TOEFL ibt reading

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TOEFL iBT : 

TOEFL iBT Test-Taking Strategies for the Reading Section

Slide 2: 

Overview

Suggested Time Management : 

Suggested Time Management First reading: 2-3 minutes reading for organization Answering Questions: 10-12 minutes 2nd reading “Reading to Learn” Question: 4-5 minutes 3rd reading

Slide 5: 

Strategies

What you can’t miss (1) : 

What you can’t miss (1) Reference The word X in the passage refers to Example: Question #5 in Practice Test The word it in the passage refers to

What you can’t miss (2) : 

What you can’t miss (2) Vocabulary The word X in the passage is closest in meaning to Example: Question #6 in Practice Test The word exposed in the passage is closest in meaning to

Fact Checking (1) : 

Fact Checking (1) Factual Information According to the paragraph, which of the following is true of X? X occurred because . . . why did X do Y?

Fact Checking (1) : 

Fact Checking (1) Factual Information Example: Question #1 in Practice Test In paragraph 1, what does the author say about the presence of a blowhole in cetaceans? Could you find another example in the practice test?

Fact Checking (2) : 

Fact Checking (2) Negative Factual Information According to the paragraph, which of the following is NOT true of X? The author’s description of X mentions all of the following EXCEPT

Slide 11: 

Reading Passage[A.1]: Over the past 600 years, English has grown from a language of a few speakers to become the dominant language of international communication. English as we know it today emerged around 1350, after having incorporated many elements of French that were introduced following the Norman invasion of 1066. Until the 1600s, English was, for the most part, spoken only in England and had not extended even as far as Wales, Scotland, or Ireland. However, during the course of the next two centuries, English began to spread around the globe as a result of exploration, trade (including slave trade), colonization, and missionary work. Thus, small enclaves of English speakers became established and grew in various parts of the world. As these communities proliferated, English gradually became the primary language of international business, banking, and diplomacy.

Slide 12: 

Question: According to the passage, all of the following contributed to the spread of English around the world EXCEPT A. The slave trade B. The Norman invasion C. Missionaries D. Colonization

Slide 13: 

Reading Passage[A.1]: Over the past 600 years, English has grown from a language of a few speakers to become the dominant language of international communication. English as we know it today emerged around 1350, after having incorporated many elements of French that were introduced following the Norman invasion of 1066. Until the 1600s, English was, for the most part, spoken only in England and had not extended even as far as Wales, Scotland, or Ireland. However, during the course of the next two centuries, English began to spread around the globe as a result of exploration, trade (including slave trade), colonization, and missionary work. Thus, small enclaves of English speakers became established and grew in various parts of the world. As these communities proliferated, English gradually became the primary language of international business, banking, and diplomacy.

Slide 14: 

Question: According to the passage, all of the following contributed to the spread of English around the world EXCEPT A. The slave trade B. The Norman invasion C. Missionaries D. Colonization

Slide 15: 

Reading Passage[A.2]: In North America there are two forms of bison, the plains bison and the woodland bison. The plains bison once ranged from Pennsylvania and Georgia to the Rockies, north to the edge of the Canadian forest, and south onto the central plateau of Mexico. The bison has a great tolerance to cold. When blizzards rage across the North American prairie, bison lower their heads and face directly into the storm. In winter the vegetation on which these animals feed may be hidden beneath a deep blanket of snow; however, this does not present a problem, for the bison use their hooves and massive heads to clear away the snow and then feed on the grasses below. Bison are strong survivors and have few predators except for humans, who reduced their population to the point at which, around 1900, there were fewer than a thousand plains bison left. However, with protection and careful breeding they have been brought back to the point where their numbers can be multiplied at will. Large herds presently range on both government and private lands where they are protected. Other endangered species need the same planning and protection.

Slide 16: 

Question: According to the passage, all of the following are true EXCEPT some bison live on government land bison can survive heavy snowstorms bison are primarily vegetarian the woodland bison has become extinct

Slide 17: 

Reading Passage[A.2]: In North America there are two forms of bison, the plains bison and the woodland bison. The plains bison once ranged from Pennsylvania and Georgia to the Rockies, north to the edge of the Canadian forest, and south onto the central plateau of Mexico. The bison has a great tolerance to cold. When blizzards rage across the North American prairie, bison lower their heads and face directly into the storm. In winter the vegetation on which these animals feed may be hidden beneath a deep blanket of snow; however, this does not present a problem, for the bison use their hooves and massive heads to clear away the snow and then feed on the grasses below. Bison are strong survivors and have few predators except for humans, who reduced their population to the point at which, around 1900, there were fewer than a thousand plains bison left. However, with protection and careful breeding they have been brought back to the point where their numbers can be multiplied at will. Large herds presently range on both government and private lands where they are protected. Other endangered species need the same planning and protection.

