treats for kids and treats for adults it’s all here. And because staying healthy with diabetes is so very dependent on being empowered — the more you know the more you can master your diabetes — we devote the first few chapters of this book to looking at key aspects of diabetes care including the roles that nutrition exercise and medications can play. About This Book This book was written with a single overriding purpose: to help people living with diabetes prepare foods that are as tasty and enjoyable to eat as they are nutritious. We’re also hoping that as you create the recipes in this book you’ll find the time to read some or even all of Part I where we examine all sorts of ways that you can use nutrition and other strategies to stay healthy with your diabetes. The recipes in this book were chosen based on several guiding principles.

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2 Diabetes Cookbook For Canadians For Dummies ✓ The recipes feature ingredients that are easy to find. Cynthia lives in a small community and was able to readily find all the ingredients in stores in her town. ✓ Emphasize healthy eating for a person living with diabetes — therefore low sugar lower fat and lower sodium content were priorities — but they are appealing for everyone. If you don’t have diabetes no worries: you don’t have to miss out on these recipes you’re going to love them too We do use sugar in a number of this book’s recipes. Sugar is not a “bad word” when it comes to diabetes although of course you need to limit quantities. ✓ Have met with glowing approval yeah we were tough on ourselves good simply wasn’t going to be good enough by our diverse — and painfully honest — taste-testing panel of friends neighbours relatives kids and others. ✓ Reflect the wonderfully diverse nature of the Canadian population and the increasing desire of Canadians to try out non-traditional foods. ✓ Are not only enjoyable to eat but enjoyable to prepare. We list the amount of carbohydrate in each recipe this will help you as you balance out the nutrients in your diet and will be especially helpful if you’re carbohydrate counting. The recipes refer to “Carbohydrate Choices.” Each Carbohydrate Choice consists of 15 grams of carbohydrate. We also list the amount of sodium avoiding excess sodium is important for everyone and especially important if you have high blood pressure phosphorous and potassium avoiding excess phosphorous and potassium is important if you have kidney failure. We’d love to hear from you. Whether it’s to tell us you especially liked one of our recipes please or perish the thought found some cooking instruction insufficiently clear please do share your comments with us by sending an e-mail to diabetesianblumer.com. We apologize in advance however for our being unable to provide medical advice. Conventions Used in This Book In this book we discuss the incredibly important role of nutrition in managing diabetes and we often mention how the best way to learn about healthy eating is by meeting with a registered dietitian. Registered dietitians have completed rigorous academic requirements and are part of an officially certified professional college that sets high standards and regulates the profession. Because it gets awfully repetitious to add the word “registered”

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Introduction 3 before each use of the word “dietitian” whenever we use the word “dietitian” we are specifically and only referring to registered dietitians. Following are a few other standard conventions you’ll see in this book: ✓ Italic type is used for emphasis and to introduce new terms. ✓ Bold indicates the action parts in numbered steps. It also emphasizes the keywords in a bulleted list. ✓ Web addresses show up in monofont. ✓ T Recipes are designated as vegetarian by using a little tomato icon. Foolish Assumptions We have written this book based on the assumption that you are living with diabetes either because you have diabetes yourself or because you have a loved one with diabetes and that whatever your knowledge of cooking you want to learn more. Period. If you know nothing about cooking you’ll find this book allows you to readily discover the basics and if you’re already a wizard in the kitchen you’ll discover additional recipes and food preparation ideas to meet your needs. How This Book Is Organized We divide this book into five parts to help you readily find the information you’re seeking. Part I: Diabetes and You In this part we look at the fundamentals of diabetes: what the condition is how it can make you feel and how you can keep it under control. We look in detail at the various nutrients and how you can balance them to ensure you’re getting the right amounts of all the healthy ingredients you need to help you in your quest for good health. We also look at diabetes food-related challenges such as how to deal with food choices and abundance at parties celebrations and other get-togethers. Lastly we look at helpful ways to tackle the additional dietary issues that you may confront if in addition to having diabetes you also have high blood pressure cholesterol problems kidney malfunction or are pregnant.

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4 Diabetes Cookbook For Canadians For Dummies Part II: Cooking and Meal Planning Essentials Unless you’re just grabbing an apple from the fridge planning is invariably involved in food preparation. In this part we look at the key cooking equipment you’ll want to have on hand in your kitchen. To make sure you put that equipment to good use we provide a whole bunch of tips on how to shop efficiently and save money on your groceries at the same time. We also help sort out all those sometimes confusing details on the food labels on the products you buy. Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes In this part we provide a huge variety of incredibly tasty nutritious recipes. You’ll find recipes for your and your family’s breakfast lunch and dinner. You’ll find recipes for soups salads appetizers entrees vegetarian delights and meat lovers’ cravings. Last but not least we provide diabetes-friendly desserts and kid-friendly recipes too these two often going hand in hand. Part IV: The Part of Tens A staple of every For Dummies book the Part of Tens provides snippets of key information that you won’t want to miss. Here you’ll discover ten ways to help you enjoy a meal if you’re living with diabetes the answers to ten frequently asked questions and the straight goods on ten diabetes nutrition myths. Part V: Appendixes In this section we look at some particularly good Web sites where you can find helpful information on diabetes and nutrition. Many people find advance meal planning makes a typically hectic life somewhat less stressful so in this part we also help you plan out a month of menus. Icons Used in This Book Icons act as little flags or identifiers — bookmarks if you will — that let you know what information you’re going to find in the paragraph that follows.

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Introduction 5 This icon signifies that we’re sharing a story about a patient. These stories have been specifically selected because they contain elements that you may well relate to. The names and other identifiers have been changed to maintain confidentiality. This icon lets you know we’re recommending that you speak to a member of your health care team be it your family physician registered dietitian diabetes specialist and so forth in order to get help. This icon lets you know that we’re about to drop some medical jargon on you. Don’t be alarmed we then define or explain the term before we move on. When you see this icon it means the information is essential and you would be well served to pay special attention. This icon indicates that we’re sharing a practical piece of information that will arm you with a time-saving or grief-avoiding measure. This book is all about creating healthy appealing recipes. It’s also about living healthfully with diabetes. This icon means we’re discussing a critical health issue that you shouldn’t ignore. Where to Go from Here We wrote Diabetes Cookbook For Canadians For Dummies in a format that allows you to open the book to any chapter and jump right in without feel- ing lost. So if as you read this paragraph you realize it’s six at night and you have to get dinner ready pronto feel free to flip to Part III to find a recipe that suits your fancy. Same goes if you’re looking for breakfast lunch or snack ideas. If however you’re new to diabetes and if you don’t need to rush into the kitchen sit back and spend some time familiarizing yourself with diabetes by reading some or all of Part I. Whichever section of this book you first turn to rest assured — there’s no “wrong” place to start your reading.

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6 Diabetes Cookbook For Canadians For Dummies

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Part I Diabetes and You To Cure Diabetes Permanently Click Here

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D In this part . . . iabetes is far more than “just a sugar problem.” Having diabetes means that you need to look after all of you from your head down to your toes. In this part we explore how diabetes can affect you and what you can do to master diabetes and stay healthy.

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Chapter 1 Diabetes 101: Discovering the Basics To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here In This Chapter ▶ Getting to know the types of diabetes ▶ Diagnosing diabetes ▶ Seeing the highs and lows of blood glucose levels ▶ Managing diabetes through nutrition ▶ Staying healthy with exercise ▶ Investigating the important role of medication in diabetes management T his is a cookbook with a twist. This book begins not with recipes or a discussion on food handling or food shopping or the like but rather starts right here in Chapter 1 with a discussion on diabetes. Beginning this book by talking about the basics of diabetes — a Diabetes 101 if you will — is in keeping with the very special nature of diabetes. Diabetes is special in many ways but none more so than this: If you’re living with diabetes the more you know about your diabetes and the more actively you are involved in your own health care the more you can do to ensure you stay healthy. Your diabetes therapy begins anew every day when you first get up and decide what you’re going to eat. And your therapy continues all day with every morsel you put in your mouth. If you have diabetes it’s not your doctor or nurse or dietitian or any other person that ultimately makes your nutrition choices it is you. Healthy eating affects diabetes in many different and crucial ways: the food choices you make will influence your blood glucose “blood sugar” your weight your blood pressure your cholesterol your bowel habits your sense of well-being and much more. Indeed we are routinely absolutely blown

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10 Part I: Diabetes and You away by the dramatic improvement in the health of our patients with diabetes who carefully practise healthy eating. In this chapter we look at the different types of diabetes and we explore how to manage them. Because diabetes is as we look at in a moment a condition characterized by high blood glucose we look in detail at blood glucose how high and low levels can make you feel and how you can control your blood glucose through nutrition exercise and medication. For most people with diabetes a combination of these therapies works best in achieving and maintaining both good blood glucose control and good health in general. This chapter is an overview of key elements of diabetes. For detailed information on the material we cover here we unabashedly refer you to another book that Ian co-wrote: Diabetes For Canadians For Dummies Wiley. Examining the Types of Diabetes Diabetes is a condition in which you have elevated blood glucose blood sugar either because you don’t make enough insulin or you make enough insulin but it doesn’t work well or in some cases both. Glucose is the type of sugar that the body uses as fuel to provide energy for metabolism muscle action and brain function. Insulin a hormone made by the pancreas works by acting on muscle and fat cells to allow them to extract glucose from the blood and by acting on the liver to suppress its production of glucose. You could think of it as insulin grabbing onto the glucose and opening the door to take the glucose into the cells to be used for energy. There are three main types of diabetes: ✓ Type 1 diabetes ✓ Type 2 diabetes ✓ Gestational diabetes All three of these types of diabetes are by definition characterized by a tendency for having high blood glucose levels. With proper therapy however you can and indeed must bring high blood glucose levels under control. Type 1 diabetes used to go by two other names that although outdated you still may come across: juvenile diabetes and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus IDDM. Type 2 diabetes also used to go by two other names: adult onset diabetes and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus NIDDM. These older names were abandoned because they led to confusion. For example type 1 diabetes frequently begins in adults so it’s not actually a “juvenile” condition and people with non-insulin dependent diabetes frequently depend on insulin treatment. No wonder these old terms were abandoned

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Chapter 1: Diabetes 101: Discovering the Basics 11 Diabetes insipidus: The “other” form of diabetes Although most people including us in this book talk about diabetes as if there were only one form in fact there are actually two. Diabetes mellitus refers to the form of diabetes we discuss in this book that is the form of diabetes characterized by elevated blood glucose. The other form called diabetes insipidus is an entirely different condition: an uncommon disease in which a problem with antidiuretic hormone puts you at risk of excess urine production and as a result dehydration. Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease meaning that the body’s immune system malfunctions and creates antibodies that target its own tissues. In the case of type 1 diabetes the body makes antibodies that attack and destroy the insulin-producing islet cells in the pancreas. More specifically they attack one type of islet cell called a beta cell. These are some important things to know about type 1 diabetes: ✓ It most commonly develops in adolescents but also often occurs in young children and young adults. Increasing scientific evidence suggests that in fact in most cases the first onset is in adults. ✓ Symptoms typically appear soon after the condition first develops. We discuss these symptoms later in this chapter. ✓ It is far less common than type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes accounts for between 5 and 10 percent of all cases of diabetes. ✓ Urgent treatment with insulin is required as soon as this condition is discovered delaying therapy can be life-threatening. Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of the body’s insulin not working as effectively as it should a condition called insulin resistance and the pancreas making insufficient quantities of insulin. These are some important things to know about type 2 diabetes: ✓ It most commonly occurs in middle-aged or older individuals most of whom are overweight and sedentary. However many people with type 2 diabetes don’t fit this mould.

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12 Part I: Diabetes and You ✓ It is often preceded by years of prediabetes a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to make a diagnosis of diabetes. ✓ It is far more common than type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes accounts for between 90 and 95 percent of all cases of diabetes. ✓ The most important component of therapy is lifestyle including healthy eating exercise and weight control. Gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes GDM is a temporary form of diabetes that by definition occurs only during pregnancy. It develops in about 4 percent of pregnancies and is routinely tested for at about the midway point of a pregnancy. As in the other types of diabetes women with gestational diabetes have a tendency toward elevated blood glucose levels that with proper therapy can be kept under control. Gestational diabetes does not harm or risk harming the affected woman per se. Its importance lies in its potential impact on the developing fetus. If the diabetes is insufficiently treated the fetus can become overly large which can make delivery difficult. Also after delivery the newborn often has low blood glucose. Medical staff routinely test for this in a baby born to a woman with gestational diabetes. Low blood glucose in the newborn is not serious and is easy to treat by giving the baby sugar water to drink. Other complications from gestational diabetes seldom occur. Gestational diabetes is treated by following a special nutrition program as we discuss in Chapter 4. Regular exercise also helps. If despite these measures the woman’s blood glucose levels remain elevated insulin therapy is used. Because of limited scientific evidence regarding their use in pregnancy oral hypoglycemic agents see “Taking Oral Medications to Help Control Your Blood Glucose” later in this chapter are not often used. This may change in the future. If you’ve had gestational diabetes it means you’re at high risk of later developing type 2 diabetes so it’s essential that you follow a very healthy lifestyle after the delivery and that your doctor test your blood glucose levels from time to time thereafter. This testing includes both a glucose tolerance test within a few months of your delivery and a measurement of your fasting blood glucose from time to time. If you’ve had gestational diabetes get your blood glucose level checked before trying to conceive again that way if you’ve developed type 2 diabetes it can be brought under control before you get pregnant. Uncontrolled diabetes present at the time of conception and during early pregnancy is very dangerous as it can damage the fetus’s developing organs.

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Chapter 1: Diabetes 101: Discovering the Basics 13 Investigating How Diabetes Is Diagnosed Diabetes — in any form — is a serious disease and befitting this is diagnosed according to strict criteria. According to the Canadian Diabetes Association’s criteria you have diabetes if you have any one of the following: ✓ A casual blood glucose level casual is defined as any time of day or night without regard to how long it’s been since the last time you ate or drank anything containing calories equal to or greater than 11.1 millimoles per litre mmol/L with symptoms of high blood glucose. We discuss those symptoms in the next section. ✓ A fasting blood glucose level fasting is defined as eight or more hours without calorie intake equal to or greater than 7.0 mmol/L. ✓ A blood glucose level equal to or greater than 11.1 mmol/L when tested two hours after ingesting 75 grams of glucose as part of what is called a glucose tolerance test. Unless you are having obvious symptoms of high blood glucose such as profound thirst and frequent urination or significant otherwise unexplained weight loss if you have one of the above abnormalities you need to have your blood glucose retested on another day to confirm the diagnosis. Also the blood sample should be taken from a vein as is done at a laboratory not from a finger-prick sample tested on a portable blood glucose meter. Looking at Target Blood Glucose Levels You can drastically reduce your risk of developing many types of diabetes complications by keeping your blood glucose levels in check. The Canadian Diabetes Association CDA has established these target blood glucose levels for adults living with diabetes: ✓ Blood glucose before meals: 4.0 to 7.0 mmol/L. ✓ Blood glucose two hours after meals: 5.0 to 10.0 mmol/L 5.0 to 8.0 if your A1C is above 7.0. The A1C is an important test to determine whether your blood glucose control is where it should be. The A1C which is performed on a blood sample taken from a vein in your arm at the lab and should be done about every three months or so reflects your overall blood glucose levels over the preceding several months. It uses a different scale from the usual blood glucose test and the target value is 7 percent or less. You can learn more about the A1C on Ian’s website www.ourdiabetes.com/key-definitions.htm.

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14 Part I: Diabetes and You Although you should strive to achieve CDA target blood glucose and A1C levels it is important to be aware that nobody with diabetes has every single blood glucose reading within target that is virtually impossible. It’s also unnecessary. If you can keep the majority of your blood glucose readings within target you’ll be at low risk of developing most complications. The other thing to note is that not every single adult with diabetes should try to achieve the CDA targets. For example an elderly infirm person or a person with a limited life expectancy would not benefit from such “tight” control and somewhat higher blood glucose targets individualized for them by their health care team would be more appropriate. Understanding How High and Low Blood Glucose Can Make You Feel Having diabetes means that you will be prone to higher than normal blood glucose levels. Popular wisdom to the contrary diabetes does not in fact cause low blood glucose rather it is certain drugs used to treat diabetes that sometimes leads to this. In this section we look at how high or low blood glucose levels can make you feel. High blood glucose High blood glucose is not an “all or none” yes or no kind of thing. Rather elevated blood glucose levels run a continuum ranging from only slightly higher than normal to up into the stratosphere. A person without diabetes seldom has blood glucose levels higher than 8 mmol/L or so and symptoms of high blood glucose develop only if blood glucose is higher than 10 mmol/L or so. Looking at the symptoms of high blood glucose These are the most common symptoms of high blood glucose: ✓ Frequent urination ✓ Increased thirst ✓ Blurred vision ✓ Fatigue ✓ Hunger ✓ Weight loss ✓ Persistent vaginal infections

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Chapter 1: Diabetes 101: Discovering the Basics 15 Not everyone with high blood glucose experiences all of these symptoms. Indeed many people have only one or two of these symptoms and some people have none at all. Also the severity of the symptoms can vary widely. Some people have profound thirst are running to the bathroom 24/7 and lose many pounds whereas other people feel slightly tired and that’s it. The fact that symptoms can be minimal or nonexistent partly explains why so many people with diabetes don’t know they have it. After all if you feel perfectly fine it only makes sense you won’t suspect you’ve got a problem and thus won’t be knocking on your doctor’s door to get checked out. Because people can have diabetes yet feel perfectly well and therefore not know they have the condition the Canadian Diabetes Association recommends all people 40 years of age or over be tested periodically for diabetes. You should have the test sooner if you have an increased risk of diabetes for example if you have a parent with type 2 diabetes. Considering the complications of high blood glucose Having high blood glucose can do two main things: It can cause symptoms like those we discuss in the previous section and if severe or if longstanding it can damage the body. If you have very high blood glucose levels more than 15 to 20 mmol/L or so and you are feeling very unwell then this may be an emergency and you should seek immediate medical attention. If your blood glucose levels exceed target year after year you will be at risk of a number of different types of complications. But if you keep most of your blood glucose levels within target you can dramatically reduce your risk of running into problems. In other words diabetes complications are not inevitable Chronically elevated blood glucose levels can lead to complications like these: ✓ Eye damage retinopathy which if severe can lead to blindness. ✓ Kidney damage nephropathy which if severe can lead to kidney failure and the need for dialysis. ✓ Nerve damage neuropathy including abnormal or loss of sensation in the feet which can be a factor leading to amputation. The role of high blood glucose in causing heart attacks and strokes is more complicated but it likely plays an important role. Your risk of a heart attack or stroke is much higher if you are overweight sedentary smoke have inadequately controlled high blood pressure or if you have elevated LDL cholesterol. See a common denominator We do. These are all things that

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16 Part I: Diabetes and You working with your diabetes team you can control In Chapter 4 we look at the ways healthy eating can help you control your blood pressure and your cholesterol. Low blood glucose Low blood glucose hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose level below 4.0 mmol/L. As we mention earlier in this chapter diabetes per se does not cause low blood glucose rather it is certain drugs — such as insulin or glyburide — used to treat diabetes that can lead to this condition. Looking at the symptoms of low blood glucose These are the common symptoms of low blood glucose: ✓ Anxiety ✓ Hunger ✓ Sweating ✓ Palpitations noticing a rapid or excessively forceful heartbeat ✓ Trembling of the hands If hypoglycemia is severe it can lead to other symptoms including confusion difficulty concentrating difficulty speaking and even loss of consciousness. Fortunately the great majority of the time when people with diabetes experience hypoglycemia they will quickly recognize its symptoms and ingest some sugar-containing food which will quickly bring their blood glucose level back to normal. Treating low blood glucose If ever you have low blood glucose you need to treat it quickly in order to return your blood glucose to a safe level. As recommended by the Canadian Diabetes Association these are the steps you should take if you have low blood glucose: 1. Eat or drink 15 grams of a fast-acting carbohydrate such as • Three 5-gram glucose tablets for example BD glucose tablets • Five 3-gram glucose tablets for example Dextrosol tablets • Four 4-gram glucose tablets for example Dex4 tablets this totals 16 grams • 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml of juice or regular not diet or sugar-free pop but see the warning following this list

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Chapter 1: Diabetes 101: Discovering the Basics 17 • 3 tsp 15 ml honey or maple syrup or 3 tsp 15 ml of table sugar dissolved in water • Seven jelly beans 2. Wait 15 minutes and then retest your blood. If your blood glucose level is still less than 4 mmol/L ingest another 15 grams of fast-acting carbohydrate as listed in the previous step. 3. If your next meal is more than one hour away or you are going to be physically active eat a snack such as half a sandwich or cheese and crackers. The snack should contain 15 grams of carbohydrate and a source of protein. If you have low blood glucose and you’re about to eat a meal you must instead first treat your hypoglycemia with the measures we just described. Only when your blood glucose is back to normal above 4 mmol/L should you then eat your meal. Controlling Your Blood Glucose through Nutrition Not a day goes by when we aren’t totally blown away by the tremendous power that healthy eating has on helping improve blood glucose control. Indeed nutrition therapy can reduce your A1C up to 2 percent which is far greater than most drugs ever achieve. Nutrition is so vital in the management of diabetes that we felt it deserved an entire cookbook devoted to the topic. That would be this book. When coupled with regular exercise and weight control the impact of healthy eating is all the greater.

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18 Part I: Diabetes and You Achieving better health — and needing fewer pills — through the magic of lifestyle therapy Martha was a very overweight sedentary 55-year-old woman who had been living with type 2 diabetes for five years. She was taking three different types of medicine per day — totalling more than 10 pills — to control her blood glucose. One day after witnessing her grandson’s look of alarm as he saw her swallowing a fistful of pills she decided there had to be a better way of managing her health. Working with a dietitian and her local YMCA she adopted healthy eating strategies began regularly exercising and progressively shed weight. With each passing day her health improved and within a year she was able under Ian’s guidance to reduce the number of her pills from 10 down to 2. “I’m going to soon not need these last two” she said as she left her doctor’s appointment. “I bet you’re right” Ian said to her as she left. As we discuss in detail in Chapter 2 there are three basic types of nutrients: carbohydrates “sugars” proteins and fats. Each of these has important roles in healthy eating but when it comes to blood glucose control it is carbohydrates that have the key role. We look at carbohydrates next. Watching your carbohydrate intake Carbohydrates are found primarily in those foods that are grown in the ground such as rice potatoes grains and fruits and in dairy products. They provide energy for your body when consumed in excess of your needs this extra energy is stored as fat. Also the carbohydrates you eat are responsible for raising your blood glucose levels. For these reasons you need to make sure you’re eating the appropriate amount of carbohydrate consuming too much or too little is unhealthy. The Canadian Diabetes Association recommends that between 45 to 60 percent of the calories you consume come from carbohydrates the remainder being divided up between protein 15 to 20 percent and fat less than 35 percent. Not all carbohydrates have the same impact on blood glucose. Carbohydrates that are especially likely to raise blood glucose are said to have a high glycemic index and as you might expect those that that don’t raise blood glucose levels as much are said to have a low glycemic index. We discuss the glycemic index in detail in Chapter 4. Also fibre which is a form of carbohydrate doesn’t raise blood glucose at all.

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Chapter 1: Diabetes 101: Discovering the Basics 19 When discussing meal plans we often refer to “Carbohydrate Choices.” One Carbohydrate Choice is equivalent to 15 grams of carbohydrate excluding fibre. Knowing about Carbohydrate Choices will allow you to map out a meal plan that contains the appropriate amount of carbohydrates. Your dietitian is the best person to teach you about Carbohydrate Choices and how to incorporate them into your nutrition program. Each recipe in Diabetes Cookbook For Canadians For Dummies — wow that’s a mouthful of a title — has the number of Carbohydrate Choices in a serving. Timing when you eat Having diabetes you should eat three square meals a day rather than engaging in that popular and ill-advised Canadian pastime of eating almost nothing all day getting home ravenous after a long day’s work and chowing down on a big supper and then grazing at the fridge and pantry the rest of the night. The goal is to not go longer than six hours between meals during waking hours. If your next meal is going to be longer than six hours from your last one have a snack to hold you over until mealtime comes around. Consuming a small mid-morning and mid-afternoon carbohydrate-containing snack may depending on your specific situation also be helpful in maintaining good blood glucose control. See the next section for more information on scheduling your meals. Getting nutritional assistance: How a dietitian can help If you have diabetes you need to obtain the expert advice of a registered dietitian. The designation “registered” means that the dietitian has completed a special program of training and has achieved official certification establishing his or her credentials. Many registered dietitians like Cynthia have also trained as certified diabetes educators in which case they have the initials RD CDE after their names. A dietitian can assist you in many ways including helping you ✓ Learn the ins and outs of healthy eating in general and healthy eating when you have diabetes in particular ✓ Balance the amounts of carbohydrates proteins and fats in your diet

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20 Part I: Diabetes and You ✓ Master carbohydrate counting. We discuss carbohydrate counting later in this section. ✓ Figure out how to read food labels ✓ Know what snacks to eat when to eat them and how often to eat them ✓ Effectively use nutrition therapy to improve your blood glucose control your blood pressure and your lipids including cholesterol and triglycerides. See Chapter 4 for information about lipids. ✓ Determine how to get the appropriate amounts of vitamins and minerals in your diet and when necessary what supplements of these nutrients you should take ✓ Develop a meal plan that takes into account your particular food preferences as well as any food needs or restrictions related to religious cultural ethnic or other factors ✓ Calculate how many calories you need to consume to lose weight maintain a steady weight or when necessary gain weight and how best to adjust your diet in order to achieve whatever weight change you require if any ✓ Adjust your diet to accommodate your exercise program travel schedule sleeping in shift work and other factors ✓ Find great recipes indeed some dietitians are so expert at cooking they even co-write entire books on this subject . . . like this book A good dietitian will not ask you to follow a regimented unrealistic unpleasant diet. A good dietitian will help you find a culturally appropriate tasty interesting nutritious and varied eating program. Not happy with the diet you’ve been asked to follow Let your dietitian know he or she’ll be glad to have the opportunity to modify your diet to better suit your needs. Finding a registered dietitian These are a few ways you can find a registered dietitian to assist you: ✓ Call your local diabetes education centre DEC. Most diabetes education centres allow self-referral but if the one local to you doesn’t then ask your doctor to refer you. The cost of the services provided by dietitians working out of a DEC are typically covered by the hospital or other health care facility where they are located so you will not have to pay. ✓ Contact a private registered dietitian. You can find the name of a registered dietitian local to you in your phone book or online at http:// dietitians.ca. Also your doctor can likely recommend one to you. Remember it is a registered dietitian you want to see. Expect to pay a

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Chapter 1: Diabetes 101: Discovering the Basics 21 charge for the services provided by a private dietitian however if you have private insurance your insurer may cover some or all of these costs. ✓ If your family physician works in a clinic setting ask whether the clinic has a registered dietitian on staff. If so you can book an appointment to see that clinic’s dietitian. Exercise and Blood Glucose Exercise has a powerful effect in controlling blood glucose. Indeed if you’ve been sedentary and your blood glucose control hasn’t been very good you’ll likely find yourself very impressed by how much your newfound exercise program helps bring your blood glucose down. This effect is made all the greater when coupled with nutrition therapy and weight loss. Exercise also helps control blood pressure and cholesterol lowers the risk of heart disease and makes one feel generally better. Not too shabby eh Cardiovascular cardio exercise causes your muscles to use oxygen and your heart to speed up and beat more forcefully. As the name suggests cardiovascular exercise works — and benefits — the heart hence the term cardio and circulation vascular. Examples of cardiovascular exercise are walking running and skating. The Canadian Diabetes Association recommends you perform cardiovascular exercise for at least 150 minutes per week spreading it out over a minimum of three days of the week. Also you should avoid going more than two days in a row without performing cardiovascular exercise. Resistance exercise uses muscular strength to move a weight or to work against a resistance. If you lift weights or exercise with weight machines you’re performing resistance exercise. This type of exercise improves muscle strength and as shown by pioneering Canadian research undertaken by Dr. Ron Sigal also helps control blood glucose levels. The Canadian Diabetes Association recommends that you perform resistance training at least three times per week starting with one set of 10 to 15 repetitions using a moderate weight and gradually progressing toward a goal of three sets of eight repetitions three times per week using a heavier weight. Before you take up a new exercise program be sure to first speak to your physician. He or she will need to ensure you are sufficiently healthy to perform the activity. Also exercise can affect your blood glucose levels both while you’re performing the activity and afterward so you’ll need to keep a close eye on them to see how they respond to your activities. Be sure to keep a fast-acting carbohydrate as we discuss above with you in case you develop hypoglycemia during or after your exercise.

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22 Part I: Diabetes and You Taking Oral Medications to Help Control Your Blood Glucose If you have type 2 diabetes taking oral medication or insulin to control your blood glucose should always be considered complementary to lifestyle therapy including healthy eating regular exercise and weight control. These are the classes of oral medications and the generic names of the drugs within the classes used to control blood glucose in people living with type 2 diabetes: ✓ Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors acarbose work by slowing down the rate of absorption of glucose into the body from the intestine ✓ Biguanides metformin lower blood glucose primarily by reducing how much glucose the liver makes ✓ DPP-4 inhibitors sitagliptin saxagliptin work by reducing how much glucose the liver makes and by stimulating the pancreas to make more insulin ✓ Meglitinides repaglinide nateglinide work by stimulating the pancreas to make more insulin ✓ Sulfonylureas gliclazide glimepiride glyburide work by stimulating the pancreas to make more insulin ✓ Thiazolidinediones pioglitazone rosiglitazone work primarily by helping glucose move from the blood into fat and muscle cells Of the various oral medications available metformin is the preferred drug for most people. GLP-1 analogues exenatide liraglutide have similar properties to DPP-4 inhibitors but have the additional benefit of facilitating weight loss. GLP-1 analogues however are given by injection they are not taken orally. Using Insulin to Help Control Your Blood Glucose As many Canadians know — and proudly declare — insulin was discovered in Canada. Want to learn more about the amazing story behind the discovery of insulin We highly recommend reading the superb book The Discovery of Insulin by Michael Bliss.

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Chapter 1: Diabetes 101: Discovering the Basics 23 All people with type 1 diabetes require insulin therapy from the time of diagnosis. Many people with type 2 diabetes given a sufficiently long time living with the condition will also require insulin therapy because the pancreas in a person with type 2 diabetes gradually loses its ability to make insulin. Insulin is given by a painless injection with a tiny needle into the abdominal wall arms legs or buttocks. It is most easily administered using a pen device. Pens are small convenient portable and available for free from pharmacies and diabetes education centres. Looking at the types of insulin A variety of different types of insulin therapy are available each with their own specific properties. Combinations of different types of insulin are also available. The various insulins can be grouped into three main categories: ✓ Rapid-acting and short-acting insulins are given before meals and prevent the carbohydrates you ingest from making your blood glucose levels rise excessively. The trade names for the available rapid-acting insulins are Apidra Humalog and NovoRapid. ✓ Intermediate and long-acting insulins are given to prevent your blood glucose level from rising too high between meals and especially overnight. The only intermediate-acting insulin used in Canada is called NPH. The trade names for the available long-acting insulins are Lantus and Levemir. Lantus and Levemir have a main advantage over NPH insulin in that they are far less likely to cause hypoglycemia. ✓ Premixed insulins are mixtures of both rapid-acting or short-acting insulin with intermediate-acting insulin and as such act to control both between-meal and after-meal blood glucose levels. Premixed insulins are typically given before breakfast and before dinner. Using insulin and nutrition together: A recipe for success Used individually insulin and nutrition therapies are very helpful in keeping blood glucose levels in control. Used together they provide a simply awesome one-two punch. The key element to achieving success with insulin therapy is to give the right amount of insulin to match your body’s needs. Your body’s needs will depend on many factors including importantly the types and amounts of food you eat and the types and amounts of exercise you do.

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24 Part I: Diabetes and You Of the various types of foods you eat and liquids you drink the carbohydrates influence your blood glucose levels and insulin requirements the most. In general the more carbohydrates you ingest the more your blood glucose level will potentially go up and thus the more insulin you need to take to prevent this from happening. The main exception to this is if you’re eating carbohydrates in the form of fibre fibre does not make blood glucose levels go up. If everything else in your life is stable exercise stress general health and so forth and if you ingest a very similar amount of carbohydrate day-to-day then you will likely find the amount of insulin you need to take to keep your blood glucose levels in check will be quite consistent. If however the amount of carbohydrate you eat both in terms of types and quantities varies quite a bit then you will need to regularly adjust your insulin dose to match your intake. The best way to do this is to use a technique called carbohydrate counting. We look at this topic next. Carbohydrate counting Carbohydrate counting involves calculating how many grams of carbohydrate “carbs” — excluding fibre — you are about to eat and giving an amount of rapid-acting insulin proportionate to this. For most people the formula works out to about one unit of insulin for every 10 grams of carbohydrate. For example if you are about to eat a meal that contains 50 grams of carbohydrate again fibre isn’t included in the calculation you would need to give yourself five units of insulin. The other key factor in determining how much rapid-acting insulin you require before a meal is your blood glucose level before the meal. If your blood glucose level is high before your meal you’ll need to take extra insulin to bring it down. This extra insulin is called a correction factor or sensitivity factor and is usually about one unit of insulin for every 3 mmol/L your blood glucose level is above 7 or so. Carbohydrate counting isn’t rocket science but it isn’t easy either. To master carbohydrate counting requires quite a bit of guidance from a skilled dietitian. And even when you’ve learned the ropes periodic visits to the dietitian to reinforce the skills you’ve learned are a good idea. In the accompanying sidebar “Using carb counting and a correction factor” we give an example of how to effectively use carbohydrate counting and a correction factor.

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Chapter 1: Diabetes 101: Discovering the Basics 25 Using carb counting and a correction factor Here’s an example of how to use carb counting and a correction factor. Let’s say you’re about to eat a dinner that has 70 grams of carbohydrate including 10 grams of fibre and your before-meal blood glucose level is 13 mmol/L. You are say using a carbohydrate counting ratio of 1 unit of insulin per 10 grams of carbohydrate and a correction factor of 1 unit of insulin per 3 mmol/L your blood glucose level is above 7. You will be eating 70 grams of carbohydrate but you exclude the 10 grams of fibre you’ll be eating from your calculations because the fibre doesn’t raise blood glucose. The amount of fibre in a product is listed on the Nutrition Facts table. Therefore 70 grams of carbohydrate minus 10 grams of fibre leaves you with 60 grams of carbohydrate to use for your remaining calculations. Because you’re now dealing with 60 grams of carbohydrate and you take one unit of insulin per 10 grams that would mean you need six units of insulin to “cover” the food you’re about to eat. Because your blood glucose is 13 mmol/L and you need to take an extra one unit for each 3 mmol/L above 7 you need to take an extra two units of insulin to “correct” the elevated blood glucose level. You add the six units from your carb counting and the two units from your correction factor and thus you’d take a total of eight units of insulin. Even if you aren’t taking insulin being familiar with the number of grams of carbohydrates in the foods you eat is helpful. This will help you stay on track with making sure you get the proper quantities of carbohydrates in your diet and that you maintain balance between the amount of carbohydrates proteins and fats you consume. Fibre is a carbohydrate that doesn’t influence blood glucose. In the recipes in this book we note the available carbohydrate which is the total carbohydrate minus the fibre. This is the carbohydrate amount you need to keep track of.

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26 Part I: Diabetes and You

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D Chapter 2 You Are What You Eat To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here In This Chapter ▶ Discovering what makes up a healthy diet ▶ Exploring the core nutritional components ▶ Breaking down the vitamins and minerals you need ▶ Staying on top of nutrition with Canada’s Food Guide octors seem to have an obsession with analogies to food. When describing certain diseases doctors talk about nutmeg liver strawberry tongue and cauliflower ear and when it comes to the risk of diabetes whether you are pear-shaped meaning your body is fuller around your buttocks hips and thighs or apple-shaped meaning being round around the middle. Being apple-shaped increases your risk of acquiring type 2 diabetes. Eating healthfully is pardon the pun an essential ingredient to maintaining good health in general and controlling diabetes in particular. Indeed we can think of no better example of the phrase “You are what you eat.” How important is it to fuel your body with healthy nutrients if you have diabetes Oh no more important than having oxygen in the air that you breathe. In this chapter we look at how your food choices can help you manage your diabetes and keep you healthy. In particular we consider how your nutrition plan can help you ✓ Keep your blood glucose levels under control ✓ Lower your blood pressure ✓ Improve your cholesterol and triglyceride levels that is your lipids ✓ Achieve and maintain a healthy weight The recipes in this book were created with the preceding factors in mind that is the recipes provide healthy food choices that are geared toward assisting you in your quest to control not just your blood glucose levels but your blood pressure your lipids and your weight also.

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28 Part I: Diabetes and You What Is a “Diabetic Diet” This could be the shortest section in this entire book because truth be told we don’t believe a “diabetic diet” exists and certainly not in a restrictive or limiting sense. Indeed virtually any food can be accommodated if you have diabetes. A “diabetic diet” really means a well-balanced nutritious healthy eating program. Because the word “diet” often conjures up so many negative connotations — crash diets fad diets failed diets and so on — all replete with frustration and aggravation we’re hesitant to even use the word. Perhaps it’s no coincidence that diet is a four-letter word Our preferred term for a “diet” is “meal planning” or simply “healthy eating.” When we refer to a “diet” in this book it is this healthy eating strategy we’re referring to. The Canadian Diabetes Association CDA recommends — as do we — that people with diabetes follow Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide which you can find online at www.healthcanada.gc.ca/foodguide or in an abbreviated form in the colour insert of this book. Health Canada created this guide typically referred to in its short form: Canada’s Food Guide to help Canadians plan meals based on choosing appropriate amounts of food from the various food groups. Canada’s Food Guide offers these sensible eating tips: ✓ Enjoy a variety of foods from the four food groups vegetables and fruit grain products milk and alternatives and meat and alternatives. ✓ Emphasize vegetables fruits and cereals breads and other whole-grain products. ✓ Choose lower-fat dairy products leaner meats and food prepared with little or no fat. ✓ Achieve and maintain a healthy body weight by enjoying regular physical activity and healthy eating. ✓ Limit salt alcohol and caffeine. We look more closely at the recommendations in Canada’s Food Guide later in this chapter see “Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide”. In order for you to succeed with your diabetes nutrition plans you must know what to eat. This chapter provides helpful information but nothing replaces the guidance that a registered dietitian provides. If you haven’t seen one you’re missing out and we would strongly encourage you to arrange an appointment. In Chapter 1 we look at how you can find a dietitian.

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Chapter 2: You Are What You Eat 29 A prescription for a healthy eating program Doug hadn’t seen a doctor for years but having turned 40 he figured it was time to get “checked out.” Although he was quite a bit overweight he felt reasonably well and was very surprised when his family physician told him that not only did he have diabetes but he also had high blood pressure and high cholesterol. “Gee doc I guess this means you’re going to recommend I take a whole bunch of pills eh” he said dejectedly. To Doug’s surprise his doctor responded by saying “Well we could use a whole bunch of pills but your blood glucose levels aren’t all that high and your blood pressure and cholesterol aren’t all that bad so it’s up to you.” “Up to me” Doug said with surprise. “Yes it’s up to you” the doctor continued. “If you think you can change your eating habits cut down on your calories and reduce your salt and fat intake you may be able to avoid medication.” Doug was all for that so the doctor arranged an appointment with Cynthia who got Doug set up with a healthy eating program and it didn’t take long before his blood glucose blood pressure and cholesterol were on the way down. Was Doug on a “diabetic diet” As Shakespeare said a rose would smell as sweet by any other name . . . Exploring the Key Ingredients Most of what people eat is made up of carbohydrates proteins and fats. Other necessary ingredients in a person’s diet are vitamins minerals and in abundant quantities water. Although everybody needs to pay attention to how much of each of these things they eat in order to stay healthy people with diabetes need to be especially careful to ensure they get the right amounts of the right nutrients. The Canadian Diabetes Association CDA recommends that you divide your diet based on energy or calories as follows: ✓ Carbohydrate: 45–60 percent ✓ Protein: 15–20 percent ✓ Fat: less than 35 percent Carbohydrates proteins and fats each provide different amounts of energy measured in calories. The number of calories contained in 1 gram is

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30 Part I: Diabetes and You ✓ Carbohydrate: 4 calories ✓ Protein: 4 calories ✓ Fat: 9 calories Vitamins and minerals do not provide calories. In the following sections we look at each of the key ingredients of a healthy diabetes nutrition program. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates — often simply called carbs — are found in dairy foods and in foods that start their journey as seeds in the ground. Here are some examples of carbohydrates: ✓ Fruit ✓ Potatoes ✓ Rice pasta and corn ✓ Grains breads and cereals ✓ Dairy products Glucose: The critical carb Although many types of carbohydrates exist the carbohydrate most closely connected to diabetes is glucose. Indeed diabetes is defined by how much glucose is present in your blood. We discuss blood glucose levels in more detail in Chapter 1. Although you can eat or drink foods or liquids that contain glucose most of the glucose in the body comes from two sources: ✓ The breakdown during digestion of other carbohydrates ✓ The liver which manufactures glucose What carbohydrates do Carbohydrates play a number of very important roles in the body including the following: ✓ Providing energy for muscles. ✓ Supplying the brain with fuel. Hmm how apt that one talks about “food for thought.”

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Chapter 2: You Are What You Eat 31 ✓ Stimulating the pancreas to make insulin. ✓ In the case of fibre helping prevent constipation. “Sugar” in the form of sucrose as present in sweet items such as candy is a form of carbohydrate. Popular wisdom to the contrary eating sugar does not cause diabetes and is not directly harmful except perhaps to your teeth as long as the total number of calories you ingest is not excessive. Because sweets lack health value and contain significant calories you need to limit the amount of sweets in your diet. The CDA recommends that sweets make up no more than 10 percent of your daily calorie intake. The glycemic index Different types of carbohydrates raise blood glucose levels to different degrees. The glycemic index GI of a food is a measure of this tendency. The higher the glycemic index of a food the higher it tends to raise blood glucose. In theory therefore because a key goal of treating diabetes is to prevent high blood glucose levels it would make sense to emphasize low GI foods in one’s diet. In practice however things get a lot more complicated. For example the GI of the same food can vary depending on whether you eat it alone or as a part of a mixed meal and is also affected by among other things how the food is prepared. Also following a low glycemic index diet can be difficult. We discuss the glycemic index in more detail in Chapter 4. Carbohydrate counting Carbohydrate counting is a system in which people calculate how many grams of carbohydrate they are eating it is of special importance if you are taking rapid-acting mealtime insulin as it allows you to determine the appropriate insulin dose based on how many grams of carbohydrate you are about to eat. The more the amount of carbohydrate the higher the required insulin dose. We discuss carbohydrate counting in detail in Chapter 1. Nutritional breakdowns of the recipes in this book include the number of grams of carbohydrate present per serving. Fibre Fibre is a carbohydrate that is not absorbed into the body and thus does not add calories. Because fibre isn’t absorbed into the body and therefore provides no calories it isn’t included when performing carbohydrate counting see the preceding section and Chapter 1. Fibre is found in most fruits grains and vegetables and can be categorized into two distinct types:

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32 Part I: Diabetes and You ✓ Soluble fibre can dissolve in water. Ingesting soluble fibre can help to lower your blood glucose and cholesterol. An example of soluble fibre is oatmeal. ✓ Insoluble fibre cannot dissolve in water it absorbs water in the intestine and helps prevent constipation by providing bulk to the stool. Because insoluble fibre swells in the intestine it helps to make you feel full and may aid in weight loss. An example of insoluble fibre is the skin of an apple. The Canadian Diabetes Association recommends you ingest 25 to 50 grams of fibre daily. Because too much fibre can lead to diarrhea and flatulence you need to increase the fibre content in your diet fairly slowly. Also make sure you drink plenty of water. Protein For most people the main source of dietary protein is meat products — specifically muscle — from animals such as chicken turkey beef and lamb. Fish eggs and cheese are also sources of protein. Certain meat alternatives such as soybeans legumes nuts and seeds contain protein but for most people these alternatives make up a much smaller proportion of their daily protein intake. The most important function of the protein you eat is to provide the nutrients to maintain the health of tissues such as muscle. This is sometimes mistakenly interpreted to mean that in order to build up muscle bulk — such as bigger biceps — you need to consume large amounts of protein. The reality however is that the only way to develop bigger muscles is by exercising them regularly and the normal quantities of protein found in a healthy diet are sufficient to allow for increased muscle bulk if that’s your desire. The protein you eat does not affect your blood glucose levels significantly. Protein sources also contain variable amounts of fat so you need to give careful thought to the protein sources you eat. For example 30 grams 1 oz. of very lean meat fish or meat alternative such as skinless white-meat chicken or turkey or tuna canned in water has 7 grams of protein and 1 gram of fat and a total of 37 calories whereas on the other side of the spectrum 30 grams 1 oz. of high-fat meat such as pork sausage bacon or processed sandwich meats contains the same amount of protein 7 grams but 8 grams of fat and 100 calories.

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Chapter 2: You Are What You Eat 33 Fat Pretty well anyone who has ever purchased meat at the butcher or grocery store or ever thrown some meat on the barbecue has at least some familiarity with what fat looks like. Not all fat is created equal. Consuming some types of fat particularly in excess quantities can be harmful but ingesting other types of fat has potential health benefits. Cholesterol Cholesterol is a fat-like substance that when present in elevated levels in the blood contributes to the development of atherosclerosis “hardening of the arteries” which in turn can lead to heart attacks and strokes. For this reason you are typically best off minimizing the amount of cholesterol you ingest. The Canadian Diabetes Association recommends that if you have diabetes you limit your cholesterol intake to no more than 300 milligrams a day. To put this in perspective one large egg has about 215 mg of cholesterol. Other sources of cholesterol include liver kidney whole milk and hard cheeses such as Monterey Jack and cheddar. When we tell patients that they have high cholesterol we are often met with a puzzled look and a comment along the lines of “But that doesn’t make sense I don’t eat much cholesterol.” This conundrum is explained by the fact that most cholesterol in the body comes not from what you eat but from what your liver makes. People with diabetes are more prone to high cholesterol levels and although limiting your cholesterol consumption is important in reducing your cholesterol level medication is often required to effectively slow down how much cholesterol the liver is making. Tests for blood cholesterol levels actually measure several different types of cholesterol: ✓ LDL cholesterol is the type of cholesterol most responsible for causing atherosclerosis. The LDL should be kept low. For most adults with diabetes the target LDL is 2.0 mmol/L or less. To remember that LDL is the bad cholesterol think “LDL is Lousy and should be Low.” ✓ HDL cholesterol is a helpful protective cholesterol and the higher the value the better. To remember that HDL is the good cholesterol think “HDL is Healthy and should be High.”

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34 Part I: Diabetes and You ✓ Total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio is also routinely measured. Ideally the total cholesterol divided by HDL cholesterol should be under 4.0. Saturated fat Saturated fat comes from animal food sources. Examples of saturated fat are the fatty streaks found in meat such as steak or bacon butter cream and cream cheese. Because consuming saturated fat can make your LDL cholesterol go up minimizing your consumption of it is a good idea. The Canadian Diabetes Association recommends that less than 7 percent of your total daily calories come from saturated fat. Trans fatty acids Over the past few years trans fatty acids have garnered all sorts of attention and for good reason. Trans fatty acids raise LDL cholesterol levels and promote the development of atherosclerosis. Trans fatty acids have traditionally been used in many commercially baked goods such as cookies cakes potato chips doughnuts pastries French fries and breaded foods. The commercial food industry in response to public pressure and in some cases legislation has been working quickly at reducing or eliminating the amount of trans fatty acids present in its products. You should minimize how much trans fatty acid–containing food you eat. To do this avoid commercially fried foods and high-fat bakery products. The Nutrition Facts table on a food label will also tell you how much trans fat a product contains. We talk more about the Nutrition Facts table in Chapter 6. Unsaturated fat Unsaturated fat comes from vegetable food sources. Consuming monounsaturated fat as is found in avocados olive oil canola oil almonds and peanuts helps raise your HDL cholesterol and does not affect your LDL cholesterol. Consuming polyunsaturated fat as is found in corn oil mayonnaise and soft margarine helps lower your LDL but may also lower your HDL. Polyunsaturated fats should be less than 10 percent of your total daily calorie intake. Omega-3 fatty acids Omega-3 fatty acids are a healthy form of fat that helps protect against the development of atherosclerosis. Some evidence links a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids with a reduced risk of other health problems including cancer arthritis depression lupus and asthma.

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Chapter 2: You Are What You Eat 35 In your Internet and other travels you may come across terms regarding three specific types of omega-3 fatty acids each with its own sources and its own incredibly complicated name: ✓ Docosahexaenoic acid DHA is found in fatty fish and some commercially grown algae. ✓ Eicosapentaenoic acid EPA is found in fatty fish. ✓ Alpha-linolenic acid ALA is found in walnuts flax canola and soy. Omega-3 fatty acids are found in certain fish such as salmon herring mackerel and trout. Eat fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids at least twice per week. If you don’t fancy fish try crushed flaxseed omega-3 eggs or canola oil. Whether or not the same benefits of ingesting omega-3 fatty acids in food sources can be achieved by taking them in supplement form remains to be determined. Getting Enough Vitamins Minerals and Water In your healthy eating program you need to include a sufficient quantity of vitamins minerals and water. Most people can meet their daily needs of these nutrients by eating a balanced diet. In this section we look at the important vitamins and minerals required to maintain good health. Munching on minerals The minerals you require to maintain good health are readily available in the foods you eat as part of a healthy eating program. Calcium Ingesting sufficient calcium is important for good bone health and especially to avoid osteoporosis. Good sources of calcium include milk and other dairy products calcium-fortified tofu canned salmon and sardines if containing bones calcium-fortified orange juice and soy milk almonds and beans. Be sure to ingest depending on your age at least 800 to 1500 milligrams of elemental calcium per day. Depending on your dietary calcium intake you may require calcium supplements to obtain all the calcium you need. Because of the increased calcium needs of pregnancy pregnant women often

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36 Part I: Diabetes and You require calcium supplements. Many other people also need them so check- ing with your dietitian to see if you would benefit from taking extra calcium is a good idea. When buying calcium supplements be sure to take note on the label of the elemental calcium content not the total calcium content it is the elemental calcium content that you need to factor into your nutrition program. For more on calcium see Chapter 18. Chromium Chromium is required for certain internal chemical reactions to take place normally. Principal sources of chromium are brewer’s yeast meat and cheese. The North American diet is sufficiently rich in chromium that deficiency of this nutrient is highly unlikely and chromium supplements are neither necessary nor helpful. Iodine Iodine is necessary for normal thyroid gland function. Iodine is found in iodized salt dairy products and seafood. Again a North American diet is sufficiently rich in iodine that deficiency doesn’t occur and supplements are unnecessary. Iron Iron is used to make red blood cells. Being deficient in iron leads to iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is very common in women who menstruate because of menstrual blood losses blood is rich in iron. Men almost never have iron deficiency on the basis of insufficient iron ingestion unless they are strict vegetarians. Women who are strict vegetarians are also at increased risk of iron deficiency. Good sources of iron include red meat turkey chicken clams eggs and whole grain cereals. Women who menstruate often require iron supplements. Several different types of iron supplements are available your doctor can advise you as to which one is best for your particular situation. Magnesium Magnesium is required for a number of different chemical reactions to occur. Sources of magnesium are soybeans wheat germ almonds and dairy products. Magnesium deficiency is seldom a problem and routine supplements are unnecessary. Phosphorus Phosphorus is required for healthy strong bones. Sources of phosphorus include milk products meat fish legumes and nuts. As Canadian diets contain sufficient phosphorus routine supplements are not required.

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Chapter 2: You Are What You Eat 37 Sodium Getting enough sodium salt in one’s diet is never a problem in Canada quite the opposite in fact Excess salt consumption may be a factor leading to high blood pressure or if you already have high blood pressure making it worse. Avoid adding salt to your food and if you have high blood pressure make a point of buying foods that are low in salt to begin with. In Chapter 4 we look at how healthy eating can help control blood pressure. Zinc Zinc is required for certain normal chemical reactions to take place in the body. Zinc is found in beef lamb chicken pumpkins seeds dried beans and lentils. Zinc is present in sufficient quantities in a Canadian diet and supplements are not required. Vitality through vitamins Whether or not you have diabetes you should take vitamins with the same due diligence and caution that applies to taking prescription drugs or over-the- counter medications. Consider these three important factors about taking vitamin supplements: ✓ Do you actually need a vitamin supplement With a few specific exceptions which we discuss in a moment if you are eating a healthy well-balanced diet you’re unlikely to benefit from taking a vitamin supplement. ✓ If you do need a vitamin supplement take the specific one you need. Most vitamin preparations are a grab bag of different vitamins. If you need a vitamin supplement take only the specific vitamin supplement you actually require. ✓ Don’t take too much. Taking too high a dose of a vitamin supplement can damage your body. Most people whether or not living with diabetes can obtain all the vitamins that are needed from consuming a well-balanced healthy diet following Canada’s Food Guide. These are the most important exceptions to this rule: ✓ If you are pregnant or breastfeeding elderly a strict vegetarian on a very low calorie diet or for some other reason consume a diet insufficient in vitamins you should take a daily multivitamin. ✓ If you are a woman with diabetes who is looking to become pregnant you should take 5 mg of folic acid daily starting three months before stopping contraception. You should then continue to take 5 mg of folic acid daily until you are 12 weeks pregnant at which time you can reduce the dose to 0.4 to 1 mg per day. You should then stay on this lower dose until you have completed breastfeeding.

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38 Part I: Diabetes and You ✓ If you are over the age of 50 you should take vitamin D supplements totalling 400 units per day. This is a general rule of thumb. Depending on your particular situation you may need more than this amount or you may need to take a vitamin D supplement at a younger age or possibly only seasonally. We discuss vitamin D in more detail below. In the remainder of this section we look at the roles that certain vitamins have in maintaining good health. Vitamin A Vitamin A is found in a variety of food sources including certain meats liver beef chicken dairy products eggs cheese milk butter vegetables carrots sweet potatoes spinach and other green vegetables and fruits mangoes and oranges. If you are deficient in vitamin A you will be at risk of developing impaired vision reduced immune function dry hair and dry skin miscarriages and in children poor bone development. In and of itself diabetes does not put you at risk of vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin B 9 folate or folic acid Vitamin B 9 more commonly known as folate or folic acid is found in dried beans green leafy vegetables such as spinach Swiss chard cabbage kale broccoli and Brussels sprouts and citrus fruits. If you are deficient in folic acid you may develop anemia and/or a sore inflamed tongue. If you are pregnant folate deficiency puts your fetus at increased risk of spinal cord damage for this reason pregnant women are advised to take folic acid supplements routinely. We discuss the recommended folic acid supplement dose earlier in this section. Vitamin B 12 Vitamin B 12 is found in animal meat and dairy products. Deficiency of vitamin B 12 can lead to anemia nerve damage leading to difficulty walking impaired thinking and soreness and inflammation of the tongue.

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Chapter 2: You Are What You Eat 39 If you have diabetes you will be at increased risk of vitamin B 12 deficiency: ✓ Having type 1 diabetes increases your risk of having pernicious anemia which like type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder that is a condition in which antibodies attack one’s own body. Pernicious anemia commonly causes impaired absorption of vitamin B 12 from the intestine into the body. ✓ Taking metformin to treat type 2 diabetes increases the risk of vitamin B 12 deficiency because metformin for reasons that aren’t yet fully sorted out can interfere with the ability to absorb vitamin B 12 into the body. Also because vitamin B 12 is found only in animal products if you don’t consume animal products you will be high risk of deficiency of this vitamin. If you have type 1 diabetes type 2 diabetes treated with metformin or if you do not consume animal products discuss with your doctor about checking your vitamin B 12 level with a blood test from time to time. Vitamin D Vitamin D is found naturally in eggs and fatty fish and is added to many other foods such as milk. Sun exposure allows your own skin to make vitamin D which is pretty darn cool we think. Because of limited dietary intake of vitamin D and because of limited sun exposure many Canadians are deficient in this vitamin. Deficiency of vitamin D can lead to osteoporosis in adults and rickets in children. These are conditions in which bone mass and strength are reduced which in turn increases the risk of fractures. Low vitamin D levels also can lead to low calcium levels and decreased immune function. In recent years rapidly accumulating evidence has linked vitamin D deficiency to other health problems including an increased risk of some types of cancer and atherosclerosis “hardening of the arteries”. As we mention earlier in this section Canada’s Food Guide recommends that people over the age of 50 should take 400 international units of vitamin D supplements daily. Speak to your doctor or dietitian to find out what your specific vitamin D needs are.

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40 Part I: Diabetes and You Vitamin E Vitamin E is found in almonds sunflower seeds and oil safflower oil hazelnuts wheat germ green leafy vegetables such as spinach Swiss chard cabbage kale broccoli and Brussels sprouts cauliflower asparagus and avocado. Deficiency of vitamin E can lead to anemia nerve damage and muscle injury. Having diabetes does not put you at increased risk of having vitamin E deficiency. Vitamin K Vitamin K is found in green leafy vegetables such as kale spinach Swiss chard cabbage broccoli and Brussels sprouts avocado and kiwi fruit. The human gut also has the ability to make vitamin K from other nutrients that are eaten. We never fail to be amazed at what the human body can do. Making its own vitamins . . . Wow. Deficiency of vitamin K can lead to impaired ability of the blood to clot which in turn can lead to bleeding ranging from the minor such as a nose bleed to the life-threatening such as internal hemorrhaging. Having diabetes does not increase your risk of having vitamin K deficiency. What about water The single most important reason to ensure you drink enough water is to help your body maintain hydration. If your body doesn’t have enough water that is you are dehydrated you are at risk of becoming very ill indeed if dehydration is severe enough you are at risk of profoundly low blood pressure kidney failure and even death. In addition to maintaining hydration drinking water can help you control your weight as it may help reduce your appetite by giving you a feeling of fullness. Hydration is maintained not only by drinking water and other fluids but also from eating food. Vegetables and fruits are almost entirely made up of water and perhaps surprising to you uncooked meat is 70 percent water. Gee next time we’re at the butcher shop maybe we’ll ask for 70 percent off the price Another source of water is a by-product of normal metabolism as water is created when the body breaks down proteins fats and carbohydrates. Everyone is aware that a fair bit of water is lost from the body through urine but water is also lost in sometimes less obvious ways and amounts. Here are some estimates of daily water losses from the body:

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Chapter 2: You Are What You Eat 41 ✓ Urine: 0.5 L to 1.5 L ✓ Breathing: 0.4 L water is present in your exhaled breath ✓ Skin through sweating perspiring and simple evaporation: 0.5 L ✓ Bowel movements: 0.1 to 0.2 L In order to maintain hydration you need to ingest sufficient fluids to make up for these losses from your body. In general you should drink a minimum of 1.5 L 6 cups per day. Some situations result in far greater than normal losses of water from the body and hence the need to drink similarly far greater quantities of water to maintain hydration. For example vigorous exercise — especially in hot dry climates — can result in fluid losses in the form of sweat as great as 1.5 litres per hour Another example is diarrhea which if severe enough can lead to fluid losses of several litres per day. Poor blood glucose control with values up into the high teens or greater can lead to greater urine production which in turn puts you at risk of dehydration. Therefore if your blood glucose levels are high in addition to taking measures such as adjusting your medications under the guidance of your doctor make sure you drink enough water to maintain your hydration. Internet and other rumours to the contrary tap water is just as healthy as — and a lot less expensive than — bottled water spring water mineral water or any other packaged water. Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide Whether or not you have diabetes eating healthfully is essential. To help Canadians succeed with healthy eating Health Canada developed Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide. This title is typically abbreviated as Canada’s Food Guide. The guide is chock-a-block full of information to help people make good food choices. Canada’s Food Guide is available on line www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/food- guide-aliment/index-eng.php in a shortened form in this book’s colour insert and in hard copy from your dietitian. Following Canada’s Food Guide brings these important benefits: ✓ Getting the appropriate amounts of vitamins. ✓ Consuming the right amount of minerals.

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42 Part I: Diabetes and You ✓ Ingesting a healthy number of calories thereby helping with weight control. ✓ Reducing your risk of developing heart disease cancer osteoporosis and certain other health problems. The guide uses the colours of a rainbow to illustrate the recommended amounts of nutrients that should be consumed from each of the four food groups: ✓ Green: Vegetables and Fruits. This is the biggest arc of the rainbow. More of your daily food choices should come from this food group than any other group. ✓ Yellow: Grain Products. This is the second biggest arc of the rainbow and thus grains should be the second greatest type of food you should eat daily. ✓ Blue: Milk and Alternatives. This is the third biggest arc of the rainbow. “Alternatives” here refers to foods such as cheese yogurt and soy- based beverages. ✓ Red: Meat and Alternatives. This is the smallest arc of the rainbow and fewest of your food choices should come from this food group. “Alternatives” here refers to foods such as fish beans lentils and tofu. The guide emphasizes the importance of enjoying a variety of foods from each of the four food groups to help meet your overall nutritional needs. The guide also discusses portions in terms of “servings.” It’s important to know — as you will discover in the guide — what exactly is a serving size. P.S. It’s often a lot smaller than you might expect Rather than guessing whether or not you’ve chosen a proper serving size use measuring cups to help guide you. After doing this for a while you’ll better be able to judge what a serving size is. These are some important recommendations from the guide: ✓ Eat at least one dark green vegetable and one orange vegetable every day. ✓ Have vegetables and fruit more often than juice. ✓ Choose a minimum of half of your grain products as whole grain. ✓ Drink milk daily. Choose skim 1 percent or 2 percent milk rather than whole milk. ✓ Have meat alternatives like lentils beans and tofu regularly. ✓ Consume at least two servings of fish per week. ✓ Include unsaturated fat in small amounts daily. ✓ Choose foods that are low in fat sugar and salt.

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W Chapter 3 You Are How You Eat To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here In This Chapter ▶ Sizing up proper portions ▶ Knowing when to eat ▶ Balancing your meals ▶ Investigating a healthy vegetarian diet ▶ Including smart snacks ▶ Looking at artificial sweeteners ▶ Exploring alcohol and nutrition ▶ Eating well at home ▶ Noshing nutritiously when away hen we discuss how to eat we’re not referring to whether your preferred utensils are forks and knives chopsticks or those most versatile of all implements — your own fingers rather we’re referring to such “how-tos” as portion size meal timing eating out using artificial sweeteners and so on. For the inside scoop on what to eat see Chapter 2. Living with diabetes presents many eating challenges. What many of our patients tell us is that discovering which foods are healthy and which foods are unhealthy is the easiest part of the diabetes nutrition education process. Far trickier for most people to master are the more nuanced less black-and- white essentials like figuring out how much is a serving or portion size how to divide up the different types of nutrients and how to eat healthfully when you’re away from home at a restaurant at a party on the road and so forth. In this chapter we look at these challenges and provide tips to help you meet them. Keeping Portions under Control

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Making healthy food choices is tremendously important but also important is eating the right amount of these healthy choices — that is keeping portion sizes under control.

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44 Part I: Diabetes and You Ian recalls years ago seeing an industrious enthusiastic older woman who newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes was committed to “turning her eating habits around” so that she could “stick around” until her grandchildren were married. She gave up her predilection for cakes chips and the like and took up eating vegetables fruits and other healthy choices. Nonetheless try as she might the extra pounds she carried wouldn’t fade away. Upon reviewing her eating habits Ian discovered that his keen patient was indeed eating very healthy foods including nutritious scrumptious Granny Smith apples . . . over a dozen a day Ian advised her to reduce her apple consumption to one to two a day and lo and behold the excess pounds gradually started to fall. Moral of the story: Healthy foods still contain calories and like most things in life you can have too much of a good thing. A helpful way to determine what for most people is a healthy portion size is to compare an amount of a food to something else: ✓ One deck of playing cards equals 3 ounces 90 grams of cooked fish poultry or meat. ✓ A chequebook represents 3 ounces 90 grams of cooked roast beef or fish fillet. ✓ Half a tennis ball equals 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml of mashed potato pasta or fruit salad. ✓ A golf ball is the equivalent of 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml of nuts. ✓ A fist is the size of a medium-sized piece of fruit or potato. ✓ Four dice are the size of 1 ounce 30 grams of cheese. ✓ The end of your thumb from the tip to the first joint is the size of 1 teaspoon 5 ml of soft margarine. Here are some excellent aids to help you learn more about portion sizes: ✓ Health Canada’s Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide www.health canada.gc.ca/foodguide or in this book’s insert ✓ The Canadian Diabetes Association’s CDA’s Just the Basics www. diabetes.ca/about-diabetes/nutrition/just-basics ✓ The CDA’s Beyond the Basics www.diabetes.ca/for-professionals/ resources/nutrition/beyond-basics Don’t be misled by the term “serving size” on the Nutrition Facts tables on the foods you buy. Despite what you may think a serving size isn’t based on hard scientific evidence. In other words just because a label says a certain amount of a product constitutes a serving size that doesn’t mean it’s the best size for you.

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Chapter 3: You Are How You Eat 45 How much is half a cup Here’s a tip that Cynthia shares with her patients to help them estimate how much is 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml without needing to get out a measuring cup each time: Pour water into a measuring cup until you’ve measured out 1 ⁄2 cup. Now whenever you use that glass you’ll readily know how much is 1 ⁄2 cup 125ml of your favourite drink. Do the same thing with a bowl to be able to estimate how much is 1 cup 250 ml of soup. You can also use a dry measuring cup to Pour the water into one of your frequently used measure out 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml of cereal or glasses. Take a mental snapshot of where the level came to. vegetables or pasta and so forth and then pour this into a favourite bowl. This technique will help you to be more aware of portion sizes and what you’re consuming at a meal. In this book’s recipes serving sizes are based on the principles of healthy balanced eating as set out by the Canadian Diabetes Association and Canada’s Food Guide. Timing Is Everything If you have diabetes you should aim to eat three meals per day with your meals spaced no longer than six hours apart. This schedule will help you keep your blood glucose levels in check and will also help you avoid falling into that all too common trap of starving yourself all day then once you get home in the evening raiding the fridge or pantry and grazing until you go to bed. If your meals will be more than six hours apart eating a snack midway between your meals is often a good idea. This is particularly important if you are on medication such as insulin or a sulfonylurea medication such as glyburide see Chapter 1 that may cause hypoglycemia. Eating a bedtime snack may be necessary if you are taking medicine — especially NPH insulin given in the evening — that can cause your blood glucose levels to go too low overnight. Bedtime snacks should contain both carbohydrate and protein. We talk more about snacking to prevent hypoglycemia later in this chapter.

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46 Part I: Diabetes and You Balancing Out a Meal’s Ingredients Cynthia reminds her patients to always think of balance at mealtimes. A meal shouldn’t consist solely of carbohydrates nor should it be made up exclusively of proteins. And most definitely it should not be comprised purely of fat Oh my even the thought of that is too much to handle. Meals should have at least one serving each of a carbohydrate and a protein. In Chapter 2 we discuss the roles that these nutrients play in maintaining good health. Jeff was a 35-year-old patient of Cynthia’s. He was evenly balanced when it came to his temperament his exercise his work and pretty well everything else in his life except that is for his eating habits. He came to see Cynthia because he was having recurring problems with hypoglycemia low blood glucose occurring an hour or two after his lunch. As Cynthia discovered for lunch Jeff always had a tossed salad with lettuce tomato cucumber and celery topped with diet dressing and washed down with a glass of water. Although these were healthy food choices Jeff was not eating any carbohydrate or protein. Because Jeff took long-acting insulin every morning the insulin was pulling his blood glucose level down and with no carbohydrate in his lunch to keep it up he was developing hypoglycemia. Cynthia advised Jeff to have some milk cheese and crackers with his salad after that he seldom ran into problems with after-lunch hypoglycemia. Also he wasn’t quite so hungry come suppertime and as a result ate a more modestly sized supper. Eating Vegetarian Vegetarian diets are generally low in cholesterol and fat especially saturated and trans fats high in fibre and compared to non-vegetarian diets often lower in calories and less expensive to boot. Vegetarian diets have many health advantages including an association with lower blood pressure and cholesterol less obesity and a decreased risk for stroke heart disease and cancer. In order to ensure you get all the nutrients you require following a vegetarian diet requires careful planning. This is especially true for children teens and pregnant and lactating women. Be sure to speak to your dietitian to receive their expert advice. In Chapter 16 we present a delectable assortment of healthy vegetarian recipes.

