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Female Reproductive Organ Role Of Hormones In Reproduction Menstrual Cycle Menopause Pregnancy Methods Of Birth Control Sexually Transmitted Diseases



Main Parts Of The Female Reproductive System ::

UTERUS : hosts the developing fetus, produces vaginal and uterine secretions, and passes the anatomically male person's sperm through to the fallopian tubes. OVARIES : which produce the anatomically female person's egg cells. Main Parts Of The Female Reproductive System :


Hormones play an important role in reproduction. Hormones are messengers. They are produced and secreted by one part of the body and travel, usually through the bloodstream, to another part of the body to stimulate or depress a particular function. Hormones are the means by which distant parts of the body communicate with each other. Communication disturbances disrupt reproductive function. ROLE OF HORMONES IN REPRODUCTION :


The capability for reproduction begins in females at the onset of menstruation otherwise known as the menstrual cycle. Menstruation is the monthly process in which an unfertilized egg cell and the inner lining of the uterus are discharge from a woman’s body. It consists of two coordinated cycle ; * Ovarian Cycle : results in the release of the egg. * Uterine Cycle : results in the build up of the walls of the uterus to receive the embryo. MENSTRUAL CYCLE :


When a woman reaches middle age, the menstrual cycle becomes irregular and eventually stops. Menopause has set in. At this time, the ovaries become less responsive to FSH and LH. Menopause is a term used to describe the permanent cessation of the primary functions of the human ovaries: the ripening and release of ova and the release of hormones that cause both the creation of the uterine lining and the subsequent shedding of the uterine lining MENOPAUSE :


If the egg is fertilized, the menstrual cycle is interrupted and no menstruation occurs. The corpus luteum does not degenerate, thus the walls of the uterus remain thickened for embryo implantation. Membranes that develop around the embryo secrete human chorionic gonadrotophin ( HCG ) which signals the corpus luteum to continue functioning . PREGNANCY :


Hormonal methods Hormonal methods are very reliable means of birth control. Hormonal methods use two basic formulas: Combination Hormonal Methods contain both estrogen and progestin (synthetic progesterone). Combination methods include pills, skin patches and rings. METHODS OF BIRTH CONTROL :


An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small device that is placed in the uterus to prevent pregnancy. There are two main types of IUDs: copper IUDs (such as Paragard) and hormonal IUDs (such as Mirena ). When an IUD is in place, it can provide birth control for 5 to 10 years, depending on the type. Unlike IUDs that were used in the 1970s, present-day IUDs are small, safe, and highly effective.


The hormonal IUD typically reduces menstrual flow and cramping over time. On the other hand, the copper IUD can cause longer and heavier periods. But the hormonal IUD can have other side effects, including spotting, mood swings, and breast tenderness. These side effects occur less frequently than with other progestin-only methods.


Barrier Methods (including the diaphragm; cervical cap; cervical shield; male condom; female condom; and spermicidal foam, sponge, gel, suppository, or film) prevent sperm from entering the uterus and reaching the egg. Typically, barrier methods are not highly effective, but they generally have fewer side effects than hormonal methods or IUDs. Spermicides and condoms should be used together or along with another method to increase their effectiveness. Barrier methods can interrupt sex, because they must be used every time you have sex. Condoms (male or female) should always be used if you are at risk of getting or spreading a sexually transmitted diseases, such as genital herpes, chlamydia or HIV.


Permanent birth control (sterilization) Sterilization is a surgical procedure done for men or women who decide that they do not want to have any (or more) children. Sterilization is one of the most effective forms of birth control. Sterilization is intended to be permanent, and although you can try to reverse it with another surgery, reversal is not always successful.


Tubal ligation is a surgical procedure where the fallopian tubes, which carry the eggs from the ovaries to the uterus, are tied, cut, or blocked. A new nonsurgical sterilization technique uses a small metal coil, or tubal implant, inserted up into each fallopian tube. Over time, scar tissue grows around each tubal implant, permanently blocking the tubes. Most women are able to return home within a couple of hours after either procedure. You must use another form of birth control for 3 months after receiving tubal implants. At 3 months, you will need to have an X-ray taken to make sure that your tubes are closed.


Vasectomy. In this minor surgery, the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the seminal fluid (semen), are cut and blocked so that the semen no longer contains sperm . This does not interfere with a man's ability to have an erection or enjoy sex. Men must have a sperm count check after having a vasectomy before relying on this for birth control.


A sexually transmitted disease ( STD ), also known as a sexually transmitted infection ( STI ), or venereal disease ( VD ), is an illness that has a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of human sexual behavior, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. While in the past, these illnesses have mostly been referred to as STDs or VD, in recent years the term sexually transmitted infections (STIs) has been preferred, as it has a broader range of meaning; a person may be infected, and may potentially infect others, without showing signs of disease . SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES :


Chlamydia is caused by the bacterium chlamydia trachomatis. This bacteria can infect the cervix in women and the urethra and rectum in both men and women. Occasionally chlamydia can also affect other parts of the body, including the throat and eyes. Genital warts , caused by some types of HPV (human papillomavirus), can appear on the skin anywhere in the genital area as white or flesh-coloured, smooth, small bumps, or larger, fleshy, cauliflower-like lumps


Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrheoae. Gonorrhea affects both men and women and can infect the cervix, urethra, rectum, anus and throat. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidium. The infection is usually sexually transmitted, in which case it is called venereal syphilis. It may also be passed from an infected mother to her unborn child, in which case it is known as congenital syphilis.

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