Slide 18: 

Question: According to the passage, all of the following are true EXCEPT some bison live on government land bison can survive heavy snowstorms bison are primarily vegetarian the woodland bison has become extinct

What Is Almost Said (1) : 

What Is Almost Said (1) Inference infer, suggest, imply Which of the following can be inferred about X?

Slide 20: 

Examples: Questions #2, #8 in the Practice Test

Slide 21: 

Reading Passage: Historians of women’s labor in the United States at first largely disregarded the story of female service workers—women earning wages in occupations such as salesclerk, domestic servant, and office secretary. These historians focused instead on factory work, primarily because it seemed so different from traditional, unpaid “women’s work” in the home, and because the underlying economic forces of industrialism were presumed to be gender-blind and hence emancipatory in effect. Unfortunately, emancipation has been less profound than expected, for not even industrial wage labor has escaped continued sex segregation in the work place.

Slide 22: 

Question: It can be inferred from the passage that early historians of women’s labor in the United States paid little attention to women’s employment in the service sector of the economy because the extreme variety of these occupations made it very difficult to assemble meaningful statistics about them. the wages paid to the workers in the service sector were much lower than those paid in the industrial sector. women’s employment in the service sector tended to be much more short-term than in factory work. employment in the service sector seemed to have much in common with the unpaid work associated with homemaking.

Slide 23: 

Reading Passage: Historians of women’s labor in the United States at first largely disregarded the story of female service workers—women earning wages in occupations such as salesclerk, domestic servant, and office secretary. These historians focused instead on factory work, primarily because it seemed so different from traditional, unpaid “women’s work” in the home, and because the underlying economic forces of industrialism were presumed to be gender-blind and hence emancipatory in effect. Unfortunately, emancipation has been less profound than expected, for not even industrial wage labor has escaped continued sex segregation in the work place.

Slide 24: 

Question: It can be inferred from the passage that early historians of women’s labor in the United States paid little attention to women’s employment in the service sector of the economy because the extreme variety of these occupations made it very difficult to assemble meaningful statistics about them. the wages paid to the workers in the service sector were much lower than those paid in the industrial sector. women’s employment in the service sector tended to be much more short-term than in factory work. employment in the service sector seemed to have much in common with the unpaid work associated with homemaking.

What Is Almost Said (2) : 

What Is Almost Said (2) Rhetorical Purpose The author discusses X in paragraph 2 in order to . . . Why does the author mention X?

Slide 26: 

Example: Question #9 in the Practice Test

Slide 27: 

Reading Passage: Since the Hawaiian Islands have never been connected to other land masses, the great variety of plants in Hawaii must be a result of the long-distance dispersal of seeds, a process that requires both a method of transport and an equivalence between the ecology of the source area and that of the recipient area. There is some dispute about the method of transport involved. Some biologists argue that ocean and air currents are responsible for the transport of plant seeds to Hawaii. Yet the results of flotation experiments and the low temperatures of air currents cast doubt on these hypotheses. More probable is bird transport, either externally, by accidental attachment of the seeds to feathers, or internally, by the swallowing of fruit and subsequent excretion of the seeds. While it is likely that fewer varieties of plant seeds have reached Hawaii externally than internally, more varieties are known to be adapted to external than to internal transport.

Slide 28: 

Question: The author mentions the results of flotation experiments on plant seeds most probably in order to support the claim that the distribution of plants in Hawaii is the result of the long-distance dispersal of seeds lend credibility to the thesis that air currents provide a method of transport for plant seeds to Hawaii suggest that the long-distance dispersal of seed is a process that requires long periods of time challenge the claim that ocean currents are responsible for the transport of plant seeds to Hawaii

Slide 29: 

Reading Passage: Since the Hawaiian Islands have never been connected to other land masses, the great variety of plants in Hawaii must be a result of the long-distance dispersal of seeds, a process that requires both a method of transport and an equivalence between the ecology of the source area and that of the recipient area. There is some dispute about the method of transport involved. Some biologists argue that ocean and air currents are responsible for the transport of plant seeds to Hawaii. Yet the results of flotation experiments and the low temperatures of air currents cast doubt on these hypotheses. More probable is bird transport, either externally, by accidental attachment of the seeds to feathers, or internally, by the swallowing of fruit and subsequent excretion of the seeds. While it is likely that fewer varieties of plant seeds have reached Hawaii externally than internally, more varieties are known to be adapted to external than to internal transport.