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Chapter 3: You Are How You Eat 47 Sorting Out Snacks If you have had diabetes for a while you likely recall being told at some time that you should eat three snacks per day. This longstanding recommendation has recently been changed. The Canadian Diabetes Association now advises that the need to snack and the number of daily snacks to eat should be determined on a case-by-case basis taking into account your personal preferences medications you take that might cause hypoglycemia the type of work and exercise you do and so on. Your dietitian can work with you to help you sort out your personal snacking needs and how best to fulfill them. The exception to the preceding recommendation is if you have diabetes and you are pregnant in which case you should indeed make a point of eating three snacks per day one of which should be at bedtime. The term “snacking” often carries negative connotations. And sure if snacking automatically meant pulling out a tub of ice cream from the freezer or a box of cookies from the pantry then snacking’s bad reputation would be justified. Snacking however can be done perfectly healthfully and can help complement your daily nutrient needs. A snack for someone with diabetes should generally contain a carbohydrate or a carbohydrate with a protein from the Milk and Alternatives group or the Meat and Alternatives group. We discuss the food groups in Chapter 2. Here are some examples of healthy snacks: ✓ 1 medium apple ✓ 1 medium pear ✓ 15 cherries ✓ 1 small banana ✓ 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml fruit salad ✓ 1 cup 250 ml low-fat milk ✓ 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml unsweetened flavoured yogurt ✓ 1 slice multigrain bread with soft margarine and diet jam ✓ 1 slice pumpernickel toast with 1 tbsp 15 ml peanut butter ✓ 1 ⁄2 sandwich ✓ 1 ⁄2 small bagel with 1 oz. 30 g melted low-fat cheddar ✓ 1 small bran muffin ✓ 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml dal with 1 small chapati ✓ 3 cups 750 ml plain popcorn ✓ 1 low-fat granola bar ✓ 1 low-fat pudding cup ✓ 3 arrowroot cookies ✓ 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml trail mix ✓ 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml chocolate milk with 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml almonds

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48 Part I: Diabetes and You ✓ 1 oz. 30 g cheese with 4 whole-grain crackers ✓ 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml low-fat cottage cheese with 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml fruit ✓ 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml hummus with 1 ⁄2 pita ✓ 1 egg and 1 slice rye toast ✓ Tossed salad with 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml chick peas and 1 tbsp 15 ml light dressing ✓ 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml hummus with raw veggies ✓ Spinach salad with 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml mandarin oranges and 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml walnuts ✓ 15 grapes and 1 oz. 30 g cheese ✓ 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml cereal and 1 cup 250 ml low-fat milk ✓ 1 small slice of pizza As you can see there is certainly no shortage of variety in the types of snacks available. For other healthy snack suggestions have a look at our Month of Menus see Appendix B. Take nutritious snacks from home to eat at school work sports events or on the run. Having these snacks on hand will help reduce the temptation to purchase less nutritious snacks. If you don’t want to snack but you need to in order to avoid hypoglycemia speak to your doctor about having your medications adjusted. With so many different drugs to treat diabetes now available your doctor will almost certainly be able to find medications and doses that will be less likely to cause hypoglycemia and therefore won’t force you to snack and consume unwanted calories with the potential for weight gain when you don’t want to. If changing the types or doses of your medications doesn’t help or is not an option then speak to your dietitian adjusting your diet could improve the situation. Ian recalls meeting Mary a 42-year-old woman who had been living with type 2 diabetes for five years. Mary was being treated with NPH insulin at bedtime. Her problem was that even though she had no desire to take a bedtime snack if she didn’t she would invariably awaken in the middle of the night with hypoglycemia. Things had gotten so bad she was afraid to go to sleep. Ian changed Mary’s NPH insulin to Levemir insulin see Chapter 1 which like Lantus insulin tends to cause less overnight hypoglycemia than NPH insulin. Mary had no further overnight hypoglycemia and she was thrilled to be able to abandon her unwanted bedtime snacks. Despite what many people believe sugar in the form of sucrose or table sugar isn’t forbidden from your diet if you have diabetes. Indeed the Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines www.diabetes. ca/for-professionals/resources/2008-cpg note that up to 10 percent of calories can come from sugar. These guidelines don’t advocate for you to make a point of consuming sucrose just that it’s okay to have sugar so long as you limit the quantities. We use sugar in the dessert recipes in this

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Chapter 3: You Are How You Eat 49 book see Chapters 17 and 18 — in keeping with the principle that sugar isn’t a “dirty word.” Also — and in keeping with the need to be careful with the amount of sugar you consume — some of the dessert recipes provide a choice of using less sugar or a sugar substitute. If you have diabetes consuming excess sugar will make it harder to control your blood glucose levels. Also whether or not you have diabetes the surplus calories in sugar will promote weight gain. Artificial sweeteners Although limiting sugar intake is important humans naturally enjoy sweet things. Many food manufacturers have addressed this conundrum by replacing or reducing the sugar in certain foods with artificial sweeteners or sugar alcohols. These are the artificial sweeteners in use in Canada: ✓ Acesulfame potassium. Trade names for acesulfame include Sunette and Sweet One. ✓ Aspartame. Trade names for aspartame include NutraSweet and Equal. Do not use aspartame if you have PKU which is a rare genetic disorder. ✓ Cyclamate. Cyclamate is found in Sucaryl Sugar Twin and Sweet’N Low. Do not consume cyclamate if you are pregnant. ✓ Saccharin. Saccharin is contained in Hermesetas. It is available in Canada only in pharmacies. Do not consume saccharin if you are pregnant. ✓ Sucralose. The trade name for sucralose is Splenda. Some artificial sweeteners despite having the same name in different countries may contain different ingredients. For example in Canada Sweet’N Low contains cyclamate whereas in the U.S.A. it does not. Many of the dessert recipes we describe in this book have the option of substituting sugar with artificial sweeteners. Sugar alcohols Sugar alcohols isomalt lactitol maltitol mannitol sorbitol and xylitol are another type of sweetener. Though the term “sugar alcohol” is scientifically correct these sweeteners contain neither table sugar nor ethanol that is the alcohol found in alcohol-containing drinks. Sugar alcohols contain calories and have the potential to make your blood glucose levels go up but typically to a far lesser degree than a comparable amount of sucrose table sugar.

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50 Part I: Diabetes and You Many brands of chewing gum contain sugar alcohols. Sugar alcohols are also found in some types of hard candies ice cream and other frozen desserts jams and syrups. Consumption of more than 10 grams per day of sugar alcohols can cause abdominal cramping and diarrhea. Cynthia recalls speaking to a group of people living with diabetes. When she mentioned that excess consumption of sugar alcohol–containing products can lead to diarrhea a middle-aged man leaped to his feet and excitedly announced “So that’s what the problem is” Turned out he was working as a long-distance truck driver and had recently taken to consuming bags full of “diet” chewy treats made with sugar alcohols. He had then started having bothersome diarrhea but hadn’t made the connection with his new dietary habits. Cynthia recommended he cut down on his treats and in short order his rig was up and running and his bowels weren’t. Alcohol Most people enjoy drinking alcohol from time to time. If you have diabetes and you would like to consume alcohol you can continue to do so safely unless you’re pregnant in which case you must consume no alcohol at all but you should follow certain precautions: ✓ Limit your quantity. You should limit the quantity of alcohol you drink to no more than two drinks per day if you’re a man and one drink per day if you’re a woman. Note that this is not the same as “saving up” your drinks and having a dozen on a Saturday night while watching Hockey Night in Canada In the same way you can’t save up your week’s calories for one big night of food debauchery you can’t save up your alcohol consumption either both need to be spread out over time. ✓ Know that a drink is a drink is a drink. Because alcohol has calories you must account for the alcohol you drink in your diet. Depending on the strength of the individual product 12 oz. 350 ml of beer 5 oz. 150 ml of wine and 1 1 ⁄2 oz. 45 ml of hard liquor all count as one drink and all have similar quantities of alcohol. Despite what many people think drinking beer or wine is not “better for you” than drinking hard liquor. To your liver they all taste the same. ✓ Watch out for hypoglycemia. Consuming alcohol increases your risk of developing hypoglycemia— even many hours after the alcohol is consumed — if your diabetes is being treated with medications such as insulin that reduce blood glucose. You can reduce this risk by making sure you eat some carbohydrate-containing food when you drink alcohol.

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Chapter 3: You Are How You Eat 51 ✓ Help your friends keep an eye on you. Tell your companions that if you’re “acting drunk” or especially if you have passed out it may not be from the alcohol — similar symptoms can be due to low blood glucose. Also make sure you educate them in advance on what to do if you are hypoglycemic see Chapter 1. If nothing else at the very least tell them to call 911 if you are unconscious. Healthy Eating at Home Eating at home has certain advantages many of which apply whether or not you have diabetes. For instance you have more control over the type of food served the way it is prepared the serving size and meal timing. If you have diabetes and you are carbohydrate counting see Chapter 1 you have likely already discovered how much easier it is to determine how many grams of carbohydrates are present in food you’ve prepared yourself or bought pre-packaged for cooking at home rather than ordered in a restaurant. Here are some healthy eating tips you can use at home: ✓ Eat breakfast every day. ✓ Limit your use of margarine or butter. • Use light mayonnaise instead of margarine or butter on your bread. Just one teaspoon of margarine or butter has 35 calories and a teaspoon of light mayonnaise has 15 calories. • If you’re going to be adding peanut butter to your toast don’t also use margarine or butter. Stick ahem to the peanut butter alone. • Use salsa or light sour cream on top of a baked potato instead of butter or margarine. ✓ Bake broil roast microwave or stir fry more often avoid deep frying. ✓ Remember that with easier access to food in the home compared to a restaurant you need to keep an eye on how much food you’re eating. One of Cynthia’s patients knew that eating breakfast is important and that eating fruit is a healthy thing to do too so she routinely ate three cups 750 ml of fruit salad and one banana as part of her breakfast. When Cynthia pointed out to her that these fruits contained a total of almost 450 calories and 100 grams of carbohydrate the patient was flabbergasted. She reduced the amount to one cup 250 ml of fruit salad saving herself hundreds of calories and many grams of carbohydrate per day and over the next few weeks lost several pounds and lowered her blood glucose For more calorie-saving tips see our discussion in Chapter 4 on behaviour modification strategies.

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52 Part I: Diabetes and You Healthy Eating When You’re Away from Home For some people eating away from home is a special treat for others it’s a way of life. Whether you are at a restaurant deli counter cafeteria vending machine or corner store making healthy choices is almost always possible. This is quite a contrast from even a few short years ago when healthy eating was a near impossibility once you left the confines of your own kitchen. Healthy eating in restaurants Canadians are eating more and more of their meals in restaurants. This is not necessarily a bad thing but it does pose some additional challenges if you have diabetes. For instance when dining out in a restaurant you may not know how a dish was prepared portions are often overly large and so very hard to turn down and if you are carbohydrate counting determining how many grams of carbohydrate are in a dish can be very hard. Also restaurant foods often contain more fat and salt than homemade recipes. Here are some general strategies you can follow to make eating out a healthful not harmful experience: ✓ Choose foods in the appropriate amounts from the different food groups see Chapter 2. ✓ Resist the temptation to be “super-sized.” ✓ Ask the wait staff how big the portions are. If the portions are large try one of the following: • Share the serving with your dinner-mate • Eat half and take the other half home for your next day’s lunch • Order the “lunch” sized portion for your dinner • Order a kid’s sized serving ✓ Avoid “all you can eat” buffets. We wouldn’t want to speak for you but if you’re like us you’ve likely seldom if ever left such a restaurant without saying to yourself “Oh my I ate too much.” ✓ When ordering a salad ask for low-calorie dressings like oil and vinegar rather than creamy dressing. Ask for your dressing to be on the side so you can choose how much to put on. Also rather than pouring the dressing on the salad instead pick up pieces of salad with your fork and dip a small portion of the piece in the dressing. You’ll end up with much less dressing and save calories and fat.

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Chapter 3: You Are How You Eat 53 ✓ Ask to see the nutritional information for the food and look at the content of the various food choices you’re considering so that you can be sure to select appropriate items. Also increasingly often restaurant menus have symbols to let you know what are healthier food choices. ✓ Make sure the wait staff are paying attention when you order a “diet” soft drink. Wait staff sometimes bring a non-diet soft drink to the table even when a diet drink has been ordered. These are good food choices when ordering in a restaurant: ✓ Baked steamed or broiled foods ✓ Tomato-based dishes ✓ Grilled chicken ✓ Fish non-battered ✓ Sandwiches made with chicken turkey pastrami or Black Forest ham. When ordering a sandwich ask for extra lettuce tomatoes or other vegetables to be added. If mayonnaise is being used ask for it be “light” and have them apply it to only one piece of bread not both. Add mustard on the other piece of bread. Instead of two pieces of bread choose a whole grain bun pita or wrap. ✓ For dessert order a piece of fruit or a fruit salad. These are food choices usually best avoided: ✓ Deep-fried heavily battered or breaded foods ✓ Foods that are served with rich creamy cheesy or other heavy sauces ✓ Sandwiches made with salami mock chicken or bologna ✓ Bacon cheeseburgers If you want a cheeseburger get it without the added bacon. ✓ Cakes and pies Diabetes is a long-term condition and requires a long-term commitment to healthy eating. This is not the same thing as saying that you can never indulge and eat those things you normally wouldn’t. Craving a double bacon cheese- burger with fries Having this as a special occasional treat isn’t going to kill you. Enjoy it. And don’t feel guilty Then get back on track with healthy eating. Healthy eating at vending machines Finding healthy food choices in vending machines can be especially challenging but even here great strides are being made with an ever-increasing variety of nutritious choices becoming available.

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54 Part I: Diabetes and You Here are some tips when buying food from a vending machine: ✓ Select sandwiches made with whole-grain breads. ✓ Choose vegetable juice instead of pop. ✓ Buy cheese and crackers hummus and crackers or tuna and crackers. ✓ Look for fresh or canned fruit. ✓ Avoid large muffins — they usually contain a whopping 500 calories. ✓ Stay away from canned soups unless you know they are low in sodium. Healthy eating at the convenience store Are we the only ones irked by those commonplace billboard ads that encourage commuters to stop in at the local convenience store to pick up needed essentials all the while showing a picture of a shopping bag full of colas chips and cookies Well as much as we find those ads irritating truth be told even at convenience stores you can — with some difficulty — find reasonably healthy food choices. Here are some tips when buying foods at the convenience store: ✓ Choose milk instead of a soft drink or other sugary drink. When buying chocolate milk choose one with reduced fat. If buying a pop choose a diet one. ✓ Try trail mix almonds or whole grain pretzels for a snack. ✓ Look for healthy pre-made sandwiches. ✓ Try the crock pot of chili or stew. ✓ Reach for the fruit not the chocolate bars. Healthy eating at friends’ homes If you are visiting a friend’s home and you are asked what foods you can or cannot eat often the easiest thing to say is that you are restricted only to “a healthy diet” and that “all foods can fit.” Here are some tips you can follow to help ensure you eat healthfully when you’re at your friends’ homes:

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Chapter 3: You Are How You Eat 55 ✓ Ask your friends at what time they will be eating. If it will be quite a bit later than your usual mealtime and if you customarily eat a snack at bedtime eat your snack at your usual dinnertime instead. This will help you to avoid being overly hungry which could lead to overeating when mealtime arrives. However if you need to eat a bedtime snack to avoid hypoglycemia overnight then you will still need to eat your usual bedtime snack. ✓ Offer to bring an appetizer a vegetable dish or a dessert. Choose one that works with your eating plan but that others will enjoy too. Check out the recipes in this book ✓ If you will be having wine or beer with dinner choose a non-alcohol- containing beverage before dinner. ✓ Be moderate with the number of appetizers you eat. ✓ Choose a protein-containing main dish if available rather than one that is high in carbohydrate or fat. ✓ Be moderate in the portions of your side dishes such as potato or rice. ✓ Heap on the vegetables. ✓ If you elect to eat a sugar-rich dessert ask for a small serving. As we discuss in Chapter 2 sweets are not forbidden although you do have to limit how many sweets you eat. ✓ If you’ve eaten robustly consider going for a walk after dinner it will likely make you feel less full and will help keep your blood glucose level in check. Healthy eating at parties and celebrations Christmas Thanksgiving Kwanza Passover Diwali weddings birthday parties and most every other celebration involves eating. Festivities are a part of everyone’s life and living with diabetes doesn’t mean that you can’t enjoy the event as much as everyone else. You do however have to follow a few precautions which we discuss in this section. Here are a few tips to help you enjoy your time at a party or other celebration: ✓ Try not to overindulge. Easy to say not easy to do. If you think you may overindulge eat especially modestly the rest of the day. For example eat a low-fat breakfast and lunch and save the extra fat for later. ✓ Don’t go to a party hungry eat something healthy before you leave. ✓ Offer to bring a healthy appetizer. Then feel free to eat some of it

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56 Part I: Diabetes and You ✓ If you’re on medicine such as insulin that can cause low blood glucose eat a carbohydrate-containing snack when drinking alcohol. This will reduce your risk of developing hypoglycemia. See earlier in this chapter for more on this topic. ✓ Mingle away from the food so you’re not so tempted to keep eating. ✓ Use a plate to better monitor how much you’re eating. ✓ Participate in organized activities. That way it’s not all about eating and drinking. ✓ If at a wedding where the meal is typically served quite late bring a snack to eat to tide you over until dinner is served. ✓ Dance dance dance. Dancing is exercise and will burn off those extra calories you just ate. Who said exercising isn’t fun Going to a sporting event The vendors are much more likely to be selling chips than something healthy. To help you avoid temptation bring a piece of fruit or some nuts. Walk around during breaks in the action to stretch your legs burn off some calories and lower your blood glucose.

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W Chapter 4 Staying Healthy through Nutrition To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here In This Chapter ▶ Considering healthy ways to lose weight ▶ Finding out about the glycemic index ▶ Eating right with gestational diabetes ▶ Getting the lowdown on high blood pressure ▶ Controlling lipids by eating well ▶ Dealing with kidney failure through nutrition hether you’ve had diabetes for days or decades healthy eating is a key component to managing both your diabetes and your general health. Our hunch is that you know this already but we thought it couldn’t hurt to mention it anyhow. In Chapters 2 and 3 we look at general nutrition principles and in this chapter we look specifically at important and common dietary challenges that face many people living with diabetes. Weight-Loss Strategies If you have type 2 diabetes then you may be facing the very common challenge of trying to figure out how you can lose weight without feeling like you’re starving or you’ve given up all the foods you like to eat. Indeed for the majority of our patients with type 2 diabetes having a satisfying diet that still facilitates weight loss is typically both their single biggest struggle and their single greatest frustration. Fortunately you can overcome this challenge. There are no easy ways to lose weight. There are no shortcuts no tricks no magic bullets and no miracles. Losing weight is hard and persisting work. Ever wonder why there are so many bestselling diet books It’s because none of them provide the perfect answer for all people. Indeed most of them provide the perfect answer for hardly anyone at all

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58 Part I: Diabetes and You Knowing if you’re overweight The easiest and best way to determine if you’re overweight is to calculate your body mass index BMI. BMI is an indicator of whether you’re the right weight for your height. Not to be confused with the flip version which many people jokingly say as they declare they are too short for their weight A healthy normal BMI is 18.5 to 24.9. If your BMI is less than 18.5 you’re likely underweight and if your BMI is more than 24.9 you’re likely overweight. Note that the normal range for BMI does not apply to pregnant or breastfeeding woman nor does it apply to infants children or adolescents nor to particularly muscular individuals. You can quickly determine your BMI by using an online calculator such as the one available at www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi. Alternatively you can calculate your BMI yourself though nobody ever does it this way: by dividing your weight in kilograms by the square of your height in metres. Uh-huh just as we thought we saw your eyes just glaze over. Another way of knowing if you’re overweight is based on your waist circumference. Health Canada notes that your risk of health problems goes up if your waist circumference is ✓ For men 102 cm 40 inches or more. ✓ For women 88 cm 35 inches or more. Reviewing the benefits from weight loss if you’re overweight If you’re overweight and have diabetes these are some of the benefits you may experience from even small weight loss: ✓ Improved blood glucose control ✓ Improved blood pressure ✓ Improved lipids cholesterol and triglycerides ✓ Enhanced self-esteem ✓ Better sex life ✓ More energy and more incentive to exercise ✓ Reduced risk of some types of cancer ✓ Increased life expectancy ✓ Reduced need for medications such as those for blood glucose blood pressure and lipid control

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Chapter 4: Staying Healthy through Nutrition 59 Being skeptical about fad diets When Ian’s patients ask him if they would lose weight by following this or that fad diet or by adhering to the most recent celebrity-endorsed diet book’s recommendations they are typically quite surprised when Ian quickly answers in the affirmative. But Ian is then equally quick to share his self-proclaimed 95-95- 95 rule: In his experience 95 percent of people following any fad diet will lose weight for 95 days at which point 95 percent of people will get fed up with the diet abandon it and will then regain all or even more of the weight they’d lost Two other points about fad diets are worth mentioning. One: Many of these diets are so restrictive they can make you feel unwell with constipation fatigue muscle ache hair loss and so on. And two: Some of these diets can be very expensive. Hmm a diet that doesn’t provide long-term weight loss can make you feel unwell and often costs lots of money to boot not exactly a recipe for success — except for the people selling the books and running the fad clinics. Checking out healthy weight-loss strategies If we are skeptical of fad diets what then do we recommend It may not sound very sexy but we advocate those tried and true healthy eating principles — which we describe in detail in Chapters 2 and 3 — that are espoused by bodies such as Health Canada and the Canadian Diabetes Association. And we recommend these healthy eating strategies be accompanied by behaviour modification see the next section and regular exercise see Chapter 1. A highly effective way to lose weight is to cut out 500 calories per day from your diet. Where can you find these 500 calories A large muffin with butter 37 potato chips 4 chocolate chip cookies and 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml peanuts all contain 500 calories. By the way it may seem like a misnomer to call a lifelong healthy eating strategy a diet but in fact the origin of the word “diet” comes from the ancient Greek word dieta meaning “way of life.” Knowing this piece of trivia we no longer consider the word diet to be a four-letter word Modifying your behaviour Changing your behaviour is a highly effective way to lose weight. In this section we list some tried and true behaviour modification techniques. You needn’t adopt all of the following tips though you’re welcome to adopting even a few of them can have a terrific impact. If you’re looking to lose weight try some of the following:

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60 Part I: Diabetes and You ✓ When you’re eating shut off the TV radio computer or any other electronic wizardry that may cause you to lose track of how much you’re eating. ✓ Slow down your eating. Slowing down is easier if you wait until you’ve swallowed your last bite before putting more food in your mouth and if you put your cutlery down between mouthfuls. As you do this think about whether or not you’re still hungry. Often even a brief pause for reflection will allow you to recognize sooner when you are full. ✓ Enjoy your food: Concentrate on the taste of each mouthful before you swallow. ✓ Use a small plate and try making a point of leaving some food over. ✓ When servings have been distributed remove the serving dishes and bread basket from the table. ✓ Keep snacks and other treats out of sight or even better out of the house. Like they say out of sight out of mind. Considering volumetrics Another helpful technique to help you lose weight is to add bulk to your food something that goes by the high falutin’ name of volumetrics. Hunger is often satisfied by increasing the volume of food even if the number of calories is reduced. Here are a few ways you can do this: ✓ Start your meals with a glass of water followed by a broth-based vegetable soup like Veggie Soup see Chapter 8. ✓ Eat a tossed salad with a small amount of light dressing or eat raw vegetables and light dip. ✓ End your meal with diet Jell-O or some other equivalent product. Looking at ways your attempts at losing weight can be sabotaged A whole bunch of factors can conspire against your best attempts to lose weight. Be on the lookout for these factors and fight back against them: ✓ Having unrealistic expectations. Losing 2 to 4 pounds about 1 to 2 kg per month is a sufficient goal and a lofty achievement. The CDA recommends aiming to lose 5 to 10 percent of your initial body weight over 6 to 12 months.

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Chapter 4: Staying Healthy through Nutrition 61 ✓ Not preparing a food shopping list. Bringing a list with you to the store when you buy your groceries will help you avoid making last-minute impulse purchases of unhealthy foods. ✓ Keeping the wrong foods in the house. If your pantry is chock-a-block full of chips cookies sweets and other treats you’re going to face constant temptation to eat those things which are not going to help you lose weight. Instead stock your pantry and fridge with healthy less caloric treats. ✓ Following an overly restrictive diet. As we discuss in the section “Being skeptical about fad diets” most “diet books” advocate eating strategies that are overly restrictive both in terms of the variety of foods they advocate and the number of calories they permit and as a result eventually get abandoned. ✓ Feeling hungry all the time. If your nutrition program leaves you feeling hungry too often it’s pretty well guaranteed you’re going to abandon your nutrition program. We sure would A registered dietitian can set you up with a healthy eating program that won’t leave you feeling hungry. ✓ Skipping meals. Skipping meals tends to make you overly hungry later in the day and to then overeat thus undoing any calorie savings you’ve achieved by having missed a meal. ✓ Pretending that snacks have no calories. We will be the first to admit that this is our greatest personal foible. A chip here a cookie there and presto hello extra belt notch. Oops now how’d that happen Having a snack isn’t a bad thing — indeed it is often a good thing if you have diabetes it’s just that you need to include the calories that snacks contain in your nutrition program. ✓ Letting loose on weekends. We recommend that people living with diabetes feel free to occasionally indulge and eat some favourite treat like a bowl of ice cream or a piece of cake. That’s not the same however as eating like a saint Monday to Friday and eating indiscriminately all weekend because well it’s the weekend. Excess calories cause the same amount of weight gain if you eat them on Saturday as if you eat them on Monday. Rats. ✓ Feeling that an indiscriminate nibble has “wrecked the day.” If you’ve eaten something you know to be unhealthy that doesn’t mean the “day is shot” and you may as well go ahead and eat whatever you want the rest of the day. Each calorie counts so if you’ve nibbled on something you shouldn’t have forget about it and simply get back on track. And don’t feel guilty Life happens after all. ✓ Ignoring the impact of exercise. As we discuss in Chapter 1 exercise in conjunction with nutrition therapy can play a very helpful role in helping you lose weight. ✓ Not rewarding yourself. Losing weight is a hard-fought battle. If you win — even if it’s a small few-pound victory — reward yourself. How about a trip to the store to buy those new shoes or that new golf club you’ve been eyeing

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62 Part I: Diabetes and You Diabetes and the Glycemic Index As we discuss in Chapter 2 carbohydrates raise blood glucose levels. However carbohydrates aren’t all alike in the degree to which they raise blood glucose. The degree to which a given amount of carbohydrate raises blood glucose is indicated by its glycemic index GI. Lower GI foods make blood glucose go up less than do higher GI foods. Here’s a look at the range of the glycemic index: ✓ 70 or more: This is considered high. An example of a high GI food would be corn flakes. ✓ 56 to 69: This is medium. Medium GI foods include the breakfast cereal quick oats ✓ 55 or less: This is low. Natural bran cereal is a low GI carbohydrate. Following a low GI diet has its good points but also its bad points: ✓ The good: A low GI diet may help you control your blood glucose levels and at the same time may help improve your lipids and reduce your appetite to boot. ✓ The bad: Following a low GI diet is far from simple the GI of a carbohydrate-containing food may be different when it’s eaten alone from when it’s part of a mixed meal the GI of a food may differ depending on how it’s processed and prepared and so on some low GI foods contain a lot of fat and most importantly scientific research has not yet proven any long-term health benefits to a low GI diet. Here’s a wonderful illustration of the potential hazards of automatically assuming that a low GI food is better than a high GI food: a Snickers candy bar rates better on the GI than does a bowl of cornflakes. How scary to think that blind adherence to a low GI diet would — erroneously — suggest that a Snickers bar is healthier than corn flakes. The Canadian Diabetes Association recommends that the decision to implement a low glycemic index diet should be based on a person’s particular interest and ability. We think this is a wise policy. Because proof of the benefits of a low GI diet doesn’t yet exist we recommend that the initial nutrition strategy for most people living with diabetes should be based on the recommendations of the Canadian Diabetes Association and Health Canada’s Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide as we discuss in Chapters 1 and 2. If despite adhering to this regimen your blood glucose control is problematic ask your dietitian to help you learn about the GI diet and whether it may be a suitable option for you.

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Chapter 4: Staying Healthy through Nutrition 63 You can find out more about the glycemic index at the CDA Web site www. diabetes.ca/for-professionals/resources/nutrition/glycemic- index. Healthy Eating if You Have Gestational Diabetes Gestational diabetes is treated primarily with a nutrition program see Chapter 1 for more information about gestational diabetes. Exercise such as going for a daily walk is also helpful. If you’ve been diagnosed with gestational diabetes your doctor should refer you to a registered dietitian who can share with you the key dietary strategies to help you control your blood glucose allow you to gain an appropriate amount of weight and keep your developing fetus growing normally. These are the key components of the nutrition program used to treat gestational diabetes: ✓ Three appropriately spaced meals per day ✓ Two to three snacks per day mid-morning mid-afternoon bedtime ✓ Moderate carbohydrate restriction. Your dietitian will advise you as to the appropriate number of grams of carbohydrate that is best for you and how to divide your carbohydrates up into your various meals and snacks. ✓ An appropriate number of calories to provide sufficient nutrition to you and your fetus. You will likely be asked to check your urine every day to see if a substance called ketones is present. If ketones are present you should let your dietitian or your doctor know as this may indicate that you’re not eating sufficiently well or that your diet needs some other change. If nutrition therapy and exercise aren’t sufficient to keep your blood glucose levels within target medication — most commonly insulin — is used. The Lowdown on High Blood Pressure and Nutrition High blood pressure hypertension is one of the most common chronic medical conditions in our society. Although medical science doesn’t know for

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64 Part I: Diabetes and You certain why most people with hypertension develop this condition genetics as is so often the case with chronic diseases plays a role. Evidence also suggests that excess salt consumption is a factor. Having well-controlled blood pressure is essential if you have diabetes. Insufficiently controlled blood pressure increases your risk of stroke heart attack retinopathy kidney damage and other complications. If you have diabetes your target blood pressure is less than 130/80. Reducing your salt sodium intake is a key dietary step in controlling your blood pressure. Most of the sodium in your diet probably comes from canned and processed foods. Your daily sodium intake should be no more than 1500 mg to 2300 mg. One teaspoon 5 ml of salt contains 2300 mg of sodium. Here are ways you can reduce your salt consumption: ✓ Buy foods that are low in sodium are unsalted or have no added salt. Read the food labels and avoid foods that have a sodium content of “20 Daily Value” or more. Even better aim for 5 Daily Value or less. We discuss food labels in detail in Chapter 6. ✓ Avoid adding salt during cooking. ✓ Avoid adding salt to your cooked food. Avoid temptation don’t put the salt shaker on the table. ✓ Spice up your life with a delicious variety of herbs spices and other seasonings. ✓ Rinse canned legumes with water. ✓ Avoid seasonings like garlic salt celery salt and MSG monosodium glutamate. Each recipe in this book is lower in sodium and has the sodium content listed for your convenience. Here are other measures to help you lower your blood pressure: ✓ Limit your alcohol consumption. See Chapter 3. ✓ Exercise regularly. See Chapter 1. ✓ If you are overweight work toward shedding the extra pounds. ✓ If stress may be a contributory factor undertake stress reduction measures. ✓ Take blood pressure “anti-hypertensive” medications as prescribed by your physician. The preferred drugs are typically those from the ACE inhibitor or ARB families.

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Chapter 4: Staying Healthy through Nutrition 65 Helping Control Your Lipids with Nutrition As we discuss in Chapter 2 having excellent lipids including cholesterol and triglycerides reduces your risk of certain types of diabetes complications including heart attack or stroke. Here are ways of improving your lipids: ✓ Avoid eating saturated fats such as butter and hard margarine and trans fatty acids such as hydrogenated oils fried foods and vegetable shortening ✓ Eat soluble fibre including psyllium powder and lima beans ✓ Consume foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids like Atlantic or Chinook salmon and herring ✓ Take medication as prescribed by your physician. Statins are the preferred class of drug. Statins main effect is to lower LDL cholesterol. Nutrition Strategies if You Have Kidney Failure The kidneys perform a wide variety of functions including helping regulate the body’s salt fluid and mineral balance ridding the body of certain waste products influencing blood pressure control and affecting the production of red blood cells by the bone marrow. Diabetes can lead to kidney damage or even kidney failure which if severe enough requires dialysis. Having kidney failure puts you at risk of accumulating excess amounts of a number of substances in your body including these: ✓ Sodium which contributes to high blood pressure swelling edema and if you have heart disease heart failure. ✓ Potassium which can lead to heart rhythm problems. ✓ Phosphorous which can cause a type of bone damage osteomalacia.

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66 Part I: Diabetes and You That’s the bad news. The good news is that you can drastically reduce your risk of running into kidney damage by keeping your blood glucose and blood pressure well controlled. In Chapters 1 and 2 we look in detail at the various measures you can use to keep your blood glucose and blood pressure well controlled. The recipes in this book were specifically created to assist you with achieving these goals. If you have kidney failure your doctor will arrange for you to meet with a dietitian who will teach you how to avoid foods that are rich in potassium phosphorous and sodium and in some situations may also instruct you to restrict the amount of protein you consume. To help you keep track of how much potassium phosphorous and sodium you are consuming in the recipes in Diabetes Cookbook For Canadians For Dummies we note how much of each of these substances is present in a serving. This will help you if for example you are keeping track of the amount of sodium you consume per day. The recipes in this book are lower in sodium because we know that so many people with diabetes even if they do not have kidney failure are watching their sodium intake to either avoid or to treat high blood pressure. The general goal for Canadians is to consume no more than 1500 to 2300 milli- grams per day of sodium.

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Part II Cooking and Meal- Planning Essentials

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D In this part . . . epartment and specialty stores are packed with countless must-have kitchen gadgets — but what do you really need In this part we cover the essential cooking and baking supplies you’ll need for your kitchen. And to make sure you put these supplies to good use we look at effective food-shopping strategies and how to master label-reading.

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T Chapter 5 Getting Equipped To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here In This Chapter ▶ Reviewing the tools of the trade ▶ Knowing how to talk the kitchen talk o do a job well having the right equipment makes all the difference in the world. Whether it’s Ian relying on his favourite stethoscope Cynthia using her teaching food models and charts or any other person including you who relies on tools to assist in doing things effectively and efficiently having trusted equipment is invaluable. So too with cooking equipment as we look at in this chapter. But it’s not only about the equipment. If you’re going to be able to use your cooking tools to create the tasty recipes we describe in this book familiarizing yourself with some cooking jargon will also be helpful. In this chapter therefore we define some key terms to help you in your culinary journey. Covering Basic Cooking Equipment Before starting to follow a recipe you need the tools of the trade. If you can afford to spend some money to buy good-quality cooking products you will save money time and aggravation in the long run. You will need kitchen utensils for measuring mixing cutting and cooking. You’ll also need pots and pans for the oven and the stove top and microwave- friendly products too. And even though you’re going to be cooking up delectable foods no doubt you’re going to also require containers for storing leftovers. Pots pans and plates

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Nothing’s worse than having gotten all the ingredients home for a meal only to realize you don’t have the proper pots or pans to cook it in. That’s why if you can you should have a wide array like the following:

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70 Part II: Cooking and Meal-Planning Essentials ✓ Pans. It’s a good idea to have a variety of sizes and types: • 9-x-13-inch 22 x 32 cm baking pan • 9-x-5-inch 22 x 12 cm loaf pan • 8-x-8-inch 20 x 20 cm square pan • 8-inch 20 cm diameter round pan • Cookie sheet • Jelly roll pan • Muffin tin • Pie plate • Roasting pan ✓ Casserole dishes of various sizes with lids ✓ Frying pans/skillets with lids ✓ Mixing bowls — various sizes ✓ Pots with lids — various sizes ✓ Wok Handy tools The following tools are indispensable in any kitchen and they’ll make the task of preparing a meal so much easier: ✓ Basting brush ✓ Can opener ✓ Electric mixer/egg beater ✓ Garlic press ✓ Grater with various size holes ✓ Hand juicer ✓ Knives — paring serrated bread knife French chef’s knife ✓ Lifter for eggs and pancakes ✓ Measuring cups for dry and liquid ingredients ✓ Measuring spoons ✓ Meat thermometer ✓ Pastry blender ✓ Potato masher

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Chapter 5: Getting Equipped 71 ✓ Rolling pin ✓ Scale — if weighing foods as is often helpful when carbohydrate counting see Chapter 1 ✓ Spatulas ✓ Spoons — metal slotted soup ladle wooden ✓ Strainer/colander — large and small holes ✓ Timer ✓ Tongs ✓ Vegetable brush ✓ Vegetable peeler ✓ Whisk Other useful equipment Here’s a grab-bag of stuff that no cook can live without: ✓ Aluminum foil ✓ Cooling rack made of wire ✓ Cutting boards ✓ Parchment paper ✓ Plastic wrap ✓ Storage containers for leftovers Speaking the Cooking Lingo The world of cooking has a jargon of its own. Here are definitions for some important cooking terms: Al dente: Pasta that is cooked firm. Baste: Periodically spooning or brushing liquid over the food during cooking to keep it moist. Beat: To make a mixture creamy smooth or filled with air by whipping in a brisk motion with a spoon whisk or beater. Blend: To mix two or more ingredients until they are smooth and uniform in consistency. Boil: To heat until bubbles rise continuously and break on the surface.

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72 Part II: Cooking and Meal-Planning Essentials Broil: To cook food by placing it on a rack that is directly under the source of heat. This is also referred to as grilling. Brown: To cook until food changes to a brown colour to help seal in natural juices. Chop: To cut food into small pieces with a knife or other small cutting appliance. Cream: To whip or beat with a spoon whisk or electric mixer until a mixture is soft and fluffy. Cut in: To use two knives or a pastry blender to add solid fat such as butter shortening or lard to dry ingredients. Dice: To cut food into small cubes of uniform size and shape. Fold: To gently combine ingredients by a combination of two motions: cutting vertically through the mixture and sliding the spatula across the bottom of the bowl and up the sides turning the ingredients over. Fry or pan fry: To cook food in a small amount of hot fat or oil. Also see sauté. Grate: To shred food by rubbing it over the holes of a grater. Knead: To work and press dough with the heels of your hands so the dough becomes stretched and elastic. Mix: To stir until all ingredients are distributed evenly. Parboil: To boil until partially cooked. Purée: To blend a food until it is smooth and of fine texture. Sauté: To fry lightly and briefly over high heat turning frequently. Simmer: To cook in liquid just below the boiling point. Bubbles form slowly and break below the surface. Steam: To cook on a rack or strainer over a small amount of boiling water in a tightly covered container. Stir: To mix usually with a spoon or spatula in a circular or figure-8 motion. Toss: To combine two or more ingredients lightly and gently with a slight lifting motion. Whip: To beat rapidly to incorporate air. This increases the volume and lightens the consistency of the ingredients. Whisk: A looped wire utensil used for whipping by hand. Zest: To remove the “coloured” peel of a citrus fruit with a grater peeler or zester.

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L Chapter 6 Successful Food Shopping To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here In This Chapter ▶ Stocking up on staples ▶ Shopping wisely ▶ Planning menus ▶ Filling the pantry with food ▶ Decoding labels ove it or hate it grocery shopping is a fact of life for most people. And whether you’re spending an hour in an acre-sized all-purpose grocery store or making a quick dash into the local convenience store knowing how to shop wisely will ensure you’re getting the healthy nutritious foods you need in the most economical way you can. In this chapter we look at how you can save money on your groceries how you can shop effectively and how you can decode those invaluable but sometimes confusing food labels. Saving Money on Staples Getting the most for your food dollar involves time and effort. In this section we provide a whole raft of helpful tips to help you save money when you’re buying food essentials. Healthy nutrition is always important and it’s especially important if you’re living with diabetes. If you’re struggling to make ends meet and as a result you’re unable to purchase healthy foods you can get help by contacting your local food bank or food pantry or contacting your local health unit.

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74 Part II: Cooking and Meal-Planning Essentials Buying fruits and vegetables When it comes to fruits and vegetables ✓ Buy your fruits and vegetables at roadside stands and farmers mar- kets. The food will not only be less expensive it will also typically be very fresh. ✓ Buy fresh fruits and vegetables that are in season. Fruits and veg- etables that are in season are typically less expensive — sometimes much less expensive — than fruits and vegetables that are out of season. If you want fruits and vegetables that are out of season get the frozen variety they’ll be far less expensive than their fresh counterparts. ✓ Consider root vegetables. Potatoes sweet potatoes carrots turnips parsnips and onions keep well and are often good bargains. ✓ When buying juice go for frozen. Frozen juice concentrates are usually cheaper than boxed bottled or chilled juices. ✓ Check the “reduced stand” in the produce section for “ripe” fruits and vegetables. Ripe bananas are great for the Banana Bread and Banana Chocolate Chip Muffins in this book. Moo–ving to the dairy section Here are a couple of ways to save money when buying your dairy products: ✓ Avoid expensive yogurt. Buy low-fat plain yogurt and then add your own fruit to it. Add a sugar substitute if needed. ✓ Buy big if you can. Purchase the largest size of light sour cream light cottage cheese or low-fat yogurt you can use before the expiry date. Picking poultry When you’re in search of protein-rich foods consider buying eggs. Although you should eat eggs in limited quantities because of their cholesterol con- tent you don’t need to avoid them altogether and they’re an incredibly versatile food. Omega-3-rich eggs are available but are more expensive. Omega-3 eggs contain omega-3 fatty acids these types of fatty acids reduce the risk of heart disease. Because buying a whole chicken is typically cheaper than buying a similar amount of chicken in parts consider buying a whole chicken and cutting it into parts yourself or roast the whole chicken and use leftovers. We have a whole bunch of chicken dishes in this book. Spread your wings

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Chapter 6: Successful Food Shopping 75 Seeking alternate sources of protein Beans are a good source of protein and carbohydrate are low in fat and have no cholesterol and they’re cheap to boot. In addition to buying fresh beans buy some canned beans as well to keep on hand as backup for unexpected company. Check out our helpful-in-a-pinch Mixed Bean Salad and Vegetarian Bean Chili in the recipes section. Baked beans are always handy to have on hand too and they have a long shelf life. You can save money by purchasing dry beans soaking and cooking them then storing them in your freezer in small serving sizes. When it comes to peanut butter . . . ah sigh peanut butter — Ian’s all-time favourite food. Yes well when it comes to peanut butter it’s a good source of protein and is not overly expensive. Remember to check the ingredient list of the peanut butter you’re buying as you want to avoid those many brands that have sugar and salt added. When looking for an economical source of protein consider buying tofu also known as soybean curd we think “tofu” sounds much more appetizing. You can use tofu to quickly prepare the Vegetarian Curried Tofu and Noodles recipe in this book. Going fishing Fish are healthy to eat. Heck even other fish know that. Alaskan pollock and Boston bluefish are cheaper alternatives to haddock and cod. Don’t forget to stock up on water-packed canned tuna and salmon when they’re on sale. Smart Shopping Everyone has his or her own particular preferences when it comes to shop- ping but we all want to be smart shoppers. In this section we offer some shopping techniques that will help you be an efficient and thrifty shopper. Here’s Cynthia’s shopping strategy: When possible she buys her fresh fruits and vegetables at the local farmers’ market and roadside stands. She buys spices at the bulk food store. Cynthia purchases her non-perishable foods and toiletries at big box stores. And she does the rest of her food shopping at one of a variety of local grocery stores depending on who has the best prices on whatever goods she needs.

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76 Part II: Cooking and Meal-Planning Essentials Plan your week’s menu ahead of time Planning your week’s menus before you shop will save you time when you shop because you will know specifically what you’re looking for rather than trying to think through a whole raft of meals while you’re shopping. Another advantage to planning your meals in advance is that it may help you save money because you’re buying food for many meals at a time so you’ll be buying some of your food in bulk which as we discuss earlier in this chap- ter typically offers cost savings. Another way planning your week’s menus ahead of time can save you money is that with more food on hand from your grocery store trip you will be less in need of last-minute trips to more expensive convenience stores. Make a list Making a list of the foods you need will help you avoid the temptation of impulse purchases. A list will also help save you time when you’re at the gro- cery store as it will make you a more efficient shopper. Make your list of needed foods after you’ve planned out your week’s menus see the previous section. If you’re going to be preparing one or more of the recipes in this book — and we sure hope you will — be sure to write down the types and amounts of the different ingredients you’ll require so that you can be sure to pick up what you need at the grocery store. Keep your grocery list on your fridge door or another convenient spot in the kitchen and update it every time you run out of an item. Consider organizing your grocery list according to one of the following: ✓ Food groups: Cynthia uses this strategy as it helps her ensure she won’t forget any important foods and it’s a quick way to add foods to the gro- cery list through the week. Also she doesn’t always shop at the same grocery store. ✓ Grocery store layout: This will help you stay organized when you’re in the store. Bring a pencil to cross off the items on your grocery list as you add them to your cart. Stick to your grocery list but be flexible to take advantage of in- store bargains.

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Chapter 6: Successful Food Shopping 77 Estimate your food needs Try to estimate how much food you’ll need because large or “bonus sized” products or bulk products end up being no bargain if you have to throw away half of what you bought because it’s spoiled. Buy the size that is most eco- nomical and convenient for you. Be a grocery-store guru Navigating through a grocery store is sometimes like playing chess trying to figure out what moves will help you succeed in your food shopping quest and what moves will end up costing you literally. Here are some helpful tips to help you keep more of your hard-earned money in your pocket: ✓ Eat before you shop. Having hunger pains as you walk the aisles makes you more likely to make non-essential impulse purchases. Trust us on this one we know from personal experience ✓ Look for specials. Grocery stores often have specials or promotions. Keep an eye out for these in your newspaper and in flyers. ✓ Shop around. Check out the stores in your community and compare their prices. Certain stores or chains often feature better prices than other stores. You may however find that some stores offer lower prices than a competitor for some types of products and higher prices for others. If so you’ll need to decide if it’s worth your while to make trips to multiple stores. ✓ Use coupons. Many companies offer coupons that will allow you to get a reduced price on the item you’re buying. Check your newspaper store flyers or magazines. Cynthia recently saved 17 by using coupons during a trip to the grocery store. The man behind her in the line was getting a little impatient but when she told him how much she saved his mouth dropped and he asked her for advice about where to get the coupons ✓ Leave the kids at home if and when you can. Kids are kids. And that means as they walk or ride the grocery store with you they will want you to buy many of the treats they see advertised on TV. And some- times unbeknownst to you they will take even greater initiative and put things in the cart themselves as Ian’s wife discovered years ago when she was checking out of the grocery store and found the cashier ringing up four boxes of condoms that their three-year-old daughter had added to the cart ✓ Bring reusable grocery bags with you. In some areas of Canada stores are now obliged by governments as part of environmental initiatives to charge you for the plastic grocery bags they provide you. Avoid this cost by bringing your own reusable bags.

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78 Part II: Cooking and Meal-Planning Essentials ✓ Plan your path. Grocery stores are designed with essential items such as milk and bread in the back of the store which obliges you to walk past all sorts of tempting but non-essential items that call out “choose me choose me” in order for you to get to these staples. One way of dealing with this situation is in advance of your trip to the grocery store to think through where the location is of each of the dif- ferent items you need to buy. Then mental map in mind you can navi- gate the grocery store purposefully which will make you less tempted by the siren song of enticing but unnecessary purchases. ✓ Read the unit price labels. Hmm there’s an 850 gram box of cereal selling for 4.75 and there’s a 333 gram bag of the same cereal selling for 1.90. Which is the better deal Not so easy to figure out without a calculator and some patience far easier to look at the unit price label affixed to the shelf and check the per unit cost of an item. ✓ Buy store-brand goods. Most large grocery stores carry their own brands. These are typically less expensive than and just as tasty and nutritious as name brands. You might be surprised to know that many store-brand goods are made by the same companies that make name brands often the only difference is the packaging ✓ Avoid prepared and prepackaged foods. Prepared rice and pasta dishes for example are often higher in calories sodium and fat than comparable rice and pasta that you prepare yourself at home. The reci- pes in this book are all healthy choices low in fat and sodium and are cheaper than prepared foods. ✓ Don’t be fooled by where the item is located in the store. Items typically sell better if they are placed in prime locations like the end of an aisle where they are often placed in large stacks giving the impression that they are on promotion or on sale. This is in fact often not the case. Also more expensive foods are often placed on the shelves at eye level be sure therefore to scan above or below eye level to find less costly items. ✓ Don’t check out the items in the checkout line. Magazines chocolate bars candies and other non-essentials are invariably placed at the checkout line to encourage impulse buying. Resisting the temptation to buy such items can be tough especially when you’re stuck in a lineup. Tough yes but doable. Buy in bulk Foods bought in bulk are typically much cheaper on a per unit basis or per unit of weight basis than food bought in conventional amounts. If you don’t have a place to store bulk purchases or you simply don’t have need for bulk purchases consider partnering with friends and neighbours for these purchases and then divide up the goods and the savings. By buying in bulk you will be able to save money on your purchases of chicken pork beef vegetables and fruits.

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Chapter 6: Successful Food Shopping 79 Peruse the perishables Here are some tips about buying perishable foods: ✓ Buy only what you can use. Rather than buying too much fresh produce only to see it wilt and spoil in your fridge buy only what you can reason- ably expect to use before your next trip to the grocery store. ✓ Check the “best before” date. The items that have the longest best before date are typically at the back of the shelf so you may have to reeeaaaach way back for them. ✓ Consider buying frozen vegetables. Sometimes buying only fresh pro- duce is simply not practical. Having frozen vegetables can be very handy when you want to be able to prepare small quantities. ✓ Purchase your perishable foods last. That way they’ll have the short- est period of time out of the refrigerator as you complete your shopping and then make your way home. Menu Planning Planning your meals will help ensure you get the right amounts of the right nutrients. It will also help spare you — or at least help reduce the need for — last-minute scrambling to get a meal together. When estimating how much food you’ll need for an individual meal use the plate method: half the plate should be vegetables one quarter should be high fibre grains and the last quarter should be a lean protein. Accompany the plate with a piece of fruit and a glass of milk or a yogurt and voila balanced to perfection As you go about planning your menus sit down with a piece of paper and write out ideas of what you would like to eat. Look at what you have on hand and in the freezer that need to be used up and use this as a guide. Also plan your menus around weekly specials at the grocery store by scanning your flyers or newspapers. Keep a close eye out for discount coupons. Several helpful resources are available to help you with meal planning including Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide we discuss this resource in Chapter 2 and the Canadian Diabetes Association’s Just the Basics and Beyond the Basics. And of course you can use this book Appendix B offers you an entire month of menus. Choose a variety of foods from the different food groups. Variety is the secret to eating well and will also help ensure you are getting the whole range of vita- mins minerals and fibre you require. We encourage you to expand your taste buds’ horizons by sampling from the wide range of this book’s recipes.

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80 Part II: Cooking and Meal-Planning Essentials As you go about planning your menus keep in mind one of Cynthia’s favou- rite maxims: Cook once eat twice. In other words plan on doing some “batch cooking” or doubling a recipe. You can freeze the extra food for another day when you’re even more rushed than usual or just want a break from cooking. Remember to label and date the items you’re storing in the freezer. Pantry Non-perishable Essentials: What to Have on Hand There are certain non-perishable essentials that most people will want to always have on hand because they’re commonly used in recipes. Having them available enables you to make a quick meal. We discuss these non- perishable essentials in this section. If you have limited kitchen space keep the extra food in a hall closet in well- sealed containers. Don’t have room in your hall closet Try finding space under your bed. Frozen and canned fruits and vegetables Although nothing beats fresh fruits and vegetables having the following frozen and canned items in your house is helpful: ✓ Frozen fruit. In Ian’s house there’s often a few leftover bananas frozen in the freezer ready for making banana bread. ✓ Canned unsweetened fruit. Make a point of buying the canned fruit that says “in its own juice” or “no sugar added” ✓ Frozen unsweetened fruit juice ✓ Frozen vegetables ✓ Canned low-sodium vegetables ✓ Canned low-sodium vegetable soup

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Chapter 6: Successful Food Shopping 81 Grains Here are important grains for you to keep on hand in your home: ✓ Oatmeal ✓ High-fibre dry cereal ✓ Flour ✓ Whole-grain bread. Keep this well wrapped to avoid freezer burn in your freezer. ✓ Whole-grain pasta ✓ Other grains such as rice couscous barley bulgur and quinoa Other nutrients Here are some other non-perishable foods that are good to have in the home: ✓ Canned tuna or salmon ✓ Canola oil and/or olive oil ✓ Dried or canned legumes lentils or beans ✓ Skim milk powder ✓ Peanut butter Baking and cooking ingredients Here are some cooking ingredients that are helpful to keep in the home: ✓ Baking powder ✓ Baking soda ✓ Low-sodium broth ✓ Cornstarch ✓ Pepper ✓ Salt ✓ Spices and dried herbs you commonly use these might include cinna- mon thyme basil oregano and others ✓ Sugar ✓ Sugar substitute artificial sweetener

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82 Part II: Cooking and Meal-Planning Essentials Reading Labels and Knowing How to Use Them Nutrition labelling is mandatory in Canada on all packaged foods. Being famil- iar with nutrition labels is very important as understanding these labels will allow you to make wise food choices. These are the three components of nutrition labelling: ✓ The list of ingredients which as you might expect lists the types of ingredients in a product. ✓ The Nutrition Facts table tells you the amounts of certain key ingredi- ents in a product. ✓ Nutrition and health claims which are those brief banners you see on a package that claim the product has a special nutrition or health value. In the following sections we look at each of these three important aspects of food labelling. The list of ingredients The list of ingredients see Figure 6-1 for an example of such a list notes the constituents of a product. If you’re like us at times you’ll find yourself sur- prised to see how much an otherwise healthy product has of an unexpected ingredient like sugar or oil. The items are listed in descending order by weight. Therefore the first item in the list is present in the product in the greatest amount by weight the second item in the list is present in the second greatest amount by weight and so on. In other words the list of ingredients tells you both the ingredi- ents in a product and their relative amounts. Although the list of ingredients doesn’t tell you the actual absolute amount of a product’s ingredients this information is revealed in the Nutrition Facts table which we discuss in a moment it does give a pretty good sense of whether the product contains lots or little of a substance. For example if salt sodium is listed as one of the first three ingredients in the list the product is probably fairly rich in sodium. Another important role of the list of ingredients is to help people who have food allergies to identifiy whether a product contains the food they’re allergic to. Also people who avoid certain foods because of religious or other beliefs are able to determine whether the product contains these ingredients.

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Chapter 6: Successful Food Shopping 83 Figure 6-1: An example of a list of ingredients. INGREDIENTS: TOMATOES TOMATO JUICE SUGAR SALT SEASONING CONTAINS ONION AND GARLIC POWDERS CALCIUM CHLORIDE CITRIC ACID. INGRÉDIENTS: TOMATES JUS DE TOMATES SUCRE SEL ASSAISONNEMENT CONTIENT DES POUDRES D’OIGNON ET D’AIL CHLORURE DE CALCIUM ACIDE CITRIQUE. The Nutrition Facts table The Nutrition Facts table see Figure 6-2 for an example lists the actual absolute amount of the various ingredients contained in a product. The Nutrition Facts can be used to compare products determine the nutrient value of foods better manage special diets including a diabetes nutrition program and help you increase or decrease your intake of a particular nutrient. Nutrition Facts Valeur nutritive Per 125 mL 87 g / par 125 mL 87 g Amount Teneur Daily Value valuer quotidienne Figure 6-2: An example of a Nutrition Facts table. Calories / Calories 80 Fat / Lipides 0.5 g 1 Saturated / saturés 0 g + Trans / trans 0 g 0 Cholesterol / Cholestérol 0 mg Sodium / Sodium 0 mg 0 Carbohydrate / Glucides 18 g 6 Fibre / Fibres 2 g 8 Sugars / Sucres 2 g Protein / Protéines 3 g Vitamin A / Vitamine A 2 Vitamin C / Vitamine C 10 Calcium / Calcium 0 Iron / Fer 2 Regardless of the product the table has a consistent look. This is very help- ful as it facilitates comparing the ingredients contained in different products. In this section we look in detail at the features of the Nutrition Facts table.

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84 Part II: Cooking and Meal-Planning Essentials Not all foods have a Nutrition Facts table. These are some exempt: ✓ Fresh fruits and vegetables ✓ Raw meat poultry fish and seafood ✓ Foods that are prepared or processed in the store for example bakery items and salads ✓ Foods that have very few or no nutrients such as coffee tea and spices ✓ Alcohol-containing beverages Here’s a look at what the listings in the Nutrition Facts table mean and what you should watch for: ✓ Serving size: The serving size is noted immediately under the words “Nutrition Facts.” The serving size is the manufacturer’s estimated amount of the product that one person will eat at one time. This amount may differ significantly from recommendations found in Canada’s Food Guide or the Canadian Diabetes Association’s Beyond the Basics food chart. If you eat twice the serving size written on the box then you are of course eating twice the amount of all the ingredients listed on the Nutrition Facts table for one serving that is twice the number of calo- ries twice the amount of sodium and fibre and so on. ✓ Percentage Daily Value: The Daily Value lets you quickly see if a product has a little or a lot of a particular nutrient. More specifically the Daily Value indicates what percentage of your daily requirements for a given nutrient based on a 2000-calorie-per-day diet are present in one serving. If the percentage of something healthy like calcium is high then well that’s good. On the other hand if a product has a high Daily Value of something you want to minimize like sodium then you will want to avoid this product or at the very least you will want to con- sume significantly less than the stated serving size. Daily values are based on Canadian standards set for overall health out- comes and are aimed at reducing the risk of nutrition-related chronic diseases such as diabetes. ✓ Calories: This is the number of calories present in one serving size. ✓ Fat: This section notes both the amount of saturated fats and of trans fat trans fatty acids. If the number of grams of saturated and trans fat do not equal the total fat then the remainder are polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats these don’t legally have to be listed on the label. A product that has a Daily Value of 10 percent or less for saturated and trans fat would be considered low in these two types of fat. ✓ Cholesterol: A product may or may not have a Daily Value listed for cholesterol. A product that has a low Daily Value for saturated fat and

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Chapter 6: Successful Food Shopping 85 trans fat will also have a low Daily Value for cholesterol. A product with a Daily Value of 5 percent or less would be considered low in cholesterol. ✓ Sodium. A Daily Value of 5 percent or less for sodium indicates the product is low in sodium. ✓ Carbohydrates: This section notes the total amount of carbohydrates in the product including fibre sugars and sugar alcohols. Note these important points about the Nutrition Facts listing for carbohydrates: • If you’re looking for a cereal with a high fibre content look for one that has over 15 percent Daily Value listed for fibre or 4 grams or more of fibre per serving. As we discuss in Chapter 1 although fibre is a carbohydrate you do not include it in your calculations if you’re carbohydrate counting instead you subtract the number of grams of fibre from the total number of grams of carbohydrate being ingested. This remainder is called the “available carbohy- drate.” The recipes in this book list the available carbohydrate per serving. • The Nutrition Facts table lists sugar available from all sources — including both naturally occurring and added sugars. No Daily Value is listed for sugars because no agreed-upon guidelines exist for the amount that a healthy Canadian population should consume. • Sugar alcohols as we discuss in Chapter 3 raise blood glucose to variable degrees. ✓ Protein: No Daily Value is listed for protein. Canadians seldom con- sume insufficient amounts of protein. ✓ Vitamin A. A Daily Value is listed for vitamin A but not an absolute amount. A Daily Value of 15 percent or more for vitamin A indicates that a product contains a high amount of this vitamin. ✓ Vitamin C. Like vitamin A a Daily Value is listed for vitamin C but not an absolute amount. A Daily Value of 30 percent or more indicates that a product is a good source of vitamin C. ✓ Calcium. A Daily Value of 15 percent or more for calcium indicates that the product is a high in calcium. ✓ Iron. A Daily Value is listed for iron but not an absolute amount. A Daily Value above 15 percent means a product is a good source of iron. If a product has a nutrient claim we discuss nutrient claims in the next sec- tion for an ingredient that is not normally part of the Nutrition Facts table then the manufacturer must add this other ingredient’s name and amount to the table. For example if a manufacturer stated that a particular product was high in folate then it would have to list folate on the Nutrition Facts table along with the amount of folate.

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86 Part II: Cooking and Meal-Planning Essentials For more information on nutrition labelling talk to your registered dietitian or surf on over to Health Canada www.hc-sc.gc.ca the Dietitians of Canada www.dietitians.ca or the Canadian Diabetes Association www. diabetes.ca. Nutrition and health claims Nutrition and health claims are those very brief banners or phrases that adorn a package and that state the product offers a special nutritional or health benefit. Nutrition claims Nutrition claims typically include words such as ✓ Free ✓ Low ✓ Less ✓ More ✓ Reduced ✓ Lower ✓ Very high ✓ Light/lite ✓ Source of high source of good source of or excellent source of Nutrition claims are subject to Health Canada regulation. The government currently allows over 40 nutrition claims including those listed above. If a manufacturer determines that a food meets the government criteria for a nutrition claim the manufacturer then decides whether or not it wants to put the claim on the package. The absence of nutrition claim doesn’t necessar- ily mean that the product doesn’t possess these nutrition attributes it may simply mean that the manufacturer for whatever reason elected not to put the claim on the label. It does not take much stretch of the imagination to conclude that a manu- facturer is more likely to put a nutrition claim on a package if it believes the claim will help the product sell.

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Chapter 6: Successful Food Shopping 87 As Health Canada www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/label-etiquet/nutrition/ cons/information_tips-informations_pratiques-eng.php says — and with which we completely agree — “Use nutrition claims as a starting point but do not rely only on them to make comparisons. Use the Nutrition Facts to get the full details.” Here are examples that Health Canada helpfully uses to illustrate how to interpret nutrition claims when you are trying to decrease the amount of cer- tain nutrients in your diet: ✓ “Free” means the food contains none or almost none of a nutrient for example “sodium-free”. ✓ “Low” means the food contains only a small amount for example “low fat”. ✓ “Reduced” means the food contains at least 25 percent less of the nutri- ent than a similar product for example “reduced in calories”. “Light” or “lite” means well we’re never really certain what it means. Indeed it seems to us the term “light” gets thrown around with relative aban- don. Heck sometimes it seems that half the products in the marketplace carry the label “light.” Anyhow Health Canada notes that the word “light” is “only allowed on labels of foods that are ‘reduced in fat’ or ‘reduced in calo- ries’” but that “it could also refer to the sensory characteristics of the food such as ‘“light in colour.’” When it comes to the word “light” we often feel we’re groping in the dark. Our advice: Take the word “light” on a food label with a grain of salt in a manner of speaking. Here are examples that Health Canada uses to illustrate how to interpret nutrition claims when you are trying to increase the amount of certain nutri- ents in your diet: ✓ “Source” means the food contains a useful amount of the nutrient for example “source of fibre”. ✓ “High or good source” means the food contains a high amount of the nutrient for example “high source of vitamin C”. ✓ “Very high or excellent source” means that the food contains a very high amount of the nutrient for example “excellent source of calcium”. Health claims Health Canada notes on the same Web page we mention in the preceding section that manufacturers are allowed to place the following health claims on packaging when appropriate:

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88 Part II: Cooking and Meal-Planning Essentials ✓ A healthy diet low in saturated and trans fats may reduce the risk of heart disease. ✓ A healthy diet with adequate calcium and vitamin D and regular physi- cal activity help to achieve strong bones and may reduce the risk of osteoporosis. ✓ A healthy diet rich in vegetables and fruit may help reduce the risk of some types of cancer. ✓ A healthy diet containing foods high in potassium and low in sodium may reduce the risk of high blood pressure a risk factor for stroke and heart disease.

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Part III Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes

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W In this part . . . hether you’re looking for a quick breakfast before you fly out the door an exquisite entree for a leisurely romantic dinner or anything in between if it’s food and it’s tasty and healthy this is the place you’ll discover how to prepare it.

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Y Chapter 7 Rise and Shine with Breakfast To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here In This Chapter ▶ Serving up quick nutritious breakfast ideas ▶ Enjoying fruit in the morning ▶ Baking up a delicious wake-up call ▶ Preparing tasty breakfasts on the griddle our mother or father of course was right breakfast is the most important meal of the day. Breakfast provides you with the fuel your body needs to supply the physical and mental energy you require to start your day. Not surprisingly eating breakfast improves productivity whether in the home or in the workplace. As important as breakfast is for adults it’s doubly important for youngsters. Studies have shown that children who eat breakfast have better memory skills enhanced Recipes in This Chapter T Mango Orange Banana Smoothie T Shake Me Up Shake T Banana Bread T Raspberry Muffins T Baked Homemade Granola T Baked Scone Aboriginal Bannock T Cranberry Walnut Muffins T Akoori Scrambled Eggs T Oatmeal Pancakes T Oatmeal Fruit Crepes T Cottage Cheese Pancakes ability to concentrate improved school attendance and better school grades. Children who consistently eat breakfast also do better in physical sports and even have better hand-eye coordination. Regularly eating a healthy breakfast not that common Canadian breakfast tradition of a donut or large muffin makes it more likely that a person will have a healthy body weight. This is an especially important benefit if you have diabetes and also have challenges with overweight. Another benefit of eating breakfast if you have diabetes is that you’ll be less likely to snack excessively so you’re distributing your carbohydrates over three meals which helps with blood glucose control. Eating breakfast will also make you less likely to have hypoglycemia if you’re taking medicine such as insulin or glyburide that has the potential to cause low blood glucose.

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Hopefully at this point if you needed any convincing we’ve won you over and you’re now committed to regularly eating a healthy breakfast. Now it’s just a matter of figuring out how you’re going to fit eating breakfast into your hectic schedule. Fortunately this can be done. In this chapter we provide some quick and easy breakfast recipes to allow you to get you and your family up

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92 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes and running pronto. We also present some more elaborate breakfast recipes for those occasions when you’ve got a bit more time available. Quick Healthy Breakfast Ideas When you’re on the run and need a quick but nutritious breakfast here are some healthy options for you to choose: ✓ A cheese stick 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml grapes and 1 cup 250 ml low-fat milk ✓ 1–2 tbsp 15–30 ml peanut butter with a small banana in a whole wheat tortilla ✓ A high-fibre granola bar a medium apple and 1 cup 250 ml of low-fat milk ✓ 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml applesauce 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml All-Bran Buds and 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml sliced almonds ✓ Parfait of 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml artificially sweetened yogurt 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml high-fibre cereal and 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml fruit ✓ A medium apple 1 oz 30 g low-fat cheddar cheese and a yogurt drink ✓ 1 ⁄4– 1 ⁄2 cup 50–125 ml low-fat ricotta cheese with 1 cup 250 ml canta- loupe and 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml sliced almonds ✓ 1 slice whole grain toast with a boiled egg you made last night and stored in the refrigerator and a sliced tomato ✓ 4 pieces of melba toast 1–2 tbsp 15–30 ml peanut butter and 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml probiotic yogurt drink ✓ A commercially available diabetes-friendly meal replacement milkshake. We’d suggest you use these only on occasion. Breakfast foods to avoid As tempting as they sometimes may be the following breakfast choices are best avoided because they’re less nutritious and often pro- vide excess calories and fat compared with the healthier choices we offer in this chapter: ✓ Large bagels and cream cheese ✓ Large muffins ✓ Sausage and egg on tea biscuits ✓ Sugary cereals lacking in fibre ✓ Pastries ✓ Croissants ✓ Toaster pastries ✓ Frozen pancakes French toast or waffles

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Chapter 7: Rise and Shine with Breakfast 93 Fruit First A smoothie can be a good breakfast choice when time is limited. A smoothie is a thick drink made in the blender from natural ingredients like fresh or frozen fruit free of additives and preservatives and resembling a low-fat version of a milkshake. Smoothies have plenty of health benefits they’re ✓ Low in calories depending on how you make it ✓ Full of vitamins and a source of calcium ✓ A better source of fibre than juice Although smoothies can be a good breakfast option they do have some drawbacks. Smoothies ✓ Can be very high in carbohydrate because they typically contain lots of fruit. Consuming excess carbohydrates will raise your blood glucose — see Chapter 2 for more. ✓ Often contain little protein ✓ May not be as filling as solid foods and may leave you hungry or consuming too much of the blended drink In this section you’ll find two nutritious and tasty smoothie recipes. T Mango Orange Banana Smoothie This is a tasty smoothie but remember that smoothies are generally high in carbohydrates because they’re full of fruit yogurt and milk. Preparation Time: 8 minutes Yield: 2 servings 1 banana small 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml mango 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml orange juice 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml low-fat vanilla yogurt 1 tbsp 15 ml ground flaxseed 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk In a blender combine the ingredients and mix on high until smooth. If you don’t have a blender use a potato masher to purée the mango and banana in a bowl add the other ingredients and mix vigorously with a spoon. For each serving pour 1 1 ⁄8 cup 275 millilitres into a glass. Enjoy. Per Serving: 1 1 ⁄8 cup/275 ml Calories 178 Available carbohydrate 28 g Carbohydrate 31 g Fibre 3 g Fat 4 g Protein 7 g Cholesterol 8 mg Phosphorus 207 mg Potassium 582 mg Sodium 77 mg. 1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices

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94 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Shake Me Up Shake This smoothie can be made in the evening and kept in the refrigerator in a covered bowl or glass for a quick ready-to-go breakfast the next day. Stir well in the morning. Preparation Time: 10 minutes Yield: 2 servings 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml raspberries 1 ⁄2 banana 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml vanilla yogurt low fat 1 tsp 5 ml grated lemon zest 1 tbsp 15 ml ground flaxseed 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml honey In a blender combine the ingredients and mix on high until smooth. If you don’t have a blender use a potato masher to puree the raspberries and banana in a bowl add the rest of the ingredients to the bowl and mix vigorously with a spoon. For each serving pour 1 cup 250 millilitres into a glass. Enjoy. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml Calories 193 Available carbohydrate 26 g Carbohydrate 34 g Fibre 8 g Fat 4 g Protein 8 g Cholesterol 8 mg Phosphorus 220 mg Potassium 523 mg Sodium 77 mg. 1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices Baked Delights Baked foods can be healthy breakfast choices so long as they are lower in fat sugar and sodium and ideally high in fibre too. You may choose to have your baked goods only as “treats” reserved for special occasions such as weekend brunches breakfast in bed when having company over and so forth or you might choose to prepare them in advance freeze them and defrost portions as you need them. When preparing or for that matter buying baked breakfast goods be sure to choose those that are high in fibre and low in sugar and fat. To ensure your baked goods turn out the way you want you need to understand how butter functions in baking recipes. The process of creaming or beating butter with sugar is important to achieving the rising rich spongy texture. During the 3 to 5 minutes of beating the sugar into the butter until it is fluffy the sugar cuts into the butter and aerates the fat. This gives cakes their rich texture and flavour.

