History of Computers

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A brief historical review on evolution of Computers

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History of Computers: 

History of Computers Prepared by: Hasan Altaf Mahmud

Generations of Computers: 

Generations of Computers The Mechanical Era (1623-1900) First Generation Electronic Computers (1937-1953) Second Generation (1954-1962)

Generations of Computers Cont.: 

Generations of Computers Cont. 4. Third Generation (1963-1972) Fourth Generation (1972-1984) Fifth Generation (1984-1990) Sixth Generation (1990-till date)

1. The Mechanical Era (1623-1900): 

1. The Mechanical Era (1623-1900) 3000 BC; Abacus Also called a counting frame, a calculating tool used primarily in parts of Asia for performing arithmetic processes. 17th Century; Napier’s bones An abacus created for calculation of products and quotients. 17th Century; Pascaline Could add and subtract two numbers directly and multiply and divide by repetition.

1. The Mechanical Era (1623-1900) Cont : 

1. The Mechanical Era (1623-1900) Cont 1823-1833; Difference Engine and Analytical Engine Babbage was never able to complete construction of any of his machines. 100 years later, in the 1940s, the first general-purpose computers were actually built. 1890; Punched Card A piece of stiff paper containing digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions.

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1942; Atanasoff -Berry Computer The first electronic digital computing device; only to solve systems of linear equations. 1944; Havard Mark-I An electro-mechanical computer; built from switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches. 2. First Generation (1937-1953)

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1946; ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer ; the first general-purpose electronic computer. 1949; EDVAC Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer the earliest electronic computers, binary rather than decimal, and was a stored program computer. 2. First Generation (1937-1953) Cont

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1955; TRADIC TRAnsistor DIgital Computer or TRansistorized Airborne DIgital Computer the first transistorized computer. 1954; IBM 704 First mass-produced computer with floating point arithmetic hardware. 1956; TX-0 F ully transistorized computer and contained a then-huge 64K of 18-bit words of magnetic core memory. 3. Second Generation (1954-1962)

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1960; LARC Livermore Advanced Research Computer; first attempt at building a supercomputer, a decimal mainframe computer with 48 bits per word. 1961; IBM 7030 IBM's first transistorized supercomputer. 3. Second Generation (1954-1962) Cont

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1964; SYSTEM/360 The first family of computers designed to cover the complete range of applications, from small to large, both commercial and scientific. 1965; PDP-8 The 12-bit PDP-8 was the first successful commercial minicomputer. 4. Third Generation (1963-1972)

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1969; CDC 7600 ran at 36.4 MHz (27.5 ns clock cycle) had a 65 Kword primary memory using core and variable-size (up to 512 Kword ) secondary memory. 1971; Intel 4004 a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU); the first complete CPU on one chip, and also the first commercially available microprocessor. 4. Third Generation (1963-1972) Cont

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1974; ALTO one of the first computers designed for individual use, used the desktop metaphor and mouse-driven graphical user interface (GUI). 1976; APPLE I a personal computer designed and hand-built by Steve Wozniak. 1978; VAX 11/78 addressing 4.3gigabytes (maximum) of virtual memory. 5. Fourth Generation (1972-1984)

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1981; IBM PC IBM model number 5150, the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform. 1983; LISA the first personal computer offering a graphical user interface in an inexpensive machine aimed at individual business users. 1984; MACINTOSH the first commercially successful personal computer with a mouse and a graphical user interface. 5. Fourth Generation (1972-1984) Cont

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1984; IBM PC-AT IBM's second-generation PC, designed around the 6 MHz Intel 80286 microprocessor. 1986; PC/RT IBM 6150 series a workstation computer based around IBM's ROMP processor 1987; PS/2 IBM's third generation of personal computers. 6. Fifth Generation (1983-1990)

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1989; Intel 80486 Represents a fourth generation of binary compatible CPUs. 1990; Video Toaster A production and a video editing system with special software and custom hardware. Can do character generation, image manipulation, video switching, chroma keying and animation. 6. Fifth Generation (1983-1990) Cont

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1991; Powerbook used Motorola 68k processor, a laptop computer. 1993; Pentium Microprocessor The fifth generation of ‘x86’; the base for IBM PC and its clones. 1996; Sun ultra workstation 64-bit opteron processor based workstation, best in class performance, could run various operating system 7. Sixth Generation (1990-Today)

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1998; iMac an all-in-one personal computer, encompassing both the monitor and the system unit in a single enclosure. 2002; Apple iMac Pedestal Computer a flat-panel LCD screen mounted on a pedestal (the actual computer containing a G4 processor 700MHz), a simultaneous retro and futuristic appearance. 2003; Power Mac G5 the first 64-bit PC. 7. Sixth Generation (1990-Today) Cont

7. Sixth Generation (1990-Today) Cont.: 

7. Sixth Generation (1990-Today) Cont. After 2003 A Boom in laptop computers Mac book Air (2010) weighing only 2 kilogram and less than 0.75 inch thick

7. Sixth Generation (1990-Today) Cont.: 

7. Sixth Generation (1990-Today) Cont. After 2003 Core i processors (i3, i5, i7) Third generation Core i7 , 3.80 GHz Core i7 Extreme , 3.90 GHz (2012)

History of Computers has been advancing dramatically: 

History of Computers has been advancing dramatically We can hardly anticipate computers 20 years from now Human life is evolving along with computers

Thank you: 

Thank you