Slide 30: 

Question: The author mentions the results of flotation experiments on plant seeds most probably in order to support the claim that the distribution of plants in Hawaii is the result of the long-distance dispersal of seeds lend credibility to the thesis that air currents provide a method of transport for plant seeds to Hawaii suggest that the long-distance dispersal of seed is a process that requires long periods of time challenge the claim that ocean currents are responsible for the transport of plant seeds to Hawaii

What Is Almost Said (3) : 

What Is Almost Said (3) Sentence Simplification Which of the sentence below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

Slide 32: 

Example: Question #10 in the Practice Test

Slide 33: 

Target Sentence: These voices of dissent have demonstrated to environmentalists the need to apply quantitative methods in assessing the extent of the destruction they have witnessed, or the degree to which their work has been manifested in actual improvement of the environment.

Slide 34: 

Target Sentence: These voices of dissent have demonstrated to environmentalists the need to apply quantitative methods in assessing the extent of the destruction they have witnessed, or the degree to which their work has been manifested in actual improvement of the environment.

Slide 35: 

A. Critics of the movement were successful in dissuading many environmentalists from supporting some of the more drastic measures that had been suggested by questioning the quantitative methods they employed. B. Opponents of the environmental protection movement succeeded in getting the activists to take another, more objective, approach to substantiating their claims. C. People who disagreed with the environmentalists eventually were able to persuade many that the methods employed by the environmental movement were invalid and their conclusion incorrect. D. Members of environmental groups were reluctant to employ quantitative methods in assessing environmental damage because they felt the results might not substantiate their claims.

Slide 36: 

A. Critics of the movement were successful in dissuading many environmentalists from supporting some of the more drastic measures that had been suggested by questioning the quantitative methods they employed.

Slide 37: 

B. Opponents of the environmental protection movement succeeded in getting the activists to take another, more objective, approach to substantiating their claims.

Slide 38: 

C. People who disagreed with the environmentalists eventually were able to persuade many that the methods employed by the environmental movement were invalid and their conclusion incorrect.

Slide 39: 

D. Members of environmental groups were reluctant to employ quantitative methods in assessing environmental damage because they felt the results might not substantiate their claims.

Slide 40: 

A. Critics of the movement were successful in dissuading many environmentalists from supporting some of the more drastic measures that had been suggested by questioning the quantitative methods they employed. B. Opponents of the environmental protection movement succeeded in getting the activists to take another, more objective, approach to substantiating their claims. C. People who disagreed with the environmentalists eventually were able to persuade many that the methods employed by the environmental movement were invalid and their conclusion incorrect. D. Members of environmental groups were reluctant to employ quantitative methods in assessing environmental damage because they felt the results might not substantiate their claims.

What Takes (A Lot of) Time : 

What Takes (A Lot of) Time Reading to Learn Prose Summary Filling in a Table

Slide 42: 

Prose Summary

Slide 43: 

13. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points. Practice Test:

Slide 44: 

Topic sentence provided: This passage discusses fossils that help to explain the likely origins of cetaceans—whales, porpoises, and dolphins.

Slide 45: 

1. Recent discoveries of fossils have helped to show the link between land mammals and cetaceans. 2. The discovery of Ambulocetus natans provided evidence for a whale that lived both on land and at sea. 3. The skeleton of Basilosaurus was found in what had been the Tethys Sea, an area rich in fossil evidence. 4. Pakicetus is the oldest fossil whale yet to be found. 5. Fossils thought to be transitional forms between walking mammals and swimming whales were found. 6. Ambulocetus’ hind legs were used for propulsion in the water.

Slide 46: 

1. Recent discoveries of fossils have helped to show the link between land mammals and cetaceans. 2. The discovery of Ambulocetus natans provided evidence for a whale that lived both on land and at sea. 3. The skeleton of Basilosaurus was found in what had been the Tethys Sea, an area rich in fossil evidence. 4. Pakicetus is the oldest fossil whale yet to be found. 5. Fossils thought to be transitional forms between walking mammals and swimming whales were found. 6. Ambulocetus’ hind legs were used for propulsion in the water.