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Chapter 7: Rise and Shine with Breakfast 95 You can easily substitute soft margarine for butter in recipes where the butter must be creamed with sugar you’ll still create a very acceptable product. Cooking oil however cannot be substituted for butter in these instances — the final product won’t be very good. T Banana Bread This loaf tastes great but takes an hour to bake so plan ahead. If you won’t eat the whole loaf within a few days cut it in two and freeze half for another time. Preparation Time: 20 minutes Cooking Time: 60 minutes Yield: 1 loaf 12 slices 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml soft margarine 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml white sugar 1 egg beaten 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml white flour 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml whole wheat flour 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml ground flaxseed 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 tsp 5 ml baking soda 3 small bananas mashed 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml nutmeg 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml cinnamon 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml walnuts chopped 1 Preheat oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius. 2 Lightly grease a 4-x-8 inch 10-x-20-centimetre loaf pan with canola oil. 3 In a medium-sized bowl cream the margarine and sugar together with an electric mixer or spatula. Add the egg and mix well. 4 Add the remaining ingredients to the bowl and continue mixing until the batter is smooth. Pour the batter into the pan. 5 Bake for one hour until a toothpick inserted into the loaf comes out clean or the loaf starts to slightly pull away from sides of pan. Allow the loaf to cool to room temperature before slicing. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 1 slice 3 ⁄4”/1.7 cm 80 g Calories 198 Available carbohydrate 28 g Carbohydrate 31 g Fibre 3 g Fat 7 g Protein 4 g Cholesterol 18 mg Phosphorus 76 mg Potassium 171 mg Sodium 194 mg. 1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices

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96 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Raspberry Muffins Cornmeal gives these treats a satisfying crunch and a different flavour from the average muffin. Preparation Time: 25 minutes Cooking Time: 16 to 18 minutes Yield: 12 muffins 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml rolled oats 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml white flour 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml cornmeal 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml wheat bran 1 tbsp 15 ml baking powder 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml honey 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml canola oil 2 tsp 10 ml grated lime zest 1 egg lightly beaten 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml raspberries 1 Preheat oven to 400 degrees Fahrenheit 200 degrees Celsius. 2 Lightly grease a muffin pan with canola oil or line with paper muffin cups. 3 In a large microwave-safe bowl combine the oats and milk. Microwave on high for 3 minutes or until the oats are creamy and tender. If you don’t have a microwave place the oats and milk in a pot and cook over medium-high heat for approximately 6 minutes until the oats are creamy and tender. 4 In a large bowl mix together the flour cornmeal wheat bran baking powder and salt with a spoon or spatula. Add the honey canola oil lime zest egg and oat mixture. Stir the ingredients until they are blended but still slightly lumpy. 5 Gently fold in the raspberries. 6 Spoon the batter into the cups of a muffin pan until each cup is two-thirds full. 7 Bake for 16 to 18 minutes or until a toothpick inserted into the centre of a muffin comes out clean. 8 Let the muffins cool in the muffin pan for 2 minutes before removing. Remove the muffins from the pan and place them on a wire rack to cool to room temperature. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 1 muffin 54 g Calories 175 Available carbohydrate 27 g Carbohydrate 29 g Fibre 2 g Fat 6 g Protein 3 g Cholesterol 19 mg Phosphorus 1 mg Potassium 112 mg Sodium 198 mg. 1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices

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Chapter 7: Rise and Shine with Breakfast 97 T Baked Homemade Granola This recipe yields a large quantity of granola but it will keep up to three months in a sealed container. You can add the granola to yogurt eat it as cereal or simply enjoy it on its own for a snack. Preparation Time: 20 minutes Cooking Time: 30 minutes Yield: 7 cups 1750 ml 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml warm water 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml maple syrup 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml vanilla 4 cups 1000 ml dry rolled oats 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml slivered almonds 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml chopped walnuts 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml unsalted sunflower seeds 2 tbsp 30 ml roasted pumpkin seeds 2 tbsp 30 ml sesame seeds 1 tsp 5 ml cinnamon 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml nutmeg 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml raisins 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml chopped dried apricots 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml dried cranberries 2 tbsp 30 ml chopped dates 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml wheat germ 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml psyllium fibre 1 ⁄4 cup 50ml ground flaxseed 1 Preheat oven to 300 degrees Fahrenheit 150 degrees Celsius. 2 Use canola oil to lightly grease a jelly roll pan or rimmed cookie sheet. 3 In a small bowl combine the warm water with the maple syrup and vanilla. 4 In a large bowl stir together the oats nuts seeds and spices. Slowly add the contents of the small bowl. Continue stirring until evenly mixed. 5 Use a spoon or spatula to evenly spread the oat mixture over the jelly roll pan or cookie sheet. 6 Bake for 30 minutes stirring every 10 minutes. 7 Remove the granola from the oven place the tray on a wire cooling rack and allow to cool to room temperature. 8 Pour the granola into a large bowl and add the dried fruits wheat germ psyllium and flaxseed. Mix well serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 1 ⁄4 cup/50 ml Calories 125 Available carbohydrate 14 g Carbohydrate 17 g Fibre 3 g Fat 5 g Protein 4 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 123 mg Potassium 153 mg Sodium 4 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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98 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes The benefits of flax Flax is a very healthy food rich in omega-3 fatty acids and fibre. As we discuss in Chapter 2 omega-3 fatty acids are protective against heart disease and there is increasing scientific evidence that ingesting omega-3 fatty acids reduces the risk of various other diseases including asthma cancer depression and lupus. Consuming fibre helps to improve cholesterol levels lowers blood glucose protects against bowel cancer and helps control your appetite. Flax isn’t one of those “I know it tastes bad but it’s healthy so force yourself to eat it” kinds of food. In fact flax has a nice light nutty taste. A recommended serving size of ground flax seed is 1 to 2 tablespoons 15 to 30 ml per day. One tablespoon 15 ml of ground flax seed contains as much fibre as one slice of whole wheat bread 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml cooked oat bran or 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml brown rice. You can purchase flax seed at the bulk food store. There are two types of flax seed: brown and golden. They are equal in nutritional value. You’ll need to grind the seed the shells are too hard to chew in order to release the omega-3 fatty acids. Use a coffee grinder or blender to crush the flax seed not a food processor. Flax seeds are too small and light to be crushed in a food processor. Ground flax seeds are best stored in the refrigerator in a container that light cannot pass through because the seed is high in oil. Ground flax will stay good in your refrigerator for up to three months and whole flax seeds can be stored in the freezer for up to a year. Flax seed oil can also be consumed most commonly as an oil in salad dressing for dipping bread or for marinades. Compared with ground flax seed flax seed oil provides less fibre. T Baked Scone Aboriginal Bannock There are several versions of scones but this one is Cynthia’s favourite. To make the scone healthier this recipe replaces the traditional lard with soft margarine and combines whole wheat and white flour. For a different twist try adding a 1 ⁄4 cup 50 millilitres of raisins. Preparation Time: 10 minutes Cooking Time: 30 minutes Yield: 12 servings 1 cup 250 ml white flour 1 cup 250 ml whole wheat flour 2 tbsp 30 ml baking powder 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml salt 2 tbsp 30 ml soft margarine 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 2 tsp 10 ml canola oil for your hands

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Chapter 7: Rise and Shine with Breakfast 99 1 Preheat oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius. 2 Lightly grease an 8-x-8-inch 20-x-20-centimetre pan with canola oil. 3 In a large bowl stir together the white and whole wheat flour baking powder and salt. 4 Mix in the soft margarine with a pastry cutter or fork until small pea-sized lumps form in the flour. Slowly pour the milk into the flour mixture. Stir with a fork until a sticky dough ball is formed. 5 Use the fork to transfer the dough to the pan. Lightly coat your hands with the canola oil. Use your hands and fork if necessary to spread the dough across the pan. 6 Bake for 30 minutes. 7 Place the pan on a wire rack and allow to cool for 20 minutes. Cut each piece away from the sides of the pan using an egg lifter. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 1 piece 2 1 ⁄2”x 2”/6.5 x 5 cm 55 g Calories 102 Available carbohydrate 15 g Carbohydrate 17 g Fibre 2 g Fat 3 g Protein 3 g Cholesterol 1 mg Phosphorus 116 mg Potassium 83 mg Sodium 367 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice Per Serving with raisins: 1 piece 2 1 ⁄2” x 2”/6.5 x 5 cm 57 g Calories 112 Available carbohydrate 18 g Carbohydrate 20 g Fibre 2 g Fat 3 g Protein 3 g Cholesterol 1 mg Phosphorus 119 mg Potassium 108 mg Sodium 367mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice Go nuts gently Nuts are a good food choice but with nuts you can definitely have too much of a good thing. Nuts are a good source of protein help raise your good HDL cholesterol and lower your bad LDL cholesterol provide phosphorous are rich in Vitamin E and contain fibre. A downside to eating nuts is that they contain lots of calories 1 ⁄4 cup/50 ml of nuts has 175 calories. That’s why you should consume them in limited quantities. Nuts are a healthier snack alternative to chips or cookies but only if the portion size is limited and the nuts aren’t fried or covered in chocolate sugar or salt.

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100 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Cranberry Walnut Muffins These muffins are very tasty. They are also good to freeze and keep on hand for a later date. You can even pull one out of the freezer in the morning and put it directly in your lunch bag. By lunch time it will be thawed and ready to eat. Preparation Time: 20 minutes Cooking Time: 12 to 15 minutes Yield: 12 muffins 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml white sugar 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml white flour 2 tsp 10 ml baking powder 1 tsp 5 ml baking soda 3 ⁄4 tsp 4 ml cinnamon 1 egg beaten 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml orange juice 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml low-fat sour cream 3 tbsp 45 ml canola oil 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml chopped walnuts 1 cup 250 ml chopped fresh or frozen cranberries 1 Preheat oven to 375 degrees Fahrenheit 190 degrees Celsius. 2 Lightly grease a muffin pan with canola oil or line with paper muffin cups. 3 In a medium-sized bowl combine the sugar flour baking powder baking soda and cinnamon. 4 In a small bowl mix the egg orange juice sour cream and oil. 5 Add the liquid mixture to the dry mixture and gently stir together. Fold in the walnuts and the cranberries. 6 Spoon the batter into the cups of the muffin pan until each cup is two-thirds full. 7 Bake for 12 to 15 minutes or until a toothpick inserted in the centre of a muffin comes out clean. 8 Let the muffins cool in the muffin pan for 2 minutes before removing. Remove the muffins from the pan and place them on a wire rack to cool to room temperature. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 1 muffin 70 g Calories 173 Available carbohydrate 26 g Carbohydrate 27 g Fibre 1 g Fat 6 g Protein 3 g Cholesterol 19 mg Phosphorus 62 mg Potassium 133 mg Sodium 197 mg. 1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices

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Chapter 7: Rise and Shine with Breakfast Griddle Goodies If you’re like us when you think of the griddle your mind immediately conjures up a heavenly collection of aromas and tastes. Mmm mmm. You can enjoy food from the griddle while avoiding excess fat carbohydrates and calories: ✓ Some griddles have special non-stick finishes on their surfaces and can be used without any fat or oil source ✓ Use soft margarine instead of butter ✓ Choose “no sugar added” syrups One teaspoon 5 ml of butter margarine or cooking oil has the same number of calories 35 to 45 and the same amount of fat 4 g but not all fat is created equal: ✓ Less-healthy fats are solid fats like butter lard hydrogenated hard margarines and shortening. These are all high in saturated fat and cholesterol. ✓ Canola oil and soft margarine are healthier choices than solid fats. ✓ A good multipurpose olive oil like fine virgin olive oil is a good choice for sautéing pan frying or stir frying. We made all the recipes in this book with soft margarine except for our Butter Chicken recipe which was made with no surprise here butter canola oil or olive oil. You can also reduce the amount of fat you consume from griddle-prepared meals by using a low-fat cooking spray instead of melting butter on the griddle. You can make your own cooking spray with canola oil and water: 1. Take 1 cup 250 ml of water and remove and discard 2 tablespoons of the water. 2. To the remaining water in the cup add 2 tablespoons 30 ml of canola oil. 3. Place the canola oil and water mixture in a new plant mister spray bottle and you’re all set. Remember to shake well before using. 101

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102 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Cooking oil sprays have many potential uses: ✓ Cooking sprays can be used on broiler pans griddles and barbecues before heating. ✓ To help prevent sticking cooking sprays can be used on spatulas wooden spoons measuring cups and skewers. ✓ They can be sprayed on skillets baking pans casserole dishes and muffin pans. Check the manufacturer’s recommendations for your baking appliances as cooking spray can ruin some of the new finishes on baking pans and skillets. Add a little canola oil to a paper towel and presto you’ve got an easy way to coat baking surfaces. T Akoori Scrambled Eggs These are scrambled eggs with an Indian flair. They can be served with naan bread or plain yogurt if you wish. Naan is a traditional Indian flatbread. It can be purchased at most large grocery store chains. Preparation Time: 10 minutes Cooking Time: 10 minutes Yield: 4 servings 6 eggs 2 egg whites 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml pepper 1 tbsp 15 ml cilantro or parsley coarsely chopped 2 tsp 10 ml canola oil 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml onion chopped 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml tomato chopped 1 tsp 5 ml fresh ginger grated 1 green chili minced optional 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml cumin 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml turmeric 1 Whisk the eggs egg whites pepper and cilantro together in a medium-sized bowl and set aside. 2 In a frying pan heat the oil over medium heat for 1 minute. Add the onions to the pan. Stir frequently until they are soft approximately 3 minutes. 3 Use a spatula to stir in the tomatoes ginger green chili cumin and turmeric. Cook for 1 minute.

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Chapter 7: Rise and Shine with Breakfast 4 Slowly pour the egg mixture into the pan with the tomato mixture. Cook and stir the eggs until there is no liquid left in the pan. Serve immediately. Per Serving: 1 ⁄4 recipe 100 g Calories 154 Available carbohydrate 4 g Carbohydrate 5 g Fibre 1 g Fat 10 g Protein 12 g Cholesterol 317 mg Phosphorus 164 mg Potassium 263 mg Sodium 136 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choices 103 T Oatmeal Pancakes These pancakes are much healthier than conventional pancakes and they taste great too. For added flavour try them with light pancake syrup or fruit. If you have leftovers they can be kept covered in the refrigerator and eaten the next day. Preparation Time: 7 minutes Cooking Time: 10 minutes Yield: 18 pancakes 2 cups 500 ml 1 milk 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml large flake oatmeal 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml whole wheat flour 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml white flour 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml ground flaxseed 2 tbsp 30 ml white sugar 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml salt 2 1 ⁄2 tsp 12 ml baking powder 2 eggs beaten 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml canola oil 1 In a large bowl mix together the milk and oatmeal with a spoon and let sit for 5 minutes. 2 Combine the other ingredients in a bowl and add to the oatmeal mixture. 3 Lightly grease a frying pan with canola oil and set over medium-high heat for 2 minutes. 4 Drop 1 ⁄4 cup 50 millilitres of batter onto the pan for each pancake. Cook 2 minutes per side or until lightly golden brown. Serve hot. Per Serving: 1 pancake 50 g Calories 144 Available carbohydrate 13 g Carbohydrate 15 g Fibre 2 g Fat 8 g Protein 4 g Cholesterol 25 mg Phosphorus 111 mg Potassium 108 mg Sodium 153 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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104 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Oatmeal Fruit Crepes These crepes are sweet enough to be eaten for dessert They can be made in advance and kept in the refrigerator for a day or in the freezer for a month. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Cooking Time: 25 minutes Yield: 14 Crepes Crepes 1 cup 250 ml quick oats 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml whole wheat flour 1 tbsp 15 ml white sugar 1 tsp 5 ml cinnamon 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml orange juice Filling 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml low-fat plain yogurt 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 milk 3 eggs 1 tbsp 15 ml melted soft margarine 3 1 ⁄2 cup 875 ml low-fat ricotta cheese 1 3 ⁄4 cup 425 ml strawberries Sauce 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml diet strawberry jam 1 1 ⁄2 tbsp 22 ml orange juice For the crepes: 1 In a blender mix the oats flour sugar cinnamon orange juice yogurt milk and eggs on high speed until smooth. If you don’t have a blender use a whisk or fork to mix the ingredients together in a bowl. Let the oat mixture stand for 10 minutes then add the melted margarine and stir well. 2 Grease a crepe pan or small non-stick frying pan with canola oil and set over medium- high heat. 3 Pour 2 tablespoons 30 millilitres of batter into the centre of the pan and swirl it around until a thin layer covers the bottom of the pan. 4 Cook each crepe for 1 1 ⁄2 minutes per side until golden brown. 5 Stack the cooked crepes on a plate between layers of wax paper. For the filling: 6 Place 1 ⁄4 cup 50 millilitres of cheese and 2 tbsp 30 millilitres of strawberries in the centre of each crepe. Roll up the crepes so the filling is inside. For the sauce: 7 In a small bowl mix together the jam and orange juice. Top each crepe with 1 table- spoon 15 millilitres of sauce. Serve and enjoy.

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Chapter 7: Rise and Shine with Breakfast 105 Per Serving: 1 crepe with 1 ⁄4 cup/50 ml cheese 2 tbsp/25 ml strawberries and 1 tbsp/15 ml sauce 117 g Calories 163 Available carbohydrate 15 g Carbohydrate 16 g Fibre 1 g Fat 7 g Protein 10 g Cholesterol 65 mg Phosphorus 188 mg Potassium 191 mg Sodium 106 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice T Cottage Cheese Pancakes These pancakes are an excellent breakfast choice — they’re a good source of protein and they’ll keep you energized until lunch. Remember to use light syrup. Preparation Time: 8 minutes Cooking Time: 3 minutes Yield: 11 pancakes 1 cup 250 ml 1 cottage cheese 1 egg 2 egg whites 3 tbsp 45 ml wheat germ 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml whole wheat flour 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml ground flaxseed 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml cinnamon 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 1 tbsp 15 ml canola oil 1 Mix together the cottage cheese egg and egg whites in a food processor or blender at medium speed. If you don’t have a food processor or blender mix well in a bowl using a potato masher or fork to break down the cottage cheese. 2 Combine the wheat germ flour flaxseed cinnamon and salt in a medium-sized bowl and mix well with a spoon or spatula. 3 Add the dry ingredients to the food processor or blender and mix everything together. If you’re not using a food processor or blender mix well by hand. 4 Grease a frying pan with the canola oil and set over medium-high heat for 1 minute. 5 Drop 2 tablespoons 30 millilitres of batter into the pan for each pancake. Cook for 1 1 ⁄2 minutes per side or until golden brown. Serve hot. Per Serving: 4 pancakes 160 g Calories 292 Available carbohydrate 14 g Carbohydrate 21 g Fibre 7 g Fat 14 g Protein 22 g Cholesterol 80 mg Phosphorus 372 mg Potassium 375 mg Sodium 404 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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106 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes

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F Chapter 8 Savory Soups To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here In This Chapter ▶ Seeing the clear appeal of broth-based soups ▶ Skimming over creamy soups ew if any foods evoke the warm and cozy homey feeling that soup creates. Soup reminds people of childhood and simpler times although we’d be the first to say that whether simpler times ever really existed is arguable. Recipes in This Chapter ▶ French Onion Soup T Veggie Soup ▶ Adobo Soup with Bok Choy ▶ Kale Soup ▶ Best Beef Soup T Broccoli Cheese Soup T Carrot Parsnip Soup Think we wax overly poetic Perhaps. But how about this . . . A number of years ago a well-known soup company seeking to be contemporary changed the longstanding classic appearance of their cans’ labels to something modern-looking. It was a dismal marketing failure and sales tanked. Turns out that people didn’t want “modern” in their soup they wanted “traditional.” Well whether you too want something classical or instead are looking for something contemporary in this chapter you’ll find delectable recipes for all sorts of different types of diabetes-friendly soups. Making Soups from Leftovers Don’t throw out those leftover meat bones or slightly wilted vegetables Instead use these ingredients to make tasty soup. You’ll end up with a nutritious product and your economical actions will save you some money at the same time. To make your soup from leftovers you will need the following: ✓ A large saucepan ✓ Meat or poultry bones to make your own broth or prepared broth

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✓ Vegetables leftover beans pasta or rice ✓ Herbs

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108 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes In the next section we look at how to make your own broth and then we look at how to add the broth your own or a prepared one to the other ingredients to create your piece de resistance. Making a basic broth Making your own broth takes a little work but it’s much tastier and healthier than the commercial alternatives which are high in sodium. Broth can be refrigerated for two days or stored in the freezer for up to 3 months. Try storing it in 1 ⁄2-cup 125 ml portions for easy use later in sauces or a stir-fry. These are the steps to follow to make your own broth: 1. In a large saucepan add meat or poultry scraps and leftover bones. Bones can be raw precooked or cooked. If using raw meat baking the bones in the oven at 400 degrees Fahrenheit 200 degrees Celsius in a roasting pan for one hour turning half way through will give more flavour to the soup. Don’t let the drippings go to waste add some water to the roasting pan and then add this to the soup pot. 2. Cover the bones in the pan with cold water until the water comes one inch 2.5 cm above the bones. Bring this mixture to a boil over medium- high heat uncovered and then reduce the heat to a low simmer. 3. Add a quartered onion celery and carrots to the saucepan. You could also add a bay leaf parsley thyme celery tops or a few peppercorns. Make sure the water covers any added vegetables. 4. Cover and simmer 3 hours for poultry and 4 hours for beef lamb or pork. Skim off any foam that floats to the top of the saucepan during the simmering process. 5. Remove the bones and vegetables strain the broth through a fine mesh strainer and let the broth cool a little. A quick way to cool the broth is to place the cool saucepan in a sink of cold water that comes 3 ⁄4 of the way up the saucepan. 6. Refrigerate the broth when it’s cold use a spoon to skim off and discard the hardened fat that has risen to the surface. If you need to use the broth before refrigerating it you can still remove the fat try swirling a few ice cubes on the surface of the broth for a minute then remove. Some fat will have clung to the ice cubes.

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Chapter 8: Savory Soups 109 The difference between a stock and a broth Broth bouillon in French is a clear savoury combination of meats vegetables and herbs that are simmered in water and then strained. Stock is made in a similar way to broth but is much more gelatinous. Consommé is a completely clear soup similar to broth but it often has a more intense flavour. Broth and stock are similar enough that they can be used interchangeably in recipes and used for soup sauces gravies or sautés. Making soup with your homemade broth With your broth at the ready these are the next steps to make your soup: 1. Gather all the various ingredients you will be using including vegetables rice pasta beans garlic spices a bay leaf parsley rosemary marjoram or thyme and meat beef pork lamb or poultry. 2. Chop the vegetables and meat into bite-sized pieces. For extra flavour you can sauté the vegetables in a bit of olive oil with some garlic or ginger. 3. Pour the broth into a large saucepan. 4. Add the vegetables spices and meat to the saucepan. 5. Bring the mixture to a boil over medium-high heat then turn down the heat to a low simmer for 1 to 2 hours until the vegetables are tender when pricked with a fork or knife. Just prior to the vegetables being tender add the leftover rice pasta or beans. 6. When warm through ladle into a bowl and serve. If making your own broth isn’t possible you can use commercial broth bought in a box or can or a cube. Whenever possible choose a broth that is low in sodium. Considering Commercially Prepared Soups Commercially prepared soups both those in a can and the dry version in a cup are very handy and can be very tasty but they’re typically high in sodium.

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110 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes On average 1 cup 250 ml of commercially prepared soup has 700 to 1700 mg of sodium this is 30 to 70 percent of the Daily Value for sodium. For more about Canada Food Guide’s recommendations see Chapter 2. In other words having one cup of soup you buy in a container at the grocery store will provide you with about half of all the sodium you should consume in an entire day If you eat soup that’s high in sodium try to make the rest of your day’s food choices low in sodium. Generally the Nutrition Facts panel lists soup in 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml or 1 cup 250 ml servings. We think the former that is the 1 ⁄2 cup listing is perhaps a bit disingenuous really now how many people would think that 1 ⁄2 cup of soup is either sufficient for their desires or represents a full serving of soup For more about reading the Nutrition Facts table refer to Chapter 6. To ensure you are not consuming excess sodium remember to check the Nutrition Facts table for both the serving size and the sodium content per serving size for commercially prepared soup. Commercial cream soups like cream of mushroom are high not only in sodium but in fat too. A cup 250 ml of commercial cream soup often contains as much as 1700 mg or 70 percent of the Daily Value of sodium and 16 g or 24 percent of the Daily Value of fat. Even a cup of “low sodium” cream of mushroom soup can have over 50 percent of the Daily Value for sodium. Dried soup cups with noodles are also often rich in sodium with some brands having as much as 61 percent of the Daily Value for sodium. Broth-Based Soups For broth-based soups we recommend using a homemade broth we show you how to prepare one in the section “Making a basic broth” earlier in this chapter but you can also use a pre-made broth if you don’t have your own on hand. Just remember to go with low-sodium versions.

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Chapter 8: Savory Soups 111 French Onion Soup Get your tissues ready — this recipe calls for a lot of onions. Cynthia still hasn’t found a way to keep from crying when chopping onions and she’s done a lot of chopping for this book Preparation Time: 20 minutes Cooking Time: 60 minutes Yield: 8 servings 4 tbsp 60 ml soft margarine 6 cups 1500 ml yellow onions coarsely chopped 1 tsp 5 ml sugar 1 tbsp 15 ml white flour 6 cups 1500ml reduced-sodium beef broth 2 tsp 10 ml Worcestershire sauce 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml pepper 4 slices whole wheat bread toasted 1 cup 250 ml low-fat mozzarella cheese shredded 1 In a large pot melt the margarine over medium-high heat. Add the onions stirring frequently for 10 minutes. 2 Add the sugar and continue stirring until the onions turn a golden colour. Do not let the onions turn brown. Sprinkle the onions with flour and stir for 2 minutes. 3 Slowly add the beef broth to the pot. Mix in the Worcestershire sauce and pepper. 4 Bring the soup to a boil cover and let simmer for 15 minutes. 5 Cut the toasted bread into cubes. 6 For each serving pour 1 cup 250 millilitres of soup into a bowl and top with bread cubes use a half-slice’s worth of cubes per serving. Sprinkle 2 tablespoons 30 millilitres of shredded mozzarella cheese over the bread cubes. 7 Place each bowl in the microwave for 1 1 ⁄2 minutes or until the cheese melts. If you don’t have a microwave pour the soup into ovenproof bowls. Place each bowl under the broiler for 1 minute until the cheese melts. Remove with oven mitts and serve. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml Calories 216 Available carbohydrate 17 g Carbohydrate 20 g Fibre 3 g Fat 10 g Protein 11 g Cholesterol 8 mg Phosphorus 203 mg Potassium 398 mg Sodium 270 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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112 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Veggie Soup This soup is easy to make and it’s very colourful and tasty. Remember vegetables are very low in calories and carbohydrates so you can enjoy this soup alongside almost any meal. For a vegetarian dish use vegetable broth instead of chicken. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Cooking Time: 30 to 40 minutes Yield: 6 servings 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml carrots diced 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml onion diced 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml celery diced 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml turnip diced 1 cup 250 ml chopped tomatoes 1 cup 250 ml cabbage shredded 1 clove garlic minced 4 cups 1000 ml reduced-sodium chicken or vegetable broth 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml pepper 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml basil 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml oregano 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml frozen peas 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml parsley chopped 1 Combine all of the ingredients except for the peas and parsley in a large pot. 2 Bring the soup to a boil then reduce the temperature to low heat. Cover the pot and allow the soup to simmer for 30 to 40 minutes until the vegetables are tender. 3 Add the peas and parsley and let the soup simmer for approximately 5 minutes until the peas are cooked. 4 For each serving ladle 1 cup 250 millilitres into a bowl. Enjoy. Per Serving: 1cup/250 ml Calories 46 Available carbohydrate 6 g Carbohydrate 8 g Fibre 2 g Fat 0 g Protein 4 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 66 mg Potassium 378 mg Sodium 411 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choices

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Chapter 8: Savory Soups 113 Adobo Soup with Bok Choy This is the national dish of the Philippines. It is actually more like a stew than a soup and can be made with either chicken or pork. This soup is a high source of potassium and sodium. Preparation Time: 25 minutes Cooking Time: 20 minutes Yield: 6 servings 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml reduced-sodium soy sauce 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml rice vinegar 2 cloves garlic minced 1 bay leaf 1 tsp 5 ml olive oil 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml yellow onions chopped 4 cups 1000 ml reduced-sodium chicken broth 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml cooked chicken or lean pork cut into bite-sized pieces 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml uncooked couscous 8 cups 2000 ml bok choy sliced 2 green onions chopped 1 In a small pot combine the soy sauce vinegar garlic and bay leaf. Bring to a boil then remove from the stovetop and set aside. 2 In a large pot heat the olive oil for 1 minute over medium-high heat. Add the yellow onions and sauté until they are soft and golden brown about 6 minutes. 3 Add the chicken stock to the onions and bring the mixture to a boil. 4 Pour the soy sauce mixture into the large pot. Add the chicken or pork and the couscous. Bring the soup to a boil then reduce the heat to low cover and simmer for 2 minutes. 5 Add the bok choy and continue to let the soup simmer covered for another 2 minutes until the bok choy is tender. 6 Discard the bay leaf. For each serving ladle 1 cup 250 millilitres into a bowl and top with a few chopped green onions. Enjoy. Per Serving with chicken: 1 cup/250 ml Calories 198 Available carbohydrate 23 g Carbohydrate 27 g Fibre 4 g Fat 3 g Protein 19 g Cholesterol 30 mg Phosphorus 220 mg Potassium 975 mg Sodium 1281 mg. Per Serving with pork: 1 cup/ 250 ml Calories 211 Available carbohydrate 22 g Carbohydrate 26 g Fibre 4 g Fat 5 g Protein 18 g Cholesterol 27 mg Phosphorus 223 mg Potassium 1027 mg Sodium 1329 mg. 1 Serving 1 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choices

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114 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Kale Soup Portuguese Kale is a frilly dark green plant with a blue purple or crimson tinge. It tastes similar to cabbage but a bit sweeter. When purchasing kale look for leaves the size of your hand — they will be the most tender and mild tasting. The stems are edible but very fibrous so they aren’t used in this recipe. Preparation Time: 40 minutes Cooking Time: 1 hour 15 minutes Yield: 10 servings 2 tbsp 30 ml olive oil 2 cups 500 ml yellow onions finely chopped 3 cloves garlic minced 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml dried chili peppers 1 1 ⁄3 cups 325 ml potatoes diced 6 cups 1500 ml reduced-sodium chicken broth 19 oz can 540 ml red kidney beans 6 cups 1500 ml kale leaves chopped 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml Polish sausage diced 1 Heat the olive oil in a frying pan on medium-high heat for 1 minute. Add the onions and garlic to the pan and sauté for approximately 5 minutes until they are soft but not brown. 2 Add the dried chili peppers and diced potatoes to the frying pan. Cook and stir for 2 minutes. 3 In a large pot combine the onion and potato mixture with the broth and bring to a boil. 4 Add the kale and reduce the heat to low. Cover the pot and allow the soup to simmer for 1 hour. 5 Drain the liquid from the kidney beans in a strainer. Rinse the beans under cold running water for 2 minutes. 6 Place half of the beans in a medium-sized bowl and mash them with a potato masher. 7 Add the Polish sausage and the beans both whole and mashed to the soup and let simmer for another 10 minutes. 8 For each serving ladle 1 cup 250 millilitres into a bowl. Enjoy. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml Calories 215 Available carbohydrate 19 g Carbohydrate 23 g Fibre 4 g Fat 11 g Protein 9 g Cholesterol 7 mg Phosphorus 153 mg Potassium 620 mg Sodium 319 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 8: Savory Soups 115 Best Beef Soup This is one of Cynthia’s mother’s favourite recipes. Even Cynthia’s teenaged son Jeff loves it This soup can be made in advance and kept in the refrigerator overnight — it always tastes better the next day. Preparation Time: 25 minutes Cooking Time: 40 minutes Yield: 9 servings 1 tbsp 15 ml olive oil 3 ⁄4 lb 340 g stewing beef or brisket 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml yellow onion finely chopped 2 cups 500 ml carrots finely chopped 1 cup 250 ml celery finely chopped 1 cup 250 ml parsnip chopped 4 cups 1000 ml reduced-sodium beef broth 1 cup 250 ml water 14 oz 398 ml can diced tomatoes 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml pearl barley 3 ⁄4 tsp 4 ml marjoram 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml thyme 1 bay leaf 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml pepper 1 Trim the fat from the beef and cut it into 1 ⁄4 inch 1 centimetre pieces. 2 In a medium-sized frying pan warm the oil for 1 minute. Add the beef and brown for approximately 5 minutes until cooked through. Place the beef in a large pot. 3 Place the onions in the frying pan that contained the beef and sauté for 2 to 3 minutes until they are soft. Add the sautéed onions to the large pot. 4 Place the rest of the ingredients in the pot and bring to a boil. Reduce heat to low cover and allow the soup to simmer for 30 to 40 minutes until the vegetables are tender. 5 For each serving ladle 1 cup 250 millilitres into a bowl. Enjoy. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml Calories 174 Available carbohydrate 12 g Carbohydrate 15 g Fibre 3 g Fat 7 g Protein 13 g Cholesterol 31 mg Phosphorus 157 mg Potassium 486 mg Sodium 139 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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116 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Creamy Soups Milky and delicious creamy soups can be particularly comforting but unfortunately some can be quite high in fat too. Happily the two soups in this section aren’t fatty and in fact one soup doesn’t even include milk at all T Broccoli Cheese Soup Broccoli tastes delicious in this soup and is rich in antioxidants folate and vitamins C and E. Antioxidants help protect against cancer and lower the risk of heart disease stroke and cataracts. For a vegetarian dish use vegetable broth instead of chicken. Preparation Time: 20 minutes Cooking Time: 15 minutes Yield: 4 servings 1 tbsp 15 ml soft margarine 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml yellow onions chopped 1 tbsp 15 ml flour 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml reduced-sodium chicken or vegetable broth 4 cups 1000 ml broccoli including peeled stems and stalks finely chopped 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml pepper 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml salt 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml 1 milk 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml low-fat cheddar cheese grated 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml dry mustard 1 green onion chopped 1 Melt the margarine in a frying pan and sauté the onions over medium-high heat until tender. Add the flour to the onions and stir for 1 minute. 2 Slowly whisk the broth into the onions. Remove from heat transfer the mixture to a large pot and add the broccoli. 3 Bring the soup to a boil. Cover and simmer for 5 to 8 minutes or until the broccoli is tender. If the soup is cooked too long it will lose its colour. Purée with a hand blender or a potato masher. 4 Add the rest of the ingredients except the green onions. Heat the soup thoroughly without bringing to a boil. 5 For each serving pour 1 1 ⁄8 cups 275 millilitres of soup into a bowl and top with a few chopped green onions. Enjoy. Per Serving: 1 1 ⁄8 cup/275 ml Calories 153 Available carbohydrate 12 g Carbohydrate 14 g Fibre 2 g Fat 6 g Protein 13 g Cholesterol 9 mg Phosphorus 275 mg Potassium 504 mg Sodium 533 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 8: Savory Soups 117 T Carrot Parsnip Soup Carrots are well known as an abundant source of beta carotene which converts in our bodies to vitamin A. Parsnips are an excellent source of fibre as well as folate magnesium potassium and vitamins C and E. With both carrots and parsnips this soup is full of nutrients that will aid in keeping you healthy. For a vegetarian dish use vegetable broth instead of chicken. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Cooking Time: 30 minutes Yield: 5 servings 1 tbsp 15 ml soft margarine 1 cup 250 ml yellow onion chopped 1 clove garlic minced 2 cups 500 ml carrots chopped 1 cup 250 ml parsnip chopped 4 cups 1000 ml reduced-sodium chicken or vegetable broth 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml ginger root grated 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml salt 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml pepper 1 green onion 1 Melt the margarine over medium-high heat in a frying pan and add the onions and garlic. Sauté until tender but not brown then transfer to a large pot. 2 Add the rest of the ingredients to the pot except for the green onion and bring the pot to a boil. 3 Cover the pot and simmer on low heat for about 20 minutes or until the vegetables are tender. 4 Purée the soup with a hand blender or potato masher until smooth. 5 For each serving ladle 1 cup 250 millilitres of soup into a bowl and top with a few chopped green onions. Enjoy. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml Calories 107 Available carbohydrate 13 g Carbohydrate 16 g Fibre 3 g Fat 4 g Protein 5 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 106 mg Potassium 488 mg Sodium 350 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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118 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes

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Chapter 9 Snazzy Salads To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here In This Chapter ▶ Livening up a tossed salad ▶ Getting started with salad ▶ Enjoying salad on the side ▶ Making salad the main attraction W hen it comes to salads how times have Recipes in This Chapter T Tomato Cucumber Salad ▶ Classic Caesar Salad T Fruity Spinach Salad T Marinated Mushrooms with Herbs T Pecan Mango and Brie Salad T Chunky Apple Coleslaw T Beet and Feta Salad T Light Potato Salad changed. Thank goodness Long gone are the days when “salad” was synonymous with some iceberg lettuce dressed up with a few tomato wedges and thick French dressing. No wonder salad used to get such a bum rap especially from us when we were kids. Nowadays so many types of salad are on offer that on some restaurant menus they dwarf the number of different burgers for sale. Hey now that’s progress T Asian Noodle Salad T Mixed Bean Salad T Bulgur and Chickpea Salad with Lemon Dressing T Couscous Chickpea Salad ▶ Walnut Pear and Chicken Salad In this chapter we look at a wide variety of salads including those eaten at the beginning of a meal starter salads with the meal side salads and as a meal themselves main salads. We discuss how you can choose healthy salads when in a restaurant and what to look for in pre-made salads on offer in grocery stores. You’ll find salads that work for hot summer days or cold winter nights and everything in between. Waking Up Tired Tossed Salads

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Lettuce wins the popularity contest for the vegetable most likely to be purchased. But as even the hardiest eater knows lettuce usually needs some help. Eaten alone no accoutrements no dressing no nothin’ lettuce can be at risk of deserving its sometimes maligned status as “rabbit food.” On the other hand when lettuce is a part of dish salad or otherwise it takes on a whole new dimension as it blossoms so to speak into a tasty food.

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120 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes In the next few sections we look at some of the most popular types of lettuce. Following that we look at how you can make your lettuce come alive Getting the lowdown on lettuce Lettuce is healthy for you it’s low in calories high in water and a source of fibre. Romaine lettuce see later in this section is the most nutritious of lettuces and is rich in folate vitamin A and vitamin C. Other lettuces carry the same nutrients but in lower amounts. Dark green lettuce has a larger amount of beta carotene. Crisphead lettuce Crisphead lettuce has a crunch or crispness. The leaves form a compact head that resembles a cabbage. The flavour of crisphead lettuce is mild to bland. Crisphead lettuce can be shredded cut into wedges or torn by hand. Iceberg lettuce the most famous of crisphead lettuces well insofar as lettuce can be famous has a very pale green middle and light green outer leaves. Two newly created varieties of iceberg lettuce have red leaves or red and darker green leaves. Iceberg lettuce is the nutritional loser when it comes to lettuce because it has less fibre and nutrients than other varieties of lettuce. But if iceberg is your favourite you can always add more healthy toppings to increase the fibre and nutrient content. Cos lettuce Cos lettuce has long green or red and green thick crisp leaves that stand upright. The flavour is stronger than other lettuces. Romaine lettuce is the best known and most popular type of cos lettuce and is used in Caesar salad. Why didn’t we ever see Caesar salad around when we were kids It would have made us into lettuce lovers far earlier. Butterhead lettuce Butterhead lettuce has very soft leaves that are tender and form a loose head. The leaves can be green red or bronze. Boston bibb and buttercrunch are types of butterhead lettuce. Butterhead lettuce has a soft buttery texture and a sweet milky flavour. This lettuce is often mixed with other types of lettuce. Looseleaf lettuce Looseleaf lettuce does not form heads and is you guessed it a loose bunch of leaves. Oakleaf dark red frilly Lollo Rosso arugula and tubular Deer Tongue are colourfully named types of looseleaf lettuce. A mesclun mix is often a mixture of these types of lettuce.

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Chapter 9: Snazzy Salads Looseleaf lettuce comes in a variety of colours including pale to darker green red and bronze and flavours ranging from mild to woody to sweet. Arugula with the shape of an oak leaf has a very distinct nutty to bitter peppery taste. Adding life to salad Using lettuce as your base ingredient you can create lively tasty nutritious salads here’s how: Add ✓ Other vegetables like red onion mini corn on the cob pea pods Chinese napa cabbage broccoli cauliflower watercress sprouts spinach or blanched asparagus ✓ Fruit such as mandarin oranges raisins dried cranberries berries grapefruit apple avocado or mango ✓ A protein-rich ingredient like grated low-fat cheddar cheese goat cheese low-fat feta cheese blue cheese low-fat mozzarella cheese cubes boiled egg nuts seeds leftover roast beef chicken pork fish shrimp crab or beans chickpeas kidney beans and so forth ✓ Fresh herbs such as parsley cilantro mint dill or basil Be careful when choosing toppings like crumbled bacon for instance and dressings: these can be very high in fat. Storing lettuce 121 Lettuce tends to spoil quite easily but here are a few simple measures to keep your lettuce healthy longer: ✓ Remove any bands holding the lettuce together. Bands tend to bruise the lettuce. ✓ Remove any bruised or wilted leaves. They promote spoiling of the other still healthy leaves. ✓ Don’t cut tear or shred the unused lettuce leaves. Leaving the leaves intact until you are ready to use them will help the lettuce retain its nutrients and will help prevent the leaves from turning brown. ✓ Dry the leaves before storing them. A salad spinner is a particularly effective way to dry lettuce leaves. ✓ To extend their shelf life wrap the leaves in a paper towel or a clean cloth and place them in a perforated plastic bag in the vegetable crisper of the refrigerator.

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122 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Giving salads zip with a homemade vinaigrette Store-bought salad dressings are notoriously rich in calories. You can avoid these extra calories by making your own salad dressing. Here’s a recipe for a homemade low-calorie vinaigrette: Mix together ✓ 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml balsamic vinegar ✓ 1 tbsp 15 ml plus 1 tsp 5 ml olive oil ✓ 1 tbsp 15 ml water ✓ 2 tsp 10 ml honey ✓ 2 tsp 10 ml Dijon mustard and ✓ l clove garlic minced. That’s it One tablespoon of this vinaigrette 15 ml provides 33 calories 2 g fat 3 g carbohydrate and 16 mg sodium. Think of salad dressing as you think of perfume: it should enhance not overpower Choosing store-bought salad dressings Grocery store shelves feature a seemingly limitless number and variety of salad dressings. These dressings vary greatly in their content of calories fat and sodium so you must carefully read the Nutrition Facts table to see what the product contains before you buy it. Keeping a couple of general principles in mind will help you choose the best dressing: ✓ A vinaigrette is often the lowest in calories. Be careful when it comes to oil and vinegar dressings they can have more calories fat and sodium than some brand-name ranch dressings ✓ When choosing a creamy dressing select a low-fat version. If you have diabetes a low-fat version is also typically a better choice than an “ultra low-fat” version. Ultra low-fat salad dressings do as advertised have very little fat but to maintain taste they typically contain more sugar. Whatever product you buy remember to keep tabs on portion size. A “low calorie” dressing may not end up being so low in calories if — as can easily happen if you’re not paying attention when pouring the sometimes watery contents from the bottle — you inadvertently end up putting on three servings’ worth

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Chapter 9: Snazzy Salads Making sure the lettuce is dry before adding it to your salad will help the dressing cling to it. Starter Salads In this section we look at salads that serve as a fitting introduction to the meal to follow. The Tomato Cucumber Salad is a nice beginning to a light lunch or a dinner on a hot day. Classic Caesar Salad is a welcome start to a lovely Italian meal. Fruity Spinach Salad and Marinated Mushroom Salad are a great way to begin a lunch with friends. And Pecan Mango and Brie Salad — Ian’s favourite of the bunch — is a scrumptious and relatively easy way to set the groundwork for a gourmet meal. T Tomato Cucumber Salad This recipe is quick and easy — perfect for when company arrives unexpectedly It’s even more delicious when made with fresh in-season tomatoes. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Yield: 5 servings 123 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml tomatoes chopped into chunks 2 tbsp 30 ml red onion chopped into chunks 1 cup 250 ml cucumber chopped into chunks 2 tbsp 30 ml parsley coarsely chopped 2 tbsp 30 ml olive oil 1 1 ⁄2 tbsp 22 ml red wine vinegar 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 1 tsp 5 ml fresh oregano finely chopped 1 tbsp 15 ml fresh basil finely chopped 1 Mix together the tomato onion cucumber and parsley in a medium-sized bowl. 2 In a second smaller bowl whisk together the oil vinegar salt and pepper. Pour over the vegetables. 3 Add the herbs to the bowl toss and serve. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml Calories 64 Available carbohydrate 2 g Carbohydrate 3 g Fibre 1 g Fat 6 g Protein 1 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 21 mg Potassium 179 mg Sodium 121 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choices

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124 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Classic Caesar Salad This Caesar salad dressing is modified from one created by Cynthia’s sister-in-law Cindy Payne. The recipe is likely much thicker than you’re used to eating. This recipe makes 1 cup 250 millilitres of dressing but if you want to double it to make more for later it will keep well in the refrigerator up to two days. Preparation Time: 10 minutes Yield: 8 servings 2 egg yolks 2 cloves garlic minced 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml canola oil 1 tbsp 15 ml lemon juice 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml red wine vinegar 1 tsp 5 ml white vinegar 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml oregano 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml dry mustard 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml pepper 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 1 ⁄4 cup 50ml low-fat Parmesan cheese 8 cups 2000 ml romaine lettuce washed and dried 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml croutons 6 tbsp 90 ml reduced-sodium bacon bits about 3 slices of bacon chopped 1 To make the dressing beat the egg yolks with a whisk or fork in a small bowl until they are thick. Add the garlic and mix well. 2 Very slowly add the oil while continuing to whisk the mixture so it doesn’t separate. Add the lemon juice vinegars spices and Parmesan cheese and mix well. If the dressing is too thick more lemon juice can be added. But add it sparingly — the dressing is supposed to be thick. 3 Remove the stalks of the romaine lettuce as well as any brown pieces. Break the lettuce into bite-sized pieces and place in a salad bowl. Pour on the dressing and mix well. 4 Add the croutons and bacon bits toss and serve. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml Calories 240 Available carbohydrate 3 g Carbohydrate 5 g Fibre 2 g Fat 24 g Protein 3 g Cholesterol 58 mg Phosphorus 75 mg Potassium 224 mg Sodium 177 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choices

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Chapter 9: Snazzy Salads 125 T Fruity Spinach Salad This is a quick and tasty salad — Cynthia’s never served it to anyone who’s disliked it and it’s also good for you Spinach is an excellent source of vitamin A folate iron magnesium potassium and riboflavin vitamin B 2 . Preparation Time: 15 minutes Yield: 8 servings 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml slivered almonds 2 tbsp 30 ml sesame seeds 2 tbsp 30 ml white sugar 1 1 ⁄2 tbsp 22 ml red onion chopped 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml Worcestershire sauce 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml paprika 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml olive oil 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml cider vinegar 1 tbsp 15 ml poppy seeds 9 cups 2250 ml fresh spinach 1 cup 250 ml sliced strawberries 1 Place the almonds in a dry frying pan over medium-high heat. Stir the almonds frequently for 3 to 5 minutes until they are lightly toasted. Watch the almonds closely because they can burn easily. Remove the almonds from the frying pan and allow them to cool. Repeat with the sesame seeds. 2 To make the dressing combine the sugar onion Worcestershire sauce paprika oil and vinegar in a small bowl. Mix vigorously with a whisk or fork. 3 Mix together the almonds sesame seeds poppy seeds spinach and strawberries in a salad bowl. Pour the dressing on the salad toss and serve immediately. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml Calories 167 Available carbohydrate 6 g Carbohydrate 9 g Fibre 3 g Fat 14 g Protein 4 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 97 mg Potassium 323 mg Sodium 65 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choices

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126 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Marinated Mushrooms with Herbs Mushrooms are low in calories and a very good source of pantothenic acid vitamin B 5 . For enhanced flavour prepare this recipe a day in advance to allow the mushrooms plenty of time to marinate. This is a revised recipe from Cynthia’s sister-in-law Roberta Payne. Preparation Time: 10 minutes Cooking Time: 8 minutes Yield: 6 servings 3 cups 750 ml small whole mushrooms 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml olive oil 2 tbsp 30 ml lemon juice 2 tbsp 30 ml white vinegar 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml salt 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml pepper 1 tsp 5 ml dried tarragon 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml dried thyme 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml dried basil 1 clove garlic minced 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml red onion chopped 2 tbsp 30 ml red pepper chopped 2 tbsp 30 ml green onion chopped 1 Clean the mushrooms and place them in a medium-sized saucepan with the oil lemon juice vinegar herbs spices and garlic. Simmer over low heat for 8 minutes. 2 Remove the saucepan from the heat and add the peppers and onion. Mix well with a spoon. 3 Place the salad in a medium-sized bowl cover and place in the refrigerator overnight. Stir the salad occasionally to prevent the marinade from settling at the bottom of the bowl. 4 When you’re ready to eat remove the mushrooms from the refrigerator give them a good stir and serve. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml Calories 105 Available carbohydrate 2 g Carbohydrate 3 g Fibre 1 g Fat 12 g Protein 1 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 35 mg Potassium 152 mg Sodium 197 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choices

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Chapter 9: Snazzy Salads 127 T Pecan Mango and Brie Salad This salad is easy to prepare but serve it to your friends and family and they’ll think you’ve been taking gourmet cooking classes. When picking mangoes choose ones that are slightly soft to the touch and have no black spots. Preparation Time: 12 minutes Yield: 8 servings 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml mango washed peeled and cubed for dressing 1 large mango washed peeled and cubed for salad 1 small shallot peeled and finely chopped 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml white wine vinegar 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml olive oil 2 tbsp 30 ml maple syrup 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml pepper 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml curry powder 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml halved pecans 8 cups 2000 ml mixed baby greens 6 oz 128 g brie cheese chopped into small cubes 1 For the dressing place the 1 ⁄2 cup 125 millilitres of cubed mango shallot vinegar oil maple syrup salt pepper and curry powder into a blender and purée. If you don’t have a blender use an electric hand mixer or a potato masher to make the dressing as smooth as possible. 2 Lightly toast the pecans by placing them in a dry frying pan over medium-high heat. Stir frequently for 3 to 5 minutes until the pecans are lightly toasted. Watch the pecans closely because they can burn easily. 3 In a salad bowl mix together the baby greens remaining mango cubes toasted pecans and brie. Pour on the dressing toss and serve. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml Calories 287 Available carbohydrate 11 g Carbohydrate 13 g Fibre 2 g Fat 25 g Protein 6 g Cholesterol 21 mg Phosphorus 81 mg Potassium 298 mg Sodium 224 mg. 1 Serving 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choice Side Salads Side salads are those salads that are eaten with the rest of a meal as opposed to starter salads which are eaten before the rest of the food is served. Side salads can be made ahead of time a very helpful feature because the advance preparation allows you to spend more time with your company — and feel less harried after they arrive.

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128 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Chunky Apple Coleslaw Cabbage is an excellent source of antioxidants and is very affordable. Store it in a perfo- rated plastic bag in the crisper of the refrigerator. Preparation Time: 20 minutes Yield: 9 servings 3 cups 750 ml green cabbage finely chopped 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml carrot grated 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml celery chopped 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml apple diced 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml red onion chopped 1 ⁄4 cup 125 ml red pepper diced 2 tbsp 30 ml parsley chopped 2 tsp 10 ml Dijon mustard 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml celery seed 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml pepper 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml light mayonnaise 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml low-fat plain yogurt 1 Combine the vegetables apple and parsley in a large bowl. 2 For the sauce mix together the mustard celery seed salt pepper mayonnaise and yogurt. 3 Add the sauce to the vegetables and mix well with a fork until the sauce evenly covers the vegetables. Serve. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml Calories 48 Available carbohydrate 5 g Carbohydrate 6 g Fibre 1 g Fat 2 g Protein 1 g Cholesterol 2 mg Phosphorus 36 mg Potassium 149 mg Sodium 132 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choices T Beet and Feta Salad This vibrant salad offers a new way to eat beets and is ready in a flash. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Yield: 4 servings 14 oz 398 ml can of small whole rosebud beets 2 tbsp 30 ml olive oil 2 tbsp 30 ml red wine vinegar 1 ⁄8 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄8 tsp 1 ml pepper 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml red onion chopped 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml low-fat feta cheese cubed 2 tbsp 30 ml fresh mint chopped 1 Empty the can of beets into a strainer rinse with cold water and let drain.

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Chapter 9: Snazzy Salads 2 Cut the beets into quarters and place in a medium-sized bowl. 3 In a small bowl whisk together the oil vinegar salt and pepper. Pour over the beets. 4 Just before serving add the onion feta and mint. Gently toss and serve. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml Calories 78 Available carbohydrate 5 g Carbohydrate 6 g Fibre 1 g Fat 7 g Protein 3 g Cholesterol 15 mg Phosphorus 78 mg Potassium 130 mg Sodium 398 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choices 129 Pre-made and deli salads If you need a salad in a pinch you can pop into the grocery store and grab a bag of pre-washed salad greens salad blends or spinach. These pre-made salads are more expensive than making salad yourself but the time saved may be worth it for you. Remember to check the “best before” date on the bag before you buy the salad. Resealing the bag and keeping it in your refrigerator’s vegetable crisper will help to keep it fresh for a while longer. Some pre-made salads come complete with a small bag of croutons and dressing. Having these on the side can be helpful to help you limit the number of croutons and the amount and type of dressing on your salad. Think of it as undressing your salad Grabbing a pre-made pre-dressed salad at a fast-food chain is not necessarily as healthy a choice as you might think. You may be surprised to hear that sometimes a burger has fewer calories and less fat than some of the salads on offer at these restaurants The best thing to do when possible is to order the salad with- out dressing and to add the dressing yourself in small quantities. Even better ask for the nutritional analysis guide for the restaurant’s foods and check out what the salad or the burger for that matter contains. Deli salads that is those premade salads like potato macaroni broccoli and raisin chick pea seven grain and so forth that you buy at the deli are useful in a pinch when unexpected company arrives or you just need a break from preparing food. Be careful when choosing these salads as they can be a dietary minefield festooned with fat sodium and calories. Here are some ways to have a healthier deli salad: ✓ Ask the deli staff for the salad with the least dressing or with low-fat dressing. Even better whenever possible ask for the dressing to be given to you in a separate small dish or on the side of your plate. Dip the tongs of your fork in the dressing and then spear your salad morsel with the little bit of dressing coming along for the ride to your mouth. ✓ Choose salads with broccoli spinach mixed greens or romaine lettuce — the darker the colour the better. Dark green vegetables are often rich in calcium iron potassium magnesium vitamin A beta- carotene and folate. ✓ Avoid salads with fried noodles and regular mayonnaise. ✓ Pick salads that are a good source of fibre like whole wheat pasta bulgur seven grain whole wheat couscous or barley.

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130 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Washing your salad To avoid ingesting contaminated salad washing your greens even those in “pre-washed” salad bags is wise. Here is the most effective way to wash your greens: ✓ Wash your sink your hands and any container you will use. ✓ Rinse the greens under running water gently rubbing the leaf surface with your hands. ✓ Place greens in a clean colander salad spinner or rack. ✓ Blot dry with a paper towel. The drying step is important. Research shows that more bacteria is removed from the leaf when it is towel dried rather than air dried. Use a clean cloth towel or better yet a single use paper towel as it will not have been contaminated by previous use. T Light Potato Salad This potato salad is much lighter than the traditional creamy type. It can be served warm or chilled — you choose. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Yield: 4 servings 3 medium-sized red potatoes unpeeled about 2 cups/500 ml 1 tbsp 15 ml Dijon mustard 1 tbsp 15 ml grainy mustard 2 tbsp 30 ml rice vinegar 2 tsp 10 ml red wine vinegar 2 tbsp 30 ml shallot minced 1 tbsp 15 ml olive oil 2 tbsp 30 ml parsley chopped 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml salt 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml pepper 1 Place the unpeeled potatoes in a medium-sized pot. Fill the pot with enough water to cover the potatoes. 2 Bring the potatoes to a boil. Reduce the heat to medium and cook uncovered for approximately 20 minutes until the potatoes are tender. 3 Drain the potatoes rinse with cool water drain again and let the potatoes sit until they are cool enough to handle. 4 Cut the potatoes into 1 inch 2.5 centimetre cubes and place in a medium-sized bowl. 5 For the dressing whisk together the mustards vinegars and shallot in a small bowl. Slowly add the oil to the mustard mixture while continuing to whisk. Add the parsley salt and pepper and mix well. 6 Pour the dressing over the potatoes and mix gently until they are evenly coated. Serve warm or chilled.

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Chapter 9: Snazzy Salads 131 Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml Calories 105 Available carbohydrate 13 g Carbohydrate 14 g Fibre 1 g Fat 5 g Protein 2 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 56 mg Potassium 384 mg Sodium 221 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice T Asian Noodle Salad This unique peanut-flavoured salad is a refreshing alternative to traditional North American salads. Chow mein noodles are long thin yellow noodles. They can be found in vacuum-sealed packages in the produce department of most grocery stores. This salad can be kept covered in the refrigerator for up to three days. Preparation Time: 25 minutes Yield: 5 servings 2 1 ⁄2 tbsp 37 ml reduced-sodium soy sauce 2 tbsp 30 ml lime juice 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml ginger minced 1 clove garlic minced 2 tbsp 30 ml tahini 1 tbsp 15 ml honey 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml hoisin sauce 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml red pepper flakes 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml sesame oil 8 oz 250 g chow mein noodles uncooked 1 tbsp 15 ml canola oil 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml snow peas cut in half 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml carrots cut into fine strips 2 green onions chopped into 1 ⁄2” 1.25 cm pieces 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml sweet red pepper chopped 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml unsalted roasted peanuts chopped 1 For the dressing mix together the soy sauce lime juice ginger garlic tahini honey hoisin sauce red pepper flakes and sesame oil in a bowl. 2 Place the chow mein noodles in a large pot. Add enough boiling water to cover the noo- dles in 1 inch 2.5 centimetres of water. Stir gently cover and let sit for approximately 5 minutes until the noodles are tender. 3 Drain the noodles in a strainer then transfer them to a large salad bowl. Add the canola oil and toss. 4 Fill a small saucepan with water and bring to a boil. Add the snow peas and cook for 1 minute. Place the peas in a strainer and rinse them well with cold running water. Allow the peas to drain thoroughly and cool to room temperature. 5 Combine the salad ingredients in the bowl. Add the dressing mix thoroughly and serve. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml Calories 362 Available carbohydrate 33 g Carbohydrate 37 g Fibre 4 g Fat 22 g Protein 7 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 152 mg Potassium 265 mg Sodium 605 mg.

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1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices

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132 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Main Salads A main salad is a salad that constitutes the entirety of a meal that is the salad is the meal. Eating a salad as a meal is perfectly appropriate for anyone but if you have diabetes you should ensure your main salad contains a protein source and a carbohydrate source. If you have diabetes and you’re taking certain types of blood glucose–lowering medication — like glyburide or insulin — and your meal doesn’t contain carbohydrate you’ll be at risk of developing low blood glucose. The salads in this section contain protein and carbohydrate. T Mixed Bean Salad Try this bean salad for lunch instead of the same old sandwich. Beans are low in fat and are an excellent source of carbohydrates protein and fibre. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Yield: 6 servings 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml canola oil 1 ⁄4 cup 50ml red wine vinegar 2 tbsp 30 ml white sugar 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml salt 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml pepper 19 oz 540 ml can of mixed beans 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml red pepper chopped 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml celery chopped 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml red onion chopped 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml parsley chopped 1 For the dressing whisk together the oil vinegar sugar salt and pepper in a small bowl. 2 Drain the canned beans in a strainer and rinse under cold running water for 2 minutes. 3 Place the drained beans into a medium-sized bowl and add the dressing. Add the red pepper celery onion and parsley. Stir well and serve. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml Calories 228 Available carbohydrate 18 g Carbohydrate 24 g Fibre 6 g Fat 10 g Protein 7 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 94 mg Potassium 322 mg Sodium 480 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 9: Snazzy Salads 133 T Bulgur and Chickpea Salad with Lemon Dressing Bulgur is whole wheat that has been cooked dried and broken into angular fragments. It is similar in nutritional value to whole wheat and is often used as an alternative to rice. Preparation Time: 30 minutes Cooking Time: 15 minutes Yield: 8 servings 1 cup 250 ml reduced-sodium vegetable broth 1 cup 250 ml dry bulgur 19 oz 540 ml can of chickpeas 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml red onion chopped 2 tbsp 30 ml sun-dried tomatoes chopped 2 tbsp 30 ml black olives sliced 2 tbsp 30 ml cilantro chopped 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml pepper 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml lemon juice juice of one large lemon 3 cloves garlic minced 1 tbsp 15 ml lemon zest 1 tsp 5 ml cumin 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml paprika 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml ground coriander 2 tbsp 30 ml olive oil 1 Pour the broth into a small saucepan and bring to a boil. 2 Add the bulgur to the broth stir remove from heat cover and let sit for 15 minutes. The bulgur will absorb the broth and become tender. 3 Drain the canned chickpeas in a strainer and rinse well under cool running water for 2 minutes. 4 In a large bowl mix together the chickpeas onion tomatoes olives cilantro salt and pepper. Add the bulgur and stir. 5 In small bowl whisk together the lemon juice garlic lemon zest cumin paprika and coriander. Slowly add the oil to the mixture while continuing to whisk. 6 Pour the lemon mixture into the bulgur mixture toss well and serve. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml Calories 140 Available carbohydrate 17 g Carbohydrate: 21 g Fibre 4 g Fat 4 g Protein 5 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 86 mg Potassium 221 mg Sodium 326 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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134 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Couscous Chickpea Salad This salad may take longer to prepare than other main salads but it’s well worth the extra effort. Chickpeas are low in fat and an excellent source of carbohydrates protein and fibre so this salad will satisfy your hunger. This salad will keep in the refrigerator for two days. Preparation Time: 30 minutes Yield: 6 servings 2 cloves garlic minced 2 tsp 10 ml soft margarine 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml water 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml dry couscous 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml canned chickpeas 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml cilantro chopped 2 tbsp 30 ml fresh mint chopped 2 green onions chopped 1 medium tomato chopped 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml red pepper chopped 1 ⁄3 seedless cucumber diced 1 tbsp 15 ml lemon juice 1 tsp 5 ml olive oil 1 tsp 5 ml cumin 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml low fat feta cheese 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 1 In a medium pot sauté the garlic in the margarine over medium heat for 2 to 3 minutes. Add the water and salt to the pot and bring to a boil. Remove the pot from the heat add the couscous stir cover and let sit for 5 minutes. 2 Drain the canned chickpeas in a strainer and rinse under cold running water for 2 minutes. 3 Combine the chickpeas and remaining ingredients in a large bowl. Fluff the couscous with a fork and add to the bowl. Stir well and serve. Per Serving: 3 ⁄4 cup/175 ml Calories 180 Available carbohydrate 24 g Carbohydrate 28 g Fibre 4 g Fat 5 g Protein 7 g Cholesterol 6 mg Phosphorus 125 mg Potassium 267 mg Sodium 386 mg. 1 Serving 1 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choices

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Chapter 9: Snazzy Salads 135 Walnut Pear and Chicken Salad Walnuts are good for you because they contain healthy fats — so good in fact that some heart experts suggest we eat ten every day Bear in mind however that nuts have calories. One ounce of walnuts 14 halves has 166 calories 18 g of fat of which 13 g are the healthy polyunsaturated type. Preparation Time: 20 minutes Yield: 6 servings 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml olive oil 3 tbsp 45 ml apple cider vinegar 3 tbsp 45 ml white sugar 1 tsp 5 ml celery seed 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml walnuts 6 cups 1500 ml mixed baby greens 1 pear diced 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml cooked chicken diced 1 For the dressing combine the oil vinegar sugar celery seed salt and pepper in a small bowl. Mix well with a fork making sure the sugar is dissolved. 2 Place the walnuts in a dry frying pan over medium-high heat stirring frequently for 3 to 5 minutes until the walnuts are lightly toasted. Let cool for 1 minute. 3 Combine the ingredients in a large bowl toss and serve immediately. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml Calories 258 Available carbohydrate 12 g Carbohydrate 14 g Fibre 2 g Fat 18 g Protein 12 g Cholesterol 29 mg Phosphorus 119 mg Potassium 242 mg Sodium 130 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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136 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes

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Chapter 10 Appealing Appetizers To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here In This Chapter ▶ Whipping up appetizers in a hurry ▶ Serving up classy hors d’oeuvres ▶ Pleasing party guests with fun finger foods W e love appetizers. An appetizer is an open- Recipes in This Chapter ▶ Shanghai Dumplings ▶ Sushi T Goat Cheese and Sun- Dried Tomato Mushroom Caps T Feta Bruschetta ▶ Dilly Shrimp Cucumber Bites The Devilish Egg ing act an introduction to a meal if you will. Appetizers provide lovely esthetics can have wonderful aromas are typically scrumptious to eat take an edge off a voracious appetite and provide a hint of the undoubtedly great meal to follow. Sort of a food to get you ready for more food. ▶ T Toasted Walnut Hummus T Black Bean Salsa Another important role appetizers play is to provide casual food that your family friends and other guests can nibble on while you’re making your last- minute preparations for the meal to come. Appetizers are often too high in calories fat and salt but they don’t have to be. When you’re in charge of preparation you can take steps to ensure you cook up appetizers that are not only healthy and diabetes-friendly but are fast and easy to make at the same time. In this chapter we show you how.

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138 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Just in the Nick of Time: Fast Easy Appetizers If you’re like most people you likely find that entertaining often feels like a juggling act as you try to prepare the food to be ready at the right time and in the right order. We can’t completely eliminate your acrobatics or your stress but you may find life is easier the next time company is coming over if you prepare one or more of these quick and easy appetizers: ✓ Bocconcini balls small with grape tomatoes and fresh basil leaves held together by toothpicks ✓ Bread sticks with hummus or guacamole dip ✓ Cream cheese light 1 ⁄2 to 1 block top with canned crab meat and cock- tail sauce. Serve with crackers. ✓ Endive leaves with a spoon of goat’s cheese or hummus ✓ Kabobs of cheese olives and meat or fruit and cheese ✓ Prosciutto wrapped around a cube of honeydew or cantaloupe ✓ Pumpernickel bread spread with light cream cheese a sprinkle of dill and a slice of smoked salmon topped with capers ✓ Sardines and light cream cheese on high-fibre crackers or pumpernickel bread Elegant Starters Appetizers are a staple at parties and they can be a part of a light nibble or a “theme” meal or a nice treat when Saturday night rolls around and you’re relaxing in front of the television one of the few exceptions we make in our households to our “no eating in front of the TV” policy.

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Chapter 10: Appealing Appetizers 139 Shanghai Dumplings Don’t be afraid of this recipe. It’s quick and easy to make especially if you have a food processor or blender. Leftover dumplings can be kept in the refrigerator for two days or frozen for up to one month. It’s best to store them in a sealable container between layers of wax paper. Extra sauce will keep in the refrigerator for ten days. Preparation Time: 25 minutes Cooking Time: 20 minutes Yield: 6 servings 1 ⁄2 lb 225 g lean ground pork uncooked 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml green onion chopped 1 tbsp 15 ml reduced-sodium soy sauce 1 tsp 5 ml garlic minced 1 tsp 5ml ginger minced 1 tsp 5 ml sesame oil 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml salt 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml pepper 18 wonton wrappers 1 1 ⁄2 tbsp 22 ml plum sauce 1 tbsp 15 ml grainy mustard 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml rice vinegar 1 Place the pork onion soy sauce garlic ginger oil salt and pepper in a blender or food processor. Pulse the blender or food processor at medium speed until the mixture is smooth. If you don’t have a blender or food processor use a hand mixer or mix vigor- ously by hand. 2 Spoon 1 1 ⁄2 teaspoons 7 millilitres of the filling into the centre of a wonton wrapper. 3 Moisten the edges of the wrapper with cold water and fold to meet over the centre of the wonton. Press the seams firmly together. 4 Fill a wok or pot with 1 inch 2.5 centimetres of water and bring to a boil. 5 Spray or rub a bamboo steamer metal vegetable steamer or cooling rack with cooking oil and place in the wok or pot over the water. Place the wontons on the rack cover and steam for 10 minutes. 6 For the sauce whisk together the plum sauce mustard and vinegar in a small bowl. 7 Remove the wontons from the steamer or rack and serve with the sauce. Per Serving: 3 dumplings and 1 ⁄2 tsp/2 ml sauce Calories 200 Available carbohydrate 16 g Carbohydrate 17 g Fibre 1 g Fat 10 g Protein 10 g Cholesterol 32 mg Phosphorus 100 mg Potassium 158 mg Sodium 500 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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140 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Sushi Sushi isn’t as difficult to prepare as you might think and it will really impress your guests Preparation and Cooking Time: 1 hour Yield: 9 servings 1 cup 250 ml short-grain white rice 1 cup 250 ml water 3 tbsp 45 ml rice vinegar 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml white sugar 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml salt 3 tbsp 45 ml low-fat mayonnaise 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml wasabi paste 1 egg 6 nori sheets sheets of seaweed 1 cup 250 ml crab or imitation crab 1 ⁄4 English cucumber thinly sliced lengthwise 1 small avocado thinly sliced lengthwise and sprinkled with 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml lemon juice to prevent browning 1 ⁄4 red pepper thinly sliced lengthwise 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml carrots grated 1 green onion thinly sliced lengthwise 6 tbsp 90 ml reduced-sodium soy sauce for dipping pickled ginger as an accompaniment 1 Place the rice in a strainer. Rinse well with cold water and stir until the water runs clear. Place the rinsed rice in a medium-sized saucepan cover with cold water and let soak for 30 minutes. 2 Drain the rice in the strainer. Return the rice to the saucepan add 1 cup 250 millilitres of water and bring to a boil. Cover and simmer for 12 minutes. 3 Remove the rice from the heat but do not remove the lid. Let the rice stand for 10 minutes. 4 Use a fork to spread the rice in a thin layer over a plastic tray to cool. Keep the rice moist by covering it with a damp paper towel. 5 In a saucepan whisk together the vinegar sugar and salt. Heat over medium-low heat until the sugar is dissolved. Remove from the heat and allow the mixture to cool to room temperature.

