Banana_black_leaf_streak_management

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BANANA BLACK LEAF STREAK: DISEASE MANAGEMENT IN HAWAII Dr. Scot Nelson Associate Plant Pathologist University of Hawaii snelson@hawaii.edu

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Presentation Outline: Bunch management and field practices

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PRODUCING A CONSITENT BANANA OF HIGH QUALITY EFFICIENTLY, WITHOUT WASTE BUNCH MANGEMENT & FIELD PRACTICES HARVESTING AND HANDLING FORCED RIPENING AND MARKETING Fruit diseases and disorders, plant nutrition Three Phases:

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Best bunch management practices: “quality control from the field to the shelf” Field practices :  Leaf removal (diseased leaves, sanitation)  Deflowering (of individual fingers)  Bunch spray (to reduce insect and mold)  Bagging and Tagging  On-time harvest  Careful handling & transport to packing house Packing house practices :  Good packing house hygiene  Hang bunches in shade over night to cool  Careful de-handing (clean cuts)  Washing  Drying  Packing  Storage (refrigerated), shipping (prompt) Bunch of bananas

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Banana Bunch management in the FIELD :  Leaf removal : minimizes fruit injury Remove leaves that rub against bunches Remove severely diseased leaves (de-trashing)  Deflowering : reduces incidence of fungus and insect attack; reduces abrasion injury on fruit skin.  Bunch spray (diazinon, insecticidal soap, BT, copper hydroxide): reduces pest and disease damage (moth, thrips, sooty mold, etc.)  Field sanitation : reduces insect and pathogen populations  Bagging and Tagging : protects bunch; ensures on-time harvest of cohorts  Good cultural practices (weed, pest, disease management, drainage, fertility, pruning, plant spacing, etc): ensures healthy, consistent fruit  Careful harvesting, handling & transport to packing house : minimizes fruit injury and bruising.

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De-flowering Female flowers are plucked twice per week Each bunch is plucked 1-2 times Flowers are plucked soon after they open up, while they are still fresh. Tools : ladder, gloves After plucking is complete, male flower is cut off & bunch is sprayed and bagged & tagged with colored ribbons.

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Pruning on a regular basis removes unwanted or suckers, keeps production mats in optimum condition, saves fertilizer, reduces pest and disease Good cultural practices Pruned fielde

Banana nutrition in Hawaii :

Banana nutrition in Hawaii

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From : Laha, E., and Turner, D.W. 1989. Banana Nutrition. International Potash Institute Worblaufen-Bern, Switzerland. Nutrient Cycle for Bananas

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From : Laha, E., and Turner, D.W. 1989. Banana Nutrition. International Potash Institute Worblaufen-Bern, Switzerland. Nutrient partitioning in Bananas

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Element requirements for high-production banana farming in Hawaii Element Pounds per acre per year Nitrogen 300 - 650 Phosphorous 60 - 120 Potassium 600 - 700 Primary fertilizer sources : “Banana special” 13-3-37 (general N-P-K fertilizer) – about 200 lbs/acre/month Urea (sulfur-coated or poly-coated) (N) Potash, KSO or KCl (K) Lime, dolomite (Ca) – fields limed to pH 5.5 – 6.5 up to twice per year Borax (B) Zinc sulfate (Zn) Sulfur (S) “Banana special” 13-3-37

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Crop logging program for banana (Hawaii) Crop logging is the monitoring of soil and banana tissue data over a period of time to help the grower make better decisions on the type, rate, and interval of fertilizer applications. Element Symbol Range (suggested) NITROGEN N 2.8 – 3.1% PHOSPHOROUS P 0.18 – 0.20% POTASSIUM K 3.2 – 3.5% CALCIUM Ca 0.6 – 1.0% MAGNESIUM Mg 0.3 – 0.6% SULFUR S 0.22 – 0.25% IRON Fe 50 – 100 ppm MANGANESE Mn 30 – 100 ppm COPPER Cu 10 – 15 ppm ZINC Zn 25 – 40 ppm BORON B 15 – 25 ppm Recommended levels of elements in banana leaf tissue in Hawaii .

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From : Laha, E., and Turner, D.W. 1989. Banana Nutrition. International Potash Institute Worblaufen-Bern, Switzerland. Banana leaf tissue sampling in Hawaii for nutrient analysis

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From : Laha, E., and Turner, D.W. 1989. Banana Nutrition. International Potash Institute Worblaufen-Bern, Switzerland.

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Advantages of crop logging: -Quantitative basis for decision making Early detection of problems Verification of suspected problems and interactions Improved yield and quality Optimum fertilizer use patterns

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Nutrient imbalance symptoms for banana

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Deficient element Symptoms Notes Nitrogen Generalized chlorosis (more yellowing on older leaves); rose-colored tints on petioles and leaf sheaths; stunting; rosetting; slender pseudostem; small petioles and leaves; reduced life span of leaves; notable reduction in yield. Banana is more sensitive to a lack of nitrogen than any other element; problem is compounded by dense stands of weeds or grass. Potassium Rapid yellowing of oldest leaves which then turn orange and dry up; leaves become tattered and fold downward; crumpled leaves; poorly filled bunch Responds well to potash applications Magnesium Marginal chlorosis of lowest leaves; violet-colored marbling of petioles; fruit may have defective flavor and not ship well. Magnesium sulphate can alleviate the symptoms. Calcium General dwarfing; reduced leaf length; reduced rate of leaf emission; leaves are undulated; tissue near midrib thickens, may turn reddish-brown Fields should be limes periodically; calcium nitrate can help to correct this deficiency. Iron General interveinal chlorosis of young leaves; retarded plant growth; small bunches Apply iron compounds to soil; foliar sprays of iron compounds can relieve symptoms temporarily. Zinc Rosetting and stunting; chlorotic, strap-shaped leaves; leaf chlorosis ion stripes or patches; abnormal bunch and hand characteristics Problem may be more severe in sandier areas. Sulphur Leaves are chlorotic and reduced in size with a thickening of secondary veins; undulating leaf edges; necrosis along edge of lower leaves Sulphate fertilizers can correct this problem (e.g., ammonium sulphate, potassium sulphate and magnesium sulphate) Boron Chlorotic streaking oriented perpendicular to and crossing the primary veins; leaf malformation; interveinal chlorosis Deficiency can develop over time in mature banana fields in Hawaii Reference: Stover, R.H. 1972. Banana, plantain and abaca diseases. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, England. 316

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Calcium (Ca) deficiency -”Spike leaf” Calcium (Ca) deficiency -collapsed cigar leaf, lack of green pigmentation, burned (necrotic) tip of cigar leaf Calcium (Ca) deficiency -Unthrifty plant growth -Faint chlorotic yellow stripes parallel to leaf veins

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