Slide 47: 

Filling in a Table

Slide 48: 

The Left-handed Polymorphism 1. Most people exhibit hand preference, but it has long been a mystery to scientists as to how and why human handedness exists. This preference is a polymorphism, a non-neutral trait that can be observed in a population. The most common polymorphism is that of sex, the sexual dimorphism. Several studies indicate that the coexistence of both right- and left-handed individuals has been maintained for a long time in hominids. The oldest undisputed evidence is from the middle Pleistocene (425,000–180,000 Years Before the Present), where marking on incisor-teeth of Homo neanderthalensis individuals indicate that they used either their right or left hand to feed themselves. In Homo sapiens, indications of handedness polymorphism come from studies of hole-making rotation movements in wood and wear marks on spoons. There is still today a polymorphism of handedness in humans, in all populations. The evolutionary significance of this polymorphism is unclear. However, the heritability of this trait is clearly established. It is known that the frequency of left-handers is variable across geographical areas, but until recently nothing was known about its variation over time.

Slide 49: 

2. Scientists have long speculated that the handedness polymorphism has changed over time. Left-handedness has been shown to be a heritable trait that associates with different types of fitness costs, such as higher susceptibility to neural disorders, lower height, and shorter life expectancy. Statistics show that left-handed people are more likely to be schizophrenic, alcoholic, delinquent, dyslexic, and have Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, as well as mental disabilities. They’re also more likely to get into accidents and died young. Furthermore, many societies have considered left-handed individuals as sinister.

Slide 50: 

3.1 If this is the case, handedness meets all the requirements for natural selection to act on, and left-handedness should have been wiped out by natural selection. Yet, a new study by Dr. Charlotte Faurie and Dr. Michel Raymond suggest that handedness has remained a stable polymorphism through human evolution. Examining 507 negative hand prints made near cave paintings in France and Spain made 30,000 to 10,000 YBP, the professors were able to determine the handedness of many of the individuals who made them. Negative hand prints were created by placing one hand against the wall of the cave. The other hand was used to control a straw-like device. Black paint was blown out of the straw on to the hand and cave wall. Once the hand was removed the cave was left with an image of a negative hand print. The hands used in some of the 507 prints were ambiguous, but the professors found 343 that were clearly pictures of right or left hands. Of these 343, 79 or 23% were pictures of right hands and 264 or 77% were pictures of left hands.

Slide 51: 

3.2 The professors then had 179 college students create negative hand prints. The students were not told which hand to use. They found that the present day participants made 41 (22.9%) images of their right hands and 138 (77.1%) made images of their left hands. The professors were amazed to see that there were no significant differences in the images created over 10,000 years apart. It suggests that handedness is a trait has not substantially changed since the upper Palaeolithic.

Slide 52: 

4. Therefore, left-handedness must have biological benefits. Researchers have forwarded the fighting hypothesis to explain the preservation of this polymorphism. This hypothesis states that left-handers have a frequency advantage when they engage in combat because of the fact that right-handers are much more numerous than left-handers; this implies that right-handers will be relatively inexperienced when facing left-handed opponents as compared to left-handers who are more accustomed to encountering right-handers. This is described as a frequency-dependent situation because the fewer left-handers in the population, the more advantage they would have when fighting with right-handed opponents. This hypothesis also explains the relative success of left-handed people in sports. In fact, left-handed athletes are much more prevalent in interactive sports, where competitors face each other like boxing, basketball, baseball, and fencing than non-interactive sports where competitors do not face their opponents directly, like swimming, and gymnastics. 32% of interactive sports athletes are left-handed; whereas, only 11% of non-interactive sports athletes are left-handed.

Slide 53: 

5. The stable polymorphism between left- and right-handedness, as suggested by the fighting hypothesis, may be the consequence of the equilibrium between the fitness costs and the fighting advantage associated with left-handedness. If the ratio of right- and left-handed individuals were 1:1, the left-handers would no longer have the advantages spelled out by the fight hypothesis, while maintaining the deleterious effects of left-handedness. Mathematical models suggest the optimum equilibrium between right- and left-handed individuals is 9:1. This ideal model roughly mirrors the percentage of left-handed individuals in the population, approximately11%.

Slide 54: 

Question: Complete the table below to summarize information about the advantages and disadvantages of being left-handed discussed in the passage. The question is worth 3 points.

Slide 56: 

1. Left-handed people are more likely to have dyslexic. 2. Left-handed people are less likely to make a lot of money. 3. There are fewer left-handed people than right handed people.

Slide 57: 

4. Left-handed people are more likely to do well in combat. 5. Left-handed people are more likely to be careful than right-handed people. 6. Left-handed people are more likely to do well in many sports than right-handed people. 7. Left-handed people are more likely to be shorter than right-handed people.

Slide 59: 

The End