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Chapter 10: Appealing Appetizers 6 Mix together the mayonnaise and wasabi in a small bowl and set aside. 7 In a bowl beat the egg with a fork. Pour into a non-stick frying pan and fry over medium heat until the egg is firm. Remove the egg from the frying pan place on a cutting board and cut the egg into thin strips. 8 Spoon the rice from the plastic tray into a medium-sized bowl. Sprinkle the vinegar mix- ture over the rice and mix gently. 9 Place one nori sheet shiny side down on a cutting board or bamboo mat in front of you. Using a wet spoon spread 1 ⁄2 cup 125 millilitres of rice in an even layer over the nori sheet. Do not cover the 1 1 ⁄2 inches 4 centimetres of nori along the edge that is farthest from you. 10 Spread 2 teaspoons 10 millilitres of the wasabi mixture in a narrow lengthwise strip 2 inches 5 centimetres from the edge of the nori that is closest to you. On top of the wasabi layer 3 tablespoons 45 millilitres of crab a small amount of egg cucumber avocado red pepper carrots and green onion. 11 With a clean wet finger moisten the bare strip of nori. Fold the edge of the nori that is closest to you around the ingredients and roll as tightly as you can. Seal by pressing the moistened strip against the outside of the roll. Repeat steps 9 through 11 for the other five nori. 12 Wrap each nori in plastic wrap and place in the refrigerator to chill for at least 2 hours. 13 After 2 hours remove the nori from the refrigerator. Gently remove the plastic wrap and using a wet knife slice each roll into 6 pieces. Serve with soy sauce and pickled ginger. Per Serving: 4 pieces and 2 tsp/10 ml soy sauce Calories 158 Available carbohydrate 23 g Carbohydrate 25 g Fibre 2 g Fat 4 g Protein 5 g Cholesterol 31 mg Phosphorus 80 mg Potassium 203 mg Sodium 695 mg. 1 Serving 1 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choices 141

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142 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Goat Cheese and Sun-Dried Tomato Mushroom Caps When purchasing the mushrooms for this appetizer choose the ones that are medium- small in size enough for a one- or two-bite appetizer. Preparation Time: 20 minutes Cooking Time: 20 minutes Yield: 10 servings 20 medium-small mushrooms 2 tsp 10 ml canola oil 5 oz 150 g goat cheese 1 ⁄2 of a 250 g package of light cream cheese softened 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml oil-packed sun-dried tomatoes finely chopped 2 tbsp 30 ml parsley chopped 1 tbsp 15 ml lemon juice 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml pepper 1 Heat oven to 400 degrees Fahrenheit 200 degrees Celsius. 2 Remove the stems from the mushrooms to create space for the filling. Brush the tops of the mushrooms with oil and place hollow side down on a baking sheet lined with parchment paper or foil. 3 Bake for 6 to 8 minutes until the mushrooms are slightly soft. Remove from the oven and let them cool and drain on the tray for 5 minutes. 4 Reduce the oven temperature to 375 degrees Fahrenheit 190 degrees Celsius. 5 Place the mushrooms hollow side up on a baking sheet lined with a new sheet of parchment paper or foil. 6 In a small bowl mix together the cheeses tomatoes parsley lemon juice and pepper. 7 Spoon the filling into the mushroom caps and bake for 10 minutes until the cheese is slightly bubbling. Remove from the oven and serve. Per Serving: 2 mushrooms 65 g Calories 100 Available carbohydrate 3 g Carbohydrate 4 g Fibre 1 g Fat 6 g Protein 6 g Cholesterol 18 mg Phosphorus 109 mg Potassium 225 mg Sodium 148 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choices

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Chapter 10: Appealing Appetizers Party Pleasers Party food is rich in taste and rich in fun. Party food is also often rich in sugar fat and calories. Oh darn But hey who says you can’t have it all In this section we provide recipes for party food that has lots of the good stuff and goes easy on the bad. T Feta Bruschetta Bruschetta an Italian favourite has tomato as its main ingredient. Trivia alert: Is tomato a fruit or a vegetable Botanically speaking the tomato is a fruit — a berry to be precise. Legally speaking however the tomato is a vegetable — more than one hundred years ago a court legally declared it so Preparation Time: 15 minutes Cooking Time: 2 minutes Yield: 6 servings 143 6 slices French bread 1 1 ⁄2 tbsp 22.5 ml olive oil 1 clove garlic sliced in half 2 cloves garlic minced 2 cups 500 ml Roma tomatoes chopped and drained 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml fresh basil or parsley chopped 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml low-fat feta cheese crumbled 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 1 Grill or toast bread on both sides until golden brown. 2 Brush one side of each slice with oil and rub with the halved garlic clove. 3 In a bowl gently combine the minced garlic tomatoes basil or parsley feta and pepper. 4 Spoon 1 /3 cup 75 millilitres of the tomato mixture over the bread. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 1 slice 80 g Calories 121 Available carbohydrate 19 g Carbohydrate 21 g Fibre 2 g Fat 3 g Protein 6 g Cholesterol 6 mg Phosphorus 83 mg Potassium 208 mg Sodium 306 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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144 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Dilly Shrimp Cucumber Bites With savoury shrimp and cool cucumber this appetizer is both flavourful and refreshing. Preparation Time: 10 minutes Draining Time: 30 minutes Yield: 12 servings 2 English cucumbers each approximately 12”/30 cm long 1 tsp 5 ml salt 12 medium-sized shrimp cooked and diced 2 tbsp 30 ml light mayonnaise 1 tbsp 15 ml fresh dill chopped 1 tsp 5ml lemon zest 2 tsp 10 ml lemon juice 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 1 Cut off the ends of the cucumbers. To create a striped effect cut thin lengthwise strips of peel from the cucumber using a vegetable peeler. Cut the cucumbers into 24 1-inch 2.5 centimetre slices. 2 Using a melon baller or small spoon scoop out 1 teaspoon 5 millilitres from the centre of each cucumber slice leaving the bottom of each slice intact. Sprinkle the hollowed side of the slices with salt and place upside down on sheets of paper towel to drain for 30 minutes. 3 For the filling mix together the remaining ingredients in a bowl. 4 With a spoon place 1 to 2 teaspoons 5 to 10 millilitres of the filling into the hollowed cucumbers. To garnish place a small piece of dill on top of each slice. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 2 cucumber slices Calories 21 Available carbohydrate 2 g Carbohydrate 2 g Fibre 0 g Fat 1 g Protein 2 g Cholesterol 11 mg Phosphorus 20 mg Potassium 75 mg Sodium 244 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choices

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Chapter 10: Appealing Appetizers 145 The Devilish Egg Devilish eggs are a great classic that can be made up to two days in advance and kept in the refrigerator — if they don’t get eaten first Preparation Time: 20 minutes Cooking Time: 22 minutes Yield: 12 servings 6 eggs 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml dry mustard 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml pepper 3 tbsp 45 ml light mayonnaise 1 tsp 5 ml white vinegar 1 Place the eggs in a saucepan and fill with cold water until the eggs are covered by 1 inch 2.5 centimetres of water. 2 Bring the water to a boil then remove the saucepan from the heat cover and let stand. After 22 minutes remove the eggs from the saucepan and place them immediately in cold water to cool. 3 Gently tap each cooled egg to crack its shell. Peel the shells gently under cold running water. 4 Cut eggs in half lengthwise with a sharp knife and gently scoop out the yolks with a tea- spoon. Place the yolks in a bowl. 5 To create the filling mash the yolks with a fork or potato masher then add the salt mustard pepper mayonnaise and vinegar. Mix well. 6 Spoon the filling into the hollowed egg whites and arrange on a platter. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 egg Calories 49 Available carbohydrate 1 g Carbohydrate 1 g Fibre 0 g Fat 4 g Protein 3 g Cholesterol 107 mg Phosphorus 49 mg Potassium 36 mg Sodium 110 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choices

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146 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Toasted Walnut Hummus With savoury garlic and a hint of orange this nutritious dip makes a great snack or light meal. Preparation Time: 10 minutes Cooking Time: 5 minutes Yield: 8 servings 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml walnut pieces 3 tbsp 45 ml olive oil 1 clove garlic minced 19 oz 540 ml can of chickpeas 1 tsp 5 ml grated orange rind 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml orange juice 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 1 tbsp 15 ml parsley chopped 1 Place the walnuts in a dry frying pan and set over medium-high heat. Stir often until the walnuts are lightly toasted about 5 minutes. Let cool for 5 minutes. 2 Pour the chickpeas into a strainer and rinse under cool running water until it runs clear. Allow the chickpeas to drain. 3 In a food processor or blender combine the walnuts oil and garlic. Purée until smooth. 4 Add the chickpeas orange rind juice salt and pepper. Blend until the ingredients become smooth in consistency about 2 minutes. 5 Spoon the hummus into a bowl and garnish with parsley. Serve with raw veggies or with crackers pita or melba toast. Don’t forget to count any extra carbohydrates. Per Serving: 1 ⁄4 cup/50 ml Calories 179 Available carbohydrate 14 g Carbohydrate 18 g Fibre 4 g Fat 5 g Protein 5 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 89 mg Potassium 174 mg Sodium 275 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 10: Appealing Appetizers 147 T Black Bean Salsa Here’s a Mexican recipe that’s a snap to make and can be eaten as either a snack or a lunch. It can also be used as a topping over fish or chicken. Preparation Time: 10 minutes Yield: 6 servings 19 oz 540 ml can of black beans 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml canned corn kernels 1 1 ⁄2 cup 375 ml tomato diced small 1 tbsp 15 ml olive oil 3 tbsp 45 ml lime juice 4 tbsp 60 ml cilantro finely chopped 1 clove garlic minced 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 1 Place the black beans in a strainer and rinse under cool running water until it runs clear. Allow the black beans to drain. 2 Drain the corn and tomato in another strainer. 3 Combine the ingredients in a medium-sized bowl and gently toss with a spatula or spoon. 4 Serve with baked tortilla chips crackers or melba toast. Alternatively you can stuff the salsa into a 1 ⁄2 pita with shredded cheese and lettuce for a fast lunch. Don’t forget to count the extra carbohydrates. Per Serving: 2 ⁄3 cup/150 ml Calories 130 Available carbohydrate 14 g Carbohydrate 21 g Fibre 7 g Fat 3 g Protein 7 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 122 mg Potassium 430 mg Sodium 347 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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148 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Store-Bought Dips Over the past few years we’ve seen a veritable explosion in the number and variety of dips and spreads available at the grocery store. Many of these however aren’t particularly healthy food choices due to their high sodium fat and calorie content. As with other foods use a product’s Nutrition Facts table see Chapter 6 to help guide your selection. Here are a few tips on dips: ✓ Of the various prepared dips and spreads you can find in the store hummus is often lower in calories and fat. ✓ Compared with cheddar cheese–based products those made with a goat cheese base are often lower in calories fat and sodium. ✓ For a quick dip try low-fat sour cream or plain yogurt mixed with dried onion soup mix or dried vegetable soup mix. ✓ A great dip for fruits is plain yogurt mixed with some diet Jello powder. ✓ Prepared spinach dip is very high in calories fat and sodium. As we say many times in this book no food is forbidden and that includes store-bought dips. Even a very “rich” dip is okay to eat just watch your portions.

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C Chapter 11 Creative Carbohydrate Concoctions To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here In This Chapter ▶ Dishing out great potato plates ▶ Doing right by rice ▶ Pleasing with pasta ▶ Bursting with beans arbohydrates are an essential nutrient. As we discuss in Chapter 2 carbohydrates pro- vide the energy your body including your brain requires to function normally. Also carbohydrate in the form of fibre helps control blood glucose lowers cholesterol and helps prevent constipation. Carbohydrates with the exception of fibre also raise blood glucose so you need to keep the amount of carbohydrates you consume in check. The Canadian Diabetes Association recommends that carbohydrates make up between 45 to 60 per- cent of your daily calorie intake. Recipes in This Chapter T Greek Potatoes T Potato Latkes T Sweet Potato Fries T Garlic Mashed Potatoes T Vegetable Fried Rice T Saffron Almond Rice T Cheesy Noodles with Nuts T Pasta Primavera T Quinoa Risotto T Spinach Mushroom Lasagna ▶ Szechuan Noodles T Dal T Mango Bean Mix T Chickpea Curry T Curried Chickpeas in Tomato Cups Because carbohydrates raise blood glucose many people have come to believe that carbohydrates are in some way “bad” for you and should be severely restricted. The truth of the matter is that carbohydrates are a key nutrient as we just described and as long as you eat the appropriate amount they will not only not hurt your health they will enhance it. Carbohydrate-based dishes can range from the simple to the complex. And you can make even the most seemingly mundane of carbohydrate dishes come alive with just a little effort. Think your rice looks boring Try adding some finely chopped vegetables. Baked potato seems dull Try topping it

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with some light sour cream and chives low-fat cheddar cheese or even salsa or baked beans. In this chapter we provide a wide variety of carbohydrate- based recipes for you to enjoy.

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150 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Potato Please Potatoes are part of a healthy diet for people living with diabetes. And they are part of a healthy living for many Canadian farmers too. Canada is one of the largest potato producers in the world. In addition to providing energy potatoes are a good source of potassium and vitamins including vitamin B 6 and vitamin C and potato skin provides fibre. Popular baking potatoes like russet are light fluffy and creamy and are ideal for baking mashing and French fries. Popular boiling potatoes like White Red and Ruby Crescent are great for soups casseroles salads roasting and barbecuing because of their tendency to hold their shape. They can be mashed but will result in thick and lumpy potatoes. These are some other types of potatoes: ✓ Yukon Gold potatoes are moister than the baking variety and will hold together during boiling. They can be used for roasting pan frying stews soups and gratins. They can be also used for baking mashing and frying but will not produce the quality that baking potatoes can. ✓ New potatoes are immature small potatoes of any variety. ✓ Sweet potatoes grow on a vine above the ground and actually have no real relation to the white potato. Sweet potato is rich in beta carotene vitamin C and vitamin E. ✓ Yams are native to Africa and are larger than sweet potatoes and have fewer nutrients. Yams are often mixed up with sweet potatoes in the grocery store but fortunately both can be used interchangeably in recipes.

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Chapter 11: Creative Carbohydrate Concoctions 151 T Greek Potatoes This easy recipe adds a Mediterranean twist to traditional oven-baked potatoes. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Cooking Time: 1 hour Yield: 6 servings 3 cups 458 g red potatoes 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml fresh lemon juice 3 tbsp 45 ml olive oil 2 cloves garlic minced 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml salt 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 1 tsp 5 ml Italian seasoning 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml paprika Boiling water approximately 2 1 ⁄2 cups 625 ml 1 Preheat oven to 400 degrees Fahrenheit 200 degrees Celsius. 2 Clean and lightly scrub the potatoes in cool water. Cut the potatoes into pieces no greater than 1 1 ⁄2 inches 4 centimetres thick and place in a medium-sized casserole dish. 3 In a small bowl mix together the lemon juice oil garlic salt pepper and spices with a whisk or fork. Pour this mixture over the potatoes and using a spoon toss until the potatoes are coated. 4 Add enough boiling water to just cover the potatoes then bake uncovered for 1 hour. Stir the potatoes every 20 minutes. 5 The potatoes are done when most of the water has evaporated and the potatoes are soft when pierced with a knife. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml 72g Calories 118 Available carbohydrate 12 g Carbohydrate 14 g Fibre 2 g Fat 7 g Protein 2 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 49 mg Potassium 367 mg Sodium 199 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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152 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Potato Latkes These little potato pancakes are often described as Jewish soul food. Here is the recipe for all to enjoy. Preparation Time: 30 minutes Cooking Time: 2 to 3 minutes per side Yield: 9 pancakes 4 medium-large Yukon Gold potatoes peeled 3 large eggs 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml all-purpose flour 2 tsp 10 ml baking powder 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml salt 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml cayenne pepper 1 green onion finely chopped 1 medium onion finely chopped 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml canola oil low-fat sour cream if desired 1 Using a food processor or hand grater finely grate the potatoes. 2 Place the grated potatoes in a strainer and press out as much liquid as you can. 3 Transfer the potatoes onto a clean tea towel and use it to again squeeze as much mois- ture from the potatoes as you can. Set the potatoes aside covered with the tea towel. 4 In a small bowl whisk together the eggs flour baking powder salt and pepper. 5 Place the potatoes in a large bowl with the onions and egg mixture. Mix together with a spoon. 6 Cover the bottom of a large frying pan with 1 ⁄8 inch 0.3 centimetres of canola oil. Heat over medium-high heat. 7 Add 1 ⁄2 cup 125 millilitres of the potato mixture to the hot frying pan flattening into a pancake form with a spatula. Cook for 2 to 3 minutes per side until the pancake is golden brown. Repeat until you have used all of the grated potatoes. 8 Serve the latkes warm with low-fat sour cream if desired. Per Serving: 1 pancake 117 g Calories 218 Available carbohydrate 18 g Carbohydrate 20 g Fibre 2 g Fat 14 g Protein 4 g Cholesterol 70 mg Phosphorus 113 mg Potassium 432 mg Sodium 267 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 11: Creative Carbohydrate Concoctions 153 Selecting and storing potatoes Choose firm dry potatoes that are free of cracks cuts blemishes or sprouts. If a potato has a green tinge avoid it. For even cooking try to choose potatoes that are the same size. Store your potatoes in paper bags in a cool spot near an outside wall or in the cold cellar that is dark dry and well ventilated. Don’t store onions near the potatoes. The onions give off a gas that can cause potatoes to decay more quickly. Store an apple in the bag with the potatoes the apple will stop the potatoes from sprouting The only type of potato that can be stored in the refrigerator are new potatoes which can be stored in a plastic bag in the fridge for up to one week. T Sweet Potato Fries These sweet potato fries are a much healthier alternative to deep-fried French fries — and they taste yummy too Preparation Time: 10 minutes Cooking Time: 20 minutes Yield: 3 servings 2 medium 350 g sweet potatoes peeled 2 tsp 10 ml canola oil 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml paprika 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml garlic powder 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 1 Preheat oven to 400 degrees Fahrenheit 200 degrees Celsius. 2 Lightly grease a cookie sheet with canola oil or cover with parchment paper. 3 Cut the sweet potatoes lengthwise into thin finger-like pieces. 4 In a large bowl mix together the oil and spices add the potatoes and toss to coat. 5 Spread out one even layer of the potatoes onto the cookie sheet. 6 Bake for about 20 minutes turning once until the fries are soft when pierced with a fork. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: about 12 fries 130 g Calories 106 Available carbohydrate 17 g Carbohydrate 19 g Fibre 2 g Fat 3 g Protein 1 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 43 mg Potassium 271 mg Sodium 2 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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154 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Garlic Mashed Potatoes This garlicky potato dish is a treat for potato lovers looking to add variety to their meals. Preparation Time: 10 minutes Cooking Time: 15 to 20 minutes Yield: 5 servings 2 medium-large Yukon Gold potatoes 1 garlic clove sliced in half 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml 1 milk warm 1 tbsp 15 ml soft margarine 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 1 Peel the potatoes and cut into 2-inch 5-centimetre pieces. 2 Place the potatoes and garlic in a medium saucepan and add just enough water to cover them. 3 Place a lid on the saucepan and bring to a boil over high heat. 4 When the potatoes have started to boil take the lid partially off to prevent the water from boiling over. Continue to cook for about 15 minutes or until the potatoes are soft and can easily be pierced with a fork. Turn the burner off. 5 Drain the potatoes and garlic well in a strainer. Return the potatoes to the saucepan and place over the burner. Even though the burner is now off its remaining warmth will help excess water to evaporate. Add the milk margarine salt and pepper. 6 Mash the potatoes well with a potato masher until smooth and fluffy. Serve warm. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml 127 g Calories 92 Available carbohydrate 14 g Carbohydrate 16 g Fibre 2 g Fat 2 g Protein 2 g Cholesterol 1 mg Phosphorus 61 mg Potassium 380 mg Sodium 147 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 11: Creative Carbohydrate Concoctions Rice Is Right Rice is a healthy easy-to-prepare very convenient food that has no fat cholesterol or sodium. If you need to follow a gluten-free diet as you would if you have a bowel disorder called celiac disease rice fits well because it doesn’t contain gluten. For more about celiac disease check out Celiac Disease For Dummies Wiley a book that Ian co-wrote. Rice is an incredibly versatile food that can be used in dishes ranging from appetizers to soups main dishes side dishes and even desserts. Rice can be eaten for breakfast lunch or dinner it always pays to have some rice handy in your pantry. Exploring the different types of rice There are three main types of rice long grain medium grain and short grain. In Table 11-1 we look at some of the main features of these three types of rice and some other varieties that are popular in Canada. 155 Table 11-1 Types of Rice Type of Rice Examples Characteristics Uses Long grain White Basmati Jasmine Separate grains Fluffy Least sticky Casseroles Salads Side dishes Medium grain Arborio Calrose Plumper and shorter than long grain Moist Tender Salads Side dishes Soup Short grain Arborio Short Plump Sticky Parboiled Converted Firm Not very sticky Fluffy Pudding Risotto Sushi Pilafs Side dish Good for general use

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Brown rice Medium and short grain Chewy Nutty flavour Side dish Salads

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156 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Parboiled rice originated in India. It is prepared by having steam pass through grains that have their husks on. By keeping the husks on during steaming nutrients stay within the grain during and after processing this makes par- boiled rice more nutritious than white rice. Wild rice has a nutty flavour is chewy and is excellent in soup rice pudding stuffing and mixed with rice. Despite its name wild rice is not a rice at all it’s a grass seed native to North America. Instant rice is pre-cooked dehydrated white or brown rice that can be cooked in just a few minutes as it simply requires re-hydrating and warming. Cooking rice right When it comes to cooking rice there isn’t a single “best” way because just like art and music there’s different strokes for different folks. How you go about cooking rice will depend on several factors including the type of rice used the cooking method used and importantly your personal preferences. For instance if you like your rice soft and moist you’ll cook your rice with more water than if you prefer your rice firm and dry in which case you’d use less water. If you don’t have a lot of experience cooking rice just go ahead and follow the directions on the rice package. Before cooking rice rinse the rice in cold water using a fine strainer until the water runs clear. This doesn’t apply to instant rice. Also when cooking rice be sure to use a tight-fitting lid and don’t remove the lid from the pot while the rice is cooking. After the rice has finished cooking continue to keep the lid on the pot for at least 10 minutes until the rice has sat. At that point you can remove the lid and fluff the rice using a chopstick or fork. In the next few sections we look in detail at several ways to cook one cup of uncooked rice yielding 3 to 4 cups 750–1000ml as outlined in Table 11-2. Stove-top method To cook rice on a stove-top: 1. Combine 1 cup 250 ml rice 1 ⁄2 teaspoon 2 ml salt optional and 1 tablespoon 15 ml margarine optional in a medium saucepan. 2. Bring the mixture to a boil stirring once or twice. 3. Reduce the heat to a low simmer and cover with a tight fitting lid. 4. Cook according to the time indicated in Table 11-2. If the rice is not quite tender or the liquid is not absorbed cover with the lid and cook 2 to 4 minutes longer. Remove the rice from the heat and let sit covered for 10 minutes. Fluff with a chopstick or fork and serve.

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Chapter 11: Creative Carbohydrate Concoctions 157 Table 11-2 Stove-top Rice Cooking Times Type of uncooked rice 1 cup / 250ml Liquid Cooking Time Yield Long grain 1 3 ⁄4 cup 425 ml– 2 cups 500 ml 15 min 3 cups 750 ml Medium grain 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml 15 min 3 cups 750 ml Brown rice 2 cups 500 ml– 2 1 ⁄2 cups 625 ml 45–50 min 3–4cups 750– 1000 ml Parboiled/ converted 2 cups 500 ml– 2 1 ⁄2 cups 625 ml 20–25 min 3–4 cups 750– 1000 ml Oven-baked method Using the quantities listed in Table 11-2 place measured boiling water in an oven-proof casserole dish with a lid. Stir and cover tightly then bake at 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius for 25 to 30 minutes 30 to 40 min- utes for parboiled/converted rice and 1 hour for brown rice. Let sit for 10 minutes covered. Fluff with a chopstick or fork before serving. Microwave method Follow the stove top measurements and use a medium microwave safe dish with a lid. Cover and cook on high for 5 minutes or until boiling then reduce to medium 50 power and cook 15 minutes more. Let sit 10 minutes cov- ered. Fluff with a chopstick or fork. For parboiled/converted rice cook 20 minutes and for brown rice 30 minutes. Storing rice Once its container has been opened most types of uncooked rice can be stored for up to a year in a sealed container in a cool dry place. The exception is uncooked brown rice which has a shorter shelf life due to the bran and oil than other forms of rice. It needs to be stored differently. After you open a bag of brown rice store it in a sealed container in the refrig- erator where you can keep it for up to six months. Cooked rice can be refrigerated for up to seven days or frozen for six months.

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158 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Reheating rice Leftover rice needn’t go to waste. To re-heat rice place one cup 250 ml cooked rice in a covered saucepan with 3 tablespoons 45 ml of water. Warm over low heat for about five minutes and it will be hot and fluffy. For 2 cups 500 ml cooked rice use 5 tablespoons 75 ml water. You can also reheat rice on low in the microwave or in the oven with low heat using the above amounts. T Vegetable Fried Rice For a fluffier dish we recommend using long grain rice and cooking it a day in advance. Typically fried rice is very high in fat and sodium but this Chinese version uses healthy oil and reduced-sodium soy sauce. Preparation Time: 10 minutes Cooking Time: 10 minutes Yield: 5 servings 1 tbsp 15 ml canola oil 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml onions finely chopped 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml carrots finely chopped 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml celery finely chopped 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml red pepper finely chopped 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml frozen peas 1 cup 250 ml long grain rice cooked a day in advance 1 egg 1 tbsp 15 ml reduced-sodium soy sauce 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 green onion chopped 1 Heat the oil in a large frying pan or wok over medium-high heat. Add the onions and sauté for 2 to 3 minutes until they are soft. 2 Add the carrots and celery to the onion and sauté for another 2 to 3 minutes until they are slightly soft. Add the red pepper and peas and sauté for another 2 to 3 minutes until the red pepper and peas are slightly soft as well. 3 Add the rice and stir for 1 minute until thoroughly mixed. 4 In a small bowl mix together the egg soy sauce and salt with a whisk or fork. Pour this mixture into the rice and vegetables and stir constantly for 2 to 3 minutes until the egg is cooked. Add the green onion stir for 1 minute. Serve warm and enjoy. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml 82 g Calories 107 Available carbohydrate 12 g Carbohydrate 14 g Fibre 2 g Fat 4 g Protein 4 g Cholesterol 42 mg Phosphorus 60 mg Potassium 132 mg Sodium 311 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 11: Creative Carbohydrate Concoctions 159 T Saffron Almond Rice Saffron is the world’s most expensive spice. Each purple crocus flower produces only three saffron stigmas threads that must be hand-picked. Heat releases saffron’s fla- vour and colour. This Indian dish goes exceptionally well with the Saffron Fish and Tandoori Chicken recipes we offer in Chapters 13 and 14 respectively. Preparation Time: 20 minutes Cooking Time: 23 minutes Yield: 5 servings 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml basmati rice 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml saffron threads 5 tsp 25 ml warm water 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml canola oil 1 tbsp 15 ml almonds sliced 1 cinnamon stick 3 green cardamom pods 1 1 ⁄4 cup 300 ml water 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 1 Place the rice in a strainer and rinse with cool running water until it runs clear. Allow the rice to drain. 2 Crumble the saffron threads into small chunks between your fingers and add them to 5 teaspoons 25 millilitres of warm water. Set aside for at least 20 minutes or for best results 12 hours. 3 Add the oil to a medium-sized pot with a lid. Place the pot over medium-high heat. When the oil is warm add the almonds cinnamon stick and cardamom pods to the pot. Stir for about 2 minutes until the almonds become slightly brown. 4 Add the rice to the pot and sauté stirring constantly for 1 minute. Pour in the saffron and water mixture add 1 1 ⁄4 cup 300 millilitres of water and bring to a boil over high heat. 5 Add the salt cover the pot and simmer over low heat for about 20 minutes until no water remains in the saucepan and the rice is tender. 6 Remove the rice from the heat. Leave the lid on the pot and allow the rice to sit for 4 minutes. Fluff the rice with a fork and serve. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml 72 g Calories 109 Available carbohydrate 19 g Carbohydrate 20 g Fibre 1 g Fat 2 g Protein 2 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 34 mg Potassium 38 mg Sodium 59 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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160 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Plenty of Pasta Pasta is a perennial favourite and it’s so versatile. It can be made for a quick weekday supper or as part of a special Sunday feast. In this section we offer some tips on preparing pasta and share some of our favourite recipes. Cooking pasta to perfection To make perfect pasta follow these steps: 1. Fill a large saucepan with water the more the better. Pasta will stick if not enough water is used. Add two dashes of salt to help prevent the water from boiling over. Cover the saucepan with a lid and heat to a roll- ing boil. 2. Add the pasta to the boiling water and stir often to prevent sticking. 3. When the water starts to boil again start timing. Most pastas cook in 8 to 12 minutes. Check the package directions. Pasta is best if cooked to al dente — firm but still tender. 4. Drain the pasta in a strainer or colander as soon as the pasta is done. If pasta sits in hot water past its cooking time it will go soggy. If using the pasta to make a hot dish don’t rinse it because then the sauce won’t stick as well. If you’re using the pasta to make a cold dish rinse with cool water so that the pasta won’t stick together. Knowing how much pasta to prepare Cooking usually makes pasta double in size. When preparing long pasta measure around the bundle of pasta with a mea- suring tape to calculate the amount you need for a serving using the follow- ing guidelines: ✓ 2 1 ⁄2 inches 6 cm is 3 oz 90 g about 1 serving ✓ 4 1 ⁄2 inches 11 cm is 8 oz 250 g about 2 to 3 servings ✓ 5 1 ⁄4 inches 12.5 cm is 12 oz 375 g about 4 servings

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Chapter 11: Creative Carbohydrate Concoctions 161 Past-a its prime: Storing tips Commercial dry pasta should be stored in an air-tight container or in its resealed box in a cool dry place. It can be kept for up to one year. Commercial fresh pasta should be stored in a well-sealed container or bag in the refrigerator and used by the “best before” date indicated by the manufacturer on the package. Homemade pasta is best cooked and eaten as soon as it is prepared otherwise uncooked pasta should be stored in the refrigerator in a well-sealed container for up to two days. T Cheesy Noodles with Nuts This traditional Hispanic dish is made with walnuts — tasty and good for your heart health Preparation Time: 10 minutes Cooking Time: 16 minutes Yield: 4 servings 1 cup 250 ml dry whole wheat penne pasta 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml soft margarine 3 tbsp 45 ml walnuts finely chopped 1 tbsp 15 ml parsley chopped 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml low-fat mozzarella cheese shredded 1 In a medium-sized saucepan bring 3 cups 750 millilitres of water to a boil over high heat. Add the pasta and stir. Cook for 13 minutes stirring occasionally. Drain in a strainer and cover to keep warm. 2 Melt the margarine in a medium-sized frying pan set over medium heat. Add the walnuts and stir constantly until they are golden brown about 3 minutes. Make sure the walnuts don’t burn — scorched nuts will taste bitter. 3 Add the parsley and salt and remove from heat. Add the pasta to the frying pan and toss until it is coated in the walnut mixture. Sprinkle the dish with the cheese. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml 87 g Calories 292 Available carbohydrate 17 g Carbohydrate 23 g Fibre 6 g Fat 18 g Protein 9 g Cholesterol 8 mg Phosphorus 135 mg Potassium 75 mg Sodium 410 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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162 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Pasta Primavera A great colourful dish that can be made at anytime of the year and of course Cynthia has made this a low-fat high-fibre version Preparation Time: 25 minutes Cooking Time: 16 minutes Yield: 8 servings 1 ⁄4 lb.100 g dry whole wheat spaghettini 1 tbsp 15 ml olive oil 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml onion chopped 1 clove garlic minced 1 cup 250 ml celery chopped diagonally 1 cup 250 ml snow peas topped and tailed 1 large red pepper thinly sliced 1 cup 250 ml mushrooms sliced 1 medium tomato chopped 3 cups 750 ml baby spinach 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml parsley chopped 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml pepper 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 milk 1 tsp 5 ml dried basil 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml low-fat Parmesan cheese 1 In a medium-sized saucepan bring 4 cups 1000 millilitres of water to a boil over high heat. Add the pasta and stir. Cook for 8 minutes stirring occasionally. Drain in a strainer and set aside. 2 In a large frying pan warm the oil over medium heat and add the onion garlic and celery. Sauté for 3 minutes stirring occasionally with a spatula or wooden spoon. 3 Add the snow peas pepper and mushrooms and sauté for another 3 minutes. 4 Add the tomatoes and spinach to the frying pan and sauté for 2 minutes. 5 Stir in the remaining ingredients saving 1 ⁄4 cup 50 millilitres of the cheese for the topping. 6 Remove from the heat and serve topped with the remaining Parmesan cheese. Enjoy. Per Serving: 2 ⁄3 cup/150 ml 85 g Calories 113 Available carbohydrate 14 g Carbohydrate 16 g Fibre 2 g Fat 4 g Protein 5 g Cholesterol 6 mg Phosphorus 132 mg Potassium 320 mg Sodium 201 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 11: Creative Carbohydrate Concoctions 163 T Quinoa Risotto Quinoa pronounced keen-wa is a grain that originates in the Andes Mountains of South America. It has a nutty flavour is gluten-free and easily digested and is a breeze to prepare. For a vegetarian dish use vegetable broth instead of chicken. Preparation Time: 25 minutes Cooking Time: 14 minutes Yield: 8 servings 1 cup 250 ml quinoa 2 tsp 10 ml canola oil 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml onion chopped 1 clove garlic minced 2 1 ⁄4 cup 550 ml reduced-sodium chicken or vegetable broth 2 cups 500 ml arugula chopped 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml carrot shredded 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml shiitake mushroom sliced 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml low-fat Parmesan cheese grated 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml pepper 1 Place the quinoa in a strainer and rinse thoroughly under cool water for 3 minutes. Drain. 2 In a large saucepan heat the oil over medium heat and add the onion. Sauté until the onion is soft and translucent about 3 minutes. Add the garlic and quinoa and cook for 1 minute stirring occasionally. 3 Add the broth to the frying pan with the quinoa and bring to a boil. Reduce the heat to low cover and simmer for about 12 minutes until the quinoa is almost tender but slightly hard in the centre. There should still be lots of unabsorbed broth in the mixture. 4 Stir in the arugula carrots and mushrooms and simmer until the quinoa has turned from white to translucent about 2 minutes. 5 Mix in the Parmesan cheese salt and pepper. Serve immediately. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml 14g Calories 119 Available carbohydrate 15 g Carbohydrate 17 g Fibre 2 g Fat 4 g Protein 6 g Cholesterol 3 mg Phosphorus 158 mg Potassium 259 mg Sodium 147 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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164 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Spinach Mushroom Lasagna This hearty main dish can be prepared ahead of time refrigerated and baked the next day. Substituting ready-to-bake lasagna noodles for the regular variety will cut 15 min- utes off the preparation time. For a vegetarian dish use vegetable broth instead of chicken. Preparation Time: 60 minutes Cooking Time: 35 minutes plus 10 minutes to cool Yield: 9 servings 1 tbsp 15 ml canola oil 2 tbsp 30 ml flour 2 cloves garlic minced 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 cup 250 ml reduced-sodium chicken or vegetable broth 2 green onions chopped 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml dry-packed sun-dried tomatoes chopped and rehydrated 2 tsp 10 ml canola oil 2 1 ⁄4 cups 550 ml shiitake mushrooms sliced 1 shallot chopped 3 tbsp 45 ml parsley chopped 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml ground flaxseed 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 tsp 5 ml canola oil 12 cups 3000 ml baby spinach 2 cups 500 ml low-fat ricotta cheese 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml low-fat Parmesan cheese grated 1 egg white 12 sheets spinach lasagna noodles cooked 1 In a large saucepan heat 1 tablespoon 15 millilitres of oil over medium-high heat. Whisk in the flour and stir constantly for 1 minute. 2 Add the garlic and stir for 30 seconds. Whisk in the milk and broth. Cook and stir with a whisk or spatula for about 4 minutes until the mixture thickens slightly. Remove the saucepan from the heat and mix in the green onion and sun-dried tomatoes then set aside.

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Chapter 11: Creative Carbohydrate Concoctions 3 In a large frying pan heat 2 teaspoons 10 millilitres oil over medium-high heat. Add the mushrooms and shallot and sauté for about 8 minutes until the mushrooms and shallots are lightly browned. Remove the pan from the heat mix in the parsley flax- seed and salt. Transfer this to a large bowl and set aside. 4 Using the same frying pan heat the remaining teaspoon 5 millilitres of oil over medium-high heat. Add the spinach and stir until it is slightly wilted and bright green. Remove the pan from the heat and let the spinach cool slightly. 5 In another large bowl mix together the ricotta 1 ⁄2 cup 125 millilitres of the Parmesan cheese and the egg white with a large spoon. Add the spinach and stir until the mixture is well blended. 6 Lightly grease a 9–x-13 inch 20-x-30-centimetre baking dish with canola oil. With a spatula spread 1 ⁄2 cup 125 millilitres of sauce over the bottom of the baking dish and cover with 3 sheets of pasta. Spoon half the spinach mixture over the pasta and spread evenly with a spoon. Cover with 3 more pasta sheets and then top with another 1 ⁄2 cup 125 millilitres of sauce. Evenly distribute a thin layer of mushrooms over the sauce. Cover the layer of mushrooms with 1 ⁄2 cup 125 millilitres of sauce and 3 more pasta sheets. Spoon the remaining spinach filling over the pasta and then add the last 3 pasta sheets. Top with the remaining sauce and 1 ⁄4 cup 50 millilitres of Parmesan cheese. 7 When you are ready to bake the lasagna preheat your oven to 375 degrees Fahrenheit 190 degrees Celsius. 8 Cover the lasagna with foil and bake for 25 minutes. Remove the foil and allow the dish to bake for another 10 minutes or so until it is golden brown. Let the lasagna cool for 10 minutes before serving. Enjoy. Per Serving: 1 slice 3x4 1 ⁄4/6.5 cm x 10 cm 197 g Calories 288 Available carbohydrate 27 g Carbohydrate 32 g Fibre 5 g Fat 12 g Protein 17 g Cholesterol 26 mg Phosphorus 353 mg Potassium 669 mg Sodium 558 mg. 1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices 165

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166 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Szechuan Noodles A must at Chinese celebrations isn’t cake but noodles The long Chinese noodle signi- fies long unbroken life — the trick is to slurp with dignity. Preparation Time: 25 minutes Cooking Time: 20 minutes Yield: 8 servings Marinade: 1 tsp 5 ml rice vinegar 1 tsp 5 ml reduced-sodium soy sauce 1 tsp 5 ml cornstarch Sauce: 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml reduced-sodium chicken broth 1 tsp 5 ml chili pepper paste 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml sugar 1 tsp 5 ml sesame oil 2 tsp 10 ml cornstarch For the marinade: Noodles: 1 ⁄2 lb 225 g chicken breast cut into strips 6 oz 175 g fresh chow mein noodles 1 tbsp 15 ml canola oil 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml shrimp shelled and cleaned 1 tbsp 15 ml canola oil 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml onion chopped 1 clove garlic minced 3 cups 750 ml bok choy cut into bite-sized pieces 1 cup 250 ml carrots chopped diagonally 1 cup 250 ml broccoli florets 2 tbsp 30 ml canola oil 1 tbsp 15 ml reduced-sodium soy sauce 1 In a medium bowl use a whisk or fork to mix together the marinade ingredients. Add the chicken to the bowl and stir with a large spoon until the chicken is coated. Set the bowl aside for at least 20 minutes to allow the chicken to marinate. For the sauce: 2 In a small bowl mix together all the sauce ingredients with a whisk or fork. Set aside. For the noodles: 3 Fill a large pot with water and bring to a boil over high heat. Make sure there is enough water to completely cover the noodles. Once the water has reached a boil add the chow mein noodles and remove the pot from the heat. Stir the noodles cover the pot and let it sit for 5 minutes until the noodles are tender. Toss with a fork to loosen the noodles and then drain in a strainer. Cover the noodles and set them aside.

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Chapter 11: Creative Carbohydrate Concoctions 4 Add 1 tablespoon 15 millilitres oil to a wok or large frying pan and set over medium- high heat. Add the marinated chicken and stir-fry for 5 minutes. Remove the chicken from the frying pan and place in a medium-sized bowl. 5 Add the shrimp to the wok or frying pan and stir-fry over medium-high heat for 3 minutes. Add the shrimp to the bowl with the chicken and cover to keep warm. 6 Add another tablespoon 15 millilitres of oil to the wok or frying pan and set over medium-high heat. Add the onion garlic bok choy carrots and broccoli and stir-fry until the vegetables are tender crisp about 4 minutes. Set aside. 7 Warm 2 tablespoons 30 millilitres of oil in the wok or frying pan and place over medium heat. Add the noodles and toss to separate them. Add the soy sauce and toss again over the heat for 1 minute. 8 Combine the chicken shrimp and vegetables in a large bowl. Add the sauce and mix thoroughly. Add this mixture to the wok with the noodles toss until the ingredients are thoroughly mixed. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 3 ⁄4 cup/175ml 175g Calories 280 Available carbohydrate 16g Carbohydrate 19g Fibre 3g Fat 16g Protein 17g Cholesterol 47mg Phosphorus 178mg Potassium 444mg Sodium 429mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice 167 Bountiful Beans Beans and legumes are very economical and are very versatile in recipes. Buy them dry frozen or canned. Frozen and canned beans make for quick meals. Beans and legumes are a great source of protein carbohydrate and fibre. They are low in fat and free of cholesterol. Beans are a source of B vitamins calcium iron phosphorus potassium and zinc. Beans and legumes are also gluten-free. In addition to their myriad health benefits beans and legumes are also tasty. Don’t believe us Then you have to try some of the recipes in this section that will make a believer out of you Store dried beans for up to one year in air-tight containers. Cooked beans can be stored in plastic bags or containers in the refrigerator for up to 5 days and in the freezer for up to 6 months. Canned beans can be stored in a cool dry place for up to one year.

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168 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Dal There are many versions of this Indian dish. This authentic recipe comes from one of Cynthia’s friends Dr. Nita Rajesh who let Cynthia into her kitchen for close observations Preparation Time: 10 minutes Cooking Time: 30 minutes Yield: 3 servings 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml yellow lentils 2 cups 500 ml water 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml salt 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml turmeric 1 tbsp 15 ml ghee-clarified butter or use canola oil 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml onion finely chopped 1 clove garlic minced 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml cumin powder 1 ⁄8 jalapeno pepper chopped 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml asafoetida spice optional 1 tbsp 15 ml cilantro chopped 1 Check the lentils for stones and remove any you may find. Place the lentils in a strainer and rinse with cool running water until it runs clear. Allow the lentils to drain. 2 Place the lentils in a medium-sized saucepan. Add 2 cups 500 millilitres water salt and turmeric. Cover the pot with a lid and bring to a boil over high heat. Cook for 5 minutes. 3 Reduce the heat to low and simmer with the lid on for 25 minutes until the lentils are soft and have become a soup-like mixture. 4 While the lentils are cooking add the ghee to a medium-sized frying pan. Place over medium heat and add the onions garlic and cumin. Stir constantly until the onions are soft and translucent about 2 minutes. 5 Add the jalapeno and asafoetida and stir for 1 minute. Remove from heat. 6 Add the onion mixture to the lentils and mix well. 7 Serve hot topped with cilantro. Per Serving: 2 ⁄3 cup/150 ml Calories 165 Available carbohydrate 12 g Carbohydrate 22 g Fibre 10 g Fat 5 g Protein 9 g Cholesterol 11 mg Phosphorus 156 mg Potassium 366 mg Sodium 396 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 11: Creative Carbohydrate Concoctions 169 T Mango Bean Mix This recipe is quick and colourful and the beans are a great source of protein carbohy- drate and fibre. Preparation Time: 10 minutes Yield: 4 servings 10 oz 270 ml canned black beans 1 ⁄2 mango peeled and diced 1 small red pepper finely chopped 1 green onion chopped 1 ⁄8 cup 25 ml lime juice 1 lime 1 tbsp 15 ml olive oil 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml reduced-sodium soy sauce 1 ⁄8 cup 25 ml cilantro chopped 1 Place the beans in a strainer and rinse with cool running water until it runs clear. Allow the beans to drain. 2 In a medium-sized bowl combine the beans mango pepper and onion. 3 To make the dressing whisk together the lime juice oil and soy sauce. 4 Add the dressing to the bean mixture and toss with a spoon. Add the cilantro and toss again. 5 Serve as a side dish on its own or with mini nachos. Remember 12 mini nachos will add a second Carbohydrate Choice to this dish. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml Calories 119 Available carbohydrate 12 g Carbohydrate 18 g Fibre 6 g Fat 4 g Protein 8 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 87 mg Potassium 316 mg Sodium 289 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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170 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Taking the gas out of beans Many people who otherwise like beans shy away from them because of concerns over bloating burping or flatulence. You can how- ever minimize gaseousness. Without ahem getting long-winded about it here are some tips to help you avoid problems with gas from eating beans or other forms of fibre: ✓ Soak dried beans in cool water for 4 to 12 hours depending on the type of bean check the package directions. After a few hours drain the beans and add fresh water. When ready to cook drain the water off again add fresh water and simmer the beans gently until softened. Some people ✓ When first adding or increasing the say that adding 1 ⁄8 teaspoon 0.5 ml of amount of fibre like beans to your diet always start with small portions and gradu- ally increase your portion size. ✓ Drink plenty of fluids when you add extra fibre to your diet. ✓ For canned beans except baked beans in sauce drain the beans in a strainer or colander under cool running water for 2 minutes. An additional benefit of doing this is that it will reduce the amount of sodium present. baking soda to the soaking water helps reduce gas but this is controversial. ✓ Rinse legumes. They don’t have to be soaked. ✓ Try not to eat other famous gas-producing foods such as broccoli cauliflower cab- bage and Brussels sprouts at the same meal as beans. If none of these tips helps you can always resort to that old tried and true remedy: simply be “loud and proud.” Not genteel perhaps but well like we said elsewhere in this chapter dif- ferent strokes for different folks.

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Chapter 11: Creative Carbohydrate Concoctions 171 T Chickpea Curry Flavourful easy and quick to prepare here is another true Indian dish. This one comes from one of Cynthia’s dietetic interns Ruby Ubhi. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Cooking Time: 20 to 25 minutes Yield: 4 servings 19 oz 540 ml can of chickpeas 3 cloves garlic minced 1 1 ⁄2 tbsp 22 ml canola oil 1 medium onion finely chopped 1 tsp 5 ml ginger grated 1 large tomato chopped 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml garam masala 1 tsp 5 ml chana masala 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml turmeric 1 tsp 5 ml paprika 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml water 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml cilantro chopped 1 Pour the chickpeas into a strainer and rinse under cool running water until it runs clear. Allow the chickpeas to drain. 2 Heat the oil in a medium-sized frying pan over medium heat. Add the garlic and onion and sauté for 2 minutes until the onion becomes soft. 3 Add the ginger tomato and spices. Stir for another 2 minutes. 4 Add the chickpeas to the frying pan with 3 ⁄4 cup 175 millilitres of water. Cover and let simmer on medium-low heat for 15 minutes. More water can be added if you prefer a soup-like curry. 5 Remove from the heat and serve sprinkled with cilantro. This curry can be served with brown rice basmati rice or naan bread but remember that these additions will increase the carbohydrates. Per Serving: 3 ⁄4 cup/175 ml Calories 273 Available carbohydrate 34 g Carbohydrate 42 g Fibre 8 g Fat 9 g Protein 8 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 168 mg Potassium 489 mg Sodium 510 mg. 1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices

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172 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Curried Chickpeas in Tomato Cups You will look like a true gourmet when you present these tasty tomatoes to dinner guests This dish can be made in advance and kept refrigerated until your guests arrive. Leftover curried chickpeas can be kept covered in the fridge for two days. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Cooking Time: 20 minutes Yield: 8 servings 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml water 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml dry bulgur 8 firm medium tomatoes 1 cup 250 ml canned chickpeas 1 tsp 5 ml canola oil 1 clove garlic minced 1 small onion chopped 2 tbsp 30 ml curry powder 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml water 1 cup 250 ml baby spinach 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml basil finely chopped 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml low-fat plain yogurt 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml sugar 1 Fill a large saucepan with water and bring to a boil over high heat. Stir in the bulgur and boil for 1 minute. Remove from heat cover and let sit for 15 minutes until the bulgur has absorbed most of the water. 2 Slice off the top 1 ⁄2 inch 1.25 centimetres of each tomato. Remove the stems and coarsely chop the tomato tops. 3 Using a spoon gently scoop out the inside of the tomato and discard. Place the toma- toes upside down on paper towels to drain. 4 Pour the canned chickpeas into a strainer and rinse under cool water for 2 minutes. Drain. 5 Add the oil to a large frying pan and place over medium heat. Add the garlic and onion and stir for 2 minutes until the onion starts to soften. Add the curry powder and con- tinue to stir for 20 seconds. 6 Add the water and chopped tomato tops to the frying pan. Mix well for 4 minutes over medium heat. 7 Add the chickpeas spinach basil yogurt salt and sugar to the frying pan. Stir well until the ingredients are evenly mixed. 8 Add the bulgur to the frying pan and stir well with a spatula for 1 minute. 9 Using a spoon fill each tomato cup with 1 ⁄3 cup 75 millilitres of the bulgur mixture. Serve right away or place in the fridge until your guests arrive. Hot or cold these stuffed tomatoes are delicious Per Serving: 1 tomato with 1 ⁄3 cup/75 ml filling 180 g Calories 113 Available carbohydrate 15 g Carbohydrate 20 g Fibre 5 g Fat 2 g Protein 5 g Cholesterol 1 mg Phosphorus 119 mg Potassium 482 mg Sodium 146 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 12 Don’t Forget Your Veggies To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here In This Chapter ▶ Increasing your vegetable IQ ▶ Cooking up vegetables for all seasons ▶ Getting fresh with spring veggies ▶ Reaping the fall vegetable harvest A lthough vegetables are nutritious and an essential part of any healthy diet most Canadians don’t consume enough of them. Health Canada’s Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide www.healthcanada.gc.ca/foodguide rec- ommends at least seven servings of fruits and vegetables per day for people 14 years of age and older most Canadians consume only about two- thirds that amount. Recipes in This Chapter T Ethiopian Cabbage T Broccoli with Feta and Roasted Peppers T Stir-Fried Snow Peas T Swiss Chard and Pine Nuts T Zesty Asparagus T Asparagus Cheddar Quiche T Green Pea Cauliflower and Tomato Curry T Grilled Vegetables T Squash Apple Bake T Orange-Glazed Carrots T Balsamic Brussels Sprouts If you don’t get enough veggies in your diet because you find them bland or boring not varied enough or just not to your liking we’ve got three words for you: Read This Chapter. In this chapter are tasty recipes for those vegetables that are available seasonally and those that are available all year long. We also offer cooking tips to help you ensure you derive the maximum health benefit from your produce. Be Veggie Savvy Vegetables are inherently rich in nutrients but to derive the maximum ben- efit that veggies can offer you need to be aware of some important points including how best to cook them. In this section we look at how to prepare vegetables. We also discuss the benefits of buying your vegetables locally.

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174 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Is local produce more nutritious than imported produce Although locally grown vegetables are fresher and often taste better than remotely grown and transported produce local vegetables are — popular wisdom to the contrary — not necessarily more nutritious than imported pro- duce. Many factors influence the nutritional content of produce including the type of food in question how it is grown its ripeness when harvested how it is stored and how it is pro- cessed and packaged. Every step from the seed in the ground to the mature vegetable on your kitchen table can affect the food’s nutritional value. This is true for both local produce and imported produce. All of which is to say that the blanket statement that “local equals good and remote equals bad” doesn’t necessarily hold true. However this statement does in fact apply to a group of vegetables. Broccoli green beans kale tomatoes red peppers peaches and apricots all lose nutrients when harvested and transported for longer distances so in gen- eral you should make a special point of buying these items locally whenever possible. Buying locally in season Many of the vegetables on your corner grocery store’s shelves are likely better travelled than you are. With modern storage and transportation tech- niques foods that were formerly seldom available in Canada — especially when out of season — are now available year-round. This availability is won- derful in that it allows for more food choices more diverse menu planning and so forth but it does come at a price. In addition to the higher cost of foods that have been shipped great distances certain environmental issues must also be considered. For example many vegetables for sale in Canada — especially when local produce is not available — come from the southern U.S. and beyond. To get them to Canada requires of course transportation truck rail ship and so forth which requires fuel generates carbon and has other affects on the environment. When you buy food grown locally you support local farmers their families and your community’s economy. Purchasing locally means less fossil fuel is used for — and less greenhouse gas created from — transportation. Also locally produced foods are usually fresher because they’re harvested when ripe and immediately ready to enjoy instead of being shipped from afar and needing to then ripen during transportation or on supermarket shelves. Having said all this we wouldn’t want to leave the impression that this is a black and white issue. Some contrarians point out the benefits of choosing more remotely grown produce including the efficiencies of farming in south- ern climes where a greater number of crops per year can be harvested. In our opinion however the many pros of buying locally grown produce outweigh the cons.

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Chapter 12: Don’t Forget Your Veggies The Canadian Produce Marketing Association’s Availability Guide www. cpma.ca/en_serv_available.asp lists seasonally available produce and when they can be found. Maintaining your veggies’ nutrients The best way to ensure you get all the nutrients in vegetables is to eat your vegetables raw. Even though we enjoy the crunch of a carrot stick as much as anyone else we do love the variety that cooking can impart to vegetables. So here are some tips that help you retain those essential nutrients without having to give up your stove and oven. These are measures you can take to retain as much nutrient value as possible when cooking vegetables: ✓ Keep the skins intact. The skins contain valuable nutrients and also help protect the nutrients inside the vegetable from escaping. ✓ Avoid cutting raw vegetables into small pieces prior to cooking. Small pieces of vegetables are more prone to losing nutrients into the cooking water. Try to cook vegetables in pieces as large as is practical. ✓ Don’t overcook your vegetables. Cooking vegetables until they are tender-crisp — that is tender but firm — allows them to retain their characteristic colour and flavour. ✓ Avoid cooking at overly high temperatures. Higher temperatures will lead to greater nutrient loss. ✓ Use the least amount of water necessary. The more water you cook with the more nutrients are lost. ✓ If boiling vegetables add vegetables to a small amount of boiling water bring them back to the boil and then simmer over medium heat. ✓ Microwave your vegetables rather than boiling them on your stove. Put your vegetables in a microwave-safe container and add a minimal amount of water then cover. Cooking your vegetables in this way will help conserve their nutrient value and will also reduce cooking time. ✓ Stir-fry your vegetables. If stir-frying cook the vegetables until they are tender-crisp. ✓ Steaming vegetables takes a little longer than boiling but it has the advan- tage of conserving nutrients and retaining the shape of the vegetables. ✓ Cook under pressure with a pressure cooker it’s the shortest method of cooking vegetables. 175

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176 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Frozen vegetables are a convenient and economical option to fresh vegeta- bles. Frozen vegetables are picked at their peak and flash-frozen to retain their nutrients. Also cooking with frozen vegetables can be time-saving as they are pre-chopped. Avoid frozen vegetables in sauces however these are usually higher in calories fat and salt. Anytime Veggies Many vegetables are available to enjoy year-round anytime veggies if you will. In this section we look at some great recipes sorry to brag that use anytime veggies. The recipes in this section don’t take long to prepare and can open up new ideas for some of the “same old” vegetables. T Ethiopian Cabbage This traditional African dish is easy to make and packed with flavour. Preparation Time: 20 minutes Cooking Time: 8 minutes Yield: 7 servings 2 tbsp 30 ml olive oil 2 1 ⁄2 cups 625 ml yams sliced into 1 ⁄2” 1.25 cm slices 1 cup 250 ml carrots thinly sliced 1 ⁄2 medium onion thinly sliced 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml pepper 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml ground cumin 1 tsp 5 ml turmeric 3 cups 750 ml cabbage shredded 1 Add the oil to a large frying pan and set over medium heat. 2 Add the yams and cook for 3 minutes stirring occasionally with an egg lifter. Add the carrot and onion and cook another 2 minutes. 3 Add the spices and cabbage cover and let cook for 5 minutes stirring occasionally until the vegetables are soft. Serve warm as a side dish. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml 92g Calories 116 Available carbohydrate 15 g Carbohydrate 19 g Fibre 4 g Fat 4 g Protein 2 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 48 mg Potassium 569 mg Sodium 107 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 12: Don’t Forget Your Veggies 177 T Broccoli with Feta and Roasted Peppers When choosing broccoli look for a bunch that is firm crisp and deep green. The head should be tightly budded and the stem should be slender. Preparation Time: 12 minutes Cooking Time: 5 minutes Yield: 4 servings 1 head of broccoli about 4 cups 1000 ml cut into bite-sized pieces. 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml bottled roasted red peppers 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml low-fat feta 2 tbsp 30 ml sun-dried tomato chopped 1 tbsp 15 ml oil from roasted red pepper jar 1 Place the broccoli in a large saucepan cover with water and bring to a boil over high heat. Boil the broccoli for 3 to 4 minutes until it is slightly soft. Leave the saucepan uncovered so the broccoli remains bright green in colour. 2 Using a strainer drain the water from the broccoli. 3 In a large bowl mix together the remaining ingredients with a spoon or spatula. Add the broccoli mix well and serve. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml 123 g Calories 77 Available carbohydrate 5 g Carbohydrate 9 g Fibre 4 g Fat 4 g Protein 4 g Cholesterol 2 mg Phosphorus 78 mg Potassium 378 mg Sodium 376 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choice

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178 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Stir-Fried Snow Peas Snow peas are a staple in Chinese cooking. They have flat tender pods covering the tiny immature peas inside. Both the bright green peas and pods are edible. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Cooking Time: 8 minutes Yield: 3 servings 1 tbsp 15 ml olive oil 1 small clove garlic minced 1 tbsp 15 ml green onion chopped 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml shiitake mushrooms thinly sliced 1 1 ⁄2 cup 375 ml snow peas 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml water chestnuts sliced 1 Add the oil to a wok or medium-sized frying pan and place over medium-high heat. 2 Add the garlic and onion and stir for about 2 minutes with a spatula until the onions are soft and translucent. 3 Add the remaining ingredients and stir-fry for about 6 minutes until the mushrooms are browned. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml 67 g Calories 76 Available carbohydrate 6 g Carbohydrate 7 g Fibre 1 g Fat 5 g Protein 2 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 53 mg Potassium 205 mg Sodium 3 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 12: Don’t Forget Your Veggies 179 T Swiss Chard and Pine Nuts Swiss chard has long flat celery-like stalks that can be wide or narrow depending on the variety. Always separate the leaves from the stems before cooking — the stems take longer to cook. Preparation Time: 10 minutes Cooking Time: 7 minutes Yield: 3 servings 6 cups 1500 ml Swiss chard 1 1 ⁄2 tbsp 22 ml raisins 1 tbsp 15 ml olive oil 1 clove garlic minced 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 2 tsp 10 ml red wine vinegar 2 tbsp 30 ml pine nuts 1 Thoroughly wash the Swiss chard in cool water. Remove the stalks from the leaves and set them aside. Chop the stalks into 1 ⁄2 inch 1.25 centimetre pieces. 2 Place 1 cup 250 millilitres of water in a large saucepan and bring to a boil over medium heat. Add the stalks and cook for about 4 minutes until they are tender stirring occasionally with a large spoon. 3 Add the chopped Swiss chard leaves and raisins and cook for another 3 minutes stirring occasionally until the leaves are wilted. Drain. 4 In a wok or large frying pan heat the oil over medium heat and add the garlic. Sauté for 1 minute. Add the Swiss chard raisins and salt and then remove from the heat. 5 Add the vinegar and stir well with a large spoon. 6 Sprinkle with pine nuts and serve. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml 88g Calories 107 Available carbohydrate 5 g Carbohydrate 7 g Fibre 2 g Fat 8 g Protein 2 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 72 mg Potassium 345 mg Sodium 251 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choice

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180 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Springtime Veggies As Canadians emerge from our collective cocoons after yet another long winter one thing to look forward to is the emergence of local springtime veg- etables and putting away the snow shovels packing away the winter coats hats and gloves having a clean car . . . the list is endless. T Zesty Asparagus Green asparagus is a good source of folate vitamin C vitamin A iron phosphorus and potassium — and it’s low in calories to boot Preparation Time: 20 minutes Cooking Time: 10 minutes Yield: 4 servings 4 cups 1000 ml asparagus 3 tbsp 45 ml sliced almonds 1 clove garlic minced 1 tbsp 15 ml parsley chopped 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml lemon zest 2 tsp 10 ml fresh lemon juice 2 tsp 10 ml olive oil 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml salt 1 Clean the asparagus and break off the tough ends by bending the asparagus in your hands. Hold the asparagus at the centre of the stalk with one hand and use your other hand to gently bend the base of the stalk until it snaps off. Discard the ends. 2 Bring 1 cup 250 millilitres of water to boil in a medium-sized saucepan. Add the aspar- agus and boil uncovered for 4 to 6 minutes until tender crisp. Drain the asparagus in a strainer. 3 Toast the almonds by placing them in a dry frying pan and setting it over medium-high heat. Stir the almonds often for about 5 minutes until they are lightly browned. 4 In a large bowl combine all ingredients and toss well. Serve hot. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml 100 g Calories 80 Available carbohydrate 4 g Carbohydrate 7 g Fibre 3 g Fat 5 g Protein 4 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 94 mg Potassium 302 mg Sodium 149 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 12: Don’t Forget Your Veggies 181 T Asparagus Cheddar Quiche Look for straight crisp asparagus with nicely rounded spears and closed deep green or purplish tips. Asparagus is grown in sandy soil so wash it well in cool running water to get rid of the grit. Preparation Time: 30 minutes Cooking Time: 50 to 60 minutes Yield: 6 servings 9” 22.5 cm frozen deep dish pie shell 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml asparagus 1 tbsp 15 ml Dijon mustard 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml soft margarine 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml onion chopped 1 cup 250 ml low-fat cheddar grated 2 eggs 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml 1 milk 1 tsp 5 ml dried dill or 2 tbsp/30 ml fresh 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml nutmeg 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml cayenne pepper 1 Preheat the oven to 375 degrees Fahrenheit 190 degrees Celsius. 2 Thaw the frozen pie shell for 10 to 15 minutes. 3 Clean the asparagus and break off the tough ends by bending the asparagus in your hands. Hold the asparagus at the centre of the stalk with one hand and use your other hand to gently bend the base of the stalk until it snaps off. Discard the ends. 4 Bring about 1 cup 250 millilitres of water to boil in a medium-sized saucepan. Add the asparagus and boil uncovered for 4 to 6 minutes until it becomes tender crisp. Drain the asparagus in a strainer and allow it to cool. When the asparagus is cool to touch cut it into 1-inch 2.5 centimetre pieces. 5 With a fork prick the base of the pie shell in several places. Bake for 10 minutes then remove from the oven. Cover the bottom of the pie shell with a thin layer of the Dijon mustard. 6 Melt the margarine in a large frying pan and sauté the onion for 2 minutes or until soft. 7 In a medium-sized bowl combine the onion asparagus and cheese. Stir thoroughly. Spread the mixture evenly over the bottom of the pie shell. 8 In a medium-sized bowl beat the eggs. Add the milk and spices and mix well. Pour this mixture into the pie shell as well. 9 Bake for 40 to 50 minutes. The quiche is done when a knife inserted in the centre comes out clean. 10 Allow the quiche to cool for 10 minutes before serving. Enjoy Per Serving: 1 ⁄6 quiche 117 g Calories 251 Available carbohydrate 19 g Carbohydrate 20 g Fibre 1 g Fat 15 g Protein 10 g Cholesterol 76 mg Phosphorus 199 mg Potassium 239 mg Sodium 560 mg.

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1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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182 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Green Pea Cauliflower and Tomato Curry This classic Indian curry is quick and easy to prepare. Serve with grilled meats chicken or fish and a bowl of brown rice. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Cooking Time: 20 minutes Yield: 6 servings 2 1 ⁄2 cup 625 ml cauliflower florets 1 tbsp 15 ml soft margarine 1 medium onion finely chopped 1 clove garlic minced 1 tsp 5 ml fresh ginger grated 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml ground coriander 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml curry powder 1 ⁄2 tsp 2ml turmeric 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml ground cardamom 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml light coconut milk 2 medium tomatoes chopped 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml sugar 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5ml salt 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml frozen peas 1 Add 1 cup 250 millilitres of water to a large pot. Bring the water to boil over high heat. Add the cauliflower and cook for about 8 minutes until tender. Drain in a strainer. 2 Melt the margarine in a large frying pan over medium-high heat and add the onion. Stir occasionally until the onion is translucent. Add the garlic and ginger and sauté for 1 minute. Add the spices and continue to sauté for another minute. 3 Stir in the coconut milk tomatoes sugar salt and pepper. Cover the frying pan with a lid and simmer on low heat for 5 minutes. 4 Add the cauliflower and peas. Cover and simmer for another 4 minutes. Serve hot. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml 84g Calories 64 Available carbohydrate 6 g Carbohydrate 9 g Fibre 3 g Fat 3 g Protein 3 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 65 mg Potassium 335 mg Sodium 102 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 12: Don’t Forget Your Veggies 183 Going organic Organic farming is farming without the use of chemical pesticides or fertilizers genetically modi- fied organisms growth hormones or antibiotics. Although “organic” is often considered to be synonymous with “healthy” and conventionally grown food as being “less healthy” the truth of the matter is that — at least at the present time — there is insufficient scientific evidence to justify this claim. Many factors affect the nutritional quality of food including the qual- ity of the soil the weather the light available during the growing season the type of seed planted or in the case of livestock the breed of the animal the planting and harvesting dates the way the product is stored and transported and so on. Based on these factors some organic foods compared with conventionally grown foods may have more nutritional value the same nutritional value or even less nutri- tional value. As for the absence of chemical pesticides growth hormones and so forth although it intuitively makes sense that avoiding these sub- stances would be better there is much varia- tion in the way these products are used and at the present time there is insufficient scientific literature — one way or the other — to make a blanket statement about possible detrimental effects of these products. Therefore at least for now one cannot make a blanket statement that avoiding non-organically grown products is always best. Like purchasing anything buying organic food is a personal choice that can depend on food availability appearance taste price and per- sonal values. If you do choose organic foods look for the new mandatory logo attesting to a food being pro- duced organically. Fall Harvest Vegetables We have mixed feelings about fall. The air is fresh the humidity less the leaves a painter’s pallet of colours . . . But fall also brings heating bills that climb leaves that need raking and snow that falls before we’ve finished the raking. Rats You’d think we’d have learned from last year’s experience. But we put our ambivalence aside when it comes to the availability of fall harvest vegetables one of our favourite types of food. In this section we look at some great ways to prepare meals with fall vegetables.

