Common Medical Emergencies

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How to tackle them

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By: osamaalshehaib (98 month(s) ago)

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COMMON MEDICAL EMERGENCIES : 

COMMON MEDICAL EMERGENCIES Dr. Pritam Tayshetye Dr. Mana Rao

MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION : 

MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION “Heart Attack” Impairment of heart function d/t inadequate blood flow to the heart compared to its needs, caused by obstructive changes in the coronary circulation Obstruction d/t 1)Thrombus 2)Plaque rupture 3)Vessel spasm

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Symptoms Acute central chest pain not responding to nitrates Pain radiating to neck/left arm Associated with nausea/sweating/breathlessness/palpitations/collapse Silent MI (diabetics & elderly) What can be done? Give semi-sitting position Reassure, immobilize Call Ambulance Angina medications – nitrates (sublingual tablets/sprays) Aspirin, chewable Monitor pulse & breathing CPR if necessary

CARDIO-PULMONARY RESUSCITATION : 

CARDIO-PULMONARY RESUSCITATION UNRESPONSIVE?? SHOUT FOR HELP OPEN AIRWAY BY HEAD TILT/CHIN LIFT LOOK, LISTEN, FEEL IF BREATHING RECOVERY POSITION FOR BREATHING IF NOT BREATHING CALL FOR ASSISTANCE 30 CHEST COMPRESSIONS (AT RATE OF 100/MIN) 2 RESCUE BREATHS 30 COMPRESSIONS

STROKE : 

STROKE Rapidly developed clinical signs of focal disturbance of cerebral function lasting more than 24 hrs or leading to death, with no apparent cause other than vascular origin Recovery within 24 hrs – TIA, no residual deficit Causes – Thrombus/Embolus/Hemorrhage

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Symptoms Sudden weakness of one side of the body (sign of paralysis) Difficulty in speaking/ drooping mouth Dribbling of saliva from one side of mouth Blurred vision/ partial loss of sight / flashing lights Confusion and disorientation Sometimes loss of consciousness What to do? If unconscious then place the person in recovery position If conscious, make him lie down with head and shoulders raised Monitor Reassure Call Ambulance Resuscitate if necessary

HYPOGLYCEMIA : 

HYPOGLYCEMIA Low blood sugar level Causes Diabetics on Insulin Starvation Excessive alcohol intake Less common causes – liver failure, sepsis, endocrine tumors

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Symptoms History of diabetes Excess hunger Feeling faint or dizzy Strange behavior – Confusion, aggression Palpitations, tremors Pale, cold, sweaty skin Loss of consciousness e/o diabetes – medic alert/syringe in bag What should be done If conscious, give GLUCOSE orally till person feels better If unconscious, monitor airway and breathing and seek medic help Give glucagon inj (keep prefilled syringe in c/o diabetes) If possible, IV glucose

SEIZURES : 

SEIZURES Seizure – paroxysmal event due to abnormal,excessive, hyper synchronous discharges from an aggregate of CNS neurons Epilepsy – a condition in which a person has recurrent seizures due to a chronic, underlying process

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Symptoms Aura Sudden rigidity of body – tonic phase Collapse d/t which injuries may be sustained F/b periodic relaxation of muscles – clonic phase Tongue bite B&B incontinence Post ictal exhaustion & confusion/headache Other types – absence seizure, partial seizure, secondary generalized etc First Aid Move person away from danger e.g. fire, water, furniture Don’t try to restrain Don’t insert anything in mouth After convulsion ceases, give recovery position Ensure airway is clear Don’t leave person alone even after seizure Reassure, support If seizure persists >5 min/recurs w/o regaining consciousness call Ambulance

ASTHMA : 

ASTHMA Disease of airways charac. By increased responsiveness of the tracheobronchial tree to a variety of stimuli Clinical Course – Acute exacerbations with remissions / Continuous episode (status asthmaticus) Causes – genetic (hereditary) allergic idiopathic

Triggers : 

Triggers Allergens d/t weather & season change, animal fur & dander, smoke, dust Pharmacologic agents - aspirin coloring agents Air pollutants – ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide Occupational asthma Infections – influenza, parainfluenza Exercise Emotional upsets

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Symptoms Shortness of breath Cough Chest tightness Wheezing Associated symptoms – inability to speak, pale skin, blueness, distress, confusion Ultimately – unconscious & ceases to breathe What you should do: Move away from the thing that triggered the episode Take a quick relief asthma medication Stay calm so that breathing gets better Call Ambulance if: No response to medication Lips/fingernails turn blue or grey It is hard to talk Nasal flare Skin is pulled around the neck & ribs when person breathes Heartbeat/pulse is too fast

ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS : 

ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS Critical four minutes: One of the most common causes of a road accident death is due to loss of oxygen supply. Normally it takes less than four minutes for a blocked airway to cause death. The 'golden hour’: The first hour after the trauma is called the 'golden hour'

What can you do? : 

What can you do? Beware of further collisions and fire Alert oncoming traffic to the danger ahead Don’t allow anyone to smoke Get assistance from bystanders Call Ambulance Don’t move casualties who remain in their vehicles, unless they are in danger by doing so. Never remove a motorcyclist’s helmet unless deemed necessary. Avoid unnecessary movements Reassurance

Contd. : 

Contd. If person responsive, ask questions/shake gently by shoulders and ensure airway is open If breathing but unconscious put in recovery position If not responsive then start CPR In case of bleeding- check if there are any objects in the wound If the wound is clear of objects apply firm pressure over the wound If there are objects embedded in the wound do not press them, and build up padding around the object

Contd. : 

Contd. In case of burns- Cool it by clean cold water for at least 10 mins Don’t remove anything that may be stuck to it

ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS : 

ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS Critical four minutes: One of the most common causes of a road accident death is due to loss of oxygen supply. Normally it takes less than four minutes for a blocked airway to cause death. The 'golden hour’: The first hour after the trauma is called the 'golden hour'

What can you do? : 

What can you do? Beware of further collisions and fire Alert oncoming traffic to the danger ahead Don’t allow anyone to smoke Get assistance from bystanders Call Ambulance Don’t move casualties who remain in their vehicles, unless they are in danger by doing so. Never remove a motorcyclist’s helmet unless deemed necessary. Avoid unnecessary movements Reassurance

Contd. : 

Contd. If person responsive, ask questions/shake gently by shoulders and ensure airway is open If breathing but unconscious put in recovery position If not responsive then start CPR In case of bleeding- check if there are any objects in the wound If the wound is clear of objects apply firm pressure over the wound If there are objects embedded in the wound do not press them, and build up padding around the object

Contd. : 

Contd. In case of burns- Cool it by clean cold water for at least 10 mins Don’t remove anything that may be stuck to it

CARDIO-PULMONARY RESUSCITATION : 

CARDIO-PULMONARY RESUSCITATION UNRESPONSIVE?? SHOUT FOR HELP OPEN AIRWAY BY HEAD TILT/CHIN LIFT LOOK, LISTEN, FEEL IF BREATHING RECOVERY POSITION FOR BREATHING IF NOT BREATHING CALL FOR ASSISTANCE 30 CHEST COMPRESSIONS (AT RATE OF 100/MIN) 2 RESCUE BREATHS 30 COMPRESSIONS

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