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The function of education is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically. Intelligence plus character that is the goal of true education. -Martin Luther King Jr.


Title Education has always been accorded an honored place in Indian society. The great leaders of the Indian freedom movement realized the fundamental role of education and throughout the nation’s struggle for independence, stressed its unique significance for national development.

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Gandhi formulated the scheme of basic education, seeking to harmonize intellectual and manual work. This was a great step forward in making education directly relevant to the life of the people.

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The National Policy on Education (NPE) is a policy formulated by the Government of India to promote education amongst India’s people. The policy covers elementary education to colleges in both rural and urban India. The first NPE was promulgated in 1968 by the government of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and second by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1986.


BACKGROUND (NEED ) 1) There was an urgent need to solve the problems of access, quality, quantity, utility and financial outlay, accumulated over the years which were massive in proportions. 2) The general formulation is corporated in the 1968 policy did not get translated into detailed study of implementation. The former Prime Minister of India, Shri Rajiv Gandhi announced in January 1985, that a new education policy would be formulated in the country.

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‘ Challenges of education – A policy perspective’ was issued by the ministry of education, government of India. Countrywide debate on educational reforms The new policy on education, 1986 approved by parliament in MAY 1986.


SAILENT FEATURES OF NPE’86 Common educational structure 10+2+3 structure


SAILENT FEATURES OF NPE’86 National curricular framework with a common core Will include the: History of India’s freedom movement, The constitutional obligations, Other content essential to nurture national identity.

National curricular framework with a common core:

National curricular framework with a common core Minimum levels of learning Priorities of educational reforms Meaningful partnership

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Education for All :

Education for All To universalize elementary education To prevent the possibility of adult illiteracy in the years by reducing the dropouts in schools. To accelerate non-formal education and make education reach the remotest corner of the country.

Scientific and Technological Development :

Scientific and Technological Development Strengthen educational T.V.(E.T.V.) and audio program capabilities and provide wider access to them. To improve science education in schools.


Promote rural technology and appropriate technology to achieve economic development. Develop scientific temper. Acquaints students and teachers with the range of computer application and its potential as a learning medium.

Social and Cultural Development:

Social and Cultural Development To create awareness regarding our cultural heritage to develop appreciation of diverse cultures of our country To develop appreciation of the achievement of our national leaders. To promote values of national integration, secularism.


To remove barriers between various age groups, diverse cultures, socio economic groups and urban and rural community To provide equal opportunities to all communities for education


To faster universal and eternal values oriented towards the integration of our country To provide development of Indian languages To promote rational outlook.

Human Resource Development :

Human Resource Development To create awareness in all citizens ability the rapid rate of population growth. To create awareness about increasing levels of pollution & the hazards of environment.

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To develop a sense of responsibility & commitment among the individual to the problems of nation. To develop healthy individuals capable of contributing to the social and economic development.


To make provisions for facilitating the basic minimum needs & have the maximum level of learning at all stages.


Develop social and vocational skills Provide a broad based skill oriented vocational training

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To develop positive attitudes to work, co-operative activity & to life long learning & work culture has to be developed to have a dedicated committed work force.

Equalization of Opportunities :

Equalization of Opportunities Equal opportunities to be given scheduled caste & tribes, backward classes and minorities The handicapped to be provided facilities for special institutions Empowerment of women

Objectives of NPE :

Objectives of NPE “Education is the unique investment on the present and the future”

Objectives of NPE :

Objectives of NPE The main thrust of the policy is the man and his/her preparation to face the 21 st century. The concept of national system of education implies that up to a given level all students irrespective of caste, creed, sex etc. have access to education of a comparable quality.

Objectives of NPE :

Objectives of NPE The national system of education will be based on a national curricular framework. To motivate the younger generation for international co operation and peaceful co existence .

Objectives of NPE :

Objectives of NPE To encourage the young to undertake the discovery of India, its image and perception. To establish network arrangements between different institutions in the country

Objectives of NPE :

Objectives of NPE To provide opportunities to the youth, housewives and industrial workers etc. to continue the education of their choice at the pace suited to them. The union Government would accept a large integrative character of education. To integrate physically and mentally handicapped with the general community as equal partners.

Recommendations of NPE :

Recommendations of NPE

Recommendations on Education for Equality :

Recommendations on Education for Equality Disparity Education for Women’s Equality Education of Scheduled Castes Education of Scheduled Tribes Other Educationally Backward Sections and Areas Minorities Handicapped Adult Education

Reorganization of Education at Different Stages :

Reorganization of Education at Different Stages Early Childhood and Education Elementary Education School Facilities Non-formal Education A Resolve Secondary Education and Navodaya Vidalayas

Reorganization of Education at Different Stages :

Reorganization of Education at Different Stages Vocationalization of Education Higher education Open Universities and Distance Learning Technical and Management Education Delinking Degrees from Job Review


MERITS OF NPE’86 Deep concern had been shown by the prime minister in formulation of NPE. 2) The nation wide debate was conducted for the formulation of the policy. 3) The program of action was checked out.

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4) The ministry of education was renamed as ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD). 5) The policy believes in decentralization . 6 ) Equality of educational opportunities.


7) Vocational and technical education has received a very high priority 8) The policy emphasizes recruitment of teachers on merit improvement

Limitations of NPE :

Limitations of NPE Neglecting the ‘Neighborhood School’concept . M ultiplication of authorities. No place for basic education. Sile nce over the existence of Public Schools and the ir commercialization. Financial implications of the implementation of educational reforms have not been worked out.



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