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184 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Grilled Vegetables Unless you’re very carefully monitoring your carbohydrate phosphorus and potassium intake you can substitute a variety of vegetables for this recipe — just watch that they all cook in the same time. For more about carb counting refer to Chapter 1. Preparation Time: 20 minutes plus 1 hour for the vegetables to marinate Cooking Time: 8 to 10 minutes Yield: 6 servings 1 cup 250 ml zucchini cut into 1 ⁄4” 6 mm slices 1 large red pepper cut into chunks 1 cup 250 ml whole mushrooms 1 ⁄2 medium onion cut into wedges 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml snow peas 1 cup 250 ml whole cherry tomatoes 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml balsamic vinegar 2 cloves garlic minced 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml olive oil 1 tbsp 15 ml black pepper coarsely ground 1 tsp 5 ml salt 1 In a large bowl mix together the vinegar garlic oil pepper and salt with a whisk or fork. 2 Add the vegetables to the bowl and mix with a large spoon until the vegetables are coated with the marinade. Cover the bowl and place it in the fridge for at least one hour to marinate stirring occasionally. 3 Drain the vegetables place them in a grill basket and set the basket on the barbecue over medium-high heat for 8 to 10 minutes. Turn the vegetables frequently until they are cooked. If you don’t have a grill basket substitute an aluminum pie plate but watch the vegetables closely so they don’t burn. You can also cook the vegetables in a large frying pan on your stove top for 8 to 10 minutes until they are tender. Serve hot. Per Serving: 2 ⁄3 cup/150 ml 108 g Calories 206 Available carbohydrate 7 g Carbohydrate 9 g Fibre 2 g Fat 18 g Protein 2 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 46 mg Potassium 273 mg Sodium 399 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 12: Don’t Forget Your Veggies 185 T Squash Apple Bake A butternut squash is a yellowish tan and is shaped like a bowling pin with a bulbous end and a narrow neck. It is easier to peel than most squashes. The flavour is fruity and sweet. Preparation Time: 20 minutes Cooking Time: 17 to 19 minutes Yield: 10 servings 1 medium-sized butternut squash peeled seeded and cut into 1-inch 2.5 cm cubes 1 tbsp 15 ml brown sugar 3 tbsp 15 ml soft margarine 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml flour 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml salt 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml cinnamon 2 medium apples peeled cored and cut into 1 ⁄2” 1.25 cm wedges 1 In a large microwave-safe casserole dish combine the brown sugar margarine flour salt and cinnamon. Microwave on medium power for 30 seconds. Stir with a spatula or spoon. 2 Add the squash to the casserole dish mix and cover with a lid. Microwave on high for 10 minutes. 3 Add the apple to the squash stir and microwave covered for an additional 7 to 9 min- utes or until the squash is soft enough to pierce with a fork. If you don’t have a microwave combine the ingredients toss and place in a covered casserole dish in an oven heated to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius for 30 minutes. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml 93 g Calories 91 Available carbohydrate 14 g Carbohydrate 16 g Fibre 2 g Fat 3 g Protein 1 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 33 mg Potassium 328 mg Sodium 150 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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186 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Orange-Glazed Carrots When choosing carrots avoid the ones with cracks this usually indicates a woody core or green around their tops this usually means the carrot is bitter. Carrots are an excellent source of beta carotene which our bodies convert into vitamin A. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Cooking Time: 5 to 6 minutes Yield: 3 servings 2 tbsp 30 ml orange juice 1 tbsp 15 ml honey 1 tsp 5 ml cornstarch 1 tbsp 15 ml soft margarine 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml lemon zest 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml nutmeg 2 cups 500 ml carrots sliced into coins 1 ⁄4” 6 mm wide 1 In a large microwave-safe casserole dish combine all the ingredients except the car- rots. Mix well with a large spoon. 2 Add the carrots mix well and cover with a lid. Microwave on high for 3 minutes. Stir the carrots again and microwave for an additional 3 minutes until the carrots are tender crisp. 3 Leave covered for 3 minutes stir and serve. If you don’t have a microwave place the carrots in a medium-sized saucepan with 1 cup 250 millilitres of water and boil for about 10 minutes until the carrots are tender crisp. Drain the water from the carrots. Add the remaining ingredients and stir con- stantly for 2 minutes over medium heat. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 2 ⁄3 cup/150 ml 83 g Calories 99 Available carbohydrate 13 g Carbohydrate 16 g Fibre 3 g Fat 4 g Protein 1 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 32 mg Potassium 296 mg Sodium 190 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 12: Don’t Forget Your Veggies 187 T Balsamic Brussels Sprouts When choosing Brussels sprouts it’s best to pick ones of similar size so they will cook evenly in the same time. Eat Brussels sprouts within two days of purchase — the longer you wait the stronger they will taste. One way to reduce the bitter taste of Brussels sprouts is to soak them in water with a touch of lemon juice for half an hour before cooking. Preparation Time: 7 minutes Cooking Time: 5 minutes Yield: 5 servings 3 cups 750 ml Brussels sprouts 1 tbsp 15 ml soft margarine 2 tbsp 30 ml balsamic vinegar 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml sugar 1 Clean the Brussels sprouts and remove the stems and any wilted outer leaves. 2 To make sure the Brussels sprouts cook evenly use a sharp knife to cut an 1 ⁄8 inch 3 millimetre X in the bottom of each one. 3 Cover the bottom of a medium-sized saucepan with 1 inch 2.5 centimetres of water and place over high heat. Place a steamer over the water. Put the Brussels sprouts in the steamer and cook for about 5 minutes until the sprouts are tender and emerald green. 4 Melt the margarine in a medium-sized saucepan set over low heat. Add the vinegar and sugar. Stir until the sugar is dissolved. 5 Add the sprouts to the saucepan and stir with a spoon or spatula until they are evenly coated with the vinegar mixture. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml 90g Calories 50 Available carbohydrate 4 g Carbohydrate 6 g Fibre 2 g Fat 2 g Protein 2 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 38 mg Potassium 213 mg Sodium 35 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choice

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188 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes

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Chapter 13 Fishing for the Right Dish: Fish and Seafood Entrees To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here In This Chapter ▶ Getting tips on buying and cooking fish ▶ Preparing delicious fish ▶ Serving up succulent seafood B ecause fish are so nutritious hey they’re so Recipes in This Chapter ▶ Salmon Loaf T Cucumber Sauce ▶ Greek Fish ▶ Saffron Fish ▶ Japanese Fish Cakes ▶ Mediterranean-Style Tuna Casserole ▶ Crispy Coated Sole nutritious that even fish eat other fish Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide — the Canadian bible when it comes to healthy eating — recommends eating two servings of fish each week. ▶ Seared Scallops ▶ Chinese Jewelled Rice As we discuss in Chapter 2 certain types of fish are rich in omega-3 fatty acids which makes them an important food source. Strong scientific evidence links the ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids with a reduced risk of a variety of serious health problems including cancer arthri- tis depression lupus and asthma. When selecting your omega-3-rich fish you also want to choose fish that is low in mercury ingesting mercury is as you likely know unhealthy. These are fish that are rich in omega-3 fatty acids and low in mercury: anchovy Atlantic mackerel capelin char hake herring mullet salmon smelt pollock Boston bluefish rainbow trout and lake whitefish. Certain types of seafood are also rich in omega-3 fatty acids and low in mercury such as clams blue crab mussels oysters and shrimp. Fish that is cooked using a low-fat method such as poaching or broiling is a great protein replacement for red meat because the total fat content is lower and you get a plate full of omega-3 fatty acids to boot.

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In addition to their benefits as a source of omega-3 fatty acid and protein fish are also a significant source of B vitamins vitamin D copper iron iodine magnesium phosphorous potassium and selenium while at the same time being low in saturated fat cholesterol and calories. Wow how swimming

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190 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Selecting and Cooking Fish If as the expression goes carpenters are only as good as their tools then so too can your fish entree be only as good as the fish you start with and the way you prepare it. For example if you choose fish good choice but then deep fry it and then smother it in a rich tartar sauce ah bad choices you have taken a potentially healthy food choice and made it less healthy than a typical burger. In this section we look at how you can keep your fish dinner healthy and appetizing at the same time. Choosing fish Fish are delicate creatures and begin to deteriorate as soon as they’re lifted out of the water. Obtaining the freshest fish possible could be the difference between loving and hating fish. As if anyone could hate fish eh Here are ways you can be sure to purchase high-quality fresh fish: ✓ Seek out a reputable retailer. This is rule number one. You might start by asking your neighbours where they buy their fish. Also don’t feel shy about “interviewing” your local fish sellers and asking them about some of the points we note in this list. ✓ Inspect the fish. It should be blemish-free and the flesh should be firm and spring back when touched. The fish should smell like the water it came from if the fish smells fishy it’s not fresh. Yeah we know that sounds weird wanting fish that doesn’t smell fishy. ✓ Ask your retailer about the fish. Ask how long ago it was caught try to purchase fish that is no more than a day or two old. Ask where the fish was caught the nearer it was caught the more likely it is to be fresh. Ask if the fish has been previously frozen if it has then you shouldn’t refreeze it. If the fish has been flash-frozen its texture and taste will likely not have been compromised by the freezing process. ✓ Check out the bed of ice the fish are sitting on. The ice should have no staining or grey areas. The most economical way to purchase fish is whole. Look for clear bulging eyes shiny red gills shiny close-fitting scales and a firm body. Avoid fish with cloudy sunken eyes blemishes curled brittle tails or a fishy smell. To make preparing and cooking fish easier and faster consider purchasing fish in bone-free fillet or steak form. If you are purchasing a whole fresh fish you can ask your fish vendor to cut it into fillets or steaks for you. A fresh 4-oz. 120 g fillet will cook to a 3-oz. 90-g size.

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Chapter 13: Fishing for the Right Dish: Fish and Seafood Entrees Cooking fish You can cook fish in an amazing number of ways: You can bake steam poach sauté boil broil barbecue microwave or plank it. Fish can even be dishwashered Ian’s mom’s favourite way of preparing salmon to coin a verb. Regardless of which way you choose to cook your fish the cardinal rule to follow is “Don’t overcook it.” Because fish is so delicate it’s easy to over- cook leaving you with a dried-out product. In order to retain fish’s moisture cook it quickly over high heat or alternatively cook it with a liquid. A quick rule of thumb is to measure the fish at its thickest point and cook at high heat 425 degrees Fahrenheit or 220 degrees Celsius for 10 minutes per inch 2.5 cm of thickness. Perfectly cooked fish should flake easily with a fork and be opaque with the faintest amount of translucency in the middle. Oh and if you’re wondering how Ian’s mom makes her dishwasher salmon she wraps the fish in tin foil and puts it through the entire wash and dry cycle without soap. You can find other dishwasher salmon recipes on the Internet. Baking fish Here’s a good way to bake fish: 1. Sprinkle both sides of a 1-lb 450 g fish fillet with a small amount of salt and pepper. 2. Melt 1 1 ⁄2 tbsp 22 ml soft margarine and mix together with 1 tbsp 15 ml lemon juice and 1 tbsp 15 ml diced onion. 3. Dip both sides of the fish into the margarine mixture and lay the fillet flat in an ungreased casserole dish or pan. Pour the remaining margarine mixture over the fillet. 4. Cook uncovered at 425 degrees Fahrenheit 220 degrees Celsius for 10 minutes or until the fish flakes easily with a fork. 191

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192 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Broiling Fish Try broiling fish using this technique: 1. Sprinkle both sides of a 1-lb 450 g fish fillet with a small amount of salt and pepper. 2. Melt 1 1 ⁄2 tbsp 22 ml soft margarine and mix in 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml dried dill 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml dried thyme and 1 tbsp 15 ml diced onion. 3. Line a broil pan with foil place the fish on the foil and brush with half the margarine mixture. 4. Set the oven to broil and with the pan 2 to 3 inches 5–7.5 cm from the element cook the fish until light brown about 5 minutes. 5. Gently turn the fish over brush with the remaining margarine mixture and broil for about 5 minutes longer until the fish easily flakes with a fork. Steaming Fish This is a foolproof way of creating scrumptious steamed fish: 1. Rub the fillet with spices chopped herbs ginger garlic or chili peppers. Lay the seasoned fish flat in a bamboo steamer or folding steamer basket. 2. Pour about 1 1 ⁄2 inches 3.75 cm water into a pot cover and bring the water to a boil. Place the steamer over the pot. 3. Check the fish for doneness after about 10 minutes. The fish should flake easily with a fork when done. Tasty Fish Dinners In the previous section we outline some easy ways to prepare fish. Here we offer some great recipes if you need some inspiration.

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Chapter 13: Fishing for the Right Dish: Fish and Seafood Entrees 193 Salmon Loaf Salmon is an excellent source of protein and omega-3 fatty acids. To make this a truly special meal serve it with our Cucumber Sauce the recipe follows this one. Preparation Time: 20 minutes Cooking Time: 40 minutes Yield: 4 servings 2 - 7.5oz/426 g cans salmon 2 tbsp 30 ml lemon juice 2 eggs beaten 1 cup 250 ml rolled oats 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml ground flaxseed 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml onion chopped 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml celery chopped 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml salt 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml pepper 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml dried dill 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 milk 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml dry mustard 1 Preheat oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius. Lightly grease an 8-x-4-inch 20-x-10 centimetre loaf pan with canola oil. 2 Mash the salmon bones and juice together in a food processor or blender at medium speed until well mixed. If you don’t have a food processor or blender use a hand blender potato masher or fork. Place the salmon in a medium-sized bowl. 3 Add the remaining ingredients to the bowl and blend well until thoroughly mixed. 4 Evenly spread the salmon mixture across the bottom of a loaf pan making sure to fill the corners. 5 Fill a jelly roll pan or 9-x-13-inch 20-x-30 centimetre pan with 1 inch 2.5 centimetres of boiling water. Place the loaf pan inside the jelly pan of water and bake for about 40 minutes until a knife inserted into the centre of the salmon loaf comes out clean. 6 Let the loaf cool for 7 minutes before slicing. Top with Cucumber Sauce if desired see following recipe. Per Serving: 1 slice 2 ² ⁄5” cm wide 150 g Calories 316 Available carbohydrate 16 g Carbohydrate 21 g Fibre 5 g Fat 14 g Protein 27 g Cholesterol 153 mg Phosphorus 521 mg Potassium 592 mg Sodium 809 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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194 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Pregnancy children fish and mercury Children and women who may become preg- nant are pregnant or are breastfeeding can eat fish as part of a healthy eating program but because some fish are contaminated with mer- cury they need to limit the type and amount of fish they consume. The fish that they need to limit are predatory fish like tuna swordfish marlin orange roughy and escolar. Predatory fish accumulate mer- cury in their bodies by eating mercury-contam- inated smaller fish. Here is a list that shows safe levels of consumption for these fish: ✓ General population: 5 oz 150 g per week ✓ Women who may become pregnant are pregnant or are breastfeeding: 5 oz 150 g per month For albacore/white tuna—10 oz 300 g per week ✓ Children 1–4 years old: 2.5 oz 75 g per month For albacore/white tuna—2.5 oz 75 g per week ✓ Children 5–11 years old: 4 oz 125 g per month For albacore/white tuna—5 oz/150 g per week You can find out more about safe levels of fish consumption at www.hc-sc.gc. ca/fn-an/securit/chem-chim/ environ/mercur/cons-adv-etud- eng.php. T Cucumber Sauce This light sauce makes a tasty addition to the Salmon Loaf above. Preparation Time: 10 minutes Yield: 4 servings 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml low-fat mayonnaise 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml cucumber grated skin left on drained 1 1 ⁄2 tbsp 22 ml lemon juice 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml dry mustard 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 1 green onion chopped 1 In a small bowl mix together all of the ingredients except the green onion with a spoon or spatula. 2 Spoon 1 ⁄4 cup 50 millilitres of the sauce on top of each slice of Salmon Loaf sprinkle with 1 ⁄4 of the green onions and serve. Per Serving: 1 ⁄4 cup/50 ml 4.5g Calories 77 Available carbohydrate 6 g Carbohydrate 6 g Fibre 0 g Fat 6 g Protein 0 g Cholesterol 7.5 mg Phosphorus 6 mg Potassium 36 mg Sodium 301 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choices

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Chapter 13: Fishing for the Right Dish: Fish and Seafood Entrees 195 Greek Fish Use either sole or tilapia for this recipe. Sole is a delicate fine-textured fish with a mild flavour. Tilapia is also mild-flavoured but has a firm flaky texture. Both are good sources of protein vitamin B12 and selenium. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Cooking Time: 10 to 20 minutes depending on the thickness of the fillet Yield: 2 servings 2 tbsp 15 ml olive oil 2 cloves garlic minced 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml onions chopped 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml green pepper thinly sliced 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml red pepper thinly sliced 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml tomato chopped 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 1 ⁄2 lb 225 g sole or tilapia 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml low-fat feta cheese 2 tbsp 30 ml kalamata olives sliced 1 Preheat oven to 400 degrees Fahrenheit 200 degrees Celsius. Lightly grease a baking dish with canola oil. 2 Heat the oil in a medium-sized frying pan over medium heat. When it’s warm add the garlic onions and peppers and sauté for 5 minutes stirring occasionally with a spatula or egg lifter. 3 Add the tomatoes and sauté for another 2 minutes. 4 Sprinkle both sides of the fish with the salt and pepper. 5 Place the fish in the baking dish and top with the vegetable mixture feta cheese and olives. 6 Bake uncovered for 10 to 20 minutes until the fish flakes easily when tested with a fork. Serve hot and enjoy. Per Serving: 1 fillet with 1 ⁄2 the topping 145 g Calories 314 Available carbohydrate 9 g Carbohydrate 12 g Fibre 3 g Fat 19 g Protein 30 g Cholesterol 78 mg Phosphorus 320 mg Potassium 712 mg Sodium 501 mg. 1 Serving 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choice

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196 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Saffron Fish In India plain yogurt is used as a staple ingredient in many recipes including this dish. Preparation Time: 20 minutes Cooking Time: 13 minutes Yield: 2 servings 1 ⁄2 lb 225 g fish fillet cod sole monkfish or swordfish 1 tsp 5 ml fresh lemon juice 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml warm water 2 saffron strands 1 tbsp 15 ml canola oil 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml onion chopped 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml ginger root grated 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml turmeric 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml ground cumin 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml parsley chopped Pinch of cinnamon 6 cherry tomatoes halved 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml low-fat plain yogurt 1 Remove any bones from the fish and cut into 1 ⁄2 inch 1.25 centimetre cubes. Place the fish in a medium bowl with the lemon juice. Toss and set aside. 2 Add the warm water to a small bowl. Rub the saffron between your fingers to break it up. Add the saffron to the water and set aside. 3 Heat the oil in a wok or large frying pan with a lid over medium heat. Add the onion and ginger and sauté for about 3 minutes until the onions are soft and translucent. 4 With a wooden spoon or spatula stir in the turmeric cumin parsley and cinnamon. Sauté for 1 minute. 5 Add the saffron water and tomatoes and bring the mixture to a boil over high heat for 1 minute. Add the salt and fish reduce the heat to low cover and let the fish cook for 5 to 6 minutes until the fish can be flaked easily with a fork. 6 Add the yogurt to the wok and give it a quick stir about 30 seconds with a wooden spoon or spatula. Serve the fillets immediately. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml 220 g Calories 205 Available carbohydrate 6 g Carbohydrate 7 g Fibre 1 g Fat 8 g Protein 25 g Cholesterol 57 mg Phosphorus 324 mg Potassium 776 mg Sodium 240 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 13: Fishing for the Right Dish: Fish and Seafood Entrees 197 Japanese Fish Cakes To add authentic Japanese flavour to these scrumptious fish cakes serve them with grated daikon radish pickled ginger or reduced-sodium soy sauce. Preparation Time: 15 to 20 minutes Cooking Time: 10 minutes Yield: 7 servings 1 lb 45 g fish fillets cod rockfish tuna 2 tbsp 30 ml sesame seeds 1 leek finely chopped 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml ginger grated 2 tbsp 30 ml miso 1 egg beaten 1 tsp 5 ml wasabi paste 3 tbsp 45 ml canola oil 1 Rinse the fish under cool water and pat dry with paper towels. Remove any bones. Mince the fish using a food processor or blender. If you do not have a food processor or blender use a sharp knife to finely chop the fish. 2 In a small dry frying pan toast the sesame seeds over medium-high heat for about 2 minutes or until they are slightly brown. Remove from heat and let cool. 3 Combine all ingredients except the oil in a large bowl and mix well with a spatula fork or spoon. 4 With clean hands shape the minced fish mixture into 7 equal-sized patties. 5 Heat the oil in a large frying pan over medium heat. Fry the patties for 4 to 5 minutes per side until cooked through. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 1 patty 80 g Calories 154 Available carbohydrate 3 g Carbohydrate 4 g Fibre 1 g Fat 9 g Protein 15 g Cholesterol 61 mg Phosphorus 194 mg Potassium 356 mg Sodium 236 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choices

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198 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Mediterranean-Style Tuna Casserole This is a gourmet-quality tuna casserole — everyone Cynthia has ever served this dish to has loved it Preparation Time: 22 minutes Cooking Time: 20 minutes Yield: 4 servings 7 oz/200 g dry whole wheat spaghetti 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml oil-based commercial Caesar salad dressing 1 medium onion chopped 3 cloves garlic minced 2 6.5 oz/184 g cans water-packed chunk tuna drained 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml black olives sliced 1 tbsp 15 ml dried basil 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml hot pepper flakes 1 cup 250 ml tomato chopped 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml low-fat feta cheese cubed 1 In a medium-sized saucepan bring 8 cups 2000 millilitres of water to a boil over high heat. Add the pasta and stir. Cook for 8 minutes stirring occasionally. Drain the pasta in a strainer then return the pasta back to the dry saucepan. 2 While the pasta is cooking heat the salad dressing over medium heat for 1 minute in a large frying pan. Add the onions and garlic and sauté for about 3 minutes stirring occa- sionally until the onions are soft but not brown. 3 Add the tuna olives basil and pepper flakes and sauté for 1 minute. 4 Add the tomato and feta and sauté for about 1 minute until the tomatoes are warm throughout and the cheese cubes are just starting to melt at the edges. Remove from heat. 5 Mix all the ingredients together in the saucepan with a spatula or wooden spoon. Serve hot. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml 180 g Calories 413 Available carbohydrate 45 g Carbohydrate 47 g Fibre 2 g Fat 13 g Protein 32 g Cholesterol 30 mg Phosphorus 302 mg Potassium 496 mg Sodium 964 mg. 1 Serving 3 Carbohydrate Choices

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Chapter 13: Fishing for the Right Dish: Fish and Seafood Entrees 199 Crispy Coated Sole This recipe is quick to make and the fish and ground flaxseed are excellent sources of fibre and omega-3 fatty acids. Preparation Time: 12 minutes Cooking Time: 6 minutes Yield: 2 servings 1 ⁄2 lb 225 g sole fillets 2 tbsp 30 ml cornmeal 2 tbsp 30 ml ground flaxseed 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 1 egg 1 tbsp 15 ml 1 milk 1 tbsp 15 ml canola oil 1 tbsp 15 ml soft margarine 1 lemon cut into wedges if desired 1 Rinse the fish under cool water pat dry with paper towel. Remove any bones. 2 In a small bowl combine the cornmeal flaxseed salt and pepper with a spatula or spoon. 3 In another small bowl beat the egg and milk together with a whisk or fork. 4 Dip the fish in the egg mixture and then the cornmeal mixture. 5 In a large frying pan heat the oil and margarine over medium heat. Fry the fish in the pan for 2 to 3 minutes on each side. The fish will be done when it turns golden brown and flakes easily when tested with a fork. Serve immediately with lemon wedges if desired. Per Serving: 1 fillet 125 g Calories 335 Available carbohydrate 7 g Carbohydrate 11 g Fibre 4 g Fat 20 g Protein 28 g Cholesterol 113 mg Phosphorus 340 mg Potassium 583 mg Sodium 464 mg. 1 Serving 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choice

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200 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Seafood Suppers Shellfish can be part of your balanced healthy eating program. Clams scal- lops shrimp lobster mussels oysters and abalone are low in calories and saturated fat and are an excellent source of protein omega-3 fatty acids iron zinc copper and vitamin B 12. Although shellfish are an appropriate part of a healthy diet — whether or not you have diabetes — be careful not to undo the goodness of eating shell- fish by loading it up with excessive amounts of butter or creamy sauces as doing this will add significant amounts of calories and fat. Also some types of shellfish such as prawns crab and lobster are high in cholesterol and thus should be consumed in limited quantities. Seared Scallops Scallops are a very good source of potassium phosphorus protein and selenium and are low in saturated fat. Preparation Time: 10 minutes Cooking Time: 5 minutes Yield: 4 servings 1 lb 450 g scallops 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml pepper 4 tbsp 60 ml fine bread crumbs 2 tbsp 30 ml canola oil 1 lemon cut into wedges if desired 1 Place the scallops on a plate or cutting board and sprinkle them with the salt and pepper. 2 Place the bread crumbs in a clean plastic bag. Add a few scallops to the bag twist the top so no crumbs escape and shake until the scallops are coated. Remove the scallops from the bag and repeat until all the scallops are breaded. 3 In a medium-sized frying pan heat the oil over medium-high heat. 4 Place the scallops in the frying pan and sear them on one side for 1 to 2 minutes until they are golden. Using an egg lifter flip the scallops to sear them on the other side until they turn opaque in the centre about another 1 to 2 minutes. Remove from heat and serve immediately. Garnish with lemon wedges if desired. Per Serving: 1 ⁄4 lb 108 g Calories 291 Available carbohydrate 8 g Carbohydrate 8 g Fibre 0 g Fat 21 g Protein 16 g Cholesterol 30 mg Phosphorus 212 mg Potassium 328 mg Sodium 424 mg. 1 Serving 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 13: Fishing for the Right Dish: Fish and Seafood Entrees 201 Chinese Jewelled Rice With a wide variety of ingredients this dish is a meal in itself Crab a main ingredient in this recipe is low in fat — only 1 gram per 1 ⁄2 cup 125 millilitres — and high in chro- mium selenium zinc and protein. Preparation Time: 10 minutes Cooking Time: 20 minutes Yield: 6 servings 1 cup 250 ml basmati rice 4 tsp 20 ml canola oil 1 medium onion chopped 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml cooked ham diced 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml canned crab meat 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml canned sliced water chestnuts 1 cup 250 ml shiitake mushrooms sliced 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml frozen peas 2 tbsp 30 ml oyster sauce 1 tsp 5 ml sugar 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 1 Place the rice in a strainer and rinse under cool water for 1 minute. 2 In a large pot bring 2 cups 500 millilitres of water to a boil over high heat. Add the rice and stir. Cover the pot with a lid and simmer on low heat for 12 minutes. Remove the pot from the heat and let stand for 5 minutes. Fluff the rice with a fork. 3 Over medium heat warm 2 teaspoons 10 millilitres of the oil in a wok or large frying pan. Add the rice and stir fry for 2 minutes. Remove from heat transfer the rice back to the pot and set aside. 4 Add 2 teaspoons 10 millilitres oil to the wok or frying pan and place over medium- high heat. Add the onion and sauté for 2 minutes until the onions are soft but not brown. 5 Add the remaining ingredients except the rice to the wok or frying pan and stir-fry for 2 minutes. 6 Return the rice to the wok or frying pan and stir-fry for another 2 minutes. Serve hot. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml 190 g Calories 232 Available carbohydrate 34 g Carbohydrate 36 g Fibre 2 g Fat 5 g Protein 11 g Cholesterol 29 mg Phosphorus 149 mg Potassium 256 mg Sodium 267 mg. 1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices

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202 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Sustainable seafood Concern about the progressively worsening depletion of many types of fish and seafood stocks from the world’s oceans is growing. You can support responsible stewardship of our marine resources by making a point of purchas- ing fish species that are not at risk: so-called sustainable fish species. You can learn more about sustainable fish and at-risk fish — and how to go about selectively purchasing them — by visiting SeaChoice www.seachoice.org. This site provides information wallet cards you can take with you when shopping and even an iPhone app that’ll help keep you informed about the best fish to buy.

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Chapter 14 Birds of a Feather: Poultry Dinners To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here In This Chapter ▶ Putting safety first when preparing poultry ▶ Feeling like chicken tonight ▶ Gobbling up turkey C anadians love chicken . . . the taste the Recipes in This Chapter ▶ Apricot Brie Chicken ▶ Butter Chicken ▶ Chicken in Dijon Sauce ▶ African Curry ▶ Tandoori Chicken ▶ Parmesan Chicken ▶ Bok Choy with Chicken ▶ Cinnamon Lime Chicken value the affordability the versatility the convenience and last but certainly not least chicken’s important role in a well-balanced healthy eating program — especially if you have diabetes. In this chapter we look at a wide variety of ways you can prepare terrific family-pleasing chicken recipes. But before we get cookin’ we share some important chicken-handling tips. ▶ Chicken with Cashews ▶ Walnut Chicken ▶ Curried Turkey in a Pita ▶ Cheesy Turkey Bake ▶ Turkey à la King Handling Cooking and Cleaning Up Poultry All foods including red meat poultry fruit and vegetables have the potential to cause foodborne illnesses due to contamination with bacteria. Infections typically gastroenteritis — “gastro” for short from eating “bad”

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chicken are very common. For this reason you must properly handle food — especially chicken. The Canadian Partnership for Consumer Food Safety Education www. canfightbac.org sets out four steps to food safety:

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204 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes 1. Clean: Wash your hands with warm water and soap for at least 20 sec- onds before and after handling each food item. Wash utensils coun- tertops and cutting boards with hot soapy water after preparing each food and before you go to the next food. Clean countertops using paper towels with hot soapy water or a bleach mixture of 1 tsp 5 ml bleach to 3 cups 750 ml water. If you use a cloth towel wash it often on the hot cycle because it can harbour bacteria. Sponges are not recommended. Rinse fruits and vegetables under cool running water. Use a brush to scrub skins of potatoes cantaloupes lemons and so on under cool run- ning water. 2. Separate: Use one cutting board for fruits and vegetables and another for raw meat poultry and seafood. Separate raw meat poultry and seafood from other foods in the grocery cart grocery bags and in the refrigerator. Do not place cooked food on an unwashed plate that previ- ously had raw meat poultry seafood or eggs on it. 3. Cook: Use an instant-read food thermometer to check the internal tem- peratures of cooked meats. Use the Safe Cooking Temperatures chart in the Appendix of this book. Remember you can’t tell if a food is cooked by looking at it Place the food thermometer in the thickest part of the meat or in the case of a whole chicken into the thickest part of the thigh. Bring soups sauces and gravy to the boil when reheating. 4. Chill: Bacteria multiply the fastest at temperatures between 40 degrees Fahrenheit 4 degrees Celsius and 140 degrees Fahrenheit 60 degrees Celsius so chilling food properly is one of the best ways to reduce foodborne illnesses. Chill food within two hours in a refrigerator at 40 degrees Fahrenheit 4 degrees Celsius or below. Refrigerate or freeze perishable foods as soon as you get home from the store. Never defrost food at room temperature instead thaw it in the refrigerator in cold water or in the microwave. Freeze uncooked poultry if you will not be using it within two days. Never refreeze previously frozen red meats poultry or seafood unless you have cooked it and are then refreezing it. Checking Out Chicken Chicken is a good source of protein niacin phosphorus selenium and vita- min B 6. White meat has less fat than dark meat but dark meat has more iron and zinc. Two-thirds of the fat in chicken is in the skin. By way of illustration a 4-ounce 130 g chicken breast without the skin has 0.1 ounce 2.9 g of fat whereas the same size breast with the skin has 0.3 ounces 8.3 g of fat. Since it’s important for people living with diabetes to avoid undue fat consumption in this section we’ve specifically chosen recipes that don’t contain poultry skin. Don’t you worry though the recipes in this section are scrumptious.

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Chapter 14: Birds of a Feather: Poultry Dinners 205 There are a variety of recipes here some don’t take long to prepare and others take a bit longer. If you don’t have much time save the longer prepara- tion recipes for weekends. Some of the quicker recipes are Butter Chicken Parmesan Chicken Cinnamon Lime Chicken Bok Choy with Chicken Chicken with Cashews Walnut Chicken Curried Turkey in a Pita and Turkey à la King. Apricot Brie Chicken Brie gives this dish a luxuriously creamy filling that also keeps the chicken moist. Preparation Time: 25 minutes Cooking Time: 26 minutes Yield: 4 servings 1 lb 450 g skinless boneless chicken approximately 4 breasts 2 oz 60 g brie cheese rind removed sliced 4 dried apricots finely chopped 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml sliced almonds 1 tsp 5 ml rosemary 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml salt 1 tsp 5 ml fresh cracked pepper 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml bread crumbs 2 tbsp 30 ml ground flaxseed 1 egg beaten 2 tbsp 30 ml soft margarine 1 Preheat oven to 375 degrees Fahrenheit 190 degrees Celsius. Lightly grease a baking dish with canola oil. 2 With a sharp knife cut into the side of each chicken breast widthwise until it opens like a book. 3 In a small bowl mix together the apricots 1 ⁄4 cup 50 millilitres of the almonds the rosemary salt and pepper. With a spoon spread a quarter of the mixture over the inside of each chicken breast. Close the breast and secure with a toothpick. 4 In a shallow dish combine the bread crumbs flaxseed and remaining almonds. Dip each piece of chicken in the egg and then evenly cover it with a thin layer of the crumb mixture. 5 In a large frying pan melt the margarine over medium-high heat. Add the chicken breasts and brown for 3 minutes on each side. 6 Transfer the chicken to the baking dish and bake for 15 to 20 minutes until cooked through. Remove the toothpicks and serve. Per Serving: 1 breast 200 g Calories 393 Available carbohydrate 10 g Carbohydrate 14 g Fibre 4 g Fat 21 g Protein 37 g Cholesterol 136 mg Phosphorus 393 mg Potassium 526 mg Sodium 592 mg. 1 Serving 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choice

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206 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Butter Chicken This favourite Indian dish is rich and tender. Serve it on its own or with naan basmati rice or other traditional Indian fare. If you like it spicy increase the cayenne pepper. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Cooking Time: 30 minutes Yield: 4 servings 2 tbsp 30 ml canola oil 1 lb 450 g skinless boneless chicken breast cut into cubes 2 tbsp 30 ml canola oil 1 medium yellow onion chopped 2 cloves garlic minced 1 tbsp 15 ml ginger grated 2 tbsp 30 ml butter 2 tsp 5 ml lemon juice 1 tsp 5 ml garam masala 1 tsp 5 ml cumin 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml black pepper 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml cayenne pepper 1 cup 250 ml tomato sauce 1 cup 250 ml light evaporated milk 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml low-fat plain yogurt 1 Heat 2 tablespoons 30 millilitres of the oil in a large frying pan over medium-high heat. When the oil is warm add the chicken pieces to the pan and stir with a spatula or wooden spoon until the chicken is lightly browned about 10 minutes. Remove the chicken from the pan place it in a bowl and set it aside. 2 In the same frying pan add the rest of the oil and sauté the onion garlic and ginger over medium-high heat until the onions are soft about 3 to 5 minutes. 3 Add the butter lemon juice and spices and continue to stir for 1 minute. 4 Add the tomato sauce and cook for 2 minutes. Add the milk and yogurt reduce the heat to low cover and simmer for 10 minutes stirring occasionally. 5 Add the chicken to the frying pan increase the heat to high and bring the sauce to a boil. 6 Reduce the heat to low cover and simmer for 15 minutes until the sauce has thickened and the chicken is cooked through. 7 Serve hot with naan or rice. Enjoy. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml 227 g Calories 330 Available carbohydrate 13 g Carbohydrate 15 g Fibre 2 g Fat 15 g Protein 35 g Cholesterol 90 mg Phosphorus 399 mg Potassium 802 mg Sodium 664 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 14: Birds of a Feather: Poultry Dinners 207 Chicken in Dijon Sauce This chicken has a mustard flavour so serve it with a simple side dish like mashed potatoes or plain brown rice. Preparation Time: 25 minutes Cooking Time: 35 minutes Yield: 4 servings 2 tbsp 30 ml soft margarine 1 lb 450 g skinless boneless chicken breasts approximately 4 breasts 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yellow onion chopped 1 1 ⁄2 cup 375 ml mushrooms sliced 1 1 ⁄2 tbsp 22 ml flour 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml reduced-sodium chicken broth 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml 1 milk 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml Dijon mustard 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 2 tbsp 30 ml sliced almonds 1 In a large frying pan melt 1 tablespoon 15 millilitres of the margarine over medium- high heat. Add the chicken and cook until it is lightly browned about 3 minutes per side. Remove the chicken from the pan place on a plate and set aside. 2 Add the rest of the margarine to the frying pan and place over medium-high heat. Add the onions and mushrooms and sauté stirring occasionally for about 5 minutes until the onions and mushrooms are tender. Add the flour and stir for 1 minute. 3 Slowly add the chicken broth and stir until the mixture thickens about 3 minutes. Then stir in the milk Dijon mustard salt and pepper and bring to a boil. 4 Add the chicken cover the frying pan with a lid and cook over medium-low heat for 15 minutes until the chicken is cooked through. 5 In a small dry frying pan lightly toast the almonds over medium-high heat for 3 to 5 minutes stirring often with a spatula or wooden spoon. When the almonds are lightly browned remove the pan from the heat and allow the almonds to cool. 6 Sprinkle the chicken with the almonds and serve. Per Serving: 1 breast 280 g Calories 320 Available carbohydrate 11 g Carbohydrate 12 g Fibre 1 g Fat 16 g Protein 32 g Cholesterol 71 mg Phosphorus 354 mg Potassium 571 mg Sodium 360 mg. 1 Serving 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choice

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208 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes African Curry This simple spicy dish is a delicious way to enjoy international flavour with easily obtained ingredients. It can be served over rice or with naan bread if you wish. Of the many curry recipes Cynthia has sampled this one is her favourite Preparation Time: 20 minutes plus a minimum of 30 minutes for the chicken to marinate Cooking Time: 22 minutes Yield: 4 servings 1 lb 450 g skinless boneless chicken cut into cubes 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml low-fat plain yogurt 2 tsp 10 ml turmeric 1 ⁄4 tsp 2 ml pepper 2 tsp 10 ml ground coriander 2 tsp 10 ml cumin 1 tsp 5 ml chili powder 2 tbsp 30 ml curry powder 1 tbsp 15 ml olive oil 1 large yellow onion chopped 4 cloves garlic minced 1 bay leaf 14 oz 398 ml can diced tomatoes drained 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml “lite” coconut milk 2 tbsp 30 ml lemon juice 1 In a large bowl combine the yogurt turmeric pepper coriander cumin chili and curry powder with a spatula or spoon. Add the chicken toss to coat it in the sauce and place the bowl in the refrigerator to marinate for 30 minutes to 2 hours. Stir occasionally. 2 Add the oil to a large frying pan and set over medium-high heat. When the oil is warm add the onions garlic and bay leaf. Sauté for 2 minutes until the onions are soft. Reduce the heat to medium and add the tomatoes. Cook for 5 minutes stirring occa- sionally with a spatula or wooden spoon. 3 Remove the chicken mixture from the fridge and add it to the frying pan. Cook over medium-high heat for 10 to 15 minutes until the chicken is cooked through. 4 Reduce the heat to low and gradually blend in the coconut milk. Add the lemon juice. Remove the bay leaf. Stir well and serve. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml 243 g Calories 279 Available carbohydrate 15 g Carbohydrate 19 g Fibre 4 g Fat 8 g Protein 34 g Cholesterol 74 mg Phosphorus 385 mg Potassium 939 mg Sodium 253 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 14: Birds of a Feather: Poultry Dinners 209 Tandoori Chicken This is another tasty Indian dish. Traditionally the chicken is brightly dyed with red food colouring. However this step is optional and doesn’t affect the flavour of the dish. Preparation Time: 35 minutes plus time for the chicken to marinate Cooking Time: 35 minutes Yield: 4 servings 1 lb 450 g skinless boneless chicken breasts approximately 4 breasts Juice of 2 lemons 8 drops of red food colouring optional 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 2 tsp 10 ml ginger grated 3 cloves garlic minced 1 tsp 5 ml cumin 1 tsp 5 ml paprika 1 tsp 5 ml coriander 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml nutmeg 1 tsp 5 ml turmeric 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml chili powder 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml pepper 1 3 ⁄4 cup 375 ml low-fat plain yogurt 1 With a sharp knife make several 1 ⁄8-inch 0.3 centimetre deep slits in the chicken breasts 3 ⁄4 inch 1.8 centimetres apart. Place the chicken in a medium-sized bowl. 2 If you are choosing to use red food colouring mix it together with the lemon juice. Pour the lemon juice over the chicken. Add the salt and toss until the chicken is evenly coated. 3 To make the marinade combine the remaining ingredients in a medium-sized bowl and stir well with a spatula or spoon. Pour this mixture over the chicken and stir well. Cover the bowl of chicken with plastic wrap and place in the refrigerator for several hours or overnight if possible. Stir occasionally. 4 When you’re ready to cook the chicken preheat your oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius. Cover a baking sheet with foil. 5 Remove the chicken from the marinade and place it on the baking sheet. Do not throw out the marinade you will need it later. 6 Place the baking sheet on the middle rack of the oven and allow the chicken to cook for 10 minutes. Remove the sheet from the oven spoon half of the marinade over the chicken and put it back in the oven. Bake the chicken for another 10 minutes then remove the sheet from the oven again. Flip the chicken and spoon on the rest of the mari- nade. Bake for another 15 minutes until the chicken is cooked through. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 1 breast 250 g Calories 223 Available carbohydrate 11 g Carbohydrate 12 g Fibre 1 g Fat 4 g Protein 35 g Cholesterol 78 mg Phosphorus 411 mg Potassium 662 mg Sodium 234 mg. 1 Serving 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choice

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210 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Parmesan Chicken Parmesan chicken is a popular Italian dish that is usually paired with pasta. When pre- paring this dish choose whole wheat pasta and remember that 1 ⁄2 cup 125 millilitres of cooked pasta is 1 Carbohydrate Choice. You can even splurge and add some low-fat mozzarella to the top of the chicken if you like. Preparation Time: 10 minutes Cooking Time: 20 minutes Yield: 4 servings 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml whole wheat flour 1 lb 450 g skinless boneless chicken breasts approximately 4 breasts 1 egg beaten 1 tbsp 15 ml 1 milk 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml bread crumbs 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml pepper 1 tsp 5 ml Italian seasoning 2 tbsp 30 ml low-fat Parmesan cheese grated 2 tbsp 30 ml ground flaxseed 1 Preheat oven to 400 degrees Fahrenheit 200 degrees Celsius. 2 Sprinkle the flour onto a flat plate. Coat each chicken breast in the flour. Set aside. 3 In a small bowl mix together the egg and milk with a whisk or fork. Set aside. 4 To make the coating use a spoon to mix together the bread crumbs salt pepper sea- soning Parmesan cheese and flaxseed in a flat-bottomed dish. 5 With your fingers or a fork dip each piece of flour-coated chicken first into the egg mix- ture and then into the coating making sure each breast is evenly coated. 6 Place the chicken in a shallow baking dish and bake for about 20 minutes until the chicken is cooked through and the juices run clear. Serve. Per Serving: 1 breast 175 g Calories 242 Available carbohydrate 9 g Carbohydrate 12 g Fibre 3 g Fat 6 g Protein 34 g Cholesterol 128 mg Phosphorus 360 mg Potassium 432 mg Sodium 344 mg. 1 Serving 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 14: Birds of a Feather: Poultry Dinners 211 Bok Choy with Chicken Bok choy is a vegetable commonly included in Asian cuisine. It can be found at most farmers’ markets and large chain grocery stores. Preparation Time: 12 minutes Cooking Time: 12 minutes Yield: 4 servings 1 cup 250 ml reduced-sodium chicken broth 2 tbsp 30 ml reduced-sodium soy sauce 2 tsp 10 ml fish sauce 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml freshly ground black pepper 6 cups 1500 ml bok choy chopped 1 lb 450 g skinless boneless chicken cut into narrow strips 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 1 1 ⁄2 tbsp 22 ml cornstarch 3 tbsp 45 ml cold water 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml cilantro chopped 1 In a large saucepan bring the chicken broth soy sauce fish sauce and pepper to a boil over high heat. Stir occasionally with a spoon. 2 Add the bok choy chicken and salt to the broth mixture and bring the mixture back to a boil. Reduce heat to medium cover and cook for about 4 minutes until the bok choy is tender-crisp and the chicken is cooked through. 3 In a small bowl add the cornstarch to the cold water. Stir with a fork until no lumps remain. 4 Add the cornstarch mixture to the saucepan and bring to a boil over high heat stirring until the mixture thickens about 4 minutes. 5 Spoon into bowls sprinkle with cilantro and serve. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml 265 g Calories 173 Available carbohydrate 5 g Carbohydrate 6 g Fibre 1 g Fat 2 g Protein 32 g Cholesterol 72 mg Phosphorus 305 mg Potassium 674 mg Sodium 875 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choice

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212 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Cinnamon Lime Chicken This Hispanic dish is a snap to make and has sensational flavour. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Cooking Time: 25 minutes Yield: 2 servings 1 ⁄2 lb 225 g skinless boneless chicken breasts approximately 2 breasts 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 2 tsp 10 ml cinnamon 1 tbsp 15 ml olive oil 1 small yellow onion chopped 1 clove garlic minced 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml fresh lime juice 1 Preheat oven to 400 degrees Fahrenheit 200 degrees Celsius. Line a rimmed baking sheet with parchment paper and set aside. 2 In a small flat-bottomed bowl combine the salt and cinnamon. Rub this mixture onto each piece of chicken evenly coating each breast. 3 Place the chicken on the baking sheet and cook for 15 to 20 minutes until the juices run clear. 4 While the chicken is cooking add the oil to a large frying pan and set over medium-heat. When the oil is warm add the onion and garlic and sauté for about 3 minutes until the onion is soft. Set aside. 5 When the chicken is done add it to the frying pan with the onions and pour on the lime juice. Cover and simmer over low heat for 15 minutes. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 1 breast 140 g Calories 213 Available carbohydrate 6 g Carbohydrate 8 g Fibre 2 g Fat 14 g Protein 16 g Cholesterol 47 mg Phosphorus 143 mg Potassium 252 mg Sodium 339 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 14: Birds of a Feather: Poultry Dinners 213 Chicken with Cashews In Chinese culture this dish can be prepared as an entree or a side dish. Either way it’s tasty and great when accompanied by rice. Preparation Time: 25 minutes Cooking Time: 15 minutes Yield: 5 servings 2 tbsp 30 ml reduced-sodium soy sauce 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml ginger grated 1 clove garlic minced 1 ⁄2 lb 225 g skinless boneless chicken about 2 breasts cut into bite-sized pieces 2 tbsp 30 ml canola oil 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml yellow onion chopped 1 cup 250 ml carrot thinly sliced 1 medium green pepper chopped 1 tsp 5 ml cornstarch 4 tbsp 60 ml cold water 1 tbsp 15 ml Hoisin sauce 1 tbsp 15 ml water 1 tsp 5 ml honey 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml unsalted cashews 1 To make the marinade use a spoon to mix together the soy sauce ginger and garlic in a medium-sized bowl. Add the chicken and toss until the chicken is coated with the marinade. Set aside. 2 In a wok or large frying pan warm 1 tablespoon 15 millilitres of the oil over medium- high heat. Add the onion carrots and green pepper and sauté stirring occasionally with a wooden spoon for 4 minutes. Remove the vegetables from the wok or pan and set them aside in a bowl. 3 Add the rest of the oil to the wok and warm over medium-high heat. Add the marinated chicken and cook for 7 minutes until the chicken is almost cooked. Remove the wok from the heat. 4 In a small bowl mix together the cornstarch and cold water stirring with a whisk or fork until no lumps remain. Set the bowl aside. 5 In another small bowl mix together the Hoisin sauce water and honey. Stir well with a spoon. 6 Place all the ingredients except the cashews into the wok and set over medium heat stirring occasionally with a wooden spoon until the sauce thickens about 3 minutes. Add the cashews stir for 1 minute and serve. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml 242 g Calories 219 Available carbohydrate 11 g Carbohydrate 13 g Fibre 2 g Fat 13 g Protein 15 g Cholesterol 29 mg Phosphorus 195 mg Potassium 377 mg Sodium 392 mg. 1 Serving 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choice

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214 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Walnut Chicken This Chinese dish is delicious with rice. For a change try wild or brown basmati rice — or even or a mixture of the two — with lots of veggies on the side. Preparation Time: 20 minutes Cooking Time: 15 minutes Yield: 3 servings 2 tsp 10 ml cornstarch 4 tbsp 60 ml rice wine sake or mirin 1 lb 450 g skinless boneless chicken cut into bite-sized pieces 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml walnuts coarsely chopped 3 tbsp 45 ml canola oil 5 green onions chopped into 1” 2.5 cm pieces 1 tsp 5 ml ginger grated 3 tbsp 45 ml low-sodium soy sauce 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml water 1 In a medium-sized bowl mix together the cornstarch and 2 tablespoons 30 millilitres of the rice wine with a whisk or fork. Add the chicken and stir until it is coated. Set aside. 2 In a small dry frying pan lightly toast the walnuts over medium-high heat for 3 minutes stirring often with an egg lifter or wooden spoon. Remove the pan from the heat and allow the walnuts to cool. 3 Heat the oil in a wok or large frying pan or large saucepan over medium-high heat. Add the chicken and stir-fry for 3 minutes stirring occasionally with an egg lifter or spoon. Add the onion and ginger and stir-fry for another 3 minutes. 4 Add the remaining rice wine soy sauce water and walnuts. Stir-fry for 5 minutes over medium-high heat making sure the chicken is cooked through. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml 210 g Calories 405 Available carbohydrate 6 g Carbohydrate 7 g Fibre 1 g Fat 21 g Protein 41 g Cholesterol 96 mg Phosphorus 382 mg Potassium 566 mg Sodium 718 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 14: Birds of a Feather: Poultry Dinners It’s Okay to Have a Turkey We’re so proud of these delicious turkey recipes that we’re sure you and your family will just gobble them up Do you have any idea how hard it is to not make puns about turkeys when writing a cookbook Hmm we bet you do now. You can buy turkey either as a whole bird or as turkey breasts. Without the skin turkey has fewer calories and less fat than chicken. Turkey is a good source of protein niacin phosphorus selenium vitamin B 6 and zinc. Like chicken white turkey meat has less fat than dark turkey meat. Turkey can be easily substituted for chicken in most recipes. Curried Turkey in a Pita Stuff this curried turkey into a pita or wrap for a tasty lunch. Or if you prefer serve it as an appetizer with mini pitas. It even tastes great on its own Making this dish is an excellent way to use up leftover turkey. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Yield: 4 servings 215 4 tbsp 60 ml sliced almonds 2 cups 500 ml cooked turkey cut into small cubes 1 cup 250 ml celery chopped 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml seedless grapes cut in half 1 tbsp 15 ml lemon juice 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml curry powder 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml low-fat mayonnaise 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml pepper 1 ⁄8 cup 25 ml ground flaxseed 2 whole wheat pitas 1 In a small dry frying pan lightly toast the almonds over medium-high heat for 3 to 5 minutes stirring often with a spatula or wooden spoon. When the almonds are lightly browned remove the pan from the heat and allow the almonds to cool. 2 In a medium-sized bowl use a spoon to thoroughly mix together all of the ingredients except the pitas. 3 Cut each pita in half across its diameter to make 4 half circles. Fill each pita pocket with 1 cup 250 millilitres of the chicken mixture. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 pita with 1 cup/250 ml filling 265 g Calories 452 Available carbohydrate 25 g Carbohydrate 31 g Fibre 6 g Fat 25 g Protein 28 g Cholesterol 60 mg Phosphorus 349 mg Potassium 559 mg Sodium 812 mg. 1 Serving 1 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choices

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216 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Cheesy Turkey Bake This tasty casserole is a great addition to a buffet table. Preparation Time: 25 minutes Cooking Time: 28 minutes Yield: 8 servings 4 cups 1000 ml broad egg noodles 1 1 ⁄2 cup 375 ml tomato sauce 5 1 ⁄2 oz 156 ml can tomato paste 1 cup 250 ml yellow onion chopped 2 tbsp 30 ml Italian seasoning 1 tsp 5 ml sugar 1 tsp 5 ml garlic powder 2 1 ⁄2 cups 625 ml cooked turkey cut into cubes 1 1 ⁄2 cups 325 ml low-fat cottage cheese 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml low-fat ricotta cheese 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml nutmeg 2 cups 500 ml low-fat mozzarella cheese grated 1 Preheat the oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius. 2 Fill a large pot with water and bring to a boil over high heat. Add the pasta stir with a spoon and bring back to a boil. Cook stirring occasionally for 7 minutes. Drain the noodles in a strainer rinse with cold water and drain again. Set aside. 3 In a large bowl mix together the tomato sauce tomato paste onion spices and sugar with a spatula or spoon. 4 Add the noodles and turkey to the large bowl and mix well. 5 In a medium-sized bowl puree the cottage cheese ricotta cheese and nutmeg with a hand blender or potato masher. 6 Spoon half the noodle mixture into the bottom of a 2-quart 2.5 litre glass baking dish. Spread the cheese mixture evenly over the noodles. Spoon on the rest of the noodles and top with the mozzarella cheese. Bake for 20 minutes or until bubbling and hot. Serve hot. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml 240 g Calories 336 Available carbohydrate 27 g Carbohydrate 30 g Fibre 3 g Fat 10 g Protein 33 g Cholesterol 81 mg Phosphorus 434 mg Potassium 678 mg Sodium 600 mg. 1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices

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Chapter 14: Birds of a Feather: Poultry Dinners 217 Turkey à la King This dish is a tasty way to use up leftover turkey from the holidays. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Cooking Time: 10 minutes Yield: 5 servings 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml soft margarine 2 1 ⁄2 cup 625 ml mushrooms sliced 1 small green pepper chopped 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml flour 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml pepper 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml instant chicken bouillon 1 1 ⁄2 cup 375 ml 1 milk 1 1 ⁄4 cup 300 ml hot water 2 cups 500 ml cooked turkey cut into cubes 1 In a large frying pan or pot melt the margarine over medium-high heat. Add the mush- rooms and green pepper. Sauté for 5 minutes stirring occasionally with a wooden spoon or spatula. 2 Add the flour and pepper reduce heat to low and stir for 1 minute. 3 Add the bouillon milk and water. Increase heat to high and bring to a boil stirring con- stantly for 1 minute. 4 Reduce the heat to medium and add the turkey to the frying pan or pot. Stir occasion- ally until the turkey is warm about 3 minutes. Serve over cooked rice or pasta — don’t forget to count the extra Carbohydrate Choices Per Serving: 1 cup turkey/250 ml 285 g Calories 360 Available carbohydrate 15 g Carbohydrate 16 g Fibre 1 g Fat 21 g Protein 25 g Cholesterol 50 mg Phosphorus 265 mg Potassium 486 mg Sodium 458 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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218 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes

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B Chapter 15 Mighty Meat To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here In This Chapter ▶ Savouring beef suppers ▶ Putting pork on your plate ▶ Enjoying lamb ▶ Being game for wild meat eef is chock-a-block full of nutrients includ- ing protein iron magnesium niacin phos- phorus pantothenic acid potassium riboflavin selenium thiamin vitamin B 1 vitamin B 6 vitamin B 12 vitamin D and zinc. Also your body absorbs the iron you get from eating meat more easily than the iron you get from plant sources. In this chapter we offer a whole host of recipes made with beef pork lamb and venison. If meat’s your thing you’ve come to the right chapter Recipes in This Chapter ▶ Shepherd’s Pie ▶ Hamburger Stroganoff ▶ Stir-Fried Beef with Rice Noodles ▶ Groundnut Stew ▶ Meatloaf with Mushroom Sauce ▶ Aboriginal Tacos with Fried Bannock ▶ Spanish Pork Chops ▶ Pork Chow Mein ▶ Glazed Asian Lamb ▶ Lamb with Chinese Oyster Sauce ▶ Venison Steak in Cranberry Sauce Having diabetes makes avoiding excess amounts of fat especially important. Buy lean cuts of meat and trim any visible fat before cooking. Beef It Up With the exception of short ribs all trimmed cuts of beef are lean containing no more than 7.5 to 10 percent fat. These are extra lean cuts:

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220 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes ✓ Blade steak ✓ Brisket ✓ Cross rib ✓ Extra lean ground beef ✓ Eye of round ✓ Flank ✓ Inside/outside round ✓ Porterhouse ✓ Rib eye ✓ Rump roast ✓ Sirloin tip roast ✓ Stewing cubes ✓ Strip loin ✓ T-bone ✓ Tenderloin ✓ Top sirloin The type of cooking method you choose will also influence the amount of fat remaining on the meat after it’s been cooked. Baking barbequing broiling microwaving roasting or stir-frying rather than deep-frying will help to lower the fat content. Shepherd’s Pie Shepherd’s Pie is a favourite comfort food and combining white and sweet potatoes a suggestion from Cynthia’s friend Patti Harvey will make the dish even more flavourful. This recipe has a lot of steps but don’t be intimidated — they’re all straightforward. Preparation Time: 30 minutes Cooking Time: 20 to 25 minutes Yield: 6 servings 2 medium-sized new white potatoes 1 medium-sized sweet potato 1 lb 450 g extra lean ground beef 1 cup 250 ml mushrooms sliced 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yellow onion chopped 2 cloves garlic minced 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml Montreal steak spice 1 tsp 5 ml Worcestershire sauce 1–2 drops Tabasco sauce 1 cup 250 ml reduced-sodium beef broth 1 1 ⁄2 tbsp 22 ml flour 3 tbsp 45 ml cold water 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml frozen green peas 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml frozen corn 1 tbsp 15 ml soft margarine 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 milk 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt

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Chapter 15: Mighty Meat 1 Preheat the oven to 375 degrees Fahrenheit 190 degrees Celsius and lightly grease a 6-cup 1500 millilitre casserole dish. 2 Peel and rinse the potatoes. 3 Cut the potatoes into 2-inch 5-centimetre pieces and place in a medium-sized sauce- pan. Add enough water to cover the potatoes. Place a lid on the saucepan and bring to a boil over high heat. 4 When the potatoes have started to boil partially remove the lid to prevent the water from boiling over. Continue to cook for 15 minutes or until the potatoes are soft and can be easily pierced with a fork. 5 While the potatoes are cooking place the beef mushrooms onion and garlic in a large frying pan. Cook over medium-high heat stirring until the beef is cooked about 4 min- utes. Drain the fat. 6 Add the Montreal steak spice Worcestershire sauce Tabasco and broth to the beef mixture and stir thoroughly. 7 Mix the flour into the cold water and stir with a fork until all the lumps have disap- peared. Add this to the beef mixture and stir until it thickens. 8 Combine the frozen vegetables with the beef mixture and stir thoroughly. Evenly spread the mixture over the bottom of the casserole dish. 9 When the potatoes are done drain them in a strainer. Return them to the saucepan with the margarine milk and salt. Mash with a potato masher until they are smooth. Use a spoon to evenly spread the potatoes over the beef mixture in the casserole dish. 10 Bake uncovered for 25 minutes or until the top is bubbly and lightly browned. Serve. Per Serving: 1cup/250 ml 230 g Calories 269 Available carbohydrate 22 g Carbohydrate 25 g Fibre 3 g Fat 10 g Protein 29 g Cholesterol 50 mg Phosphorus 240 mg Potassium 684 mg Sodium 354 mg. 1 Serving 1 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choices 221

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222 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Hamburger Stroganoff This dish is tastier than Hamburger Helper and much healthier. Cynthia’s teenagers love it and it freezes well too — an ideal dish to send off with students living away from home at college or university Preparation Time: 20 minutes Cooking Time: 14 minutes Yield: 5 servings 1 lb 450 kg extra lean ground beef 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yellow onion chopped 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml mushrooms sliced 2 tbsp 30 ml whole wheat flour 1 clove garlic minced 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml pepper 10 oz 284 ml low-fat condensed cream of chicken soup 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml low-fat plain yogurt 2 tbsp 30 ml ground flaxseed 2 1 ⁄2 cups 625 ml cooked egg noodles 1 In a large frying pan brown the hamburger onion and mushrooms on medium-high heat for 4 minutes. Drain the fat. 2 Stir in the flour garlic and pepper. Cook for 3 minutes on medium-high heat. 3 Add the soup and bring to a boil reduce heat and simmer for 5 minutes over low heat. Stir in the yogurt and flaxseed and heat through about 2 minutes. 4 Remove from heat and serve over a 1 ⁄2 cup 125 millilitres portion of hot egg noodles. Per Serving: 3 ⁄4 cup/175 ml 204 g on 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml noodles Calories 365 Available carbohydrate 30 g Carbohydrate 33 g Fibre 3 g Fat 14 g Protein 26 g Cholesterol 89 mg Phosphorus 323 mg Potassium 569 mg Sodium 379 mg. 1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices

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Chapter 15: Mighty Meat 223 Stir-Fried Beef with Rice Noodles This Thai recipe is very easy to make. The rice noodles used in this recipe are the same variety that is used to make Pad Thai. Preparation Time: 30 minutes Cooking Time: 10 minutes Yield: 7 servings 8 oz 225 g dry wide rice noodles 1 lb 450 g beef tenderloin or rib eye 7 cups 1750 ml bok choy 1 large onion chopped 3 cloves garlic minced 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml canola oil 2 tbsp 30 ml oyster sauce 1 tbsp 15 ml fish sauce 2 tsp 10 ml sugar 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml roasted peanuts chopped 1 Cook the rice noodles according to directions on the package. When they are cooked drain the water and set them aside. 2 Slice the beef against the grain into thin strips. 3 Wash the bok choy under running water. Cut the bok choy into wide strips by cutting it in half lengthwise and then crosswise. 4 In a wok or large frying pan heat the oil over medium-high heat until it’s warm. Add the beef and sauté with the onion and garlic for 5 minutes. Add the bok choy and continue to sauté for another 3 minutes. 5 Add the remaining ingredients and the noodles. Heat thoroughly while stirring for 2 minutes. Serve hot. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml 210 g Calories 448 Available carbohydrate 32 g Carbohydrate 35 g Fibre 3 g Fat 26 g Protein 19 g Cholesterol 43 mg Phosphorus 267 mg Potassium 518 mg Sodium 419 mg. 1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices

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224 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Groundnut Stew In Africa peanuts are commonly referred to as groundnuts. This recipe which includes a peanut butter–based sauce is one of Cynthia’s favourites — you won’t believe how well it turns out Preparation Time: 40 minutes Cooking Time: 30 minutes Yield: 8 servings 1 large sweet potato 1 tbsp 15 ml canola oil 2 lbs 900 g beef tenderloin or rib eye or equal parts of beef and chicken cut into cubes 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml black pepper 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml reduced-sodium beef broth 1 tbsp 15 ml canola oil 2 medium tomatoes chopped 1 large green pepper chopped 1 cup 250 ml yellow onion chopped 1 clove garlic minced 1 tsp 5 ml chili pepper paste 3 cups 750 ml eggplant cut into cubes 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml peanut butter 1 Use a fork to pierce the sweet potato in a few places. Wrap the potato in paper towel and place in the microwave for 2 minutes to partially cook. If you don’t have a micro- wave place the pierced potato in a steamer over a pot of boiling water for 5 minutes. 2 When the potato is cool to touch peel the skin and use a sharp knife to cut it into cubes. Set aside. 3 In a large saucepan warm the oil over medium-high heat and add the beef. With a wooden spoon stir the beef until it is browned about 3 minutes. Add the salt pepper and broth and simmer covered over low heat for 10 minutes. 4 While the beef is cooking warm the oil over medium-high heat in a large frying pan. Add the cubed sweet potato tomatoes green pepper onions garlic and chili pepper paste and sauté for 2 minutes stirring occasionally. 5 Reduce the heat under the frying pan with the vegetables to medium-low add the egg- plant and peanut butter and stir well. Cover and simmer for 8 minutes. 6 Add the vegetable mixture to the meat mixture mix thoroughly and continue to simmer until the meat is cooked and the vegetables are tender about 2 minutes. 7 Serve hot over 2 ⁄3 cup 150 millilitres of rice or 1 cup 250 millilitres of couscous but don’t forget to count the extra two Carbohydrate Choices. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml 230 g Calories 484 Available carbohydrate 10 g Carbohydrate 14 g Fibre 4 g Fat 36 g Protein 28 g Cholesterol 75 mg Phosphorus 304 mg Potassium 780 mg Sodium 229 mg. 1 Serving 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choice without rice or couscous

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Chapter 15: Mighty Meat 225 Meatloaf with Mushroom Sauce Here’s another great comfort food. Leftovers can be used in sandwiches or frozen for later. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Cooking Time: 45 minutes Yield: 6 servings 1 lb 450 g extra lean ground beef 1 cup 250 ml mushrooms sliced 2 tbsp 30 ml dry low fat onion soup mix 2 tbsp 30 ml whole wheat bread crumbs 2 tbsp 30 ml ground flaxseed 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml 1 milk 1 egg beaten 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper Sauce: 2 tbsp 30 ml 1 milk 1 tbsp 15 ml cornstarch 1 tbsp 15 ml soft margarine 1 1 ⁄2 cup 375 ml mushrooms sliced 3 tbsp 45 ml onion chopped 1 cup 250 ml reduced-sodium beef broth 1 Preheat the oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius. 2 Combine the meatloaf ingredients in a large bowl. Use a large spoon or clean hands to combine the ingredients until they are evenly mixed. 3 Evenly distribute the meatloaf mixture in a loaf pan and bake for 45 minutes. 4 To prepare the sauce combine the milk and cornstarch in a small bowl. Using a fork stir until the mixture is smooth and no lumps appear. 5 Melt the margarine in a medium-sized frying pan over medium-high heat. Add the mush- rooms and onions. Stir until the onions are soft and light golden about 5 minutes. 6 Mix in the beef broth bring to a boil and add the cornstarch mixture. Cook stirring constantly for about 1 minute until the sauce is slightly thickened. Remove from heat. If necessary the sauce can be reheated prior to serving. 7 When the meatloaf is cooked the meat should be slightly pulling away from the sides of the pan let it cool slightly about 4 minutes. While the meatloaf is in the pan use a knife to cut it into 1 1 ⁄4-inch 3.2-centimetre slices. Top with 2 1 ⁄2 tbsp 37 millilitres of warm sauce if desired and serve. Per Serving: 1 1 ⁄4 inch/3.2 cm slice 112 g Calories 186 Available carbohydrate 5 g Carbohydrate 6 g Fibre 1 g Fat 10 g Protein 18 g Cholesterol 85 mg Phosphorus 205 mg Potassium 359 mg Sodium 393 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choices Per Serving: 2 1 ⁄2 tbsp/37 ml sauce Calories 37 Available carbohydrate 3 g Carbohydrate 3 g Fibre 0 g Fat 2 g Protein 2 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 34 mg Potassium 105 mg Sodium 32 mg.

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1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choices

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226 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Aboriginal Tacos with Fried Bannock Don’t be afraid to try this recipe — it is so good. But the bannock and beans have a lot of carbohydrate so watch how much you eat. This low-fat version is healthier than the traditional bannock because it’s not deep-fried. Preparation Time: 30 minutes Cooking Time: 16 minutes Yield: 6 servings 1 lb 450 g extra lean ground beef 28 oz 796 ml can diced tomatoes 1 large green pepper chopped 1 large yellow onion chopped 1 cup 250 ml mushrooms sliced 19 oz 540 ml can kidney beans 14 oz 398 ml can refried beans 1 tsp 5 ml chili powder 2 drops Tabasco sauce Toppings: 1 1 ⁄2 cup 375 ml low-fat cheddar cheese shredded 2 cups 500 ml lettuce shredded 1 1 ⁄2 cup 375 ml tomato diced Fried Bannock: 2 cups 500 ml flour 2 tsp 10 ml baking powder 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml salt 1 cup warm water Canola oil for hands and frying 1 Place the hamburger in large frying pan and set over medium-high heat. Stir frequently with a spatula until no pink appears about 4 minutes. Drain the fat. 2 Add the tomatoes pepper onion and mushrooms to the frying pan with the hamburger and cook for another 4 minutes. 3 Place the kidney beans in a strainer and rinse under cool water for 2 minutes. 4 Add the beans chili powder and Tabasco sauce to the frying pan. Stir until the ingredi- ents are heated through. 5 While the meat and vegetables are cooking prepare the toppings. 6 To make the bannock mix together the flour baking powder and salt in a medium- sized bowl. Slowly add the warm water and stir with a spoon until the ingredients form a sticky ball. Sprinkle some flour on a clean dry surface. Rub some oil on your hands make sure they’re clean first and knead the dough 6 times.

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Chapter 15: Mighty Meat 7 Divide the dough into 6 equal parts. Heat a thin layer of oil in a large frying pan over medium-high heat. On a floured surface use your greased hands to flatten the dough balls into thin pancakes about 1 ⁄4 inch 0.6 centimetres thick. Place the bannock in the frying pan. Cook until the bannock is golden brown about 2 minutes on each side. 8 To serve place each hot bannock on a plate and cover with 2 ⁄3 cup 150 millilitres of the meat mixture. Top each bannock with 1 ⁄4 cup 50 millilitres cheese 1 ⁄3 cup 75 millilitres of lettuce and 1 ⁄4 cup 50 millilitres of tomatoes. Enjoy. Per Serving: 83 g bannock with 2 ⁄3 cup/150 ml meat and toppings 315 g Calories 578 Available carbohydrate 61 g Carbohydrate 74 g Fibre 13 g Fat 15g Protein 37 g Cholesterol 54 mg Phosphorus 553 mg Potassium 1295 mg Sodium 1265mg. 1 Serving 4 Carbohydrate Choices 227 Pork on Your Fork Many cuts of pork are lean and can be part of a healthy diet. Pork provides protein which as we discuss in detail in Chapter 2 plays an invaluable role in growing and maintaining healthy body tissues and the fat in pork is the better monounsaturated and polyunsaturated variety. Fat-trimmed pork is suitable for a low-cholesterol heart-friendly diet. Listed from leanest to least lean these are the cuts of pork with the least fat: ✓ Tenderloin ✓ Chops ✓ Pork leg ham ✓ Steaks ✓ Roast ✓ Cutlets

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228 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Spanish Pork Chops In Spanish these marinated pork chops from Madrid are called “Chuletas de Cerdo.” Now you can impress your family Preparation Time: 10 minutes plus 2 hours to marinate Cooking Time: 30 to 40 minutes Yield: 2 servings 2 lean boneless pork chops about 1 ⁄2 lb 225 g 2 cloves garlic minced 1 bay leaf torn into small pieces 1 tbsp 15ml parsley chopped 1 ⁄2 tsp 2ml fresh thyme 1 tsp 5 ml sun-dried tomatoes finely chopped 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml ground pepper 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml red wine 2 tbsp 30 ml canola oil 1 Place the trimmed pork chops in a small casserole dish. 2 Cover the pork chops with the garlic bay leaf parsley thyme tomatoes salt and pepper. 3 In a small bowl mix together the wine and oil with a fork. Gently pour the mixture over the pork chops. Cover the dish and refrigerate for 2 hours flipping after one hour. 4 After two hours preheat the oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius. Remove the cover from the dish and bake the pork chops for 30 to 40 minutes basting about halfway through with the marinade. When the pork chops are cooked the inter- nal temperature should be 160 degrees Fahrenheit 70 degrees Celsius. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 1 pork chop 103 g Calories 200 Available carbohydrate 2 g Carbohydrate 2 g Fibre 0 g Fat 9 g Protein 24 g Cholesterol 71 mg Phosphorus 257 mg Potassium 475 mg Sodium 227 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choices

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Chapter 15: Mighty Meat 229 Pork Chow Mein This speedy meal is a family favourite and using sesame oil gives it an authentic Chinese taste. You should be able to find the chow mein noodles in vacuum-sealed packages in the produce department of the grocery store. Preparation Time: 20 minutes Cooking Time: 15 minutes Yield: 6 servings 8 oz 250 g package chow mein noodles uncooked 2 tbsp 30 ml sesame seeds 1 tbsp 15 ml canola oil 2 cups 500 ml pork tenderloin bite-sized pieces 1 tbsp 15 ml sesame oil 2 cloves garlic minced 1 large red pepper chopped 1 large green pepper chopped 3 tbsp 45 ml reduced-sodium soy sauce 3 tbsp 45 ml Chinese rice wine 6 green onions chopped 2 cups 500 ml bean sprouts 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml parsley chopped 1 Place the noodles in a large pot. Add enough boiling water to cover the noodles by 1 inch 2.5 centimetres. Stir gently cover and let sit for approximately 5 minutes until the noodles are tender. 2 Drain the noodles in a strainer then rinse with cold water. Drain the noodles again. 3 Add the sesame seeds to a small dry frying pan and stir continuously over medium- high heat until they are lightly toasted about 3 minutes. Remove from heat and let cool. 4 Add the canola oil to a wok or large frying pan and warm over medium-high heat. Add the pork and stir with a wooden spoon or spatula until the pork is golden brown. Continue to let the pork cook for 6 minutes. 5 Add the sesame oil to the wok or frying pan with the garlic and peppers. Stir over medium-high heat for 4 minutes. 6 Reduce the heat to medium and add the noodles soy sauce and rice wine. Toss the noodles and stir-fry for 2 minutes. 7 Add the green onions and bean sprouts to the wok and stir-fry for another 2 minutes. Stir in the parsley and sesame seeds. Serve. Per Serving: 1 1 ⁄3 cups/325 ml 93 g Calories 385 Available carbohydrate 28 g Carbohydrate 32 g Fibre 4 g Fat 20 g Protein 19 g Cholesterol 29 mg Phosphorus 315 mg Potassium 617 mg Sodium 636 mg. 1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices

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230 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Mary Had a Little Lamb — So Can You Lamb is a good source of protein iron niacin vitamin B 12 and zinc. One-third of the fat in lamb is saturated the bad type of fat but it can be easily removed before cooking and doing so won’t take away from lamb’s unique taste. Lamb is tastiest when served slightly pink the internal temperature should be 155 degrees Fahrenheit 68 degrees Celsius. Lamb tastes best when served hot and on a heated plate. Glazed Asian Lamb The lemon and honey make this glazed lamb recipe a savoury dish. Lamb has little mar- bled fat and most of it is on the edges so it’s easy to trim. Preparation Time: 25 minutes Cooking Time: 10 minutes Yield: 3 servings 2 ⁄3 lb 300 g boneless lean lamb cut into strips 1 tbsp 15 ml sesame oil 2 cups 500 ml pea pods topped and tailed 1 tbsp 15 ml honey 2 tbsp 30 ml lemon juice 1 tbsp 15 ml sesame seeds 2 tbsp 30 ml coriander chopped 2 green onions chopped 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 1 Warm the oil in a wok or large frying pan over medium heat. Add the lamb and stir until it’s browned about 4 minutes. Remove the lamb from the wok. 2 Place the pea pods honey lemon juice and sesame seeds in the wok bring to a boil over medium-high heat and stir-fry for 1 minute. 3 Return the lamb to the wok and stir-fry for 3 minutes. Add the coriander onions salt and pepper and stir-fry for 1 minute. 4 Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml 140 g Calories 196 Available carbohydrate 9 g Carbohydrate 11 g Fibre 2 g Fat 7 g Protein 22 g Cholesterol 66 mg Phosphorus 240 mg Potassium 428 mg Sodium 166 mg. 1 Serving 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 15: Mighty Meat 231 Lamb with Chinese Oyster Sauce Modern oyster sauce doesn’t contain actual oysters but an oyster essence or extract. Not that you’d know it from this scrumptious oyster sauce recipe Preparation Time: 25 minutes Cooking Time: 8 minutes Yield: 4 servings 1 1 ⁄4 lb 565 g leg of lamb 2 tsp 10 ml cornstarch 1 tbsp 15 ml rice wine mirin sake 1 tbsp 15 ml water Dash of salt 2 tbsp 30 ml reduced-sodium soy sauce 3 tbsp 45 ml oyster sauce 1 tsp 5 ml sugar 1 tsp 5 ml sesame oil 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml canola oil 1 leek cut in 1 ⁄2-inch 1.25-cm rings 2 cups 500 ml shiitake mushrooms stems discarded and caps sliced 1 ⁄2 inch 1.25 cm ginger peeled and grated 2 cloves garlic minced 1 Remove any fat from the lamb and slice into thin strips 1 ⁄4 inch 0.6 centimetres thick. 2 In a medium-sized bowl mix together the cornstarch rice wine water and salt. Add the meat to the bowl and stir until the meat is coated. Set aside. 3 For the sauce mix together the soy sauce oyster sauce sugar and sesame oil in a small bowl. Stir with a spoon until the sugar is dissolved. Set aside. 4 In a wok or large frying pan warm the canola oil over medium-high heat. Add the lamb to the wok and stir for 6 minutes using a wooden spoon or spatula. Remove the lamb from the wok and set aside. 5 Add the leek and mushrooms to the wok and stir-fry for 3 minutes. Add the ginger and garlic and stir-fry for another minute. 6 Return the lamb to the wok and add the sauce. Stir well to heat thoroughly. Serve. Per Serving: 1 cup/250 ml 197 g Calories 373 Available carbohydrate 9 g Carbohydrate 10 g Fibre 1 g Fat 22 g Protein 31 g Cholesterol 91 mg Phosphorus 336 mg Potassium 695 mg Sodium 705 mg. 1 Serving 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choice

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232 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Going Wild Game meat is usually very lean so it’s often helpful to cook it in a sauce or to marinate it. Marinating game will add flavour and help keep the meat moist and tender. Watch game meat closely while cooking and never overcook as it will quickly become dry. Cook game to medium-rare. Venison the meat in the recipe that follows is lower in fat than beef and is a source of iron protein selenium and zinc. Venison Steak in Cranberry Sauce Many Aboriginal groups believe that the hunter who kills a deer must thank it. To do this a hunter will sometimes return to the place where a deer was felled to bury its heart. While there it is also common for a hunter to pinch his sides to show the deer spirit how fat and grateful he is for having eaten the meat. Preparation Time: 25 minutes Cooking Time: 18 to 20 minutes Yield: 4 servings 8 allspice whole 8 juniper berries optional 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 1 1b 450 g venison steak sliced into 1 1 ⁄2-inch 4-cm thick strips 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml red wine or cranberry juice 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml frozen cranberries 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml thyme 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml reduced-sodium beef broth 1 1 ⁄2 tbsp 25 ml soft margarine 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml shallots chopped 1 clove garlic minced 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 1 tsp 5 ml cold water 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml cornstarch 1 Use a coffee grinder to process the allspice and juniper berries until they are finely ground. 2 In a small bowl combine half of the allspice and juniper berries with the salt and pepper. Set the venison on a cutting board and sprinkle with the allspice mixture. Set aside. 3 To prepare the sauce combine the red wine or cranberry juice frozen cranberries thyme and beef broth in a small saucepan. Bring the mixture to the boil over high heat remove from heat cover and set aside. 4 In a large frying pan melt 2 teaspoons 10 millilitres of the margarine over medium- high heat and sauté the shallots and garlic for 2 minutes. Add the sauce the rest of the ground allspice and juniper berries and the salt. Bring to a boil over high heat. Reduce heat to simmer and cook uncovered for 3 minutes.

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Chapter 15: Mighty Meat 5 In a small bowl combine the cold water and cornstarch. Stir well with a fork. When the mix- ture is smooth and no lumps appear add it to the sauce bring to a boil over high heat and cook for 1 minute stirring constantly. Remove from heat and cover to keep warm. 6 Melt the rest of the margarine in a medium-large frying pan over medium heat. Add the venison and cook for 5 minutes on each side until browned. 7 Pour the sauce over the venison and cook for about 5 more minutes until cooked through. Serve. Per Serving: 3 ⁄4 cup/175 ml 227 g Calories 223 Available carbohydrate 6 g Carbohydrate 7 g Fibre 1 g Fat 7 g Protein 27 g Cholesterol 96 mg Phosphorus 262 mg Potassium 509 mg Sodium 254 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choices 233

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234 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes

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Chapter 16 Vegetarian Variety To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here In This Chapter ▶ Looking at the benefits of a vegetarian diet ▶ Cooking filling and flavourful vegetarian mains M ore and more people are choosing to eat Recipes in This Chapter T Curry Tofu with Noodles T Barbecued Eggplant T Nutty Rice and Mushroom Stir-Fry T Three-Bean Chili T Tofu Mushroom Caps T Quesadillas some most or even all of their meals with- out meat. Fortunately wherever you fall on the spectrum from meat lover to meat abstainer you can enjoy great vegetarian recipes. T White Pizza T Chapati If you are a longstanding vegetarian you have likely discovered that following a vegetarian diet is much easier than it was years ago because stores now carry numerous vegetarian products — even convenience foods — including soymilk juices breakfast cereals veggie burgers veggie dogs and frozen entrees. In this chapter we share a wide variety of vegetarian recipes that are rich not only in nutrition but in taste too. Benefits to Eating the Vegetarian Way The health benefits of vegetarian meals are numerous. Vegetarian meals are typically low in saturated fat and cholesterol. They are also high in fibre magnesium folate and antioxidants. The main sources of protein for most vegetarians are legumes beans peas and lentils nuts and seeds. Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide suggests that everyone should frequently consume these and other meat alternatives.

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236 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes The different types of vegetarianism A vegetarian diet is one that is free of meat fish seafood and poultry. There are however different types or classifications of vegetarians: ✓ A lacto-ovo-vegetarian avoids meat fish seafood and poultry ✓ A lacto-vegetarian avoids meat fish seafood poultry and eggs ✓ An ovo-vegetarian avoids meat fish seafood poultry and milk ✓ A vegan avoids meat fish seafood poultry eggs milk and honey Several different types of vegetarianism exist see the sidebar “The different types of vegetarianism” but one unofficial category applies to most people including us: the flexitarian that is the occasional vegetarian. Compared with non-vegetarians vegetarians have a lower risk of the following: ✓ Certain types of cancer including colon cancer ✓ Heart disease ✓ Hypertension high blood pressure ✓ Lipid abnormalities including elevated LDL cholesterol ✓ Obesity Vegetarian diets may not provide sufficient quantities of all necessary nutrients. As a result vegetarians are prone to iron deficiency and vegans are at additional risk for deficiency of vitamin B 12 vitamin D calcium zinc and occasionally riboflavin vitamin B 2 . For this reason if you are a vegetarian and especially if you are vegan you should speak to a registered dietitian to find out how to ensure you get all the nutrients you need. You may need to take supplements of certain nutrients.

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Chapter 16: Vegetarian Variety 237 Paying a vegetarian “complement” . . . or not Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. There are over 20 different amino acids. In the past scientists believed that different food sources of amino acids had to be balanced or matched “complemented” at each meal in order to obtain the maximum protein benefit from a vegetarian meal. However new research has shown otherwise. As long as you eat an assortment of plant foods over the course of a day all your amino acid requirements will be met. Meatless Marvels Meat-free meals can be every bit as tasty as meat-containing meals and are often more nutritious. It is no coincidence that more and more Canadians — including newcomers from countries where meat is not routinely available — are making most of their meals without meat. A serving in the Meat and Alternate group of Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide for meatless options include ✓ 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml legumes or tofu ✓ 2 eggs ✓ 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml of nuts or seeds ✓ 2 tbsp 30 ml peanut butter or nut butter ✓ 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml soy-based meat substitutes Because legumes are a source of protein and carbohydrate 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml contains one protein and one carbohydrate choice on average a person with diabetes needs to be mindful of portion sizes.

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238 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Curry Tofu with Noodles On its own tofu soybean curd tastes bland but when added to curry the tofu takes on a wonderful flavour. Preparation Time: 20 minutes Cooking Time: 15 minutes Yield: 6 servings 7 oz 200 g rice vermicelli noodles Warm water 3 tbsp 45 ml canola oil 1 1 ⁄2–2 1 ⁄2 tbsp 22–37 ml curry paste to taste 8 oz 225 g firm tofu cut into 1” 2.5 cm cubes 1 cup 250 ml green beans cut into 1” 2.5 cm pieces 1 large red pepper cut into thin lengthwise strips 1 tbsp 15 ml reduced-sodium soy sauce 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 2 green onions finely chopped 1 lime cut into wedges for garnish 1 Place the vermicelli noodles in a medium-sized bowl and cover with warm water. Let the noodles soak for about 10 minutes. Drain the water from the noodles using a strainer. 2 Add 1 1 ⁄2 tablespoons 22 millilitres of the oil to a wok or large frying pan and set over medium heat. Add the curry paste and stir-fry for 1 minute. Add the tofu to the wok and continue to stir-fry until the tofu is lightly browned about 3 minutes. Remove the tofu from the wok and set aside. 3 Add the remaining oil to the wok and stir-fry the green beans and red pepper over medium heat for about 5 minutes until the vegetables are tender. 4 Add the vermicelli tofu soy sauce salt and pepper to the wok and stir-fry until heated through about 5 minutes. 5 Transfer to a serving dish sprinkle with green onions and serve with a lime wedge on the side. Per Serving: 1cup/250 ml 132 g Calories 226 Available carbohydrate 30 g Carbohydrate 32 g Fibre 2 g Fat 9 g Protein 4 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 106 mg Potassium 175 mg Sodium 239 mg. 1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices

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Chapter 16: Vegetarian Variety 239 T Barbecued Eggplant This dish is quick and easy to prepare and tastes great done on the barbecue. If it’s not barbecue season this dish can be easily cooked in the oven. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Cooking Time: 10 minutes Yield: 4 servings as an entree 1 large eggplant cut into 1” 2.5cm slices 2 tbsp 30 ml olive oil 1 tbsp 15 ml Italian seasoning 1 ⁄4 tsp 2 ml salt 1 ⁄4 tsp 2 ml pepper 3 firm ripe tomatoes cut into 1 ⁄2” 1.25 cm slices 1 1 ⁄2 cup 375 ml Asiago cheese grated 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml fresh basil chopped 1 Set the barbecue to medium heat. If you’re using an oven turn on the broiler element. 2 Brush both sides of the eggplant with oil. 3 Sprinkle the seasonings salt and pepper on the eggplant. Place the eggplant on the grill or under the broiler of the oven. Cover the eggplant and cook until grill marks form on one side about 5 minutes. Flip the eggplant and grill the other side for 5 minutes until the eggplant is tender. 4 Brush both sides of each tomato slice with oil. Grill the tomatoes for 5 minutes flipping often until the tomatoes are warmed through. 5 Remove the eggplant and tomato from the barbecue or oven. Place the eggplant on a dinner plate add the tomato and sprinkle with the cheese and basil. Serve hot. Per Serving: 2 slices 240 g Calories 273 Available carbohydrate 7 g Carbohydrate 13 g Fibre 6 g Fat 18 g Protein 17 g Cholesterol 33 mg Phosphorus 334 mg Potassium 603 mg Sodium 726 mg. 1 Serving 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choice

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240 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Nutty Rice and Mushroom Stir-Fry Basmati is a type of long thin rice with a nutty aroma. It is very popular in many Asian diets. Preparation Time: 20 minutes Cooking Time: 25 minutes Yield: 3 servings 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml basmati rice 1 cup 250 ml water 1 1 ⁄2 tbsp 22 ml canola oil 1 shallot chopped 1 cup 250 ml white mushrooms sliced 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml hazelnuts chopped 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml pecans chopped 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml almonds chopped 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml parsley chopped 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 1 Place the rice in a strainer and rinse with cool running water until it runs clear. 2 Place the rice and water in a medium-sized saucepan with a tight-fitting lid. Bring to a boil over high heat. Stir and reduce heat to low cover with the lid and simmer for 12 minutes. Do not remove the lid while the rice is simmering. 3 Remove the saucepan from the heat and let sit for 5 minutes. Fluff the rice with a fork then rinse the rice in a strainer under cold running water. Let drain. 4 Add half the oil to a wok or large frying pan and stir-fry the rice for 2 minutes over medium-high heat. Remove from heat and set aside. 5 Add the remaining oil to the wok and stir-fry the shallot for 2 minutes until it is soft. Add the mushrooms and stir-fry for another 2 minutes. Add the nuts and stir-fry for 1 minute. Return the rice to the wok and stir-fry for another 3 minutes. Add the salt pepper and parsley. Stir well and serve. Per Serving: 3 ⁄4cup/175 ml 156 g Calories 357 Available carbohydrate 27 g Carbohydrate 31 g Fibre 4 g Fat 24 g Protein 7 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 156 mg Potassium 314 mg Sodium 105 mg. 1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices

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Chapter 16: Vegetarian Variety 241 T Three-Bean Chili When Cynthia first made this recipe several years ago her father turned up his nose and asked where the meat was. Later he asked to take home the leftovers Preparation Time: 18 minutes Cooking Time: 40 minutes Yield: 6 servings 19 oz 540 ml can of kidney beans 19 oz 540 ml can of romano beans 19 oz 540 ml can of black beans 1 tbsp 15 ml canola oil 2 onions coarsely chopped 4 cloves garlic minced 2–3 tbsp 30–45 ml chili powder 1 tsp 5 ml dried oregano 28 oz 796 ml canned diced tomatoes Water 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml pepper 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml cilantro chopped 1 Place the beans in a strainer and rinse under cool running water for 2 minutes. Drain. 2 Heat the oil in a large pot over medium heat. Add the onion. Stir-fry for 2 minutes until the onion is tender. 3 Add the garlic chili powder and oregano. Stir until well mixed. 4 Stir in the canned tomatoes and cook for 5 minutes. Add the beans to the pot along with water if necessary so the beans are covered by 1 inch 2.5 centimetres of liquid. Cover the pot and simmer on low heat for 30 to 35 minutes. 5 Add the pepper and cilantro. Stir until the ingredients are thoroughly mixed. Serve. Per Serving: 1 1 ⁄3 cups/325 ml 339 g Calories 381 Available carbohydrate 49 g Carbohydrate 69 g Fibre 20 g Fat 4 g Protein 21 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 336 mg Potassium 1413 mg Sodium 631 mg. 1 Serving 3 Carbohydrate Choices

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242 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Tofu Mushroom Caps Tofu is high in protein and very low in fat — a versatile and healthy source of protein for a vegetarian. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Cooking Time: 10 minutes Yield: 4 servings 8 large open mushrooms 2 green onions sliced 1 clove garlic minced 2 tbsp 30 ml oyster sauce 5 oz 135 g firm tofu cut into cubes 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml low-fat mozzarella cheese grated 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml corn 2 tsp 10 ml ground flaxseed 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 4 tsp 20 ml sesame oil 1 Preheat the oven to 400 degrees Fahrenheit 200 degrees Celsius. 2 Carefully remove the stems from the mushroom caps. To make the filling finely chop the mushroom stems and add them to a medium-sized bowl with the onions garlic and oyster sauce. 3 Stir in the tofu cheese corn flaxseed salt and pepper. 4 Brush the edges of the mushrooms with the sesame oil. Spoon the filling equally into the mushroom caps and place on a baking dish or jelly roll sheet. 5 Bake for 10 to 12 minutes until the mushrooms are tender. Serve. Per Serving: 2 mushroom caps 150 g Calories 142 Available carbohydrate 7 g Carbohydrate 8 g Fibre 1 g Fat 9 g Protein 8 g Cholesterol 8 mg Phosphorus 168 mg Potassium 296 mg Sodium 371 mg. 1 Serving 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 16: Vegetarian Variety 243 T Quesadillas Quesadillas are quick and effortless to make for a quick Mexican meal. They’re also a great way to use up leftovers Preparation Time: 8 minutes Cooking Time: 8 minutes Yield: 1 serving 8-inch 20 cm whole wheat tortilla 1 1 ⁄2 tbsp 22 ml salsa 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml low-fat mozzarella cheese grated 1 1 ⁄2 tbsp 22 ml red pepper diced 2 tsp 10 ml green onion chopped 2 tbsp 30 ml black beans rinsed and drained 2 tbsp 30 ml tomato chopped 1 In a small bowl mix together all of the ingredients except the tortilla. 2 Place the tortilla in a dry medium-sized frying pan. Place the contents of the bowl onto half of the tortilla. Fold the tortilla in half. 3 Warm the tortilla in the frying pan over medium heat about 4 minutes per side until the sides become golden brown and the cheese has melted. 4 Serve warm with light sour cream for dipping if desired. Per Serving: 1 quesadilla 135 g Calories 288 Available carbohydrate 31 g Carbohydrate 36 g Fibre 5 g Fat 10 g Protein 14 g Cholesterol 15 mg Phosphorus 257 mg Potassium 321 mg Sodium 590 mg. 1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices

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244 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T White Pizza Using prepared pizza dough makes this recipe simple. To save even more time the mushroom mixture can even be made a day in advance and stored in the refrigerator until needed. Preparation Time: 35 minutes Cooking Time: 15 minutes Yield: 3 servings 1 tbsp 15 ml canola oil 1 1 ⁄2 cup 375 ml shiitake mushrooms stems removed and sliced 1 cup 250 ml cremini mushrooms sliced 3 cloves garlic minced 1 tbsp 15 ml cooking sherry 1 tsp 5 ml lemon juice 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 2 tbsp 30 ml cornmeal 1 ⁄2 lb 225 g whole wheat pizza dough 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml fresh chopped herbs mixture of parsley thyme and rosemary 3 oz 85 g brie sliced 1 Preheat the oven to 450 degrees Fahrenheit 230 degrees Celsius. 2 In a medium-sized frying pan heat the oil over medium-high heat. Add the mushrooms and cook for 5 minutes stirring with a spatula or wooden spoon. 3 Add the garlic sherry lemon juice salt and pepper to the mushrooms and continue to cook for 3 more minutes stirring occasionally. Remove from heat and set aside. 4 Sprinkle the cornmeal onto a large rimmed baking sheet or pizza pan and set aside. 5 Divide the pizza dough into 3 equal pieces so it’s easier to handle. Lightly coat the inside of a clean plastic bag with canola oil. Place a ball of dough ball into the plastic bag. The dough is easier to roll this way. Flatten the dough with a rolling pin or your hands to form a flat oval. Remove the dough from the bag and place it on a baking sheet. Repeat with the remaining two balls of dough. 6 Evenly spread a third of the mushroom mixture over each of the 3 pizzas. Cover each pizza with a third of the herbs and brie. 7 Bake on the middle rack of the oven for 7 to 8 minutes until the crusts are golden brown. Serve warm. Per Serving: 1 pizza 147 g Calories 459 Available carbohydrate 56 g Carbohydrate 64 g Fibre 8 g Fat 14 g Protein 19 g Cholesterol 28 mg Phosphorus 146 mg Potassium 358 mg Sodium 960 mg. 1 Serving 4 Carbohydrate Choices

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Chapter 16: Vegetarian Variety 245 T Chapati A chapati pronounced chuh-paa-teeh is a flatbread and a staple at most traditional Indian meals. There are numerous versions of chapati — this one comes from Cynthia’s friend Dr. Nita Rajesh. Preparation Time: 10 minutes plus 15 minutes stand time Cooking Time: 20 minutes Yield: 10 chapatis 2 cups 500 ml whole wheat flour 1 tsp 5 ml salt Water approximately 3 ⁄4 cup/175 ml depending on the fineness of the flour 1 tbsp 15 ml olive oil 1 Mix the flour and salt in a medium-sized bowl. Make a well in the middle of the flour and slowly add the water. Continue mixing with clean hands until a dough ball forms. 2 Add the oil and mix well using your hands. 3 Place the dough on a lightly floured surface and knead the dough into a smooth ball. Add more flour or water as required to make the dough workable and elastic. The dough should not stick to your fingers nor should it be too dry. 4 Cover the dough with a clean tea towel and let sit for 15 minutes. 5 Divide the dough into ten golf-ball-sized pieces. 6 Lightly coat each ball in flour. On a lightly floured surface flatten each ball using a rolling pin and roll into a thin round circle about 6 inches 15 centimetres wide. Roll from the middle out. 7 Heat a dry frying pan or tawah a special Indian frying pan over medium heat and add the chapati. When it has lightly browned about 1 to 2 minutes flip the chapati over with a spatula or egg lifter. Cook the second side until it turns light brown. 8 Using a clean tea towel gently press the chapati into the pan around the edges and turn the chapati in circles so it puffs up. The chapati is done when it turns golden brown. 9 Place the chapati on a plate while you cook the others. Place a sheet of paper towel between the chapatis to prevent them from sticking together. 10 Serve warm with dal curry soup stew cheese or diet jam. Per Serving: 1 chapati 40 g Calories 117 Available carbohydrate 18 g Carbohydrate 22 g Fibre 4 g Fat 2 g Protein 4 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 104 mg Potassium 122 mg Sodium 293 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 17 Delectable Endings To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here In This Chapter ▶ Considering desserts and diabetes ▶ Adding artificial sweeteners ▶ Baking up pies and cakes ▶ Stirring up pudding treats ▶ Biting into scrumptious cookies F or many people a meal is simply not complete Recipes in This Chapter T Rhubarb Cake T Pumpkin Pie T Blueberry Pie T Chocolate Zucchini Muffins T Sour Cream Chocolate Chip Cake T Mini Cheesecakes T Carrot Cake T Fruit Trifle T Orange Frost without dessert. Indeed for many people ▶ Strawberry Dream dessert is the highlight of a meal T Aboriginal Wild Rice Pudding Having diabetes doesn’t magically make your appetite for dessert go away nor should it. If you’re living with diabetes you can eat anything you want — including dessert. As you might expect some “buts” go along with this open invitation. As we look at in the next section however the overriding point is that having diabetes is not a punishment and nothing is forbidden Diabetes Desserts and You T Luscious Lemon Pudding Cake T Baked Custard T Jam Jewel Cookies T Chocolate Chip Cookies T Rocky Road Balls T Flax Cookies T Cocoa Oatmeal Cookies T Snickers If you have diabetes you’re likely well aware of how important eating nutritiously is to your health. You may however be less aware that “sweets” are an acceptable part of your diet. Indeed the Canadian Diabetes Association notes that up to 10 percent of your daily calories can come from sweets in the form of sucrose-based foods as “there is no evidence that

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sucrose intake up to this level has any deleterious effect on blood glucose control or lipids” if you have diabetes. Nice

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248 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Please keep in mind the 10 percent limit however because consumption of greater quantities of sucrose-based foods may increase blood glucose levels and adversely affect lipids. So yes you can have dessert but no not in unlimited quantities not that anyone should — whether or not living with diabetes. Using Sugar Substitutes Using a sugar substitute is one way of including desserts in your diabetes meal plan without also incorporating excess sugar in your diet. We discuss sugar substitutes in Chapter 3. Sucralose and aspartame two popular sugar substitutes are heat stable and so can be used for baking. These are the acceptable daily limits for sugar substitutes based on body weight: ✓ The acceptable daily limit for sucralose as is found in Splenda is 9 mg per kg body weight per day. One cup 250 ml of Splenda has 250 mg sucralose. Sucralose is 400 to 800 times sweeter than sugar. ✓ The acceptable daily limit for aspartame which goes by the trade names NutraSweet or Equal is 40 mg per kg body weight per day. One can 355 ml of diet pop has 200 mg of aspartame. Aspartame is 200 times sweeter than sugar. To help baked goods rise when using Splenda Granulated Sweetener the manufacturer suggests adding 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml of dry skim milk powder and 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml of baking soda for every 1 cup 250 ml of Splenda Granulated Sweetener not Splenda Brown Sugar Blend. Following this suggestion increases the carbohydrate content and the number of calories from the skim milk powder and the amount of sodium from the baking soda. As you read the recipes in this chapter or even better make them you may notice that some of the recipes call for sugar whereas other recipes call for either sugar or a sugar substitute. When only sugar is listed it is because the recipe tastes significantly better — or was significantly healthier — when made this way or that the carbohydrate and sodium content was too high when the skim milk powder baking soda and Splenda were added. Baking Up a Storm: Pies and Cakes These pie and cake recipes are easy to prepare without sacrificing taste. The recipes call for frozen pie shells to save you time but you are of course welcome to make your own pie shell if you wish. You can also use prepared pie crusts which you can find in the refrigerator section of your grocery store. These need to be unrolled into a pie plate following the manufacturer’s directions.

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Chapter 17: Delectable Endings 249 T Rhubarb Cake We commonly refer to rhubarb as a fruit but it is actually a vegetable. One cup 250 millilitres of rhubarb has only 26 calories Rhubarb has a unique type of fibre that may confer health benefits indeed researchers are looking into its cholesterol-lowering properties. Preparation Time: 30 minutes Cooking Time: 30 to 35 minutes Yield: 12 servings 1 cup 250 ml sugar or Splenda 2 tbsp 30 ml cornstarch 5 cups 1250 ml rhubarb chopped into 1 ⁄2-inch 1.25-cm pieces 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 milk 1 tbsp 15 ml vinegar 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml flour 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml soft margarine 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml baking soda 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml baking powder 1 egg beaten 1 Preheat the oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius. Lightly oil an 8-x-8- inch 20-x-20-centimetre baking pan. 2 In a medium-sized saucepan combine 1 ⁄2 cup 125 millilitres of the sugar or Splenda and the cornstarch. Add the rhubarb and cook over medium-high heat for about 5 minutes stirring constantly. The mixture is done when the rhubarb softens and the mixture thickens slightly. Remove from heat and set aside. 3 In a measuring cup combine the milk and vinegar. Set aside to sour for 5 minutes. 4 In a large bowl combine the flour margarine and remaining sugar or Splenda with a spatula. Stir until the mixture becomes crumbly. Set aside 1 ⁄3 cup 75 millilitres to use as the topping later. 5 Add the baking soda and baking powder to the flour mixture and stir well. 6 Add the egg to the milk and vinegar and mix well. To finish the batter add the egg and milk mixture to the flour and stir until thoroughly blended. 7 Spread half the batter over the bottom of the baking pan. Spoon the rhubarb mixture evenly over the batter then cover with the remaining batter. Sprinkle the topping over the cake. 8 Bake for 30 to 35 minutes until the cake turns light golden and a toothpick inserted in the centre comes out dry. Serve warm or cold. Per Serving with sugar: 2 x 2 1 ⁄2 inches/5 x 6.25 cm 108 g Calories 216 Available carbohydrate 32 g Carbohydrate 33 g Fibre 1 g Fat 8 g Protein 3 g Cholesterol 18 mg Phosphorus 46 mg Potassium 186 mg Sodium 152 mg. 1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices Per Serving with Splenda: 2 x 2 1 ⁄2 inches/5 x 6.25 cm 85 g Calories 158 Available carbohydrate 17 g Carbohydrate 18 g Fibre 1 g Fat 8 g Protein 3 g Cholesterol 18 mg Phosphorus 46 mg Potassium 186 mg Sodium 152 mg.

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1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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250 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Pumpkin Pie There is no reason for a person with diabetes not to enjoy pumpkin pie. When Cynthia’s mother Bonnie Payne makes this recipe everyone runs to grab a slice before there is none left Preparation Time: 10 minutes Cooking Time: 75 to 85 minutes with sugar/65 to 85 minutes with Splenda Yield: 8 servings 2 eggs beaten 14 oz 398 ml can of pure pumpkin 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml brown sugar or 6 tbsp 90 ml Brown Sugar Splenda 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml pumpkin pie spice 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml 1 milk 9-inch 22.5-cm deep-dish frozen pie shell 1 Preheat the oven to 400 degrees Fahrenheit 200 degrees Celsius. 2 In a medium-sized bowl use an electric beater whisk or spoon to thoroughly blend together the eggs pumpkin brown sugar or Brown Sugar Splenda spice and salt. 3 Add the milk and mix well. Pour the mixture into the pie shell. 4 Bake for 15 minutes at 400 degrees Fahrenheit 200 degrees Celsius then reduce heat to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius and continue baking for 60 to 70 minutes if using sugar or 50 to 60 minutes if using Brown Sugar Splenda. The pie is done when a knife inserted in the centre comes out clean. 5 Serve warm or cold. Per Serving with sugar: 1 ⁄8 pie 96 g Calories 232 Available carbohydrate 34 g Carbohydrate 36 g Fibre 2 g Fat 9 g Protein 4 g Cholesterol 54 mg Phosphorus 73 mg Potassium 196 mg Sodium 355 mg. 1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices Per Serving with Splenda: 1 ⁄8 pie 100 g Calories 175 Available carbohydrate 19 g Carbohydrate 21 g Fibre 2 g Fat 9 g Protein 4 g Cholesterol 54 mg Phosphorus 72 mg Potassium 174 mg Sodium 350 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 17: Delectable Endings 251 T Blueberry Pie Small wild or low-bush blueberries are better for baking than the large high-bush varieties. Search for blueberries that are uniformly blue in colour. If they have a reddish tinge pass them up — they’re not ripe and won’t ripen any further. Preparation Time: 15 to 20 minutes Cooking Time: 25 to 30 minutes Yield: 8 servings 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml sugar or Splenda 3 tbsp 45 ml flour 9-inch 22.5-cm frozen prepared regular pie crust 3 cups 750 ml blueberries 1 tbsp 15 ml lemon juice Topping: 6 tbsp 90 ml rolled oats 3 tbsp 45 ml flour 3 tbsp 45 ml brown sugar or 1 1 ⁄2 tbsp 22 ml Brown Sugar Splenda 3 tbsp 45 ml soft margarine 1 Preheat oven to 400 degrees Fahrenheit 200 degrees Celsius. 2 In a medium-sized bowl mix together the sugar or Splenda and flour. Sprinkle the bottom of the pie crust evenly with 3 tablespoons 45 millilitres of the flour mixture. 3 Add the blueberries and lemon juice to the flour mixture and stir gently until evenly mixed. Pour the blueberry mixture into the pie shell. 4 To make the topping use a fork to mix together the rolled oats flour brown sugar or Brown Sugar Splenda and margarine until crumbly. Evenly coat the blueberries with the topping. 5 Bake for 10 minutes. Reduce the heat to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius and bake for another 15 to 20 minutes if using sugar or 10 to 15 minutes if using Splenda. The crumb mixture should be golden. Serve and enjoy Per Serving with sugar: 1 ⁄8 pie 103 g Calories 260 Available carbohydrate 35 g Carbohydrate 37 g Fibre 2 g Fat 12 g Protein 2 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 42 mg Potassium 96 mg Sodium 179 mg. 1 Serving 2 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choices Per Serving with Splenda: 1 ⁄8 pie 98 g Calories 227 Available carbohydrate 27 g Carbohydrate 29 g Fibre 2 g Fat 12 g Protein 2 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 41 mg Potassium 90 mg Sodium 179 mg. 1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices

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252 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Chocolate Zucchini Muffins Nobody will think these chocolaty muffins have a healthy zucchini base. Cynthia’s daughter Kristen made these and loved them. Preparation Time: 14 minutes Cooking Time: 18 minutes Yield: 17 muffins 2 cups 500 ml flour 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml cocoa powder 1 tsp 5 ml baking soda 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml baking powder 1 tsp 5 ml cinnamon 1 tsp 5 ml ground cloves 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml salt 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml chocolate chips 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml canola oil 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml sugar 2 eggs beaten 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 milk 2 cups 500 ml zucchini grated 1 Preheat the oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius. Lightly oil the muffin pan. 2 In a large bowl mix together the flour cocoa baking soda baking powder cinnamon cloves and salt with a spatula or spoon. Stir in the chocolate chips. 3 In another medium-sized bowl mix together the remaining ingredients. 4 Add the contents of the medium-sized bowl to the larger one and mix well. 5 Spoon 1 ⁄3 cup 75 millilitres of batter into each muffin cup and bake for 18 minutes or until a toothpick inserted into the centre of the muffin comes out dry. 6 Cool on wire racks for at least 10 minutes. Serve. Per Serving: 1 muffin 62 g Calories 214 Available carbohydrate 24 g Carbohydrate 25 g Fibre 1 g Fat 12 g Protein 3 g Cholesterol 25 mg Phosphorus 64 mg Potassium 112 mg Sodium 200 mg. 1 Serving 1 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choices

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Chapter 17: Delectable Endings 253 T Sour Cream Chocolate Chip Cake This recipe has been passed down through the Payne family and is always a crowd pleaser. Preparation Time: 25 minutes Cooking Time: 20 to 25 minutes Yield: 15 servings 6 tbsp 90 ml soft margarine 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml sugar 2 eggs 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml flour 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml baking powder 1 tsp 5 ml baking soda 1 tsp 5 ml cinnamon 1 cup 250 ml low-fat sour cream 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml semi-sweet chocolate chips 1 Preheat the oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius. Lightly oil and flour a 9-x-13-inch 22.5-x-32.5-centimetre baking pan. 2 In a medium-sized bowl mix together the margarine sugar and eggs with a hand mixer or spatula until creamy. 3 In another medium-sized bowl mix together the flour baking powder baking soda and cinnamon using a spatula or spoon. Add this mixture to the bowl with the eggs and mix well. 4 Mix in the sour cream and chocolate chips. When the batter is well blended pour it into the baking pan. 5 Bake for 20 to 25 minutes until a toothpick inserted into the centre of the cake comes out dry. Serve warm or cold. Per Serving: 3 x 2 1 ⁄2 inches/7.5 x 6.25 cm 59 g Calories 198 Available carbohydrate 25 g Carbohydrate 26 g Fibre 1 g Fat 10 g Protein 3 g Cholesterol 34 mg Phosphorus 59 mg Potassium 89 mg Sodium 195 mg. 1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices

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254 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Mini Cheesecakes People with diabetes can have their mini cheesecakes and eat them too — in moderation Preparation Time: 30 minutes Cooking Time: 25 to 35 minutes Yield: 12 servings 12 vanilla wafer cookies 1 tbsp 15 ml soft margarine 1 cup 250 ml apples peeled and finely chopped 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml cinnamon 6 tbsp 90 ml sugar or Splenda 8 oz 250 g light cream cheese softened 1 egg 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml low-fat sour cream 1 tsp 5 ml vanilla 1 Preheat the oven to 325 degrees Fahrenheit 165 degrees Celsius. Place paper liners in the cups of a 12-muffin pan. 2 Place a cookie in the bottom of each paper-lined cup and set the pan aside. 3 Melt the margarine in a small frying pan over medium heat and add the apples. Cook for 5 minutes stirring often with a spatula or wooden spoon until the apples are tender. 4 Stir in the cinnamon and 1 tablespoon 15 millilitres of sugar or Splenda and cook for 1 minute. Spoon the apple mixture evenly over the cookies. 5 In a medium-sized bowl beat the cream cheese egg sour cream vanilla and the remaining sugar or Splenda until smooth. Spoon evenly over the apples. 6 Bake 35 minutes for the sugar version and 25 minutes for the Splenda version or until the cheesecake is set. 7 Cool the cheesecakes in the pan on a wire rack. Serve warm or cold. Per Serving with sugar: 1 cheesecake 40 g Calories 123 Available carbohydrate 14 g Carbohydrate 14 g Fibre 0 g Fat 6 g Protein 3 g Cholesterol 31 mg Phosphorus 48 mg Potassium 88 mg Sodium 132 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice Per Serving with Splenda: 1 cheesecake 35 g Calories 102 Available carbohydrate 9 g Carbohydrate 9 g Fibre 0 g Fat 6 g Protein 3 g Cholesterol 31 mg Phosphorus 48 mg Potassium 88 mg Sodium 132 mg. 1 Serving 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 17: Delectable Endings 255 T Carrot Cake This cake has been adapted from a recipe from Cynthia’s friend Debbie Smith and is always moist and tasty — the cream cheese icing adds a special touch. Preparation Time: 25 minutes Cooking Time: 20 to 30 minutes with sugar/15 to 25 minutes with Splenda Yield: 15 servings 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml sugar or Splenda 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml canola oil 3 eggs beaten 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml salt 1 tsp 5 ml baking soda 1 tsp 5 ml baking powder 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml cinnamon 1 1 ⁄3 cups 325 ml flour 2 cups 500 ml carrots grated For the Icing: 8 oz 250 g light cream cheese softened 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml icing sugar 4 tbsp 60 ml orange juice 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml vanilla 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml orange rind 1 Preheat the oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius. Lightly grease a 9-x-13-inch 22.5-x-32.5-centimetre baking pan. 2 Mix together the sugar or Splenda oil and eggs in a medium-sized bowl with an electric mixer whisk or spatula. 3 Combine the remaining ingredients except the carrots in another medium-sized bowl with a spatula or wooden spoon. Add this mixture to the first bowl and blend well. Add the carrots and mix thoroughly. 4 Pour the batter into the baking pan and bake for 20 to 30 minutes if using sugar or 15 to 25 minutes if using Splenda. When the cake is ready a toothpick inserted in the centre of the cake will come out dry. 5 To prepare the icing mix together the ingredients in a medium-sized bowl using an electric beater or spatula until smooth. After the cake has cooled evenly spread the icing over the cake. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving with sugar: 3 x 2 1 ⁄2 inches/7.5 x 6 25 cm 66 g Calories 250 Available carbohydrate 25 g Carbohydrate 26 g Fibre 1 g Fat 15 g Protein 4 g Cholesterol 51 mg Phosphorus 67 mg Potassium 108 mg Sodium 265 mg. 1 Serving 1 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choices Per Serving with Splenda: 3 x 2 1 ⁄2 inch/7.5 x 6.25 cm 55 g Calories 221 Available carbohydrate 17 g Carbohydrate 18 g Fibre 1 g Fat 15 g Protein 5 g Cholesterol 51 mg Phosphorus 81 mg Potassium 134 mg Sodium 301 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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256 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Fruit Trifle This recipe is so simple but the end result is elegant and delicious. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Yield: 4 servings 2 cups 500 ml angel food cake cut into cubes 2 cups 500 ml fresh fruit chopped 1 cup 250 ml sugar-free fat-free vanilla yogurt In the first of four parfait glasses or bowls layer 2 tbsp 30 millilitres of cubed cake 2 tbsp 30 millilitres of fresh fruit and 2 tablespoons 30 millilitres of yogurt. Repeat twice per glass. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 176 g Calories 100 Available carbohydrate 19 g Carbohydrate 21 g Fibre 2 g Fat 0 g Protein 4 g Cholesterol 1 mg Phosphorus 116 mg Potassium 223 mg Sodium 116 mg. The phosphorus and potassium will vary depending on the type of fruit used. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice Fruit counts as dessert Cynthia is always surprised when someone tells her they never eat dessert only to then acknowl- edge when asked that they regularly eat fruit after a meal. Many people simply don’t think of fruit as a dessert. As it turns out however fruit has all the traits of any good dessert: It is both sweet and satisfying. Fruit contains sugar and can therefore raise your blood glucose but eaten in moderation it’s a perfectly acceptable component of a healthy diabetes eating plan and is also an integral part of Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide. Other benefits of fruit are its abundance of vitamins minerals and especially when the skin is consumed fibre. If you’re eating canned fruit be sure to choose canned fruit that has no added sugar or that is packed in its own juice.

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Chapter 17: Delectable Endings Pudding on the Ritz In the U.K. they call just about every dessert “pudding.” In this book how- ever when we refer to pudding we’re talking about the delicious sweet treat in a bowl that you know and love. With a few exceptions pudding is a great choice when you’re looking for a quick weekday dessert. 257 T Orange Frost This dessert is very light — a good choice after a big meal. Preparation Time: 15 minutes plus 2 hours in the freezer Yield: 6 servings 1 egg separated 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml water 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml skim milk powder 4 tbsp 60 ml sugar 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml orange rind 4 tbsp 60 ml orange juice Dash of salt 4 tbsp 60 ml graham cracker crumbs plus 1 tbsp 15 ml for dusting 1 In a small bowl combine the egg white water and milk powder with an electric beater or whisk. Beat until stiff peaks form about 3 minutes. 2 In a medium-sized bowl lightly beat the egg yolk then add the sugar orange rind orange juice and salt. Fold this mixture into the egg white mixture with a spatula. 3 Place 2 teaspoons 10 millilitres of the graham crumbs into the bottom of a small dessert dish. Repeat with the other 5 dishes. Divide the orange mixture evenly between the 6 bowls and dust each bowl with 1 ⁄2 teaspoon 2 millilitres graham crumbs. 4 Freeze until firm about 2 hours. Serve chilled. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml 46 g Calories 85 Available carbohydrate 17 g Carbohydrate 17 g Fibre 0 g Fat 1 g Protein 1 g Cholesterol 35 mg Phosphorus 22 mg Potassium 38 mg Sodium 66 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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258 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Strawberry Dream This easy mousse-like dessert is light and low in calories too Preparation Time: 15 minutes plus 1 hour to refrigerate Yield: 6 servings 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml package light strawberry Jell-O 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml boiling water 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml very cold water 8 oz 250 g light cream cheese softened 1 tsp 5 ml vanilla 2 cups 500 ml fat-free whipped topping thawed 1 cup 250 ml strawberries sliced 1 cup 250 ml blueberries 1 Add the Jell-O powder to a small bowl and add the boiling water. Stir with a fork or whisk for 2 minutes until the powder is completely dissolved. 2 Add the cold water to the Jell-O and stir until well mixed. 3 In a large bowl use an electric mixer or a spatula to beat the cream cheese and vanilla until smooth. 4 Slowly add the Jell-O to the cream cheese mixture. Beat with an electric mixer fork or whisk until well blended. Gently stir in the whipped topping and fruit reserving 12 slices of strawberries to place on top of the mousse. 5 Divide 2 ⁄3 cup 150 millilitres of the mixture between 6 small dessert dishes or parfait glasses. Top each dish with 2 sliced strawberries. Refrigerate for 1 hour until the mix- ture is firm. Serve. Per Serving: 2 ⁄3 cup/150 ml 164 g Calories 148 Available carbohydrate 14 g Carbohydrate 15 g Fibre 1 g Fat 1 g Protein 5 g Cholesterol 26 mg Phosphorus 110 mg Potassium 188 mg Sodium 245 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 17: Delectable Endings 259 T Aboriginal Wild Rice Pudding This Aboriginal recipe was adapted from Audrey Smoke an elder at the Alderville First Nations Reserve where Cynthia works. Every time there is a community function you can be sure everyone will be there if Audrey brings her rice pudding Preparation Time: 12 minutes Cooking Time: 90 minutes Yield: 6 servings 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml wild rice Dash salt 1 cup 250 ml water 2 eggs beaten 1 1 ⁄2 cup 375 ml 1 milk 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml low-fat evaporated milk 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml vanilla 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml sugar or Splenda 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml raisins 1 Place the wild rice in a strainer and rinse with cool water until the water runs clear. Drain. 2 Add the rice salt and water to a medium-sized saucepan with a tight-fitting lid. Bring to a boil over high heat. Reduce the heat to low and let the rice simmer with the lid on for 1 hour. 3 When the rice is done preheat the oven to 400 degrees Fahrenheit 200 degrees Celsius. 4 In a large bowl thoroughly mix together the remaining ingredients using a spatula or spoon. Add the rice and stir. Place the entire mixture into a 2-quart 2.5-litre glass casserole dish. Cover and bake at 400 degrees 200 degrees Celsius for 15 minutes. 5 Reduce the heat to 300 degrees Fahrenheit 150 degrees Celsius and bake for another 15 minutes. Serve warm. Per Serving with sugar: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml 145 g Calories 167 Available carbohydrate 28 g Carbohydrate 29 g Fibre 1 g Fat 2 g Protein 8 g Cholesterol 74 mg Phosphorus 196 mg Potassium 294 mg Sodium 103 mg. 1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices Per Serving with Splenda: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml 106 g Calories 139 Available carbohydrate 21 g Carbohydrate 22 g Fibre 1 g Fat 2 g Protein 8 g Cholesterol 74 mg Phosphorus 196 mg Potassium 294 mg Sodium 103 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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260 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Luscious Lemon Pudding Cake The lemon flavour in this dish makes it a refreshing end to a meal or a lovely snack with afternoon tea. Preparation Time: 30 minutes Cooking Time: 25 to 30 minutes with sugar/20 to 25 minutes with Splenda Yield: 9 servings 4 eggs separated Dash of salt 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml sugar or Splenda 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml soft margarine 2 tbsp 30 ml lemon rind 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml flour 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml lemon juice 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml skim milk powder if using Splenda 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml baking soda if using Splenda 1 tsp 5 ml icing sugar for dusting 1 Preheat the oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius. Lightly grease an 8-x-8-inch 20-x-20-centimetre baking dish. 2 In a small bowl beat the egg whites and salt with an electric beater or whisk until they become light. Gradually add 2 tablespoons 30 millilitres of sugar or Splenda and continue beating until firm peaks form. Set aside. 3 In a medium-sized bowl using clean beaters cream the margarine with the rest of the sugar or Splenda. Add the egg yolks and lemon rind. Gently stir in the flour and skim milk powder and baking soda if using Splenda until mixed. Add the milk and lemon juice to the batter. 4 Gently fold the egg whites into the batter. Spoon the batter evenly into the baking dish. 5 Place the baking dish in a larger baking dish — for example a 9-x-13-inch 22.5-x-32.5- centimetre dish. Fill the larger baking dish with enough water to come halfway up the sides of the smaller baking dish. Place the dishes in the oven and bake for 20 to 30 minutes until the cake is lightly brown on top. The bottom layer of the cake will resemble a sauce-like mixture. 6 Remove the pudding cake from the oven and let it cool. Dust the cake with 1 teaspoon 5 millilitres of icing sugar just before serving. Serve warm or cold. Per Serving: with sugar 2 1 ⁄2-x-2 1 ⁄2 inch/6.25-x-6.25-cm slice 92 g Calories 153 Available carbohydrate 18 g Carbohydrate 18 g Fibre 0 g Fat 8 g Protein 4 g Cholesterol 95 mg Phosphorus 74 mg Potassium 92 mg Sodium 105 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 17: Delectable Endings 261 Per Serving: with Splenda 2 1 ⁄2-x-2 1 ⁄2-inch/6.25-x-6.25-cm slice 67 g Calories 121 Available carbohydrate 9 g Carbohydrate 9 g Fibre 0 g Fat 8 g Protein 5 g Cholesterol 96 mg Phosphorus 93 mg Potassium 124 mg Sodium 150 mg. 1 Serving 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choice T Baked Custard This is an old favourite comfort food great as a dessert or a snack when you’re not feeling well. Preparation Time: 10 minutes Cooking Time: 25 to 35 minutes Yield: 2 servings 1 egg lightly beaten 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml vanilla 1 tsp 5 ml sugar 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml 1 milk Pinch of nutmeg Hot water 1 Preheat the oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius. 2 In a small bowl mix together all the ingredients except the nutmeg and hot water. Divide the mixture equally between two 6-ounce 175-millilitres oven-safe custard cups. Sprinkle each with nutmeg. 3 Place the custard cups in a larger baking dish and fill the larger baking dish with enough hot water to come halfway up the sides of the custard cups. Bake for 25 to 35 minutes until a knife inserted in the centre of the custard comes out clean. 4 Serve warm or cold. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml 99 g Calories 86 Available carbohydrate 7 g Carbohydrate 7 g Fibre 0 g Fat 3 g Protein 6 g Cholesterol 110 mg Phosphorus 135 mg Potassium 173 mg Sodium 75 mg. 1 Serving 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choice

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262 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Bite-Sized Fun: Cookies Cookies are a great portable dessert and small cookies can offer a perfectly sized tiny treat when you’re not looking for anything more. They’re also a great addition to a child’s lunch. T Jam Jewel Cookies These cookie are like shortbread thumbprint cookies with a delightful jam jewel on top. They are lovely even without the diet jam. Preparation Time: 20 minutes Cooking Time: 9 to 10 minutes Yield: 28 cookies 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml soft margarine 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml sugar 1 egg yolk beaten 2 tsp 10 ml lemon juice 1 cup 250 ml flour 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml diet jam 1 Preheat the oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius. 2 In a medium-sized bowl cream the margarine and sugar with an electric beater or spatula until the mixture becomes light and fluffy. Add the egg yolk and lemon juice and continue to mix. Add the flour and stir until well blended. 3 Shape the dough into 1-inch 2.5-centimetre balls and place them on a baking sheet. Using your thumb press a small indent in the centre of each ball to hold the diet jam. 4 Bake for 9 to 10 minutes until the cookies are lightly brown at the edges. 5 Remove the cookies from the oven and allow them to cool. Add 1 ⁄2 teaspoon 2 millilitres of diet jam to the top of each cookie. Serve. Per Serving: 2 cookies 20 g Calories 116 Available carbohydrate 13 g Carbohydrate 13 g Fibre 0 g Fat 7 g Protein 1 g Cholesterol 15 mg Phosphorus 15 mg Potassium 16 mg Sodium 58 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 17: Delectable Endings 263 T Chocolate Chip Cookies Everyone needs a chocolate chip cookie once in a while. These will hit the spot despite the low sugar content. Preparation Time: 30 minutes Cooking Time: 7 to 8 minutes Yield: 36 cookies 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml soft margarine 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml brown sugar lightly packed 1 egg beaten 1 tsp 5 ml vanilla 1 cup 250 ml flour 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml baking soda 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 cup 250 ml rolled oats 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml semi-sweet chocolate chips 1 In a medium-sized bowl cream the margarine and sugar using an electric beater or spatula until the mixture becomes light and fluffy. 2 Add the egg and vanilla to the bowl and mix well. 3 In another bowl combine the flour baking soda and salt. Add this mixture to the first bowl and stir thoroughly. 4 Fold in the oats and chocolate chips with a spatula. 5 Take 1 tablespoon 15 millilitres of dough roll into a ball and place onto a baking sheet. Flatten each ball with a fork. 6 Bake for 7 to 8 minutes until the cookies begin to brown around the edges. 7 Allow the cookies to cool on a wire rack. Serve. Per Serving: 2 cookies 28 g Calories 130 Available carbohydrate 14 g Carbohydrate 15 g Fibre 1 g Fat 7 g Protein 2 g Cholesterol 12 mg Phosphorus 38 mg Potassium 50 mg Sodium 118 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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264 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Rocky Road Balls This is a no-bake dessert that’s fun for kids Preparation Time: 30 minutes plus 60 minutes to chill Cooking Time: 3 minutes plus 6o minutes to harden Yield: 36 balls 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml semi-sweet chocolate chips 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml milk chocolate chips 1 ⁄2 package 125 g light cream cheese softened 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml puffed wheat cereal 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml mini coloured marshmallows 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml shredded sweetened coconut 1 Place the chocolate chips and cream cheese in a small saucepan and set over low heat. Stir constantly for about 3 minutes or until the ingredients have melted. Remove from heat. 2 Add the cereal and marshmallows to the saucepan and stir until they are evenly mixed. Place the saucepan in the refrigerator to chill for about one hour. 3 Wash your hands and lightly coat them in canola oil. Using your hands roll 1 tablespoon 15 millilitres of dough into a ball. Continue until no dough is left. 4 Cover the bottom of a flat plate with the shredded coconut. Roll each ball in the coconut until it is lightly coated. 5 Place the balls in a sealed container lined with waxed paper and let them harden in the refrigerator for an hour. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 3 balls 39 g Calories 164 Available carbohydrate 17 g Carbohydrate 19 g Fibre 2 g Fat 10 g Protein 2 g Cholesterol 6 mg Phosphorus 54 mg Potassium 118 mg Sodium 49 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 17: Delectable Endings 265 T Flax Cookies These cookies taste so good you’d never know they’re healthy for you Ground flaxseed is a great source of omega-3 fatty acids. Preparation Time: 25 minutes Cooking Time: 5 to 7 minutes Yield: 36 cookies 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml soft margarine 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml brown sugar 1 egg 1 tsp 5 ml vanilla 1 1 ⁄4 cups 300 ml flour 1 tsp 5 ml baking soda 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml ground flaxseed 1 cup 250 ml rolled oats 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml lightly crushed flaxseed for appearance 1 Preheat the oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius. Line a cookie sheet with parchment paper. 2 In a large bowl cream the margarine and sugar with an electric beater or spatula until it becomes light in consistency. Add the egg then the vanilla. Mix well. 3 In a medium-sized bowl combine the flour baking soda salt and ground flaxseed. Add this mixture to the large bowl. 4 Stir in the rolled oats and the lightly crushed flaxseed. Mix well. 5 Roll 1 tbsp 15 millilitres of the dough into a ball. Continue until no dough is left. Place the balls on the parchment-lined baking sheet. Flatten the cookies with a fork so they are only 1 ⁄4 inch 0.6 centimetres thick. 6 Bake for 5 to 7 minutes until the cookies are lightly golden. Remove the cookies from the oven and allow them to cool on a wire rack. Serve. Per Serving: 2 cookies 26 g Calories 176 Available carbohydrate 16 g Carbohydrate 19 g Fibre 3 g Fat 10 g Protein 4 g Cholesterol 12 mg Phosphorus 98 mg Potassium 120 mg Sodium 140 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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266 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Cocoa Oatmeal Cookies The batter for these cookies may seem too runny at first but the oats and cocoa will absorb the extra moisture. Preparation Time: 25 minutes Cooking Time: 9 to 11 minutes with sugar/7 minutes with Splenda Yield: 75 cookies with sugar/80 cookies with Splenda 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml sugar or Splenda 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml soft margarine 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml low-fat plain yogurt 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml water 1 tsp 5 ml vanilla 1 egg beaten 3 cups 750 ml rolled oats 1 1 ⁄4 cup 300 ml flour 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml cocoa powder 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml baking soda or 1 1 ⁄4 tsp 6 ml if using Splenda 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml skim milk powder if using Splenda 1 Preheat the oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius. 2 In a large bowl mix together the sugar or Splenda margarine yogurt water vanilla and egg with an electric beater or spatula. Stir in the remaining ingredients and mix well. 3 With clean hands roll the batter into 1-inch 2.5-centimetre balls. Place the balls on the baking sheet 2 inches 5 centimetres apart. 4 Bake the cookies for 9 to 11 minutes if you made them with sugar 7 minutes if you used Splenda or until they feel firm. Remove the cookies from the baking sheet and allow them to cool on a wire rack. Serve. Per Serving with sugar: 2 cookies 28 g Calories 100 Available carbohydrate 16 g Carbohydrate 17 g Fibre 1 g Fat 3 g Protein 2 g Cholesterol 6 mg Phosphorus 44 mg Potassium 50 mg Sodium 59 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice Per Serving with Splenda: 4 cookies 44 g Calories: 139 Available carbohydrate 16 g Carbohydrate 18 g Fibre 2 g Fat 6 g Protein 4 g Cholesterol 11 mg Phosphorus 107 mg Potassium 135 mg Sodium 171 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 17: Delectable Endings 267 T Snickers These cookies are soft and chewy and no they aren’t made with Snickers bars Preparation Time: 20 minutes Cooking Time: 6 to 7 minutes Yield: 42 cookies 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml sugar or Splenda 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml soft margarine 1 egg 1 tsp 5 ml vanilla 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml all-purpose flour 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml whole wheat flour 3 ⁄4 tsp 4 ml baking soda 1 tsp 5 ml cinnamon 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml raisins 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml dried cranberries Topping: 2 tsp 10 ml sugar or Splenda 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml cinnamon 1 Preheat the oven to 400 degrees Fahrenheit 200 degrees Celsius. 2 In a large bowl cream the sugar or Splenda and margarine with a spatula or an electric beater on medium speed. Add the egg and vanilla and beat until combined. 3 In a medium bowl stir together the flours baking soda cinnamon and salt with a spatula. Add this to the creamed mixture and mix well. Stir in the raisins and cranberries. 4 Roll the dough into 1-inch 2.5-centimetre balls and place them on a baking sheet. Flatten the balls with a fork until each is about 1 ⁄2 inch 1.25 centimetres thick. 5 In a small bowl mix together the sugar or Splenda and cinnamon to make the topping. Sprinkle over the cookies and bake for 6 to 7 minutes or until the cookies are lightly browned at the edges. 6 Transfer the cookies to a wire rack to cool. Serve. Per Serving with sugar: 2 cookies 31 g Calories 112 Available carbohydrate 16 g Carbohydrate 17 g Fibre 1 g Fat 5 g Protein 1 g Cholesterol 10 mg Phosphorus 28 mg Potassium 53 mg Sodium 101 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice Per Serving with Splenda: 2 cookies 25 g Calories: 95 Available carbohydrate 11 g Carbohydrate 12 g Fibre 1 g Fat 5 g Protein 1 g Cholesterol 10 mg Phosphorus 28 mg Potassium 53 mg Sodium 101 mg. 1 Serving 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choice

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268 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes

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H Chapter 18 Kooking for Kids To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here In This Chapter ▶ Bringing kids into the kitchen ▶ Cooking kid-friendly dinners ▶ Making desserts they’ll love aving a child with diabetes makes establishing and maintaining healthy eating practices especially important. Healthy nutrition is a mainstay of managing diabetes in all people especially youngsters because their body is constantly growing and developing as are your food bills. Fortunately healthy eating for children doesn’t require any sacrifice in taste food appeal or simple food fun. Recipes in This Chapter ▶ Pizza Faces ▶ Sloppy Joes ▶ Breaded Chicken Fingers T Macaroni and Cheese T Baked Apple with Raspberries T Apple Crisp T Brownies T Happy Birthday Cake T Chocolate Mud Cakes T Banana Chocolate Chip Muffins T Little Jam Cupcakes In this chapter we present recipes that kids will love. Kids can also be involved in many aspects of preparing these recipes. Kids in the Kitchen If you or your child has diabetes involve your age-appropriate child in the kitchen activities. It will be a great opportunity for you to teach your child about healthy eating it’ll provide them invaluable life skills and it’ll also be fun for the two of you. Getting kids excited about healthy eating food selection and meal preparation will give them a sense of pride and ownership in the food they prepare and can lead to lifelong healthy eating habits.

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270 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Kids need to be encouraged to find variety in foods. Developing a wide repertoire of preferred foods to choose from creates a more interesting diet — a diet that supports growth and development and maintains optimal nutritional status. You can foster your child’s interest in kitchen activities in a number of ways: ✓ Ask your child to choose a favourite food from each of the four food groups of Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ fn-an/food-guide-aliment/index-eng.php. Using their picks work as a team to create fun and interesting meals or snacks. ✓ Prepare foods that will foster your child’s interest in helping out. Work together in making kid-friendly foods such as sandwiches fajitas pizza and fruit kabobs. ✓ Ask your child to set the table using special child-friendly themed plates cups and even personalized cutlery. ✓ Have your child sweep the floor after a meal. ✓ Have your young child • Decide what cereal to place on the table for breakfast and which vegetable to eat for dinner • Gather recipe ingredients from the refrigerator and pantry ✓ Have your older child • Measure ingredients • Do some chopping • Help plan a lunch or dinner and make up a shopping list Always give age-appropriate tasks. Supervise children in the kitchen especially around the stove food processors knives and hot water. Teach food safety rules from an early age including proper hand washing cleaning fruits and vegetables and post-meal cleanup.

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Chapter 18: Kooking for Kids Super Suppers This is a selection of time-tested diabetes-friendly supper favourites for kids tweaked to ensure they are suitably nutritious. Kids don’t need to know that though . . . 271 Pizza Faces This is a quick and easy dinner to make with kids in the kitchen. Kids can top their pizzas to their own tastes and show off their artistic abilities This recipe makes one child-sized serving. Preparation Time: 10 minutes Cooking Time: 2 to 3 minutes Yield: 1 serving 1 ⁄2 whole wheat English muffin 2 tsp 10 ml pizza sauce 2 tbsp 30 ml low-fat mozzarella shredded 1 tbsp 15 ml low-fat ham diced 1 tbsp 15 ml vegetables of your choice 1 Move the oven rack to the highest setting. Turn on the broiler element. 2 Place half of the English muffin on a baking sheet. Use a spoon to evenly spread pizza sauce over the English muffin. Top with the mozzarella ham and mixed vegetables in that order. 3 Place the baking sheet under the broiler for 2 to 3 minutes until the cheese has melted and the muffin is warm. Serve. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 English muffin 79 g Calories 127 Available carbohydrate 11 g Carbohydrate 14 g Fibre 3 g Fat 4 g Protein 9 g Cholesterol 13 mg Phosphorus 176 mg Potassium 175 mg Sodium 248 mg. 1 Serving 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choice

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272 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes Sloppy Joes Sloppy Joes are a family-friendly dish but make sure to have napkins handy. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Cooking Time: 15 minutes Yield: 7 servings 1 lb 450 g extra lean hamburger 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml yellow onion chopped 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml mushrooms sliced 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml celery chopped 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml green pepper chopped 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml ketchup 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml water 1 tbsp 15 ml Worcestershire sauce 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml salt 7 whole wheat hamburger buns 1 In a large frying pan brown the hamburger and onion over medium-high heat for 5 minutes stirring frequently with a spatula or wooden spoon. Drain the fat from the meat. 2 Stir in the remaining ingredients except the buns. Cover and simmer over low heat until the vegetables are tender about 10 minutes. 3 Spoon 1 ⁄2 cup 125 millilitres of the mixture over each bun. Serve and enjoy. Per Serving: 1 ⁄2 cup/125 ml meat 115 g Calories 146 Available carbohydrate 8 g Carbohydrate 8 g Fibre 0 g Fat 7 g Protein 14 g Cholesterol 42 mg Phosphorus 140 mg Potassium 379 mg Sodium 491 mg. 1 Serving 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choice + 2 Carbohydrate Choices for the hamburger bun Breaded Chicken Fingers These baked chicken fingers are a healthy alternative to the fried version and easy to clean up too. The breading is made with whole wheat bread crumbs ground flaxseed and wheat germ so it’s a source of fibre. The chicken fingers can be frozen for up to 2 weeks. Preparation Time: 15 minutes Cooking Time: 16 to 20 minutes Yield: 4 servings

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Chapter 18: Kooking for Kids 273 Sauce see the following recipe 1 lb 450 g skinless boneless chicken breasts 4 tbsp 60 ml low-fat plain yogurt 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml whole wheat bread crumbs 1 ⁄8 cup 25 ml ground flaxseed 1 ⁄8 cup 25 ml wheat germ 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml thyme 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml marjoram 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml garlic powder 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 1 Preheat the oven to 400 degrees Fahrenheit 200 degrees Celsius. Line a baking sheet with parchment paper. Lining the baking sheet with parchment paper makes for fast clean up. 2 Trim the visible fat from the chicken and slice it into even strips each about 3 ⁄4 to 1 inch 2 to 2.5 centimetres wide. 3 Place the yogurt in a small flat bottomed bowl. Set aside. 4 In another flat bottomed small bowl combine the rest of the chicken strip ingredients and mix well with a spoon. 5 Dip each strip of chicken into the yogurt to coat it then dip the chicken in the bread crumb mixture until all sides are coated evenly. Place the strips on the baking sheet. 6 Bake for 8 to 10 minutes per side until the chicken is golden brown and no pink appears. 7 While the chicken is cooking prepare the sauce. 8 Serve the chicken strips plain or with the dipping sauce. Per Serving: 3 chicken strips 140 g Calories 196 Available Carbohydrate 7 g Carbohydrate 9 g Fibre 2 g Fat 4 g Protein 29 g Cholesterol 65 mg Phosphorus 305 mg Potassium 381 mg Sodium 210 mg. 1 Serving 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choice Sauce 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml low-fat plain yogurt 2 tbsp 30 ml ketchup 1 tsp 5 ml celery seed 2 tsp 10 ml reduced-sodium soy sauce 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml garlic powder 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml pepper Mix all the ingredients together in a small bowl. Per Serving: 2 tbsp/30 ml sauce Calories 31 Available carbohydrate 5 g Carbohydrate 5 g Fibre 0 g Fat 1 g Protein 2 g Cholesterol 2 mg Phosphorus 54 mg Potassium 118 mg Sodium 194 mg. 1 Serving 0 Carbohydrate Choices

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274 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Macaroni and Cheese It’s difficult to find tasty low-fat mac and cheese but here’s one Cynthia invented that she hopes you’ll enjoy. Preparation Time: 25 minutes Cooking Time: 30 minutes Yield: 6 servings 6 cups 1500 ml water 2 1 ⁄2 cups 625 ml dry whole wheat macaroni noodles 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml soft margarine 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml yellow onion finely chopped 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml salt 3 ⁄4 tsp 4 ml paprika 3 ⁄4 tsp 4 ml dry mustard 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml pepper 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml whole wheat flour 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 2 cups 500 ml low-fat old cheddar cheese grated 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml low-fat parmesan cheese 1 Preheat the oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius. 2 Place the water in a large pot and bring to a boil over high heat. Add the macaroni to the boiling water and cook until the noodles are tender about 8 minutes. Drain the water from the macaroni using a strainer. 3 In a large frying pan melt the margarine over medium-high heat. Add the onion salt paprika mustard pepper and flour. Stir fry with a spatula or wooden spoon for 3 minutes. 4 Reduce heat to medium and slowly add the milk while continuing to stir. The ingredients should start to thicken. While continuing to stir gradually add the cheeses. When all the cheese has been added and the sauce has thickened combine it with the macaroni and mix well. 5 Pour the macaroni mixture into a large casserole dish. Bake for 20 minutes until the sauce starts to bubble. Serve. Per Serving: 3 ⁄4 cup/175ml 161g Calories 338 Available Carbohydrate 36 g Carbohydrate 41g Fibre 5g Fat 12 g Protein 19 g Cholesterol 14 mg Phosphorus 389 mg Potassium 236 mg Sodium 584 mg. 1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices

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Chapter 18: Kooking for Kids Desserts Kids Dig Kids love dessert. Hmm so do most adults now that we think about it. Although no food — including dessert foods — is forbidden just because you have diabetes certain desserts do fit better into overall diabetes nutrition plans than others. In this section we offer some diabetes-friendly dessert recipes for kids. The more you restrict sweets from a child the more powerfully the child may crave them. You know forbidden fruit and all that. Although you may be able to control your children’s eating when they are very young and under your constant supervision eventually they will become more autonomous and will be spending time away from you at school at camp at a friend’s house and so forth. Providing occasional desserts and sweets as a treat at home will make your children more likely to be careful about how many sweets they eat in other settings. T Baked Apple with Raspberries This is a snap to prepare but it can take a long time to cook in an oven. Using a micro- wave is much faster. This recipe tastes so great you won’t believe it has no added sugar Preparation Time: 5 minutes Cooking Time: 4 to 5 minutes depending on size of apple Yield: 2 servings 275 2 large apples Granny Smith Cortland Golden Delicious or Empire 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml raspberries fresh or frozen 1 Using a sharp knife cut off the top 1 ⁄2 inch 1.25 centimetres of each apple and remove the core. 2 Firmly press the raspberries into the hole where the core was. 3 Place the apples into a microwave/oven safe dish. Add 2 tablespoons 30 millilitres of water to the bottom of dish. 4 Microwave on high for 4 to 5 minutes or until the pulp of the apples is soft. If you don’t have a microwave preheat your oven to 375 degrees Fahrenheit 190 degrees Celsius. Place the dish in the oven and bake for 30 to 40 minutes until the pulp of the apples is soft. 5 Spoon the raspberries and sauce back into the apples. Some of the fruit and juices may have escaped when heated. Let the apples cool slightly and serve warm. Per Serving: 1 apple 176 g Calories 118 Available carbohydrate 25 g Carbohydrate 31 g Fibre 6 g Fat 0 g Protein 1 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 28 mg Potassium 250 mg Sodium 2 mg. 1 Serving 1 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choices

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276 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Apple Crisp Here’s an all-time favourite. The best baking apples are both sweet and tart. Cynthia suggests using Cortland Empire Golden Delicious or Granny Smith apples. Preparation Time: 30 minutes Cooking Time: 30 to 35 minutes Yield: 9 servings 5 cups 1250 ml baking apples peeled and sliced 1 tsp 5 ml lemon juice 1 tsp 5 ml cinnamon 1 tbsp 15 ml white sugar or Splenda Topping: 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml whole wheat flour 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml ground flaxseed 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml rolled oats 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml brown sugar or 2 1/2 tbsp 37 ml Brown Sugar Splenda 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml soft margarine 1 Preheat the oven to 375 degrees Fahrenheit 190 degrees Celsius. Lightly grease an 8-x-8-inch 20-x-20-centimetre baking dish with canola oil. 2 In a large bowl combine the apples with the lemon juice cinnamon and white sugar or Splenda. Spread the apples evenly over the bottom of the baking pan. 3 Combine the topping ingredients in a medium-sized bowl. Mix well with a spatula wooden spoon or fork. 4 Gently spoon the topping evenly over the apples. 5 Bake in the oven for 30 to 35 minutes or until the topping is golden brown and the apples are tender. Serve warm or cold. Per Serving with sugar: 2 1 ⁄2-x-2 1 ⁄2-inch/6.25-x-6.25-cm piece 95 g Calories 181 Available Carbohydrate 24 g Carbohydrate 27g Fibre 3 g Fat 2 g Protein 2 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 70 mg Potassium 140 mg Sodium 4 mg. 1 Serving 1 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choices Per Serving with Splenda: 2 1 ⁄2-x-2 1 ⁄2-inch/6.25-x-6.25-cm piece 98 g Calories 162 Available carbohydrate 19 g Carbohydrate 22 g Fibre 3 g Fat 8 g Protein 2 g Cholesterol 0 mg Phosphorus 70 mg Potassium 134 mg Sodium 58 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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Chapter 18: Kooking for Kids 277 T Brownies These brownies contain sour cream to make them extra moist. For the best results bake them the day before they’re needed. The brownies can also be frozen for up to 6 weeks. Preparation Time: 12 minutes Cooking Time: 20 minutes Yield: 9 servings 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml sugar 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml soft margarine 1 egg 1 tsp 5 ml vanilla 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml cocoa powder 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml flour 1 tsp 5 ml baking powder 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml low-fat sour cream 3 tbsp 45 ml walnuts chopped 1 Preheat the oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius. Lightly grease an 8-x-8-inch 20-x-20-centimetre baking dish with canola oil. 2 In a medium-sized bowl cream the sugar and margarine using an electric beater or spatula until light and fluffy about 1 minute. Add the egg and vanilla to the bowl and mix well. 3 In another medium-sized bowl use a spatula or wooden spoon to stir together the cocoa flour and baking powder. Blend in the sour cream and walnuts. 4 Add the ingredients of the second bowl to the first bowl and mix well. 5 Pour the batter into the baking pan. Bake the brownies for 20 minutes or until a toothpick inserted into the centre comes out dry. 6 Cool the brownie on a wire rack cut into squares and serve. Per Serving: 2 1 ⁄2-x-2 1 ⁄2-inch/6.25-x-6.25-cm piece 47 g Calories 172 Available carbohydrate 20 g Carbohydrate 21 g Fibre 1 g Fat 10 g Protein 2 g Cholesterol 26 mg Phosphorus 63 mg Potassium 86 mg Sodium 123 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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278 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Happy Birthday Cake This cake is nice and moist perfect for party time. People with diabetes can have their cake and eat it too in moderation Preparation Time: 12 minutes Cooking Time: 30 minutes with sugar/22 minutes with Splenda Yield: 15 servings for a 9-x-13-inch 22.5 x 32.5 cm pan 1 1 ⁄2 cup 375 ml sugar or Splenda 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml soft margarine 2 eggs 1 1 ⁄2 tsp 7 ml vanilla 2 3 ⁄4 cup 675 ml flour 2 1 ⁄2 tsp 12 ml baking powder 1 tsp 5 ml salt 1 1 ⁄4 cup 300 ml 1 milk 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml skim milk powder if using Splenda 3 ⁄4 tsp 4 ml baking soda if using Splenda Frosting: 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml whipping cream 1 1 ⁄2 tbsp 22 ml sugar or Splenda 3 ⁄4 tsp 4 ml vanilla 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml low-fat yogurt plain or flavoured 1 Preheat the oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius. Grease and flour a 9-x-13-inch 22.5-x-32.5-centimetre baking pan or two 8-x-8-inch 20-x-20-centimetre pans if you prefer to make a layer cake. 2 In a large bowl mix together the sugar or Splenda margarine eggs and vanilla with an electric mixer or whisk until the ingredients become fluffy. Scrape the sides of the bowl often.

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Chapter 18: Kooking for Kids 3 In a medium-sized bowl mix together the flour baking powder and salt if using Splenda also add the skim milk powder and baking soda. On low speed beat a third of the flour into the egg mixture. Mix in a third of the milk. Repeat until all of the flour and milk has been added. Continue mixing until the batter is smooth. 4 Pour the batter into the cake pans. Bake for 30 minutes if using sugar or 22 minutes if using Splenda or until a toothpick inserted in the centre comes out dry. Allow the cakes to cool then remove from the baking pans and place on a platter. 5 While the cake is cooking prepare the frosting. Beat the whipping cream sugar or Splenda and vanilla together using an electric beater or whisk until peaks form in the frosting. 6 Gently fold the yogurt into the whipped cream mixture and blend until thoroughly combined. 7 If you are making a single-layered cake evenly cover it with frosting. If you are making a layer cake evenly spread diet jam over the top of one of the two cakes. Place the second cake on top and evenly cover the top and sides with frosting. Serve with candles. Make a wish Per Serving: with sugar-one layer cake 3-x-2 1 ⁄2-inch/7.5-x-6.25-cm piece plus frosting 68 g Calories 300 Available carbohydrate 42 g Carbohydrate 43 g Fibre 1 g Fat 12 g Protein 5 g Cholesterol 43 mg Phosphorus 96 mg Potassium 100 mg Sodium 333 mg. 1 Serving 3 Carbohydrate Choices Per Serving: with Splenda-one layer cake 3-x-2 1 ⁄2-inch/7.5-x-6.25-cm piece plus frosting 70 g Calories 238 Available carbohydrate 25 g Carbohydrate 26 g Fibre 1 g Fat 12 g Protein 6 g Cholesterol 44 mg Phosphorus 129 mg Potassium 158 mg Sodium 415 mg. 1 Serving 1 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choices 279

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280 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Chocolate Mud Cakes This recipe is a great way to get kids involved in the kitchen — even the name sounds fun Preparation Time: 15 to 20 minutes Cooking Time: 20 to 25 minutes Yield: 9 servings 3 tbsp 45 ml soft margarine 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml sugar or Splenda 1 cup 250 ml flour 1 tsp 5 ml baking powder 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 milk 2 1 ⁄2 tbsp 37 ml skim milk powder if using Splenda 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml baking soda if using Splenda Topping: 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml sugar or Splenda 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml salt 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml cocoa powder 1 cup 250 ml plus 1 tbsp 15 ml boiling water 1 Preheat the oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius. Lightly grease an 8-x-8-inch 20-x-20-centimetre cake pan with canola oil. 2 Using an electric beater or spatula cream the margarine and sugar or Splenda together in a medium-sized bowl. 3 In another medium-sized bowl mix together the flour baking powder and salt with a spatula or fork. Add the skim milk powder and baking soda as well if using Splenda. 4 Add a third of the flour mixture and a third of the milk to the creamed margarine and sugar. Stir well and repeat until all of the flour mixture and milk have been mixed into the margarine and sugar. 5 Using a spatula evenly spread the batter over the bottom of the cake pan and set aside. 6 To make the topping combine the ingredients in a bowl stir well and gently pour over the cake batter. 7 Bake for 20 to 25 minutes until a toothpick inserted into the centre of the cake comes out clean and dry. 8 Serve warm or cold. Per Serving with sugar: 2 1 ⁄2-x-2 1 ⁄2-inch/6.25-x-6.25-cm piece 67 g Calories 167 Available carbohydrate 30 g Carbohydrate 31 g Fibre 1 g Fat 4 g Protein 2 g Cholesterol 1 mg Phosphorus 57 mg Potassium 72 mg Sodium 224 mg. 1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices

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Chapter 18: Kooking for Kids 281 Per Serving with Splenda: 2 1 ⁄2-x-2 1 ⁄2-inch/6.25-x-6.25-cm piece 55 g Calories 146 Available carbohydrate 25 g Carbohydrate 26 g Fibre 1 g Fat 4 g Protein 2 g Cholesterol 1 mg Phosphorus 58 mg Potassium 72 mg Sodium 231 mg. 1 Serving 1 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choices T Banana Chocolate Chip Muffins Here’s a muffin the kids can still take to school — this recipe doesn’t call for nuts Preparation Time: 12 minutes Cooking Time: 20 minutes with sugar/15 minutes with Splenda Yield: 12 muffins 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml 1 milk 1 egg beaten 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml canola oil 1 cup 250 ml bananas mashed 1 3 ⁄4 cup 425 ml flour 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml sugar or Splenda 1 tbsp 15 ml baking powder 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml chocolate chips 2 tbsp 30 ml ground flaxseed 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml salt 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml skim milk powder if using Splenda 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml baking soda if using Splenda 1 Preheat the oven to 400 degrees Fahrenheit 200 degrees Celsius. Use canola oil to lightly grease a muffin pan or place paper liners in the cups. 2 In a medium-sized bowl mix together the milk egg oil and bananas using a spatula or wooden spoon. 3 In another medium-sized bowl mix together the remaining ingredients. 4 Combine the contents of the two bowls and stir well. Spoon equal amounts of batter into the muffin cups. 5 Bake for 20 minutes if made with sugar and 15 minutes if made with Splenda. Remove from the oven and allow the muffins to cool on a wire rack. Serve. Per Serving with sugar: 1 muffin 60 g Calories 204 Available carbohydrate 30 g Carbohydrate 32 g Fibre 2 g Fat 8 g Protein 3 g Cholesterol 18 mg Phosphorus 78 mg Potassium 135 mg Sodium 228 mg. 1 Serving 2 Carbohydrate Choices Per Serving: with Splenda 1 muffin 60 g Calories 180 Available carbohydrate 23 g Carbohydrate 25 g Fibre 2 g Fat 8 g Protein 4 g Cholesterol 18 mg Phosphorus 92 mg Potassium 159 mg Sodium 262 mg. 1 Serving 1 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choices

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282 Part III: Healthy Eating: Natural Nutritious Recipes T Little Jam Cupcakes This cupcake recipe has been in Cynthia’s family for as long as she can remember. The great thing about these cupcakes is that they don’t need icing Less fuss and mess and they taste fabulous. Preparation Time: 20 minutes Cooking Time: 15 to 20 minutes with sugar/11 to 13 minutes with Splenda Yield: 10 cupcakes with sugar/8 cupcakes with Splenda 2 eggs egg whites separated from the yolks 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml sugar or Splenda 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml vanilla 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml lemon juice 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml flour 1 ⁄8 tsp 0.5 ml salt 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml soft margarine melted 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml diet jam 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml skim milk powder if using Splenda 1 ⁄4 tsp 1 ml baking soda if using Splenda 1 Preheat the oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit 175 degrees Celsius. Place paper liners in 10 muffin cups. Using paper liners will reduce mess caused by the jam. 2 In a small bowl beat the egg whites with an electric beater or whisk until stiff peaks form about 2 minutes. Set aside. 3 In a second small bowl use clean beaters or a whisk to beat the egg yolks until they are thick. 4 Add the sugar or Splenda vanilla and lemon juice to the egg yolks. Mix well. 5 Fold the flour salt and the skim milk powder and baking soda if using Splenda alternately with the melted margarine into the bowl with the egg yolk mixture. When the batter is smooth fold in the egg whites as well. 6 Spoon 1 tablespoon 15 millilitres of batter into each muffin cup. Add 1 teaspoon 5 millilitres of diet jam and top with another 2 tablespoons 30 millilitres of batter. 7 Bake for 15 to 20 minutes if using sugar or 11 to 13 minutes if using Splenda or until a toothpick inserted in the centre of the muffin comes out clean. 8 Cool on a wire rack. Serve. Per Serving with sugar: 1 cupcake 44 g Calories 184 Available carbohydrate 22 g Carbohydrate 23 g Fibre 1 g Fat 10 g Protein 2 g Cholesterol 42 mg Phosphorus 30 mg Potassium 32 mg Sodium 123 mg. 1 Serving 1 1 ⁄2 Carbohydrate Choices Per Serving with Splenda: 1 cupcake 49 g Calories 194 Available carbohydrate 18 g Carbohydrate 19 g Fibre 1 g Fat 13 g Protein 4 g Cholesterol 53 mg Phosphorus 59 mg Potassium 76 mg Sodium 205 mg. 1 Serving 1 Carbohydrate Choice

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Part IV The Part of Tens

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H In this part . . . ere we offer three lists that provide you with some helpful information. We answer ten frequently asked questions about living with diabetes and set the record straight on ten diabetes nutrition myths.

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O Chapter 19 Ten Frequently Asked Questions To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here In This Chapter ▶ Finding out how diabetes affects how you eat ▶ Understanding the essentials of successful diabetes management ver the years we’ve been in practice we’ve been asked many many dif- ferent diabetes food-related questions. A few however come up much more often than others. In this chapter we’ve collected the ten most fre- quently asked questions and provide our answers. One thing you will notice as you read our answers is that we use terms like “it depends” or “some- times” or other such qualifiers. The reason for this isn’t that we want to be evasive but well the answers do depend they depend on a person’s eating preferences work activities medications and so on. Why Can’t I Skip Meals to Lose Weight Most Canadians living with type 2 diabetes — and a significant number of Canadians living with type 1 diabetes — are overweight and are facing the challenge of how to shed extra pounds. In Chapter 4 we discuss helpful strategies you can use to lose weight. Skipping meals isn’t one of them Indeed we include it in our list of “Ways to sabotage your attempts at losing weight.” In theory skipping meals could help you lose weight. Since pretty well all foods and liquids water diet soft drinks and the like aside contain calories if you skipped meals you would avoid the calories the meals would have contained and you would eventually lose weight. Well as we say that’s the theory.

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286 Part IV: The Part of Tens The reality is that if you skip meals you’re going to feel that much hungrier as the day progresses and if you’re like most people in this situation when your next meal comes around you’ll eat more than enough to compensate for the food and hence calories you deprived yourself of earlier in the day. Alternatively as evening approaches most often it is breakfast or lunch that is skipped you’ll repeatedly beat a path to the fridge or pantry in search of snacks until suppertime. Either way you’ll end up consuming as many or possibly even more calories than if you hadn’t skipped a meal in the first place. If I Don’t Eat Carbs My Sugars Will Be Low Right The term “carbs” is the short form for the word “carbohydrates.” Carbohydrates as we discuss in Chapter 2 can be loosely thought of as the wide variety of sugars you consume in your diet. Carbohydrates range from bread rice and pasta to fruit and milk to regular non-diet soft drinks to sugar-rich deserts and snack foods like cakes and chocolate bars. Because carbohydrates are forms of sugar they are the nutrients that will raise your blood glucose your “blood sugar”. Given the preceding facts it’s probably not surprising that we are often asked “if carbs raise your blood sugar then wouldn’t avoiding carbs cause low blood sugar” To which we answer well yes . . . and no. First the “no.” Diabetes in and of itself does not cause low blood glucose. And if you have diabetes treated with lifestyle alone then avoiding carbohydrates will not cause you to have low blood glucose. Pure and simple. And now the “yes.” As we discuss in Chapter 1 some medications like insulin and sulfonylureas especially glyburide that are used to treat diabetes can lead to low blood glucose. Let’s say for example its dinner time and you check your blood glucose and you find it to be 4.5 mmol/L which is perfectly normal. You take your usual dose of rapid-acting meal time insulin but you then decide to deviate from your usual pattern of ingesting 100 grams of carbs as part of your dinner and on this occasion consume no carbs at all. Since your blood glucose was normal to start with and you didn’t consume any carbs to raise your blood glucose yet you took insulin to reduce your blood glucose the odds are good you’ll end up developing low blood glucose hypoglycemia. If you take rapid-acting meal time insulin and your blood glucose levels after your meals are overly variable this may be due to inconsistent intake of carbohydrates. An effective strategy to address this is to carbohydrate count. We discuss this strategy in detail in Chapter 1.

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Chapter 19: Ten Frequently Asked Questions I’m Not Hungry for Breakfast — Do I Need It Most people have a pretty hectic time from the moment first thing in the morning that the alarm be it the one that sits on the bedside table or the more mobile one with two little feet that comes running into your room goes off until they’re out the door or have the rest of the family out the door. Given this fast pace finding time for breakfast can be a challenge. Also many people don’t feel particularly hungry first thing in the morning. If you find yourself with little time to eat breakfast or not much interest in eating breakfast you might be wondering if it’s okay to skip this meal altogether. Well despite these challenges we recommend you do indeed make a point of eating breakfast. Eating breakfast will ✓ Help provide you with the energy you will need to function in the morning ✓ Make you less hungry as the morning progresses and therefore less likely to snack excessively ✓ Allow you to distribute your carbohydrates over three meals with or without snacks per day which will make it easier to prevent high blood glucose ✓ Reduce your likelihood of low blood glucose if you are taking medicines that can lead to hypoglycemia see the FAQ that precedes this one Having said all this we do recognize the realities of modern-day existence and appreciate that you may not always be able to eat breakfast. For most people skipping the occasional breakfast will do no harm. 287 If you are taking insulin or sulfonylurea medication be sure to ask your doctor what you are to do with these medicines when you are not going to be eating breakfast. For some quick and easy breakfast ideas — which hopefully will make it less likely that you will skip breakfast — check out the Rise and Shine breakfast recipes in Chapter 7. Do I Really Need Snacks For quite some time it has been considered gospel that everyone living with diabetes needs to eat snacks typically midway between breakfast and lunch again midway between lunch and dinner and also at bedtime. However many people living with diabetes simply don’t desire a snack and therefore ask if it’s really necessary to have one or more.

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288 Part IV: The Part of Tens The current Canadian Diabetes Association CDA Clinical Practice Guidelines have revisited the issues surrounding snacking and now advise that including snacks in a person’s meal plan should be “individualized based on meal spacing metabolic control treatment regimen and risk of hypoglycemia.” We are pleased with the CDA’s recommendation because it recognizes that each person living with diabetes has their own needs and wants and this applies to snacking also. Factors that will influence whether or not you need to have snacks as part of your nutrition program include your ✓ Blood glucose control ✓ Meal spacing ✓ Diabetes medications ✓ Calorie requirements and whether or not you are trying to lose weight ✓ Exercise routine including the type of exercise you do and the time you do it as well as its duration and intensity ✓ Being pregnant. If you are pregnant because of your additional nutritional needs snacking becomes more important. ✓ Risk of hypoglycemia. If you are prone to low blood glucose overnight take a bedtime snack to reduce your risk of having hypoglycemia during the night. Also speak to your doctor to see if your medications can be changed to help you avoid having low blood glucose overnight. Should I Use Sugar Substitutes There are many different types of sugars carbohydrates but in general when people talk about “sugar” in their diet they are not referring to the broad range of carbohydrates one consumes but rather are specifically referring to consuming table sugar sucrose. Because sucrose contains calories and can raise blood glucose whereas sugar substitutes sugar alcohols artificial sweeteners and the natural sweetener stevia when used in typical amounts do not contain calories or raise blood glucose a frequently asked question is whether a sugar substitute should be used instead of sucrose. In general using sugar substitutes in lieu of sucrose is reasonable when it comes to adding something sweet to coffee tea or cereal choosing a soft drink and so forth. You should however be aware of a few caveats:

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Chapter 19: Ten Frequently Asked Questions ✓ Artificial sweeteners containing cyclamates or saccharin should not be consumed by pregnant women ✓ Aspartame shouldn’t be consumed if you have a medical condition called PKU ✓ Artificial sweeteners are not always a suitable substitute for sugar in some baked goods ✓ Stevia does not have robust medical studies proving its safety and Health Canada recommends it not be used if you are pregnant ✓ Sugar alcohols can cause diarrhea and can sometimes modestly raise blood glucose levels ✓ Sugar-free foods can have just as many calories as their sugar-containing equivalent products Should I Check My Blood Sugar After Meals Most people with diabetes who test their blood glucose do so pretty well only before they eat. Before-meal testing is certainly very important but testing one’s blood glucose after meals can often provide very helpful additional information to help you manage your diabetes. Testing your blood glucose after meals will provide you with this additional information: ✓ If certain types of carbohydrates — or the way you’ve cooked them — are more likely than others to raise your blood glucose. This often relates to the glycemic index of a food see Chapter 4. ✓ If a given serving size pushes your blood glucose level above target. ✓ For those people being treated with oral hypoglycemic agents: whether the doses or types of drugs should be changed. Certain oral hypoglycemic agents are better than others at keeping after-meal blood glucose levels controlled. ✓ For those people being treated with meal-time rapid-acting or regular insulin: whether the insulin doses need to be changed. ✓ For those people performing carbohydrate counting using an insulin to carbohydrate ratio ICR and using an insulin sensitivity factor ISF also called a correction factor: if these parameters need adjusting. If your before-meal blood glucose readings are within target yet your A1C is above target it is likely that your after-meal blood glucose readings are elevated. 289

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290 Part IV: The Part of Tens Does It Matter When I Take My Mealtime Insulin Virtually all people with type 1 diabetes and many people with type 2 diabetes take mealtime rapid-acting or regular insulin see Chapter 1 in order to prevent the blood glucose levels from going up excessively after eating. A frequently asked question is when relative to a meal the insulin should be given. In almost all situations we discuss two exceptions in a moment mealtime rapid-acting or regular insulin should be taken before you eat. This way the insulin has time to get absorbed from the injection site and make its way into your blood so it can be there at the ready to deal with the glucose molecules as they too reach the blood after being absorbed into your body from the food you eat. Regular insulin should be injected between 15 minutes and 30 minutes before you start to eat. The reason for this is that regular insulin takes 15 to 30 minutes before it starts to work. Because rapid-acting insulin acts as the name suggests rapidly it can be given anywhere from immediately before eating to 15 minutes before eating. This makes taking rapid-acting insulin more convenient to use than regular insulin for most people. Because rapid-acting insulin works so quickly in some special circumstances it can be given after a meal. Here are two situations where this is sometimes done: ✓ The young child whose eating is unpredictable. As most parents of a young child know there is no guarantee the child is going to eat all the food they are given. Therefore it can be difficult to know how much mealtime insulin the amount of which is based on the amount of carbohydrate being eaten to give. In this situation rapid-acting insulin is sometimes that is not routinely administered after the child eats this way the parent can give the dose based on what the child actually ate not on what it was anticipated he would eat. ✓ Diabetic Gastroparesis. Gastroparesis is a condition in which the stomach is damaged from longstanding diabetes and as a result doesn’t properly empty its contents into the small intestine. This delayed delivery of nutrients into the small intestine from where nutrients are then absorbed into the body results in a delayed — and often unpredictable — rise in blood glucose. This makes it very difficult to properly estimate how much insulin to give before a meal. One way of dealing with this is to delay giving insulin until an hour or so after eating at which time you check your blood glucose and then give an insulin dose based on your blood glucose level.

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Chapter 19: Ten Frequently Asked Questions Will I Always Need to Take Pills for My Type 2 Diabetes Most people with type 2 diabetes are prescribed medication oral hypoglycemic agents see Chapter 1 to control their blood glucose levels. We are often asked by our patients if there is the possibility these medications can eventually be discontinued. The quick answer to this question is ah well there is no quick answer. Here’s the less quick answer . . . Not everyone with type 2 diabetes who takes oral hypoglycemic agents will need to stay on them indefinitely. You are most likely to be able to successfully have your oral hypoglycemic agents discontinued if the following statements apply to you: ✓ You’ve had your diabetes for a relatively short period of time. ✓ You are very attentive to healthy eating and regular exercise. ✓ You were overweight when you were diagnosed with diabetes and you then lost significant weight. ✓ On treatment your blood glucose levels are now excellently controlled. If these listed features apply to you then your doctor may recommend to you that under their careful guidance and supervision you try weaning off your oral hypoglycemic agents. If an attempt is made to wean you off your medications it would be prudent for you to keep a close eye on your blood glucose readings and for you to notify your doctor if they climb above target. Alternatively your doctor may possibly advise you in advance of your stopping your drugs to simply restart them if your readings climb. The preceding comments apply only to your oral hypoglycemic agents not to blood pressure medicines cholesterol drugs and so forth. Whether or not these can be safely discontinued is an entirely different issue. Is Fruit Juice Good or Bad Is fruit juice good or bad Yes. And no. Yes fruit juice is good for you. Consuming fruit is part of a healthy diet whether or not you have diabetes and if that fruit comes in its natural state be it a banana orange apple and so on or in the form of juice you will be getting similar nutritional value so yes fruit juice is good for you. 291

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292 Part IV: The Part of Tens No fruit juice is bad for you. Well not really bad. Just less good than consuming fruit in its natural state. Here are some reasons why fruit juice may be less healthful than eating whole fruit: ✓ If you get your fruit in the form of juice unless you made it yourself there will have been processing involved during which some nutrients may have been lost. ✓ Fruit juice may contain less fibre than fruit in its natural state. ✓ Fruit juice is typically less filling than whole fruit so you may find yourself consuming more juice than is necessary or healthy. Fruit juice will raise your blood glucose and contributes calories to your diet. If you’re okay with eating whole fruit we recommend you eat whole fruit. On the other hand if you’re unlikely to eat fruit unless it’s in the form of juice then have your juice but just make sure you don’t consume too much of it. One place where fruit juice is definitely better than eating whole fruit is in the treatment of hypoglycemia since fruit juice will bring your blood glucose level up faster than whole fruit. Can I Eat Birthday Cake Yes you can eat birthday cake. Or wedding cake apple cake cheese cake or any other type of cake you desire. Indeed in Chapter 17 we present a whole bunch of recipes for cakes and pies and in Chapter 18 you’ll find a recipe for Happy Birthday Cake. One of the dictums to which we most closely adhere is that no food — no food — including cakes pies and other treats is forbidden if you have diabetes. There is of course a flip side to this. Although you can indeed eat cake you should only eat a limited quantity of this or other sweets. When eating cake or other sweets be mindful of portion sizes which should be small and the total amounts per day. No more than 10 percent of your daily calories should come from sweets. If you’re on a 2000 calorie per day diet 10 percent works out to 200 calories per day which is a small-sized piece of cake or pie. There is one other terribly important thing to bear in mind as you eat your piece of cake. Whatever you do do NOT feel guilty as you eat your treat and do not let others make you feel guilty. Enjoy your birthday cake. And if anyone however well intentioned tells you that you can’t eat birthday cake show them this section of this book so that they will know you are indeed very much allowed.

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O Chapter 20 Ten Diabetes Nutrition Myths In This Chapter ▶ Debunking misconceptions about diet and diabetes ne of our kids’ and our favourite television shows is MythBusters. As the name indicates this show is all about dispelling commonly held myths. Well we aren’t likely to appear on that show any time soon so instead in this chapter we do our own version of MythBusters and dispel ten commonly believed myths about diabetes nutrition. I Know What to Eat No Point Seeing a Dietitian Perhaps you’ve done a fair bit of reading about diabetes nutrition or per- haps you’re using common sense to help you determine what foods are good choices and what foods are best left alone. In either case it’s terrific and we extend our congratulations. We also invite you to further enrich your knowl- edge about healthy eating strategies by availing yourself of the expertise of a registered dietitian. A registered dietitian is the consummate pro when it comes to helping people optimize their health through nutrition. Also many dietitians working in the diabetes field have done additional training and have become Certified Diabetes Educators. See Chapter 1 for a discussion of some of the very many ways that a dietitian can help you in your quest for good health. If you have diabetes and you haven’t yet met with a dietitian you’re missing out. If you’re in this situation be sure to ask your doctor to refer you to a dieti- tian or instead call your local diabetes education centre and see if you can refer yourself.

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294 Part IV: The Part of Tens Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements Are of Proven Benefit if You Have Diabetes As we discuss in Chapter 2 omega-3 fatty acids are a good type of fat. Consuming a diet that is rich in omega-3 fatty acids helps reduce your risk of developing hardening of the arteries atherosclerosis and as a result lowers the risk of heart attack and stroke. Salmon herring sardines mackerel and trout are all excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids. Other good dietary sources are ground flaxseed omega-3 eggs and canola oil. Although it is known that consuming a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids is a healthy thing to do it is not as yet proven that people will derive the same health benefits if they get their omega-3 fatty acid in the form of supplements. Hopefully future research will provide this answer. If My Blood Sugar Goes up Overnight It’s Because of What I Ate If you check your blood sugar before bed and it is very good — say 6.4 mmol/L for example — yet you wake up in the morning and it’s elevated — say 8.7 mmol/L despite what many people think this is not likely due to having eaten “something wrong” the night before. The explanation in fact lies not in an overly large dinner or bedtime snack or to a sleepwalking trip to the fridge at 3 in the morning. Rather it lies in your liver and something called the dawn phenomenon. Beginning in the middle of the night the amount of certain hormones includ- ing growth hormone cortisol glucagon and epinephrine in the body nor- mally goes up. These hormones in turn promote the release of glucose from the liver into the bloodstream. A person without diabetes can counteract the liver’s tendency to release glucose into the bloodstream overnight by making more insulin and as a result blood glucose levels remain normal. A person with diabetes however may not be able to make enough insulin and as a result their blood glucose level goes up overnight that is their blood glucose level goes up as the dawn approaches hence the name dawn phenomenon. If you think you’re experiencing the dawn phenomenon speak to your doctor because a change in your medication may be required to keep your blood glu- cose levels in check overnight.

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Chapter 20: Ten Diabetes Nutrition Myths Soaking Rice or Lentils Will Help Prevent These Foods from Raising My Sugar Level Eating rice and dal which is a legume-based dish is a perfectly acceptable part of a healthy diabetes diet. One myth is that soaking rice and lentils will make these foods less likely to raise your blood glucose levels. In reality soaking rice and lentils doesn’t have any impact on their ability to affect your blood glucose levels. All that soaking does is lead to loss of cer- tain vitamins from these foods. Although you shouldn’t soak rice rinsing rice is okay. Rinsing rice will increase its quality making it more flavourful and less sticky when prepared. I Can’t Eat My Homeland Food Now That I Have Diabetes If you like so many millions of other Canadians have moved here from some other country you may have heard that having diabetes means you can no longer eat foods from your homeland. This is definitely a myth. Eating a healthy diabetes diet does not mean giving up your traditional foods. It may however require you to make some modifications. Under the expert guidance of a dietitian you need to discover which of your traditional foods contain carbohydrate salt fat and so forth and then to determine with the dietitian’s help how often and how much of your favourite foods you can eat. Sometimes new Canadians say they have concerns that a Canadian dietitian won’t be familiar with their traditional foods and as a result they believe that it won’t be worth their while to meet with a dietitian. If this applies to you we are ever so glad that you’re reading this section. Registered dietitians are both highly trained and highly skilled. And their training includes being familiar not just with “Western” foods but with foods from everywhere on the planet. Canada is after all a nation of immigrants and therefore dietitians must know all about food types customs and pref- erences from every corner of the world . . . including your corner. You may find yourself surprised when you visit your dietitian for the first time — there’s a darn good chance your dietitian may even come from the same country as you do 295

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296 Part IV: The Part of Tens The Canadian Diabetes Association CDA has handouts and teaching tools on how to incorporate traditional foods from various regions of the world into a healthy diabetes eating program. The CDA also has local chapters for Chinese Caribbean Polish Ukrainian Pilipino Jewish South Asian and other groups. To learn more about these resources visit the CDA Web site www.diabetes. ca or call the CDA at 1-800-BANTING. Spices Make Blood Sugar Levels Go Up You may have heard that eating spices makes blood glucose levels go up. Well truth be told this is not so. The reality is that the spices you love and even those you hate don’t have any influence on your blood glucose levels. Even better since people love spices and since they won’t worsen your blood glucose or your blood pressure they can be safely used as an alterna- tive to salt. A few years ago a report came out suggesting that cinnamon could actually improve blood glucose levels. Alas further scientific research determined that this isn’t the case. Like the taste of cinnamon Then keep using it but for its taste value not its medicinal value. All White Food Is Bad and Should Be Avoided When it comes to the question of whether all white food is bad we’ve got to say that this isn’t ahem a black and white issue. Indeed as we note a number of times in this book no food is forbidden just because you have dia- betes and that includes any and all white foods — even white marshmallows Of course just because a food isn’t forbidden doesn’t automatically make that food a nutritious choice that should be consumed routinely or in unlim- ited quantities. A main reason why white foods sometime have a bad reputation is because certain white foods have a high glycemic index meaning that they have a greater tendency to raise blood glucose than do some other foods of equal car- bohydrate content. We discuss the glycemic index in Chapter 4. There are however so many exceptions to this rule that it’s not much of a rule at all.

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Chapter 20: Ten Diabetes Nutrition Myths For example new potatoes have a lower glycemic index than some other types of potato basmati rice which is white has a similar glycemic index to brown rice white sugar’s affect on blood glucose is no better or worse than brown sugar’s and of course milk and yogurt are excellent food choices. Remember the old rule about not judging a book by its cover We suggest adding a parallel phrase: Don’t judge a food by its colour. Eating Too Much Sugar Causes Type 2 Diabetes Likely the most common diabetes myth of all is the notion that eating excess amounts of sugar causes type 2 diabetes. In a word or two it doesn’t. Type 2 diabetes develops due to a complex and incompletely understood interplay of genes and lifestyle factors the most important of which is being overweight. However it’s worth noting that not all people with type 2 diabe- tes are overweight. Eating sugar — even lots of it — is not responsible for diabetes. Indeed you likely know people who are “sugarholics” that don’t have and never will develop diabetes. If eating sugar is at all related to diabetes it is indirect in that eating excess quantities of sugar often means you’re consuming excess calories. It is these excess calories that may lead to overweight and over- weight in turn puts you at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. How you get overweight isn’t relevant in terms of your diabetes risk it is simply being overweight. Changing the Way I Eat Is Pointless — if I’m going to Get Diabetes I Can’t Do Anything to Prevent It Many people with a family history of type 2 diabetes feel that they’ll inevita- bly also get type 2 diabetes. Well it’s true that your risk of developing type 2 diabetes does go up if you have close relatives with the condition but it’s a myth that you’re powerless to prevent it. The reality is that there’s lots you can do to prevent it 297

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298 Part IV: The Part of Tens The most important thing you can do to lower your risk of developing type 2 diabetes is to follow a healthy lifestyle. Eating fewer calories less fat and more fibre and exercising regularly coupled with losing weight if you’re overweight can reduce your risk of developing type 2 diabetes by up to 60 percent. Sixty percent. Wow talk about exploding a myth Lifestyle change is always the best way of reducing your risk of developing type 2 diabetes but it’s worth noting that several medications are available including acarbose metformin and thiazolidinediones which have also been shown to reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes or at the very least to delay its onset. We discuss these drugs in Chapter 1. If I’m Sick I Have to Force Myself to Eat Normally If you have diabetes and you get sick with a cold or other relatively minor illness that lays you up at home but isn’t so severe that you need to seek urgent medical attention or be hospitalized you may feel that you have to force yourself to continue to eat as you would normally for fear that to do otherwise will cause your blood sugars to go out of whack. The problem is however that if you’re like most people when you’re feeling really crummy the last thing in the world you want to do is eat three square meals. If you have diabetes and you become ill with a cold or other flu-like illness you will be at risk of both high blood glucose due to the physical stress on your body of the illness and low blood glucose from the action of your blood glucose–lowering medications. You will also be at risk of dehydration. If you feel up to it eating and drinking as you would normally is ideal. However it’s a myth that you need to force yourself to do this. You do how- ever need to maintain your hydration and get nutrients into your body. To maintain your hydration drink plenty of fluids. Choices include water soup such as beef barley or that all-time sick-day friend chicken soup fruit juice pop regular sugar-containing pop if you’re not getting sufficient carbo- hydrates any other way that day a Popsicle milk Gatorade or commercial milkshakes made specifically for those with diabetes. For nutrition eat small quantities of food frequently. Good choices include a slice of bread or toast soda crackers melba toast oatmeal fruit Jell-o yogurt and sherbet. Have a supply of foods and drinks including some of these we just mentioned set aside in your house in a designated container “sick day box” in case you need them in a pinch. If you’re feeling crummy the last thing in the world you’re going to want to do is go grocery shopping

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Chapter 20: Ten Diabetes Nutrition Myths When you’re ill — especially if you have type 1 diabetes or if you have insuf- ficiently controlled type 2 diabetes — you must check your blood glucose levels frequently in some cases as much as or more than a dozen times per day. Also you need to know what to do with your diabetes medications whether you need to check for ketones a type of acid in your blood or urine when you should go to the hospital and so forth. If you haven’t had this dis- cussion with your diabetes educators and your doctor be sure to call them to arrange a meeting. Better to have a plan of action in place now then finding yourself suddenly in a quandary when you become ill. 299

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300 Part IV: The Part of Tens

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W Chapter 21 Ten Tips for Healthy Eating To Cure Diabetes Naturally Click Here In This Chapter ▶ Looking at how to keep time on your side ▶ Discovering how to eat what you want and what you need e have a hunch that if we asked you to list off reasons to eat health- fully you’d likely be able to do so pretty readily. You’d probably think of benefits like feeling better helping with weight control reducing your risk of heart disease improving your cholesterol lowering your blood pressure and your blood glucose levels and so on. Eating healthfully is often challenging however so in this chapter we provide ten tips to help you in your quest. Eat Three Meals per Day Eating three balanced meals per day is the foundation of an overall healthy nutrition strategy and will provide your body with the energy and nutrients needed throughout the day. An additional important reason to eat three meals per day if you have dia- betes is so that your body can better handle the carbohydrates you eat. Carbohydrate is the nutrient that raises blood glucose. With diabetes your body has by definition a tendency toward high blood glucose. By distribut- ing your daily carbohydrates over three meals you’ll help your body deal with this nutrient better than if you consumed all your day’s carbohydrates in one go. As a result of dividing up your carbohydrates over the course of the day you may have better blood glucose control.

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302 Part IV: The Part of Tens Limit the Time between Meals to Less Than Six Hours The main reason for people living with diabetes to avoid going more than six hours between meals is that this can lead to problems with blood glucose control. In particular delaying a meal often leads to overeating at the next meal which will raise your blood glucose. Also many diabetes medications have a fairly long action and if you don’t eat at regular intervals the medi- cines can lead to hypoglycemia. Although going longer than six hours between meals is less than ideal we are strong believers that your diabetes management should whenever pos- sible revolve around your life not vice versa. Therefore if your lifestyle dictates that you will be going more than six hours between meals you can help smooth out your blood glucose control avoid hypoglycemia and avoid overeating come the next meal by having a snack about halfway between your meals. A snack could consist of a fruit yogurt two digestive biscuits a slice of toast and 1 tbsp 15 ml of peanut butter or 1 ounce 30 g of low-fat cheese with four to five high-fibre crackers. If your lifestyle fits best with going more than six hours between meals speak to your registered dietitian and your doctor to see how your treatment regi- men can fit with this eating schedule. Keep Your Sweets as Treasured Treats If you have diabetes there is no forbidden sweet. Indeed you can eat any- thing your heart desires. You want chocolate cake Go for it. Ice cream Enjoy. Licorice Yum. Having diabetes is not meant to be a punishment All foods can fit even sweet treats though we admit that calling sweets “foods” is stretching it a bit. There is however a but. The but is that although eating sugary snacks is okay it must be done in very limited quantities. The Canadian Diabetes Association advises that no more than 10 percent of your daily calorie intake come in the form of sucrose table sugar as is used in baking and as is pres- ent in many sweet snack foods. For a person following a 2000 calorie diet this works out to 200 calories per day. Two hundred calories is found in many candy bars about two-thirds of a cup 150 ml of ice cream or a small slice of cake or pie. You should limit how many sweets you eat because they provide so-called empty calories that is calories without associated nutritional value and raise blood glucose. Also they replace more nutritious foods in your diet.

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Chapter 21: Ten Tips for Healthy Eating When reaching for a snack you’re better off foregoing junk food and instead opting for more nutritious foods like fruit or nuts. But having some sweet snacks — in limited quantities — is okay. Enjoy it. And don’t feel guilty Choose Low-Fat Foods Having diabetes considerably increases your risk of developing atheroscle- rosis hardening of the arteries which in turn increases the chances of your having a heart attack a stroke or a leg amputation. This risk however there’s always a “however” or a “but” when it comes to diabetes risks is markedly reduced if you keep your cholesterol in check. In particular and as we discuss in Chapter 2 most people with diabetes should have a blood LDL cholesterol the “bad” cholesterol level no higher than 2 mmol/L. Choosing low-fat foods will help you get your LDL cholesterol into target range and keep it there. Bear in mind that not all fat is the same. As we review in Chapter 2 you should minimize your intake of saturated fat as is found in meats and your ingestion of trans fats. On the other hand a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids as is found in certain types of fish helps protect against atherosclerosis. Low-fat foods often contain fewer calories than their non-low-fat counter- parts. Therefore choosing low-fat foods can help with weight management. Select low-fat cheese. Choose 1 percent or skim milk rather than whole milk which contains 3.25 percent milk fat. Opt for low-fat yogurt low-fat pud- ding low-fat lean meats chicken without the skin and so forth. However when buying ultra-low-fat or fat-free foods be careful to read the labels because some of these products — especially certain types of peanut butter salad dressings and mayonnaise — may have sugar added. Nutrition therapy is very important in controlling your blood cholesterol levels but medication therapy is also often required. We discuss this further in Chapter 4. Choose Whole Grains and High-Fibre Foods As we discuss in Chapter 2 whole grains and fibre are good food choices and provide many health benefits including making controlling your weight and blood sugars easier helping avoid constipation reducing cholesterol and importantly possibly reducing your risk of heart disease. Not too shabby. 303

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304 Part IV: The Part of Tens Given this and other health benefits of consuming lots of whole grains and fibre we encourage you to fill your grocery cart with foods that are rich in these nutrients. When making your food purchases look for the term “whole grain” on the label. And in this buyer beware world it is important to know that foods labelled “multigrain” or “organic” may or may not be whole grain products and that bread that has a brownish colour is not necessarily whole grain — rather it may simply have been coloured brown by the addition of something like molasses. A whole grain food is not necessarily high in fibre. Therefore when buying your food in addition to reviewing any health claims on the package check the fibre content in the Nutrition Facts table. We discuss health claims and Nutrition Facts tables in Chapter 6. If the health claim says the product is a ✓ Source of fibre then it contains 2 grams or more of fibre per serving. ✓ High source of fibre then it contains 4 grams or more of fibre per serving. ✓ Very high source of fibre then it contains 6 grams or more of fibre per serving. If the fibre content listed in the Nutrition Facts table is 15 percent or more of your “ Daily Value” then the food is a high source of fibre. Eat Vegetables and Fruit at Most Meals Consuming fruits and vegetables is integral to good diabetes health and should be a part of almost every meal. Canada’s Food Guide recommends that teens and adults consume seven to ten servings of vegetables and fruits daily. Cynthia routinely finds that most people she counsels aren’t getting enough vegetables and fruits. Perhaps you love eating fruits and vegetables in which case you’ll need no convincing to make them a part of your daily eating plan. Or perhaps you don’t love them but like them enough that you also don’t need any arm twist- ing. But what if — heavens — you really just don’t like fruits or vegetables at all what then Well all we can say is that sometimes you “gotta do what you gotta do” and if the taste of fruits and vegetables isn’t of sufficient appeal for you to munch on them then eat them for the most altruistic of reasons — your good health. If you don’t like cooked vegetables you may like raw vegetables or salads. Try adding or hiding vegetables in soups or casseroles. Don’t forget veg- etable juices but choose the unsalted variety. If you don’t like fresh fruit canned fruit packed in its own juice is fine. Also be sure to try the Apple Crisp Oatmeal Fruit Crepes or the smoothies in this book.

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Chapter 21: Ten Tips for Healthy Eating Because fruit contains sugar it sometimes gets a bad wrap. Perhaps you’ve eaten some fruit and found your blood glucose level rose afterward. However this doesn’t mean that fruit is unhealthy. What it does mean is that although you should eat fruit daily you shouldn’t eat it in unrestricted amounts. A medium-sized piece of fruit at each meal is generally sufficient. Also if eating appropriate quantities of fruit still makes your blood glucose level go up unduly you should get in touch with your dietitian to ensure that you’re eating the right amount of fruit and your doctor to see if your diabe- tes medications need adjusting. Load Up with Calcium and Vitamin D Having a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D is essential for good health whether or not you have diabetes. Calcium and you Canada’s Food Guide recommends two to four servings per day of Milk and Alternatives based on age and gender. As we discuss in Chapter 2 “alterna- tives” in this context refers to items such as cheese yogurt and soy-based products. Calcium which is plentiful in Milk and Alternatives is important for strong bones and teeth and is needed for proper muscle and nerve function. These are examples of good sources of calcium: ✓ 1 cup 250 ml cow’s milk or fortified rice or soy beverage has 300 mg ✓ 1 cup 250 ml fortified orange juice has 300 mg ✓ 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml plain yogurt has 290 mg ✓ 1 oz. 30 g cheddar Edam or Gouda cheese has 245 mg ✓ 1 ⁄2 can salmon with the bones has 240 mg ✓ 1 ⁄2 can sardines with the bones has 200 mg Osteoporosis Canada www.osteoporosis.ca an “organization serving people who have or are at risk for osteoporosis” recommends you ingest a total of 800 to 1500 mg of calcium per day based on age. This total includes both the calcium you get from food sources and any calcium supplements you may be taking. 305

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306 Part IV: The Part of Tens Vitamin D and you It seems like every day some new medical research comes out shedding ever more light on the importance of getting sufficient vitamin D in your diet. As we discuss in Chapter 2 lack of vitamin D can lead to osteoporosis which in turn makes one susceptible to fractures and has also been associated with an increased risk of developing many other diseases including atheroscle- rosis and cancer. In order for vitamin D to do its job of maintaining strong bones it needs to have sufficient amounts of calcium with which to work bones are after all primarily made of calcium. Vitamin D enhances the intes- tine’s ability to absorb calcium into the body. It’s hard to get sufficient vitamin D in your diet. For example one cup 250 ml of milk fortified with vitamin D has 100 units of vitamin D which is far less than a person’s daily needs and other foods like margarine eggs salmon sardines herring mackerel swordfish and cod liver oil contain only small amounts of vitamin D. Another way of getting vitamin D is to make it yourself In this case we’re not talking about creating your own home lab but rather the process where your own sun-exposed skin makes vitamin D. Unfortunately one drawback of living in this great country of ours is that short winter days and the need to bundle up when outdoors means that Canadians typically aren’t getting enough vitamin D from October to April. Also even when the weather turns warm and people are out in the sun the commonplace use of sunscreen also limits the amount of vitamin D that the skin can make. These are some key reasons why many Canadians whether or not living with diabetes need to take vitamin D supplements. Many Canadian adults require vitamin D supplements. The amount you need — which may vary from 200 units per day to 1000 units per day or more — will depend on your age gender and other factors. Be sure to talk to your doctor and your dietitian to find out what the right amount is for you. Considering Multivitamins — Do You Need Them Every year Canadians spend hundreds of millions of dollars on vitamin sup- plements. Is this money well spent Should you be taking a multivitamin If you’re eating a well-balanced diet following the nutrition principles out- lined in Chapter 2 of this book and as taught by your registered dietitian and when necessary taking a specific vitamin supplement like Vitamin D then you’re getting all the vitamins you need and all that taking a multivitamin

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Chapter 21: Ten Tips for Healthy Eating supplement does is give you very expensive vitamin-laden urine or simi- larly expensive fat cells where many excess vitamins will end up residing. Bottom line: Taking a multivitamin is seldom of benefit unless you’re preg- nant in which case you should indeed be taking a daily multivitamin. 307 If you’re wondering whether or not you should take a multivitamin or for that matter any other vitamin supplement we recommend you speak with your dietitian. He or she will be able to give you excellent advice tailored to your particular situation and needs. Drink Water The human body is an incredibly intricate finely tuned and wondrous machine. The human body is also 60 percent water. Ah water truly is the sweet elixir of life As we discuss in detail in Chapter 2 consuming enough water to make up for your daily water losses from urine stool sweat breathing and so forth is essential. Drinking water will also help you feel full and thus can reduce your appetite and help you with weight control. In general make a point of drinking at least 1.5 litres 6 cups of water per day. If however you are losing more than normal amounts of water from your body — as would be the case if you have a fever are exercising have high blood glucose and so on — then you need to consume greater quanti- ties of water. Enjoy Variety — All Foods Can Fit We never use the term “diabetic diet.” A so-called diabetic diet is simply a healthy eating program that includes appropriate proportions of carbohy- drates proteins and fats limited quantities of saturated fats and salt suffi- cient fibre and so on. A diabetes nutrition program doesn’t exclude anything not even sweets as we discuss earlier in this chapter. If you find your diet overly restrictive get in touch with your dietitian. Your dietitian will sit down with you and review your diet in detail and find ways of modifying your nutrition program so that you find it ahem palatable and suited to your individual needs.

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308 Part IV: The Part of Tens

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Part V Appendixes

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T In this part . . . he Web is a wild and wonderful place but getting accurate information about diabetes and nutrition online can sometimes be a challenge. In Appendix A we look at helpful and reliable places on the Web to learn about — and be kept up-to-date about — diabetes and nutrition. We also help you plan out a month of menus with well a month of menus.

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A Appendix A Nutrition and Recipe Web Sites for People with Diabetes number of excellent Web sites provide helpful information about various aspects of living with diabetes. Some sites focus specifically on healthy eating and some sites have a wide array of recipes. In this appendix we list some of these sites. If you have a site you find particularly helpful we’d love to hear about it please feel free to email us at diabetesianblumer.com. General Diabetes Web Sites Here are some helpful sites if you’re looking for general information to help you manage your diabetes. The Canadian Diabetes Association CDA www.diabetes.ca The CDA site is particularly helpful because it looks at diabetes issues from a Canadian perspective. Of special value is the listing of resources including addresses and phone numbers available in your province or territory and in some cases even within your community. A number of recipes can also be found on this site. The American Diabetes Association www.diabetes.org This helpful site offers tons of information but as you can imagine it uses American units for glucose cholesterol and so on which can make it con- fusing for those of us north of the 49th parallel. A large collection of recipes is available on this site.

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312 Part V: Appendixes Ian Blumer’s Practical Guide to Diabetes www.ourdiabetes.com This is as you likely guessed Ian’s Web site. Here you’ll find a collection of practical tips to help you look after your diabetes and to stay healthy. Online Diabetes Resources by Rick Mendosa www.mendosa.com On his site Rick Mendosa a medical writer who himself has diabetes has catalogued a vast amount of information on the Web concerning diabetes. Also available are some excellent articles that he’s written on various topics related to diabetes. Children with Diabetes www.childrenwithdiabetes.com This site is geared toward families with a child living with diabetes. It pro- vides a huge collection of recipes including many submitted by its readers which is good in that they come personally recommended however it also means the recipes may not have been evaluated by a registered dietitian. General Nutrition Web Sites These Web sites contain information on general principles of healthy eating. Dietitians of Canada www.dietitians.ca This site is a “voice of the profession.” Here you will find dietitians in your part of Canada as well as general nutrition information.

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Appendix A: Nutrition and Recipe Web Sites for People with Diabetes Healthy Eating is in Store for You www.healthyeatingisinstore.ca The Canadian Diabetes Association in partnership with Dietitians of Canada has created this Web site where you will find information on reading labels shopping tips healthy eating and a virtual grocery store tour. Health Canada Heath Canada has terrific not-to-be-missed information. Health Canada’s Main Web Site www.hc-sc.gc.ca This is a good place to start your tour of what Health Canada’s site has to offer. Health Canada information on food labelling www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/label-etiquet/nutrition This is the place to go to discover helpful facts about food labelling. Health Canada’s database on nutrients www.healthcanada.gc.ca/cnf This site contains Health Canada’s exhaustive database of “up to 143 nutri- ents in over 5500 foods.” Kraft Canada www.kraftcanada.com/en/Diabetes/DiabetesCentre.aspx This commercial Web site has lots of information on diabetes including a number of diabetes-friendly recipes. 313

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314 Part V: Appendixes EatRight Ontario www.eatrightontario.ca This Government of Ontario site was “designed to improve your health and quality of life through healthy nutritious eating.” Here you’ll find information on nutrients nutrition labelling menu planning and more. CalorieKing Food Database www.calorieking.com The CalorieKing food database contains a nutrition breakdown of an exhaus- tive list of foods including convenience foods and those served at popular restaurant chains. Diabetes Nutrition-focused Web Sites Here are sites that focus specifically on diabetes nutrition. These sites also contain recipes geared toward people living with diabetes. Many of the sites we list earlier in this appendix also contain diabetes-friendly recipes. Diabetic Gourmet Magazine www.diabeticgourmet.com Here you’ll find a whole host of recipes. The Diabetes Network www.diabetesnet.com/diabetes_food_diet The Diabetes Network has an abundance of helpful resources including reci- pes and information on carbohydrate counting and the glycemic index.

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Appendix A: Nutrition and Recipe Web Sites for People with Diabetes Reality Bites www.mymealplan.ca/recipes.php Reality Bites has a whole raft of recipes geared toward people living with diabetes. dLife www.dlife.com/dLife/do/ShowContent/food_and_nutrition dLife “for your diabetes life” has a large selection of recipes including cook- ing videos you’ll find on the “dLife kitchen.” 315

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316 Part V: Appendixes

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P Appendix B A Month of Menus lanning a menu is simple for some people living with diabetes but for many others it’s challenging or even downright daunting. Many people tell us they simply “don’t know what to put on the plate” or what is suitable to eat. Some people want variety without knowing how to get it and others tell us they deal with all these challenges by eating the same thing day after day after day. If you face any of these hurdles you’ve come to the right place. This book is designed to help you find a wide variety of healthy eating choices and this appendix in particular is geared toward helping you plan out as the title indicates a month of menus. This month of menus provides food choices for both small and larger caloric needs or appetites. We offer numerous ideas for snacks too. Each row of the tables represents a day and throughout the tables we offer chapter numbers indicating where you can locate the recipes we mention. Small Meal Plan The small meal plan provides approximately 1400 calories and includes three meals and a night snack. The table below represents the food group choices and grams of carbohy- drate for a small meal plan. This plan provides approximately 50 percent of total calories from carbohydrate 20 percent of total calories from protein and 30 percent of total calories from fat. This percentage is the current goal for main nutrient balance according to the Canadian Diabetes Association. This meal plan is just a sample. You can request a personalized meal plan to suit your lifestyle from your registered dietitian at your local diabetes educa- tion centre. Think of the following table as a template — a “fill in the blanks” if you will. In this table the “blanks” are terms such as “carbohydrate choice” or “veg- etables” and so forth. After this table we then look at many food choices you can substitute for the “blanks.”

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318 Part V: Appendixes Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snack 3 Carbohydrate Choices 45 g 3 Carbohydrate Choices 45 g 4 Carbohydrate Choices 60 g 1 Carbohydrate Choice 15 g Free vegetables Free vegetables Free vegetables Free vegetables 0–1 Protein Choices 1–2 Protein Choices 3 Protein Choices 0–1 Protein Choices 0–1 Fat Choices 1–2 Fat Choices 1–2 Fat Choices 0 Fat Choices In the following month of menus we build on those guidelines plugging in different types and amounts of various foods that taken together provide approximately 1400 calories per day and will do so in a balanced healthy way. Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snack Cranberry Walnut Muffin Chapter 7 1 oz 30 g low-fat cheese 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 2 Oatmeal Pancakes Chapter 7 with 2 tbsp 30 ml light syrup 1 small banana Coffee Salmon sandwich: 2 slices whole grain bread 1 ⁄4– 1 ⁄2 cup 50–125ml salmon 1 tbsp 15 ml light mayonnaise Diced celery/lettuce Tossed salad with 1 tbsp 15 ml light dressing 1 peach Water 1 cup 250 ml Classic Caesar Salad Chapter 9 4 rectangular melba toasts 1 oz 30 g low-fat cheese 1 pear 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 cup 250 ml Vegetarian Curry Tofu and Noodles Chapter 16 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Marinated Mushrooms with Herbs Chapter 9 1 ⁄2 mango 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml Hamburger Stroganoff Chapter 15 with 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml noodles 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml squash 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml yellow beans 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt with 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml Homemade Baked Granola Chapter 7 Tea 1 rye toast 1–2 tbsp 15–30 ml peanut butter 1 medium apple 1 oz 30 g low-fat cheese

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Appendix B: A Month of Menus 319 Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snack 2 slices rye toast 2 tbsp 30 ml peanut butter 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml fruit cocktail Flavoured tea 1 cup 250 ml whole grain cereal 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml sliced almonds Tea 1 1 ⁄8 cup 275 ml Mango Orange Banana Smoothie Chapter 7 1 slice whole grain toast with 2 tbsp 30 ml peanut butter 1 1 ⁄3 cups 325 ml Vegetarian Bean Chili Chapter 16 Tossed salad with 1 tbsp 15 ml light dressing Water 1 Mexican Quesadilla Chapter 16 Raw veggies and 1–2 tbsp 15–30 ml light dip 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml applesauce Diet pop 1 cup 250 ml Veggie Soup Chapter 8 1 beef sandwich: 2 slices multigrain bread 1–2 oz 30–60 g roast beef Mustard/lettuce 1 tsp 5ml soft margarine 3 arrowroot cookies Water 3 oz 90 g Greek Fish Chapter 13 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml mashed potato 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Tomato Cucumber Salad Chapter 9 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Swiss Chard with Pine Nuts Chapter 12 1 cup 250 ml grapes 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 milk 3 oz 90 g Roast Beef 2 tbsp 30 ml low-fat gravy 1 medium roasted potato 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml corn 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml green beans 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 3 oz 90 g Chicken in Dijon Sauce Chapter 14 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml brown rice 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Stir Fried Snow Peas Chapter 12 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml carrots 1 cup 250 ml strawberries 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml mixed fruit 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml low-fat cottage cheese 1 ⁄2 English Muffin with 1 tsp 5 ml soft margarine 1 oz 30 g fat-free ham 5 Triscuits 1 oz 30 g low-fat cheese

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320 Part V: Appendixes Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snack 1 slice multigrain toast with 1 tsp 5 ml 1 English Muffin with 1 oz 30 g low-fat 1 slice Salmon Loaf with 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml 3 ⁄4 cup 175ml oatmeal soft margarine and 2 tsp 10 ml diet jam 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt cheese 1 fried egg and lettuce / tomato 1 pear Cucumber Sauce Chapter 13 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Garlic 1 ⁄4 cup 50ml almonds 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml Baked Homemade Granola Chapter 7 Water Mashed Potatoes Chapter 11 Sliced tomato Tea 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml broccoli 1 cup 250 ml honeydew melon 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 slice Banana Bread Chapter 7 Corned beef sandwich: 1 cup 250ml Butter Chicken Chapter 14 1 ⁄2 cup 125ml Aboriginal Wild 1 oz 30g low fat cheese 1 ⁄2 cup 125ml 1 chocolate milk 1 whole grain English Muffin with 1 egg 1 tsp 5ml soft margarine and lettuce / tomato 1 ⁄2 cup 125ml juice 2 slices rye bread 1–2 oz 30–60 g corned beef Mustard 1 tsp 5 ml soft margarine 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Chunky Apple Coleslaw Chapter 9 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml mixed fruit cup Diet pop 1 cup 250 ml French Onion Soup Chapter 8 1 slice garlic bread with 1 oz 30 g low-fat cheese 2 kiwis Water 1 small naan bread Tossed salad and 1 tbsp 15 ml light dressing 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt Water 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375ml Stir- Fried Beef with Rice Noodles Chapter 15 1 cup 250 ml Fruity Spinach Salad Chapter 9 2 Jam Jewel Cookies Chapter 17 Tea Rice Pudding with Splenda Chapter 17 1 ⁄2 slice Banana Bread Chapter 7 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml nuts

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Appendix B: A Month of Menus 321 Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snack Raspberry Muffin Chapter 7 1 oz 30 g low-fat cheese 1 orange Coffee 1 cup 250 ml Shake Me Up Shake Chapter 7 1 slice flaxseed toast with 1–2 tbsp 15–30ml peanut butter 2 tsp 10 ml diet jam 3 ⁄4 cup 175ml yogurt 1 small banana 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml Baked Homemade Granola Chapter 7 Coffee 1 ⁄2 Pita with Curried Turkey Chapter 14 Carrot sticks 1 cup 250 ml strawberries 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 cup 250 ml Mediterranean Tuna Casserole Chapter 13 Tossed salad with 1–2 tbsp 15–30 ml diet dressing Diet Jell-O Tea 1 cup 250 ml Chinese Jewelled Rice Chapter 13 Celery sticks 1 pear Water 3 oz 90 g Parmesan Chicken Chapter 14 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml whole wheat pasta 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Zesty Asparagus Chapter 12 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml Orange Glazed Carrots Chapter 12 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml frozen yogurt Water 1 cup 250 ml Bulgur and Chickpea Salad with Lemon Dressing Chapter 9 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml green beans 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml applesauce 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 cup 250 ml Shepherd’s Pie Chapter 15 1 small whole wheat roll with 1 tsp 5 ml soft margarine Tossed salad and 1 tbsp 15 ml light dressing Baked Apple with Raspberries Chapter 18 Tea 2 Flax Cookies Chapter 17 10 almonds 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml Toasted Walnut Hummus Chapter 10 Raw veggies 1 Pizza Face Chapter 18 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 milk

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322 Part V: Appendixes Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snack 2 slices whole grain toast with 1 slice pea meal bacon and 1 cup 250 ml Asian Noodle Salad Chapter 9 1 cup 250 ml Groundnut Stew Chapter 15 3 Shanghai Dumplings with 1 ⁄2 tsp 2 ml sauce 2 tsp 10 ml soft margarine 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml juice 1 piece Baked Scone Chapter 7 with 1 tsp 5 ml soft margarine 1 cup 250 ml mixed fruit Herbal tea 1 cup 250 ml Akoori Scrambled Eggs Chapter 7 2 slices rye toast with 2 tsp 10 ml soft margarine 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk Tuna sandwich: 2 slices whole grain bread 1 ⁄4– 1 ⁄2 cup 50–125 ml tuna 1–2 tbsp 15–30ml light mayonnaise Celery/lettuce/onion 1 small banana Water 1 cup 250 ml Kale Soup Chapter 8 5 Triscuits 1 oz 30 g low-fat cheese 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt Water 1 cup 250 ml couscous 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Ethiopian Cabbage Chapter 12 Diet Jell-O 1/2 cup 125ml 1 milk 4 slices Barbequed Eggplant Chapter 16 1 cup 250 ml Classic Caesar Salad Chapter 9 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Balsamic Brussels Sprouts Chapter 12 1 small whole wheat roll with 2 tsp 10 ml soft margarine 1 Little Jam Cupcake with Splenda Chapter 18 Green tea 1 cup 250 ml Saffron Fish Chapter 13 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml basmati rice 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml cooked spinach 1 tsp 5 ml soft margarine 1 peach 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk Chapter 10 1 Banana Chocolate Chip Muffin with Splenda Chapter 18 1 tbsp 15 ml peanut butter 1 slice Feta Bruschetta Chapter 10

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Appendix B: A Month of Menus 323 Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snack 1 ⁄2 large flax bagel with 2 tbsp 30 ml light cream cheese 1 cup 250 ml Mixed Bean Salad Chapter 9 2 cups 500 ml Walnut Pear Salad with Chicken 1 piece Apple Crisp with Splenda Chapter 18 1 cup 250 ml cantaloupe Veggies and 1–2 tbsp 15–30ml light dip Chapter 9 1 slice rye bread 1 oz 30 g low-fat cheese Tea 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk with 1 tsp 5 ml soft margarine 3 ⁄4 cup 175ml yogurt Water 1 cup 250 ml canned fruit 1 cup 250 ml Veggie Soup Chapter 8 2 Chinese Tofu Mushroom Caps 1 piece Baked Scone Chapter 7 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml low-fat cottage cheese 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml Couscous Chickpea Chapter 16 1 cup 250 ml Chinese 1 oz 30 g low-fat cheese 1 slice multigrain toast with 1 tsp 5 Salad Chapter 9 1 Chocolate Zucchini Vegetable Fried Rice Chapter 11 ml soft margarine Muffin Chapter 17 10 lychees Coffee Diet pop 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 milk 2 chapatis Chapter 16 2 chapatis Chapter 16 3 oz 90 g Tandoori Chicken Chapter 14 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml Mango Bean Mix Chapter 11 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml Dal 1 boiled egg 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml 6 mini nachos Chapter 11 Coffee 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml mixed vegetables basmati rice 1 cup 250 ml Green 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt Pea Cauliflower and Tomato Curry Tea Chapter 12 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 milk

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324 Part V: Appendixes Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snack 1 slice rye toast with 1 tsp 5 ml soft margarine 1 toasted tomato and cheese sandwich: 2 slices rye bread 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml Nutty Rice and Mushroom Stir-Fry Chapter 16 3 cups 750 ml light popcorn 1 oz 30 g low-fat cheese 1 cup 250 ml Sliced tomatoes 2 oz 60 g low-fat cheese 2 tsp 10 ml soft 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Squash Apple Bake Chapter 12 grapes margarine 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt Green tea 2 Oatmeal Fruit Crepes Chapter 7 with 2 tbsp 30 ml light syrup 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk Veggies and 1 tbsp 15 ml light dip 1 slice Pumpkin Pie with Splenda Chapter 17 Diet pop 1 cup 250 ml Best Beef Soup Chapter 8 1 slice whole wheat toast with 1 tsp 5 ml soft margarine Tossed salad and 1 tbsp 15 ml light dressing 2 Chocolate Chip Cookies Chapter 17 Water Water 3 oz 90 g Cinnamon Lime Chicken Chapter 14 24 Sweet Potato Fries Chapter 11 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Beet and Feta Salad Chapter 9 1 slice Blueberry Pie with Splenda Chapter 17 Tea 1 slice rye toast 1 boiled egg 1 tsp 5 ml soft margarine

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Appendix B: A Month of Menus 325 Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snack 1 ⁄2 large whole grain bagel with 1 oz 30 g melted low-fat cheese Meatloaf sandwich: 2 slices multigrain bread 1 slice meatloaf 3 oz 90 g Crispy Coated Sole Chapter 13 Slice of lemon 1 Baked Custard Chapter 17 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 milk 1 ⁄2 grapefruit Chapter 15 1 tsp 5 ml soft 2 Potato Latkes Coffee 1 whole grain English Muffin with 2 tbsp 30 ml peanut butter 1 small banana Green tea margarine 1 tbsp 15 ml light mayonnaise 1 ⁄2 cup 125ml Tomato Cucumber Salad Chapter 9 1 Mini Cheesecake Chapter 17 Flavoured water 1 1 ⁄3 cup 325 ml Pork Chow Mein Chapter 15 1 dill pickle 15 cherries Coffee Chapter 11 2 tbsp 30 ml light sour cream 1 cup 250 ml mixed vegetables 1 piece Carrot Cake Chapter 17 Tea 3 oz 90 g barbe- cued steak 1 medium baked potato with 1 tbsp 15 ml light sour cream and chives 1 cup 250 ml Broccoli with Feta and Roasted Peppers Chapter 12 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml Grilled Vegetables Chapter 12 1 piece Happy Birthday Cake with Splenda Chapter 18 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 milk 30 pretzel sticks 1 tbsp 15 ml almond butter

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Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snack 4 small Cottage Chicken salad 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml 5 Triscuits Cheese Pancakes Chapter 7 with 2 sandwich: 2 slices whole wheat Mac and Cheese Chapter 18 1 full Devilish Egg tbsp 30 ml light bread Chapter 10 syrup 1–2 oz 30–60 g Tossed salad with diced chicken 1 tbsp 15 ml light 1 cup 250 ml mixed 1–2 tbsp 30–60ml dressing fruit Tea light mayonnaise Diced celery/lettuce 2 kiwis 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml Diet Jell-O tomato juice 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml 1 grilled cheese 1 Italian White Pizza 1 cup 250 ml oatmeal sandwich: Chapter 16 cantaloupe 2 tbsp 30 ml raisins 2 slices multigrain bread 1 cup 250 ml 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml low-fat Classic Caesar cottage cheese flaxseed low-fat cheese Salad Chapter 9 1 cup 250 ml 1 2 tsp 10 ml soft margarine Diet Jell-O 326 Part V: Appendixes 1 tbsp 15 ml ground 1–2 oz 30–60g milk 2 Muffets or Shredded Wheat with 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 10 almonds Green tea Red pepper and celery sticks 1 dill pickle 1 medium apple Water 1 cup 250 ml Fruity Spinach Salad Chapter 9 1 slice whole grain bread with 1 tsp 5 ml soft margarine 1 boiled egg 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt 3 ginger snap cookies Water Tea 1 ⁄4 lb 110 g Seared Scallops Chapter 13 1 cup 250 ml Greek Potatoes Chapter 11 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Beet and Feta Salad Chapter 9 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Orange Frost Chapter 17 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 milk 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml grapes 1 oz 30 g low-fat cheese

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Appendix B: A Month of Menus 327 Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snack 4 rectangular melba toasts 1 oz 30 g low-fat cheese 1 large apple Coffee 1 strip bacon 1 egg 2 slices of whole grain toast with 2 tsp 10 ml soft margarine 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml pineapple Tea 1 cup 250 ml whole grain cereal with 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 ⁄4 cup 50ml almonds Coffee 1 slice Asparagus Cheddar Quiche Chapter 12 Tossed salad with 1 tbsp 15 ml light dressing 2 Flax Cookies Chapter 17 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 1 ⁄8 cups 275 ml Broccoli Cheese Soup Chapter 8 2 Wasa crackers 1 oz 30 g low-fat cheese 2 ⁄3 cup 150ml Strawberry Dream Chapter 17 Diet pop 1 cup 250 ml Cheesy Turkey Bake Chapter 14 Veggies and 1 tbsp 15 ml light dip 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml low-fat pudding Water 1 cup 375 ml Pecan Mango Brie Salad Chapter 9 3 Breaded Chicken Fingers Chapter 18 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml Pasta Primavera Chapter 11 1 piece Sour Cream Chocolate Chip Cake Chapter 17 Water 1 cup 250 ml African Curry Chapter 14 1 cup 250 ml Quinoa Risotto Chapter 11 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml Orange Glazed Carrots Chapter 12 Diet Jell-O Water 1 slice Spinach Mushroom Lasagna Chapter 11 Tossed salad and 1 tbsp 15 ml light dressing Chocolate Mud Cake Chapter 18 Diet pop 7 whole wheat soda crackers 2 tbsp 30 ml almond butter 1 slice Asparagus Cheddar Quiche Chapter 12 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml tomato juice 1 ⁄2 sandwich: 1 tbsp 15 ml peanut butter and 1–2 tsp 5–10 ml diet jam on 1 slice whole grain bread

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328 Part V: Appendixes Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snack 2 chapatis Chapter 16 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt 1 oz 30 g low-fat cheese Coffee 1 whole grain English Muffin with 2 tsp 10 ml soft margarine and 1 tsp 5 ml diet jam 1 cup 250 ml strawberries 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml yogurt Tea 1 low-fat granola bar 1 large apple 1 oz 30 g low-fat cheese Coffee Tossed salad with 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml chickpeas and 1 tbsp 15 ml light dressing 1 chapati Chapter 16 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml canned fruit Tea 1 cup 250 ml Carrot Parsnip Soup Chapter 8 1 ⁄2 sandwich: 1 slice rye bread 1 oz 30 g pastrami Mustard/lettuce 1 tsp 5 ml soft margarine 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml grapes Water 1 slice multigrain bread 1 slice pea meal bacon 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Light Potato Salad Chapter 9 1 cup 250 ml cantaloupe Flavoured water 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml Chickpea Curry Chapter 11 1 small naan bread 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt Water 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml Szechuan Noodles Chapter 11 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml cauliflower 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml mixed vegetables 1 piece Luscious Lemon Pudding Cake Chapter 17 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Sloppy Joe Chapter 18 on 1 medium whole grain bun Veggies and 1 tbsp 15 ml light dip 1 cup 250 ml blueberries 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml Black Bean Salsa Chapter 10 1 chapati Chapter 16 3 Sushi slices Chapter 10 1 ⁄2 Raspberry Muffin Chapter 7

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Appendix B: A Month of Menus Large Meal Plan The large meal plan provides approximately 2000 calories and includes three meals and two snacks. The following table represents the food group choices and grams of carbo- hydrate for a large meal plan. This plan provides approximately 50 percent of total calories from carbohydrate 20 percent of total calories from protein and 30 percent of total calories from fat. This percentage is the current goal for main nutrient balance according to the Canadian Diabetes Association. 329 This meal plan is just a sample. You can request a personalized meal plan to suit your lifestyle from your registered dietitian at your local diabetes educa- tion centre. Breakfast Lunch Snack Dinner Snack 4 Carbohydrate Choices 60 g 4 Carbohydrate Choices 60 g 1 Carbohydrate Choice 15 g 5 Carbohydrate Choices 75 g 2 Carbohydrate Choices 30 g Free vegetables Free vegetables Free vegetables Free vegetables Free vegetables 0–2 Protein Choices 2–3 Protein Choices 0 Protein Choices 5 Protein Choices 1 Protein Choice 0–2 Fat Choices 1 Fat Choice 0 Fat Choices 1–2 Fat Choices 0–1 Fat Choices In the following month of menus we build on those guidelines plugging in different types and amounts of various foods that taken together provide approximately 2000 calories.

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330 Part V: Appendixes Breakfast Lunch Snack Dinner Snack Cranberry 1 cup 250 ml 3 ginger snap 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 2 slices rye Walnut Muffin cream of mush- cookies ml Vegetarian toast Chapter 7 room soup Curry Tofu and Noodles 1–2 tbsp 15–30 1 oz 30 g Salmon Chapter 16 ml peanut low-fat cheese sandwich: butter 2 slices whole 1 ⁄2 cup 125ml 1 orange grain bread Marinated 1 cup 250 ml 1 ⁄2– 3 ⁄4 cup 125– Mushrooms 1 milk 175ml salmon 1 tbsp 15 ml with Herbs Chapter 9 light mayon- naise 1 ⁄2 mango Diced celery/ 1 cup 250 ml lettuce 1 milk Tossed salad 1 tbsp 15 ml light dressing 1 peach Water 3 Oatmeal 1 cup 250 ml 1 Brownie 1 1 ⁄3 cups 325 1 large apple Pancakes Chapter 7 Classic Caesar Salad Chapter 9 Chapter 18 ml Hamburger Stroganoff 1 oz 30 g Chapter 15 low-fat cheese 2 tbsp 30 ml 8 rectangular with 3 ⁄4 cup 175 light syrup melba toasts ml noodles 1 small banana 2 oz 60 g 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Coffee low-fat cheese squash 1 pear 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 cup 250 ml yellow beans 1 milk 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt with 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml Homemade Baked Granola Chapter 7 Tea

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Appendix B: A Month of Menus 331 Breakfast Lunch Snack Dinner Snack 2 slices rye toast 2–3 tbsp 30–45 ml peanut butter 1 cup 250 ml fruit cocktail Flavoured tea 1 1 ⁄2 cup 375 ml whole grain cereal 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml sliced almonds Tea 1 1 ⁄3 cups 325 ml Vegetarian Bean Chili Chapter 16 Tossed salad 1 tbsp 15 ml light dressing 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml low-fat pudding Water 2 Mexican Quesadillas Chapter 16 Raw veggies and 1–2 tbsp 15–30 ml light dip Diet Jell-O Diet pop 1 cup 250 ml cantaloupe 2 Jam Jewel Cookies Chapter 17 5 oz 150 g Greek Fish Chapter 13 1 cup 250 ml mashed potato 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Tomato Cucumber Salad Chapter 9 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Swiss Chard with Pine Nuts Chapter 12 1 cup 250 ml grapes 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 milk 5 oz 150 g Roast Beef 2 tbsp 30 ml low-fat gravy 1 large roasted potato 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml corn 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml green beans 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml mixed fruit 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml low-fat cottage cheese 2 digestive cookies 1 English muffin 2 tsp 10 ml soft margarine 1 oz 30 g fat-free ham

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332 Part V: Appendixes Breakfast Lunch Snack Dinner Snack 1 1 ⁄8 cup 275 1 cup 250 ml 1 pear 5 oz 150 g 5 Triscuits ml Mango Orange Banana Smoothie Chapter 7 2 slices whole grain toast 2–3 tbsp 30– 45ml peanut butter 2 slices multi- grain toast with 2 tsp 10 ml soft margarine 2–3 tsp 10–15 ml diet jam 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml Baked Homemade Granola Chapter 7 Tea Veggie Soup Chapter 8 1 1 ⁄2 beef sandwiches: 3 slices multi- grain bread 2–3 oz 30–60 g roast beef Mustard/lettuce 3 tsp 15 ml soft margarine 3 arrowroot cookies Water 1 English Muffin 1 oz 30 g low-fat cheese 1 fried egg Lettuce/tomato 1 pear 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml frozen yogurt Water 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml applesauce Chicken in Dijon Sauce Chapter 14 1 cup 250 ml brown rice 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Stir Fried Snow Peas Chapter 12 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml carrots 1 cup 250 ml strawberries 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 2 slices Salmon Loaf with 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Cucumber Sauce Chapter 13 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Garlic Mashed Potatoes Chapter 11 Sliced tomato 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml broccoli 1 cup 250 ml honeydew melon 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 oz 30g low-fat cheese 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml tomato juice 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml oatmeal 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml almonds 1 small banana

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Breakfast Lunch Snack Dinner Snack 1 slice Banana Bread Chapter 7 1 oz 30 g Corned beef sandwich: 2 slices rye bread 1 piece Rhubarb Cake with Splenda Chapter 17 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml Butter Chicken Chapter 14 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml Aboriginal Wild Rice Pudding Appendix B: A Month of Menus 333 low-fat cheese 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml grapes 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 chocolate milk 1–2 oz 30–60 g corned beef Mustard 1 tsp 5 ml soft margarine 1 ⁄2 cup 125ml Chunky Apple Coleslaw Chapter 9 1 cup 250 ml mixed fruit cup 1 medium naan bread Tossed salad and 1 tbsp 15 ml light dressing 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt Water with Splenda Chapter 17 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 milk Diet pop 1 whole grain English Muffin with 1 egg 1 tsp 1 cup 250 ml French Onion Soup Chapter 8 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt 2 cups 500 ml Stir- Fried Beef with 1 slice Banana Bread Chapter 7 5 ml soft mar- garine lettuce/ tomato 2 slices garlic bread with 2 oz 60 g low-fat Rice Noodles Chapter 15 1 cup 250 ml 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml nuts 1 medium apple cheese Fruity Spinach 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 2 kiwis Salad Chapter 9 juice Water 2 Jam Jewel Cookies Chapter 17 Tea

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Breakfast Lunch Snack Dinner Snack Raspberry Muffin Chapter 7 1 Pita with Curried Turkey Chapter 14 One serving of Fruit Trifle Chapter 17 5 oz 150 g Parmesan Chicken 2 Flax Cookies Chapter 17 10 almonds 1 oz 30 g Carrot sticks Chapter 14 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml low-fat cheese 1 orange 1 cup 250 ml strawberries 1 cup 250 ml whole wheat pasta low-fat chocolate milk 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 milk 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Zesty Coffee Asparagus 334 Part V: Appendixes Chapter 12 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml Orange Glazed Carrots Chapter 12 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml frozen yogurt Water 1 cup 250 ml 1 cup 250 ml 3 Rocky 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 1 ⁄2 cup 125 Shake Me cream of tomato Road Balls ml Bulgur ml Toasted Up Shake soup Chapter 17 and Chickpea Walnut Chapter 7 2 slices flaxseed toast 2–3 tbsp 30–45 ml peanut butter 1 tbsp 15 ml diet jam Coffee 1 cup 250 ml Mediterranean Tuna Casserole Chapter 13 Tossed salad with 1–2 tbsp 15–30 ml diet dressing Diet Jell-O Tea Salad with Lemon Dressing Chapter 9 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml green beans 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml applesauce 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk Hummus Chapter 10 Raw veggies

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Chapter 7 Coffee Water Tossed salad and 1 tbsp 15 ml light dressing Baked Apple with Raspberries Chapter 18 Tea 3 slices whole grain toast 1 egg 1 cup 250 ml Asian Noodle Salad Chapter 9 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt 1 cup 250 ml Groundnut Stew 6 Shanghai Dumplings with 1 tsp Appendix B: A Month of Menus 335 Breakfast Lunch Snack Dinner Snack 1 1 ⁄2 cup 375ml yogurt 1 1 ⁄2 cup 375 ml Chinese 1 medium apple 1 2 ⁄3 cups 400 ml Shepherd’s 2 Pizza Faces Chapter 18 1 small banana 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml Baked Homemade Granola Jewelled Rice Chapter 13 Celery sticks 1 pear Pie Chapter 15 1 small whole wheat roll with 1 tsp 5 ml soft margarine 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 2 tsp 10 ml soft margarine 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml juice 1 cup 250 ml honeydew melon 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk Chapter 15 1 cup 250 ml couscous 1 cup 250 ml Ethiopian Cabbage Dish Chapter 12 Diet Jell-O 1 ⁄2 cup 125ml 1 milk 5 ml sauce Chapter 10

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336 Part V: Appendixes Breakfast Lunch Snack Dinner Snack 2 pieces Baked Scone Chapter 7 with 2 tsp 10 ml soft Tuna sandwich: 2 slices whole grain bread 1 ⁄2– 3 ⁄4 cup 30 pretzel sticks 4 slices Barbequed Eggplant Chapter 16 1 Banana Chocolate Chip Muffin with Splenda margarine 1 cup 250 ml 125–175 ml tuna 2 tbsp 30 ml 1 cup 250 ml Classic Caesar Chapter 18 1 tbsp 15 ml mixed fruit cup light mayonnaise Salad peanut butter Herbal tea Celery/lettuce/ onion Chapter 9 1 ⁄ cup 125ml 2 1 ⁄2 cup 125 1 milk ml Balsamic Brussels Sprouts Chapter 12 1 small banana 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 medium whole wheat roll with 2 tsp 10 ml soft margarine 1 Little Jam Cupcake with Splenda Chapter 18 Green tea 1 cup 250 1 cup 250ml 1 orange 1 cup 250 ml 2 slices Feta ml Akoori Kale Soup Saffron Fish Bruschetta Scrambled Eggs Chapter 8 Chapter 13 Chapter 10 Chapter 7 2 slices rye toast with 2 tsp 10 ml soft margarine 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml canned fruit 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 10 Triscuits 2 oz 60 g low-fat cheese 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt Water 1 cup 250 ml basmati rice 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml cooked spinach 1 tsp 5 ml soft margarine 1 peach 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk

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Breakfast Lunch Snack Dinner Snack 1 large flax bagel 4 tbsp 60 ml light cream 1 cup 250 ml Mixed Bean Salad Chapter 9 Veggies and 1–2 1 low-fat granola bar 3 cups 750 ml Walnut Pear and Chicken Salad 1 piece Apple Crisp with Splenda Chapter 18 Appendix B: A Month of Menus 337 cheese Tea 1 cup 250 ml canned fruit 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml low-fat cottage cheese 2 slices multi- grain toast with 2 tsp 10 ml soft margarine Coffee 2 chapatis Chapter 16 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml Dal Chapter 11 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt Coffee tbsp 15–30 ml light dip 1 medium apple 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 cup 250 ml Veggie Soup Chapter 8 7 whole wheat soda crackers 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml Couscous Chickpea Salad Chapter 9 1 Chocolate Zucchini Muffin Chapter 17 Diet pop 3 chapatis Chapter 16 2 boiled eggs 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml mixed vegetables 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt Tea 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt 1 ⁄3 cup 75 ml Toasted Walnut Hummus Chapter 10 Raw veggies Chapter 9 1 slice rye bread 1 tsp 5 ml soft margarine 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt Water 4 Chinese Tofu Mushroom Caps Chapter 16 1 cup 250 ml Chinese Vegetable Fried Rice Chapter 11 10 lychees 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 5 oz 150 g Tandoori Chicken Chapter 14 1 cup 250 ml basmati rice 1 cup 250 ml Green Pea Cauliflower and Tomato Curry Chapter 12 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 milk 1 oz 30 g low-fat cheese 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml low-fat chocolate milk 1 piece Baked Scone Chapter 7 1 oz 30 g low-fat cheese 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Mango Bean Mix Chapter 11 12 mini nachos

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338 Part V: Appendixes Breakfast Lunch Snack Dinner Snack 2 slices rye toast 1 1 ⁄2 toasted 1 piece Apple 1 1 ⁄3 cups 325 3 cups 750 ml 2 tsp 10 ml soft margarine 1 oz 30 g low-fat cheese 1 cup 250 ml grapes Green tea 3 Oatmeal Fruit Crepes Chapter 7 with 2 tbsp 30 ml light syrup 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk tomato and cheese sand- wiches: 3 slices rye bread Sliced tomatoes 2–3 oz 60–90 g low-fat cheese 3 tsp 15 ml soft margarine 1 slice Pumpkin Pie with Splenda Chapter 17 Diet pop 1 1 ⁄2 cup 375 ml Best Beef Soup Chapter 8 1 slice whole wheat toast with 1 tsp 5 ml soft margarine Tossed salad and 1 tbsp 15 ml light dressing 3 Chocolate Chip Cookies Chapter 17 Water Crisp with Splenda Chapter 18 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Orange Frost Chapter 17 ml Nutty Rice and Mushroom Stir-Fry Chapter 16 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Squash Apple Bake Chapter 12 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt Water 5 oz 150 g Cinnamon Lime Chicken Chapter 14 24 Sweet Potato Fries Chapter 11 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml corn 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Beet and Feta Salad Chapter 9 1 slice Blueberry Pie with Splenda Chapter 17 Tea light popcorn 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml low-fat chocolate milk 2 slices rye toast 1 boiled egg 1 tsp 5 ml soft margarine

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Appendix B: A Month of Menus 339 Breakfast Lunch Snack Dinner Snack 1 large whole grain bagel with 2 oz 60 g Meatloaf sandwich: 2 slices multigrain 3 cups 750 ml light popcorn 5 oz 150 g Crispy Coated Sole Chapter 13 1 Baked Custard Chapter 17 melted low-fat cheese Coffee 1 whole grain English Muffin with 2 tbsp 30 ml peanut butter 1 small banana 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml juice Green tea bread 1 slice meatloaf Chapter 15 1 tsp 5 ml soft margarine 1 tbsp 15 ml light mayonnaise 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Tomato Cucumber Salad Chapter 9 2 Mini Cheesecake Chapter 17 Flavoured water 1 1 ⁄3 cup 325 ml Pork Chow Mein Chapter 15 1 dill pickle 15 cherries 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk Coffee 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Aboriginal Wild Rice Pudding with Splenda Chapter 17 Slice of lemon 3 Potato Latkes Chapter 11 2 tbsp 30 ml light sour cream 1 cup 250 ml mixed vegetables 1 piece Carrot Cake Chapter 17 Tea 5 oz 150 g BBQ steak 1 large baked potato with 2 tbsp 30 ml light sour cream and chives 1 cup 250 ml Broccoli with Feta and Roasted Peppers Chapter 12 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml Grilled Vegetables Chapter 12 1 piece Happy Birthday Cake with Splenda Chapter 18 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 milk 1 small banana 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 milk 45 pretzel sticks 1 tbsp 15 ml almond butter 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 milk

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340 Part V: Appendixes Breakfast Lunch Snack Dinner Snack 8 small Cottage Cheese Pancakes Chapter 7 4 tbsp 60 ml light syrup 1 cup 250 ml mixed fruit cup Tea Chicken salad sandwich: 2 slices whole wheat bread 2–3 oz 60–90 g diced chicken 1–2 tbsp 30–60 ml light mayonnaise Diced celery/ lettuce Diet Jell-O 2 plums 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 ⁄2 mango 1 1 ⁄8 cups 275 ml Mac and Cheese Chapter 18 Tossed salad with 1 tbsp 15 ml light dressing 2 kiwis 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml tomato juice 10 Triscuits 1 full Devilish Egg Chapter 10 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml oatmeal 2 tbsp 30 ml raisins 1 tbsp 15 ml ground flaxseed 1 slice rye toast with 1 tsp 5 ml soft margarine 2 tsp 10 ml diet jam 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 1 ⁄2 grilled cheese sandwiches: 3 slices multigrain bread 2–3 oz 60–90 g low-fat cheese 3 tsp 15 ml soft margarine Red pepper and celery sticks 1 dill pickle 1 medium apple Water 2 Cocoa Oatmeal Cookies Chapter 17 1 Italian White Pizza Chapter 16 1 cup 250 ml Classic Caesar Salad Chapter 9 1 pear Diet Jell-O Tea 1 cup 250 ml cantaloupe 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml low-fat cottage cheese 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml low-fat chocolate milk

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Appendix B: A Month of Menus 341 Breakfast Lunch Snack Dinner Snack 2 Muffets or Shredded Wheat 10 almonds 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 ⁄2 English Muffin with 1 tsp 5 ml soft margarine Green tea 1 cup 250 ml Fruity Spinach Salad Chapter 9 2 slices whole grain bread with 1 tsp 5 ml soft margarine 1–2 boiled eggs 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt 3 ginger snap cookies Water 1 orange 1 ⁄2 lb 227 g Seared Scallops Chapter 13 1 cup 250 ml Greek Potatoes Chapter 11 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Beet and Feta Salad Chapter 9 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Orange Frost Chapter 17 1cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 cup 250 ml grapes 1 oz 30 g low-fat cheese 8 rectangular melba toasts 2 oz 60 g low-fat cheese 1 large apple Coffee 1 slice Asparagus Cheddar Quiche Chapter 12 Tossed salad with 1 tbsp 15 ml light dressing 4 Flax Cookies Chapter 17 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml pineapple 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml Pecan Mango Brie Salad Chapter 9 4 Breaded Chicken Fingers Chapter 18 1 1 ⁄3 cups 325 ml Pasta Primavera Chapter 11 1 piece Sour Cream Chocolate Chip Cake Chapter 17 Water 7 whole wheat soda crackers 2 tbsp 30 ml almond butter 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 milk

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342 Part V: Appendixes Breakfast Lunch Snack Dinner Snack 2 slices strip bacon 1 egg 2 slices whole grain toast with 2 tsp 10 ml soft margarine 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml pineapple 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt 1 1 ⁄8 cups 275 ml Broccoli Cheese Soup Chapter 8 4 Wasa crackers 1–2 oz 30–60 g low-fat cheese 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml Strawberry Dream Chapter 17 Diet pop 1 banana 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml African Curry Chapter 14 1 cup 250 ml Quinoa Risotto Chapter 11 1 cup 250 ml Orange Glazed Carrots Chapter 12 Diet Jell-O 1 slice Asparagus Cheddar Quiche Chapter 12 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml tomato juice Tea Water 1 cup 250 ml whole grain cereal 1 1 ⁄2 cups 375 ml Cheesy Turkey Bake 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml canned fruit 1 1 ⁄2 slices Spinach Mushroom 1 sandwich: 2 slices whole grain bread 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 1 ⁄4 cup 50 ml almonds 1 cup 250 ml blueberries Coffee 3 chapatis Chapter 16 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt 1–2 oz 30–60 g low-fat cheese Coffee Chapter 14 Veggies and 1 tbsp 15 ml light dip 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml low-fat pudding Water Tossed salad and 1 tbsp 15 ml light dressing 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml chickpeas 2 chapatis Chapter 16 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml canned fruit Tea Lasagna Chapter 11 Tossed salad and 1 tbsp 15 ml light dressing Chocolate Mud Cake Chapter 18 Diet pop 2 clementines 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml Chickpea Curry Chapter 11 1 medium naan bread 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt Water 1–2 tbsp 15–30 ml peanut butter and 1 tbsp 15 ml diet jam 2 ⁄3 cup 150 ml Black Bean Salsa Chapter 10 1 chapati Chapter 16

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1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml grapes Water Lemon Pudding Cake Chapter 17 1 cup 250 ml 1 milk 2 low-fat granola bars 2 slices multi- grain bread 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt 1 cup 250 ml Sloppy Joe 1 Raspberry Muffin Appendix B: A Month of Menus 343 Breakfast Lunch Snack Dinner Snack 1 whole grain English Muffin with 2 tsp 10 ml 1 cup 250 ml Carrot Parsnip Soup Chapter 8 2 Snickers Cookies Chapter 17 2 1 ⁄4 cups 550 ml Szechuan Noodles 5 Sushi slices Chapter 10 soft margarine and 1 tbsp 15 ml diet jam 2 cups 500 ml strawberries 3 ⁄4 cup 175 ml yogurt Tea 1 sandwich: 2 slices rye bread 2–3 oz 60–90 g pastrami Mustard/lettuce 2 tsp 10 ml soft margarine Chapter 11 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml cauliflower 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml mixed vegetables 1 piece Luscious 1 large apple 1 oz 30 g low-fat cheese Coffee 2 slices pea meal bacon 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml Light Potato Salad Chapter 9 1 cup 250 ml cantaloupe Flavoured water Chapter 18 1 large whole grain bun Veggies and 1 tbsp 15 ml light dip 1 cup 250 ml blueberries 1 ⁄2 cup 125 ml 1 milk Chapter 7

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344 Part V: Appendixes

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Index • Symbols and Numerics • percentage Daily Value listing in Nutrition Facts table 84 four food groups 42 three meals per day eating 301 • A • Aboriginal Bannock 98–99 Aboriginal Tacos with Fried Bannock 226 Aboriginal Wild Rice Pudding 259 A1C levels 13–14 acesulfame potassium 49 Adobo Soup with Bok Choy 113 adult onset diabetes 10 African Curry 208 age-appropriate kitchen tasks for children 270 Akooir Scrambled Eggs 102–103 al dente 71 alcohol hypoglycemia and 50 limiting 50 overview 50–51 almonds 159 alpha-glucosidase inhibitors acarbose 22 alpha-linolenic acid ALA 35 American Diabetes Association Web site 311 amino acids 237 antidiuretic hormone 11 anxiety as symptom of low blood glucose hypoglycemia 16 appetizers Black Bean Salsa 147 Devilish Egg 145 Dilly Shrimp Cucumber Bites 144 Feta Bruschetta 143 Goat Cheese and Sun-Dried Tomato Mushroom Caps 142 overview 137–138 party food 143–147 Shanghai Dumplings 139 store-bought dips 148 suggestions for 138 sushi 140–141 Toasted Walnut Hummus 146 apples Apple Crisp 276 Baked Apple with Raspberries 275 Chunky Apple Coleslaw 128 Squash Apple Bake 185 apple-shaped body and risk of diabetes 27 Apricot Brie Chicken 205 artificial sweeteners 49 Asian Noodle Salad 131 asparagus Asparagus Cheddar Quiche 181 Zesty Asparagus 180 aspartame 49 248 atherosclerosis 294 autoimmune disease 11 away from home diet 52–56 • B • Baked Apple with Raspberries 275 Baked Custard 261 baked goods. See also cake cookies Baked Scone Aboriginal Bannock 98–99 Banana Bread 95 Banana Chocolate Chip Muffins 281 Brownies 277 Chocolate Mud Cakes 280–281 Cranberry Walnut Muffins 100 enjoying 292 Happy Birthday Cake 278–279 overview 94–100 Raspberry Muffins 96

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346 Diabetes Cookbook For Canadians For Dummies Baked Homemade Granola 97 Baked Scone Aboriginal Bannock 98–99 baking fish 191 ingredients for 81 potatoes 150 balancing out a meal’s ingredients 46 Balsamic Brussels Sprouts 187 bananas Banana Bread 95 Banana Chocolate Chip Muffins 281 Mango Orange Banana smoothie 93 Barbecued Eggplant 239 basting 71 beans Black Bean Salsa 147 Chickpea Curry 171 Curried Chickpeas in Tomato Cups 172 gas from tips for avoiding 170 Mango Bean Mix 169 Mixed Bean Salad 132 overview 167 storing 167 Three-Bean Chili 241 beating 71 bedtime snacks 45 beef Aboriginal Tacos with Fried Bannock 226 Best Beef Soup 115 cuts of 220 Groundnut Stew 224 Hamburger Stroganoff 222 Meatloaf with Mushroom Sauce 225 overview 219–220 Shepherd’s Pie 220–221 Sloppy Joes recipe 272 Stir-Fried Beef with Rice Noodles 223 Beet and Feta Salad 128–129 behaviour weight-loss strategy of modifying your 59–60 benefits of weight loss 58 Best Beef Soup 115 beta cell 11 Beyond the Basics Canadian Diabetes Association 44 79 biguanides metformin 22 Black Bean Salsa 147 blending 71 Bliss Michael The Discovery of Insulin 22 blood glucose described 10 30 overnight increase in blood sugar due to something you’ve eaten nutrition myth 294 blood glucose levels and carbohydrates 286 causal blood glucose level 13 CDA target for 13–14 checked during illness 299 controlled by carbohydrates 18–19 exercise used to control 21 fasting blood glucose level 13 glucose tolerance test 13 high blood glucose 13 14–16 insulin used to control 22–25 low blood glucose 16–17 nutrition used to control 17–21 oral medications used to control 22 target 13–14 Blueberry Pie 251 Blumer Ian Diabetes For Canadians For Dummies 10 Practical Guide to Diabetes Web site 312 blurred vision as symptom of high blood glucose 14 body mass index BMI 58 boiling described 71 potatoes 150 bok choy Adobo Soup with Bok Choy 113 Bok Choy with Chicken 211 bread banana 95 Breaded Chicken Fingers 272–273 breakfast Akooir Scrambled Eggs 102–103 avoiding unhealthy options for 92 baked goods 94–100 Baked Homemade Granola 97 Baked Scone Aboriginal Bannock 98–99 Banana Bread 95 Cottage Cheese Pancakes 105 Cranberry Walnut Muffins 100 fruit options 93–94 griddle options 101–105 large meal plan 329–343

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Index 347 Mango Orange Banana smoothie 93 Oatmeal Fruit Crepes 104–105 Oatmeal Pancakes 103 overview 91 Raspberry Muffins 96 reasons for eating 287 Shake Me Up Shake 94 skipping 287 small meal plan 317–328 smoothies 93–94 suggestions for 92 brie Apricot Brie Chicken 205 Pecan Mango and Brie Salad 127 broccoli Broccoli Cheese Soup 116 Broccoli with Feta and Roasted Peppers 177 broiling described 72 fish 192 broth consommé compared 109 making a basic 108 stock compared 109 broth-based soups 110–115 brown rice 155 Brownies 277 browning 72 brussels sprouts 187 Bulgur and Chickpea Salad with Lemon Dressing 133 bulk food shopping in 78 butter Butter Chicken 206 margarine as substitute for 95 butterhead lettuce 120 • C • cabbage 176 cake Carrot Cake 255 Chocolate Mud Cakes 280–281 enjoying 292 Happy Birthday Cake 278–279 Luscious Lemon Pudding Cake 260–261 Rhubarb Cake 249 Sour Cream Chocolate Chip Cake 253 calcium Nutrition Facts table listing 85 overview 35–36 sources of 305 CalorieKing Food Database Web site 314 calories listing in Nutrition Facts table 84 Canada’s Food Guide 28 41–42 Canadian Diabetes Association CDA Beyond the Basics 44 79 Clinical Practice Guidelines 48 described 296 Just the Basics 44 79 target for blood glucose levels 13–14 Web site 311 Canadian Partnership for Consumer Food Safety Education 203 canned fruit 80 canned vegetables 80 canola oil cooking spray making your own 101–102 Carbohydrate Choices 19 carbohydrate counting correction factor 24–25 sensitivity factor 24–25 used with insulin 24–25 carbohydrates blood glucose levels and 18–19 286 examples of 30 fibre 31–32 glucose 30 glycemic index GI 18 31 insulin and 24–25 Nutrition Facts table listing 85 overview 29–32 30 149 recipes 150–172 roles of 30–31 cardiovascular exercise 21 carrots Carrot Cake 255 Carrot Parsnip Soup 117 Orange-Glazed Carrots 186 cashews 213 cauliflower 182 causal blood glucose level 13 CDA. See Canadian Diabetes Association celebrations and parties healthy eating at 55–56 Chapati 245 checkout line items avoiding 78

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348 Diabetes Cookbook For Canadians For Dummies cheddar cheese 181 cheese Asparagus Cheddar Quiche 181 Broccoli Cheese Soup 116 Cheesy Noodles with Nuts 161 Cheesy Turkey Bake 216 Feta Bruschetta 143 Goat Cheese and Sun-Dried Tomato Mushroom Caps 142 Macaroni and Cheese 274 cheesecake 254 chicken African Curry 208 Apricot Brie Chicken 205 Bok Choy with Chicken 211 Breaded Chicken Fingers 272–273 Butter Chicken 206 Chicken in Dijon Sauce 207 Chicken with Cashews 213 Cinnamon Lime Chicken 212 Parmesan Chicken 210 Tandoori Chicken 209 Walnut Pear and Chicken Salad 135 Walnut Chicken 214 chickpeas Bulgur and Chickpea Salad with Lemon Dressing 133 Chickpea Curry 171 Couscous Chickpea Salad 134 Curried Chickpeas in Tomato Cups 172 Toasted Walnut Hummus 146 children age-appropriate kitchen tasks for 270 Apple Crisp recipe 276 Baked Apple with Raspberries recipe 275 Banana Chocolate Chip Muffins recipe 281 Breaded Chicken Fingers recipe 272–273 Brownies recipe 277 Chocolate Mud Cakes recipe 280–281 dessert recipes 275–282 food shopping without 77 Happy Birthday Cake recipe 278–279 insulin when to administer 290 interest in kitchen activities fostering an 269–270 Little Jam Cupcakes recipe 282 Macaroni and Cheese recipe 274 mercury levels in fish for 194 Pizza Faces recipe 271 Sloppy Joes recipe 272 supper recipes 271 Children with Diabetes Web site 312 Chinese Jewelled Rice 201 chocolate Banana Chocolate Chip Muffins 281 Brownies 277 Chocolate Chip Cookies 263 Chocolate Mud Cakes 280–281 Chocolate Zucchini Muffins 252 Sour Cream Chocolate Chip Cake 253 cholesterol HDL 33 LDL 33 Nutrition Facts table listing 84–85 overview 33–34 total 34 chopping 72 chromium 36 Chuletas de Cerdo 228 Chunky Apple Coleslaw 128 Cinnamon Lime Chicken 212 Classic Caesar Salad 124 cleaning poultry 204 Clinical Practice Guidelines Canadian Diabetes Association 48 Cocoa Oatmeal Cookies 266 coleslaw 128 commercially prepared soups 109–110 complications of high blood glucose 15–16 convenience store healthy eating at 54 cookies Chocolate Chip Cookies 263 Cocoa Oatmeal Cookies 266 Flax Cookies 265 Jam Jewel Cookies 262 Rocky Road Balls 264 Snickers 267 cooking fish 191–192 ingredients for 81 pasta 160 poultry 204 rice 156–157 cooking equipment mixing bowls 70 overview 69–71

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Index 349 pans 70 pots 70 tools list of 70–71 cooking spray making your own 101–102 cooking terms 71–72 correction factor 24–25 cos lettuce 120 Cottage Cheese Pancakes 105 counting carbohydrates 24–25 coupons food shopping with 77 Couscous Chickpea Salad 134 cranberries Cranberry Walnut Muffins 100 Venison Steak in Cranberry Sauce 232–233 creaming 72 creamy soups 116–117 crepes 104–105 crisphead lettuce 120 Crispy Coated Sole 199 cucumber Cucumber Sauce 194 Dilly Shrimp Cucumber Bites 144 Tomato Cucumber Salad 123 cupcakes 282 Curried Chickpeas in Tomato Cups 172 Curried Turkey in a Pita 215 Curry Tofu with Noodles 238 custard 261 cut in 72 cuts of meat beef 220 pork 227 cyclamate 49 • D • dairy buying 74 milk and alternatives food group 42 yogurt 74 Dal 168 dawn phenomenon 294 DEC Diabetes Education Centre 20 deli salads 129 dessert. See also cake cookies Aboriginal Wild Rice Pudding 259 Baked Apple with Raspberries 275 Baked Custard 261 Banana Chocolate Chip Muffins 281 Blueberry Pie 251 Carrot Cake 255 children recipes for 275–282 Chocolate Chip Cookies 263 Chocolate Zucchini Muffins 252 Cocoa Oatmeal Cookies 266 enjoying 292 Flax Cookies 265 fruit as 256 Fruit Trifle 256 Happy Birthday Cake 278–279 Jam Jewel Cookies 262 Little Jam Cupcakes 282 Luscious Lemon Pudding Cake 260 Mini Cheesecakes 254 Orange Frost 257 overview 247–248 Pumpkin Pie 250 Rhubarb Cake 249 Rocky Road Balls 264 Snickers 267 Sour Cream Chocolate Chip Cake 253 Strawberry Dream 258 sugar substitutes in 248 determining if you are overweight 58 Devilish Egg 145 DHA docosahexaenoic acid 35 diabetes diagnosis of 13 general diabetes information Web sites on 311–312 gestational 12 overview 10 type 1 10–11 type 2 11–12 types of 10–12 Diabetes Education Centre DEC 20 Diabetes For Canadians For Dummies Blumer and Rubin 10 diabetes insipidus 11 diabetes mellitus 11 Diabetes Network Web site 314 diabetes nutrition-focused Web sites 314–315 Diabetic Gourmet Magazine Web site 314 diagnosis of diabetes 13 dicing 72

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350 Diabetes Cookbook For Canadians For Dummies diet away from home 52–56 carbohydrates 29–32 convenience store healthy eating at 54 fat 29–30 33–35 friends’ homes healthy eating at 54–55 at home 51 minerals 35–37 overview 28 parties and celebrations healthy eating at 55–56 protein 29–30 32 restaurants healthy eating in 52–53 vending machines healthy eating at 53–54 vitamins 37–40 water 40–41 dietitian finding 20–21 no point in seeing a nutrition myth 293 obtaining advice of 19–21 Dietitians of Canada Web site 312 Dilly Shrimp Cucumber Bites 144 dinner children recipes for 271 large meal plan 329–343 small meal plan 317–328 discontinuing medication 291 The Discovery of Insulin Bliss 22 dLife Web site 315 docosahexaenoic acid DHA 35 DPP-4 inhibitors sitagliptin nateglinide 22 dumplings 139 • E • eating before food shopping 77 Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide Health Canada 28 41 44 79 237 EatRight Ontario Web site 314 eggplant 239 eggs Akooir Scrambled Eggs 102–103 Devilish Egg 145 eicosapentaenoic acid EPA 35 enjoying dessert 292 equipment for cooking mixing bowls 70 overview 69–71 pans 70 pots 70 tools list of 70–71 estimating your food needs before shopping 77 Ethiopian Cabbage 176 examples of carbohydrates 30 excess sugar consumption causes type 2 diabetes nutrition myth 297 exempt items from Nutrition Facts table 84 exenatide 22 exercise cardiovascular 21 overview 21 resistance 21 used to control blood glucose levels 21 eye damage retinopathy as complication of high blood glucose 15 • F • fad diets avoiding 59 fall harvest vegetables 183–187 family history of type 2 diabetes guarantees I’ll get it too nutrition myth 297–298 fasting blood glucose level 13 fat cholesterol 33–34 monounsaturated 34 Nutrition Facts table listing 84 Omega-3 fatty acids 34–35 overview 29–30 33–35 polyunsaturated 34 saturated 34 trans fatty acids 34 unsaturated 34 fatigue as symptom of high blood glucose 14 feta Beet and Feta Salad 128–129 Broccoli with Feta and Roasted Peppers 177 Feta Bruschetta 143

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Index 351 fibre insoluble 32 in Nutrition Facts table 304 overview 31–32 recommended amount of 32 soluble 32 fish baking 191 broiling 192 buying 75 choosing 190 cooking 191–192 Crispy Coated Sole 199 Dilly Shrimp Cucumber Bites 144 Greek Fish 195 Japanese Fish Cakes 197 Mediterranean-Style Tuna Casserole 198 mercury in 194 omega-3 fatty acids in 189 overview 189 Saffron Fish 196 Salmon Loaf 193 steaming 192 sushi 140–141 flax benefits of 98 Flax Cookies 265 flexitarian 236 folding 72 food groups 42 food shopping in bulk 78 buying frozen juice 74 buying fruits and vegetables at roadside stands and farmers markets 74 buying fruits and vegetables in season 74 checkout line items avoiding 78 with coupons 77 eating before 77 estimating your food needs 77 list for 76 nutrition labels reading and using 82–88 for pantry essentials 80–81 for perishables 79 planning your week’s menu before 76 prepackaged foods avoiding 78 prepared foods avoiding 78 with reusable grocery bags 77 saving money on staples 73–75 store-brand goods buying 78 strategies for 75–79 tips for 77–78 unit price labels reading 78 without children 77 four food groups 42 French Onion Soup 111 friends’ homes healthy eating at 54–55 frozen fruit as pantry essential 80 frozen vegetables as pantry essential 80 176 fruit buying at roadside stands and farmers markets 74 buying in season 74 consuming at most meals 304–305 as dessert 256 frozen fruit as pantry essential 80 options 93–94 and vegetables as food group 42 fruit juice advantages of 291 buying frozen 74 disadvantages of 292 overview 291–292 Fruit Trifle 256 Fruity Spinach Salad 125 frying 72 • G • game meat 232–233 Garlic Mashed Potatoes 154 gas from beans tips for avoiding 170 gastroenteritis 203 gastroparesis 290 general nutrition Web sites on 312–314 gestational diabetes GDM healthy eating with 63 overview 12 Glazed Asian Lamb 230 gliclazide 22 glimepiride 22 GLP-a analogues exenatide liraglutide 22

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352 Diabetes Cookbook For Canadians For Dummies glucose tolerance test 13 glyburide 22 glycemic index GI carbohydrates on 18 overview 31 62–63 Goat Cheese and Sun-Dried Tomato Mushroom Caps 142 grain products as food group 42 as pantry essential 81 granola 97 grating 72 Greek Fish 195 Greek Potatoes 151 Green Pea Cauliflower and Tomato Curry 182 griddle options Akooir Scrambled Eggs 102–103 Cottage Cheese Pancakes 105 Oatmeal Fruit Crepes 104–105 Oatmeal Pancakes 103 overview 101–102 Grilled Vegetables 184 grocery bags food shopping with reusable 77 Groundnut Stew 224 guidelines for consumption of sugar 48–49 • H • Hamburger Stroganoff 222 Happy Birthday Cake 278–279 Harvey Patti Shepherd’s Pie recipe 220 HDL cholesterol 33 HDL cholesterol ratio 34 Health Canada Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide 28 41 44 79 237 nutrition claims regulation of 86–87 Web site 313 health claims on nutrition labels 87–88 healthy eating. See diet Healthy Eating is in Store for You Web site 313 healthy eating tips calcium consuming sources of 305 eat three meals per day 301 limiting time between meals to less than six hours 302 low-fat foods choosing 303 multivitamins need for 306–307 sweets enjoying in moderation 302–303 variety in diet need for 307 vegetable and fruit consuming at most meals 304–305 vitamin D consuming sources of 306 water consuming enough 307 whole grains and high-fibre foods choosing 303–304 healthy method of weight loss 59 high blood glucose blurred vision as symptom of 14 complications of 15–16 described 14 eye damage retinopathy as complication of 15 fatigue as symptom of 14 hunger as symptom of 14 kidney damage nephropathy as complication of 15 nerve damage neuropathy as complication of 15 symptoms of 14–15 thirst increase as symptom of 14 urination frequency as symptom of 14 vaginal infections as symptom of 14 weight loss as symptom of 14 high blood pressure hypertension lowering 64 overview 63–64 home diet at 51 homeland inability to eat food from your nutrition myth 295–296 homemade broth making soup with 109 hummus 146 hunger as symptom of high blood glucose 14 of low blood glucose hypoglycemia 16

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Index 353 hydration maintaining during illness 298 overview 40–41 hypoglycemia and alcohol 50 anxiety as symptom of 16 described 16 hunger as symptom of 16 oral medications for discontinuing 291 palpitations as symptom of 16 sweating as symptom of 16 symptoms of 16 treating 16–17 trembling hands as symptom of 16 • I • Ian Blumer’s Practical Guide to Diabetes Web site 312 iceberg lettuce 120 illness blood glucose levels checked during 299 hydration maintaining 298 when sick I have to force myself to eat normally nutrition myth 298–299 ingredients for salads 121 injectable medications 22 insoluble fibre 32 instant rice 156 insulin carbohydrate counting used with 24–25 described 10 intermediate 23 long-acting 23 nutrition used with 23–24 overview 22–25 premixed 23 rapid-acting 23 290 short-acting 23 types of 23 when to take 290 insulin resistance 11 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus IDDM 10 interest in kitchen activities for children fostering an 269–270 intermediate insulin 23 iodine 36 iron described 36 Nutrition Facts table listing 85 iron deficiency anemia 36 islet cells 11 • J • jam Jam Jewel Cookies 262 Little Jam Cupcakes 282 Japanese Fish Cakes 197 juice advantages of 291 buying frozen 74 disadvantages of 292 overview 291–292 Just the Basics Canadian Diabetes Association 44 79 juvenile diabetes 10 • K • Kale Soup 114 kidney damage nephropathy 15 65–66 kidney failure 65–66 kneading 72 Kraft Canada Web site 313 • L • lacto-ovo-vegetarian 236 lacto-vegetarian 236 lamb Glazed Asian Lamb 230 Lamb with Chinese Oyster Sauce 231 overview 230 serving 230 large meal plan menus for 329–343 lasagna 164–165

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354 Diabetes Cookbook For Canadians For Dummies LDL cholesterol 33 leftovers soups created from 107–109 legumes Chickpea Curry 171 Curried Chickpeas in Tomato Cups 172 Dal 168 Mango Bean Mix 169 overview 167 Three-Bean Chili 241 lemons Bulgur and Chickpea Salad with Lemon Dressing 133 Luscious Lemon Pudding Cake 260–261 lentils Dal 168 soaking 295 lettuce overview 120–121 storing 121 types of 120–121 washing 130 lifestyle therapy 18 Light Potato Salad 130–131 limiting alcohol 50 limiting time between meals to less than six hours 302 lipids nutrition used to control 65 liraglutide 22 list for food shopping 76 list of ingredients on nutrition labels 82–83 Little Jam Cupcakes 282 locally grown vegetables 174 long grain rice 155 long-acting insulin 23 looseleaf lettuce 120–121 low blood glucose hypoglycemia and alcohol 50 anxiety as symptom of 16 described 16 hunger as symptom of 16 oral medications for discontinuing 291 palpitations as symptom of 16 sweating as symptom of 16 symptoms of 16 treating 16–17 trembling hands as symptom of 16 low-fat foods choosing 303 lunch large meal plan 329–343 small meal plan 317–328 Luscious Lemon Pudding Cake 260 • M • Macaroni and Cheese 274 magnesium 36 main salads 132–135 mangos Mango Orange Banana smoothie 93 Mango Bean Mix 169 Pecan Mango and Brie Salad 127 Marinated Mushrooms with Herbs 126 meal planning. See diet meat beef 219–227 as food group 42 game meat 232–233 lamb 230–231 overview 219 pork 227–229 venison 232–233 Meatloaf with Mushroom Sauce 225 medication discontinuing 291 Mediterranean-Style Tuna Casserole 198 medium grain rice 155 meglitinides repaglinide nateglinide 22 Mendosa Rick Online Diabetes Resources Web site 312 menus large meal plan 329–343 planning 79–80 small meal plan 317–328 mercury in fish 194 metformin 22 39 microwave baked method for cooking rice 157 milk and alternatives food group 42 minerals calcium 35–36 chromium 36 iodine 36 iron 36

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Index 355 magnesium 36 phosphorus 36 sodium 37 zinc 37 Mini Cheesecakes 254 Mixed Bean Salad 132 mixing 72 mixing bowls 70 monounsaturated fat 34 muffins Banana Chocolate Chip Muffins 281 Chocolate Zucchini Muffins 252 multivitamins need for 306–307 when to take daily 37–38 mushrooms Goat Cheese and Sun-Dried Tomato Mushroom Caps 142 Marinated Mushrooms with Herbs 126 Meatloaf with Mushroom Sauce 225 Nutty Rice and Mushroom Stir-Fry 240 Spinach Mushroom Lasagna 164–165 Tofu Mushroom Caps 242 • N • nateglinide 22 need for snacks 287–288 nephropathy 15 65–66 nerve damage neuropathy as complication of high blood glucose 15 non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus NIDDM 10 nutrient deficiency possibility in vegetarian diet of 236 nutrient value of vegetables retaining 175–176 nutrition general nutrition Web sites on 312–314 with insulin 23–24 labels nutrition claims on 86–87 Nutrition Facts panel for soups 110 Nutrition Facts table percentage Daily Value listing 84 calcium listing 85 calories listing 84 carbohydrates listing 85 cholesterol listing 84–85 exempt items from 84 fat listing 84 fibre content 304 iron listing 85 overview 83–84 protein listing 85 serving size listing 84 sodium listing 85 vitamin A listing 85 vitamin C listing 85 nutrition labels health claims 87–88 list of ingredients 82–83 nutrition claims 86–87 Nutrition Facts table 83–86 overview 82 reading and using 82–88 nutrition myths dietitian no point in seeing a 293 excess sugar consumption causes type 2 diabetes 297 family history of type 2 diabetes guarantees I’ll get it too 297–298 homeland inability to eat food from your 295–296 omega-3 fatty acids supplements are of proven benefit for diabetes 294 overnight increase in blood sugar is due to something you’ve eaten 294 soaking rice or lentils will help prevent raised blood glucose levels 295 spices make blood glucose levels go up 296 when sick I have to force myself to eat normally 298–299 white food is bad and should be avoided 296–297 nutrition used to control blood glucose levels carbohydrate intake 18–19 dietitian obtaining advice of 19–21 overview 17–18 timing when you eat 19 nuts 99 Nutty Rice and Mushroom Stir-Fry 240

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356 Diabetes Cookbook For Canadians For Dummies • O • Oatmeal Fruit Crepes 104–105 Oatmeal Pancakes 103 omega-3 fatty acids in fish 189 overview 34–35 in seafood 189 sources for 294 supplements are of proven benefit for diabetes nutrition myth 294 onions 111 Online Diabetes Resources by Rick Mendosa Web site 312 oral medications alpha-glucosidase inhibitors acarbose 22 biguanides metformin 22 discontinuing 291 DPP-4 inhibitors sitagliptin nateglinide 22 meglitinides repaglinide nateglinide 22 overview 22 sulfonylureas gliclazide glimepiride glyburide 22 thiazolidinediones pioglitazone rosiglitazone 22 Orange Frost 257 orange juice 93 Orange-Glazed Carrots 186 organic farming 183 organic vegetables 183 Osteoporosis Canada 305 oven-baked method for cooking rice 157 overnight increase in blood sugar is due to something you’ve eaten nutrition myth 294 overweight determining if you are 58 ovo-vegetarian 236 • P • palpitations as symptom of low blood glucose hypoglycemia 16 pan frying 72 pancakes Cottage Cheese Pancakes 105 Oatmeal Pancakes 103 pans 70 pantry essentials baking ingredients 81 canned fruit 80 canned vegetables 80 cooking ingredients 81 frozen fruit 80 frozen vegetables 80 grains 81 overview 80–81 shopping for 80–81 parboiling described 72 rice 155 156 Parmesan Chicken 210 parsnips 117 parties and celebrations healthy eating at 55–56 party food appetizers 143–147 Black Bean Salsa 147 Devilish Egg 145 Dilly Shrimp Cucumber Bites 144 Feta Bruschetta 143 Toasted Walnut Hummus 146 pasta Cheesy Noodles with Nuts 161 cooking 160 Macaroni and Cheese 274 Pasta Primavera 162 Quinoa Risotto 163 serving sizes for 160 Spinach Mushroom Lasagna 164–165 storing 161 Szechuan Noodles 166–167 Payne Bonnie Pumpkin Pie recipe 250 Payne Cindy Classic Caesar Salad recipe 124 Payne Roberta Marinated Mushrooms with Herbs recipe 126 peanut butter 75 peanuts 224 pears 135 pear-shaped body and risk of diabetes 27 Pecan Mango and Brie Salad 127 peppers 177

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Index 357 percentage Daily Value listing in Nutrition Facts table 84 perishables food shopping for 79 pernicious anemia 39 phosphorus 36 pie Blueberry Pie 251 Pumpkin Pie 250 pine nuts 179 pioglitazone 22 pizza Pizza Faces 271 White Pizza 244 planning your week’s menu before food shopping 76 polyunsaturated fat 34 pork cuts of 227 overview 227 Pork Chow Mein 229 Spanish Pork Chops 228 portion size 43–45 Potato Latkes 152 potatoes baking 150 boiling 150 Garlic Mashed Potatoes 154 Greek Potatoes 151 Light Potato Salad 130–131 overview 150 Potato Latkes 152 selecting 153 storing 153 Sweet Potato Fries 153 types of 150 pots 70 poultry. See also chicken turkey buying 74 cleaning 204 cooking 204 overview 203–204 storing 204 prediabetes 12 pregnancy gestational diabetes 12 mercury levels in fish and 194 pre-made salads 129 premixed insulin 23 prepackaged foods avoiding 78 prepared foods avoiding 78 protein Nutrition Facts table listing 85 overview 29–30 32 seeking alternate sources of 75 vegetarian diet sources 235 237 pudding Aboriginal Wild Rice Pudding 259 Baked Custard 261 Luscious Lemon Pudding Cake 260–261 Orange Frost 257 Strawberry Dream 258 Pumpkin Pie 250 puree 72 • Q • Quesadillas 243 quiche 181 Quinoa Risotto 163 • R • Rajesh Dr. Nita Chapati recipe 245 Dal recipe 168 rapid-acting insulin 23 290 raspberries Baked Apple with Raspberries 275 Raspberry Muffins 96 Shake Me Up Shake 94 Reality Bites Web site 315 recommended amount of fibre 32 registered dietitian finding 20–21 overview 293 295 reheating rice 158 repaglinide 22 resistance exercise 21 restaurants healthy eating in 52–53 retinopathy as complication of high blood glucose 15

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358 Diabetes Cookbook For Canadians For Dummies reusable grocery bags food shopping with 77 Rhubarb Cake 249 rice Aboriginal Wild Rice Pudding 259 brown 155 cooking 156–157 instant 156 long grain 155 medium grain 155 microwave baked method for cooking 157 Nutty Rice and Mushroom Stir-Fry 240 oven-baked method for cooking 157 overview 155–156 parboiled 155 156 reheating 158 rinsing 295 Saffron Almond Rice 159 short grain 155 soaking 295 storing 157 stove-top method for cooking 156–157 types of 155–156 Vegetable Fried Rice 158 wild 156 risotto 163 Rocky Road Balls 264 roles of carbohydrates 30–31 root vegetables 74 rosiglitazone 22 Rubin Alan L. Diabetes For Canadians For Dummies 10 • S • sabotaging weight loss methods of 60–61 saccharin 49 saffron Saffron Almond Rice 159 Saffron Fish 196 salads Asian Noodle Salad 131 Beet and Feta Salad 128–129 Bulgur and Chickpea Salad with Lemon Dressing 133 Chunky Apple Coleslaw 128 Classic Caesar Salad 124 Couscous Chickpea Salad 134 deli 129 Fruity Spinach Salad 125 ingredients for 121 lettuce in 120–121 Light Potato Salad 130–131 main 132–135 Marinated Mushrooms with Herbs 126 Mixed Bean Salad 132 overview 119 Pecan Mango and Brie Salad 127 pre-made 129 side 127–131 starter 123–127 store-bought salad dressings 122 Tomato Cucumber Salad 123 vinaigrette recipe for homemade 122 Walnut Pear and Chicken Salad 135 washing 130 Salmon Loaf 193 salsa 147 salt consumption reducing 64 saturated fat 34 sauces 194 sauteing 72 saving money on staples dairy products 74 fish 75 fruits and vegetables 74 overview 73 poultry 74 protein seeking alternate sources of 75 scallops 200 scones 98–99 SeaChoice 202 seafood Chinese Jewelled Rice 201 omega-3 fatty acids in 189 overview 200 Seared Scallops 200 sustainable 202 seasonal vegetables 174–175 selecting potatoes 153 sensitivity factor 24–25 serving lamb 230

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Index 359 serving size described 44 Nutrition Facts table listing 84 for pasta 160 Shake Me Up Shake 94 Shanghai Dumplings 139 Shepherd’s Pie 220–221 shopping for food in bulk 78 buying frozen juice 74 buying fruits and vegetables at roadside stands and farmers markets 74 buying fruits and vegetables in season 74 checkout line items avoiding 78 with coupons 77 eating before 77 estimating your food needs 77 list for 76 nutrition labels reading and using 82–88 for pantry essentials 80–81 for perishables 79 planning your week’s menu before 76 prepackaged foods avoiding 78 prepared foods avoiding 78 with reusable grocery bags 77 saving money on staples 73–75 store-brand goods buying 78 strategies for 75–79 tips for 77–78 unit price labels reading 78 without children 77 shopping list 76 short grain rice 155 short- acting insulin 23 shrimp 144 side salads 127–131 simmer 72 sitagliptin 22 skipping breakfast 287 skipping meals for weight loss mistake of 285–286 Sloppy Joes 272 small meal plan menus for 317–328 Smith Debbie Carrot Cake recipe 255 smoothies 93–94 snacks bedtime 45 examples of 47–48 large meal plan 329–343 need for 287–288 overview 47–49 287–288 small meal plan 317–328 Snickers 267 snow peas 178 soaking rice or lentils will help prevent raised blood glucose levels nutrition myth 295 sodium described 37 Nutrition Facts table listing 85 soluble fibre 32 soups Adobo Soup with Bok Choy 113 Best Beef Soup 115 Broccoli Cheese Soup 116 broth making a basic 108 broth-based 110–115 Carrot Parsnip Soup 117 commercially prepared 109–110 creamy 116–117 French Onion Soup 111 homemade broth making soup with 109 Kale Soup 114 from leftovers 107–109 Nutrition Facts panel for 110 overview 107 Veggie Soup 112 Sour Cream Chocolate Chip Cake 253 Spanish Pork Chops 228 spices make blood glucose levels go up nutrition myth 296 spinach Fruity Spinach Salad 125 Spinach Mushroom Lasagna 164–165 Splenda Granulated Sweetener 248 springtime vegetables 180–182 Squash Apple Bake 185

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360 Diabetes Cookbook For Canadians For Dummies starter salads 123–127 steaming described 72 fish 192 Stir-Fried Beef with Rice Noodles 223 Stir-Fried Snow Peas 178 stirring 72 store-bought dips 148 store-bought salad dressings 122 store-brand goods buying 78 storing beans 167 pasta 161 potatoes 153 poultry 204 rice 157 stove-top method for cooking rice 156–157 strategies for food shopping 75–79 strawberries Oatmeal Fruit Crepes 104–105 Strawberry Dream 258 sucralose 49 248 sucrose 31 288 sugar artificial sweeteners 49 guidelines for consumption of 48–49 limiting 31 sugar alcohols 49–50 sugar substitutes in dessert 248 using 288–289 suggestions for appetizers 138 for breakfast 92 sulfonylureas gliclazide glimepiride glyburide 22 supper children recipes for 271 large meal plan 329–343 small meal plan 317–328 sushi as appetizer 140–141 sustainable seafood 202 sweating as symptom of low blood glucose hypoglycemia 16 Sweet Potato Fries 153 sweets enjoying in moderation 302–303 Swiss Chard and Pine Nuts 179 symptoms of high blood glucose 14–15 of low blood glucose 16 Szechuan Noodles 166–167 • T • Tandoori Chicken 209 target blood glucose levels 13–14 terminology 71–72 testing blood glucose levels after meals 289 before meals 289 thiazolidinediones pioglitazone rosiglitazone 22 thirst increase as symptom of high blood glucose 14 three meals per day eating 301 Three-Bean Chili 241 timing when you eat 19 45 tips for food shopping 77–78 tips for healthy eating calcium consuming sources of 305 eat three meals per day 301 limiting time between meals to less than six hours 302 low-fat foods choosing 303 multivitamins need for 306–307 sweets enjoying in moderation 302–303 variety in diet need for 307 vegetable and fruit consuming at most meals 304–305 vitamin D consuming sources of 306 water consuming enough 307 whole grains and high-fibre foods choosing 303–304 Toasted Walnut Hummus 146 tofu Curry Tofu with Noodles 238 Tofu Mushroom Caps 242 tomatoes Curried Chickpeas in Tomato Cups 172 Feta Bruschetta 143 Goat Cheese and Sun-Dried Tomato Mushroom Caps 142

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Index 361 Green Pea Cauliflower and Tomato Curry 182 Tomato Cucumber Salad 123 tools list of 70–71 tossing 72 total cholesterol 34 traditional foods need to be given up nutrition myth 295–296 trans fatty acids 34 traveling diet while 52–56 treating low blood glucose hypoglycemia 16–17 trembling hands as symptom of low blood glucose hypoglycemia 16 turkey Cheesy Turkey Bake 216 Curried Turkey in a Pita 215 overview 215 Turkey a la King 217 type 1 diabetes 11 type 2 diabetes 11–12 • U • Ubhi Ruby Chickpea Curry recipe 171 unit price labels reading 78 unsaturated fat 34 urination frequency as symptom of high blood glucose 14 • V • vaginal infections as symptom of high blood glucose 14 variety in diet need for 307 vegan 236 Vegetable Fried Rice 158 vegetables Asparagus Cheddar Quiche 181 Balsamic Brussels Sprouts 187 Broccoli with Feta and Roasted Peppers 177 buying at roadside stands and farmers markets 74 buying in season 74 consuming at most meals 304–305 Ethiopian Cabbage 176 fall harvest 183–187 frozen vegetables as pantry essential 80 176 and fruits as food group 42 Green Pea Cauliflower and Tomato Curry 182 Grilled Vegetables 184 locally grown 174 nutrient value retaining 175–176 Orange-Glazed Carrots 186 organic 183 overview 173 Pasta Primavera 162 seasonal 174–175 springtime 180–182 Squash Apple Bake 185 Stir-Fried Snow Peas 178 Swiss Chard and Pine Nuts 179 Zesty Asparagus 180 vegetarian diet advantages of 235–236 Barbecued Eggplant 239 Chapati 245 Curry Tofu with Noodles 238 nutrient deficiency possibility of 236 Nutty Rice and Mushroom Stir-Fry 240 overview 46 235–236 protein sources 235 237 Quesadillas 243 Three-Bean Chili 241 Tofu Mushroom Caps 242 types of 236 White Pizza 244 Veggie Soup 112 vending machines healthy eating at 53–54 Venison Steak in Cranberry Sauce 232–233 vinaigrette recipe for homemade 122 vitamin A described 38 Nutrition Facts table listing 85 vitamin B9 folate or folic acid 38 vitamin B12 38–39 vitamin C listing on Nutrition Facts table 85

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362 Diabetes Cookbook For Canadians For Dummies vitamin D consuming sources of 306 described 39 importance of 306 sources of 306 vitamin E 40 vitamin K 40 vitamins 37–40. See also specific vitamins volumetrics 60 • W • waist circumference 58 Walnut Pear and Chicken Salad 135 Walnut Chicken 214 walnuts Cheesy Noodles with Nuts 161 Cranberry Walnut Muffins 100 Toasted Walnut Hummus 146 washing salads 130 water consumption 40–41 307 Web sites American Diabetes Association 311 CalorieKing Food Database 314 Canadian Diabetes Association CDA 311 Children with Diabetes 312 Diabetes Network 314 diabetes nutrition-focused 314–315 Diabetic Gourmet Magazine 314 Dietitians of Canada 312 dLife 315 EatRight Ontario 314 on general diabetes information 311–312 on general nutrition 312–314 Health Canada 313 Healthy Eating is in Store for You 313 Ian Blumer’s Practical Guide to Diabetes 312 Kraft Canada 313 Online Diabetes Resources by Rick Mendosa 312 Reality Bites 315 weight loss as symptom of high blood glucose 14 weight-loss strategies behaviour modifying your 59–60 benefits of weight loss 58 determining if you are overweight 58 fad diets avoiding 59 healthy method of weight loss 59 overview 57 sabotaging weight loss methods of 60–61 skipping meals for mistake of 285–286 volumetrics 60 whipping 72 whisking 72 white food is bad and should be avoided nutrition myth 296–297 White Pizza 244 whole grains and high-fibre foods choosing 303–304 wild rice 156 • Y • yogurt 74 • Z • zesting 72 Zesty Asparagus 180 zinc 37

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Diet Health/Diabetic Cooking Manage your diabetes deliciously with these easy-to-prepare meals Want to create meals that are not only diabetes-friendly but tasty and easy to prepare as well This practical guide provides helpful ways to manage your diabetes through healthy eating with over 130 recipes covering relaxed brunch treats hurried weekday meals elegant party snacks and sophisticated dinners for entertaining. You’ll discover smart shopping tips menu-planning suggestions and the latest information on treating diabetes successfully. • Get nutritional know-how — understand how your diet affects your diabetes investigate how to count carbohydrates and discover how to decode food labels • Control your weight — find out how you can fight being overweight through portion control smart snacking and balanced meals • Explore a vegetarian diet — learn the benefits of meatless eating and try many surprisingly simple and flavourful recipes • Enjoy multicultural dishes at home — discover how easy it is to make mouth-watering meals inspired by dishes from Africa China India Italy the Mediterranean the First Nations and more • Have fun cooking with your kids — get your kids hooked on healthy food habits with a selection of recipes tailored just for them • Indulge wisely in guilt-free desserts — savour a wide range of delectable favourites from pies to cakes to cookies without sacrificing your health • Make menu-planning a breeze — take advantage of a full month of menus complete with breakfast lunch dinner and snacks Open the book and find: • Over 130 recipes • The latest information on diabetes and nutrition • Detailed nutritional analysis of every recipe • Tips to save money at the grocery store • Pantry staples to help you be ready for a quick and healthy meal at a moment’s notice • Helpful food preparation tips and shortcuts • How to bake with sugar substitutes • Suggestions on how to eat right when you’re dining out Go to Dummies.com ® for videos step-by-step examples how-to articles or to shop Ian Blumer MD is a diabetes specialist in the Greater Toronto Area is on the executive committee of the Clinical Scientific Section of the Canadian Diabetes Association and is the co-author of Diabetes For Canadians For Dummies. Cynthia Payne RD CDE works at a diabetes education clinic in Cobourg and is a public speaker to professional and lay audiences and a former nutrition columnist. 29.99 ISBN 978-0-470-16028-2

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